Physicochemical and anti-bacterial performance characterization of clarithromycin nanoparticles as colloidal drug delivery system. Mohammadi Ghobad,Nokhodchi Ali,Barzegar-Jalali Mohammad,Lotfipour Farzaneh,Adibkia Khosro,Ehyaei Nasrin,Valizadeh Hadi Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces The objective of the present study was to prepare clarithromycin (CLR) loaded biodegradable nanoparticles (NPS), with a view to investigate its physicochemical properties and anti-bacterial activity. PLGA was used as a biodegradable polymer and the particles were prepared by nano-precipitation method in 3 different drugs to polymer ratios. Evaluation of the physicochemical properties of the prepared nanoparticles was performed using encapsulation efficiency, nanoparticle production yield, dissolution studies, particle size analysis, zeta potential determination, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry. The antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus was determined using serial dilution technique to achieve the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of NPs. The particles were between 189 and 280 nm in size with narrow size distribution, spherical shape and 57.4-80.2% entrapment efficiency. Zeta potential of the NPs was fairly negative. The DSC thermograms and X-ray diffraction patterns revealed reduced drug crystallinity in the NPs. FT-IR spectroscopy demonstrated possible noncovalent interactions between the drug and polymer. In vitro release study showed an initial burst followed by a plateau during a period of 24h. The NPs were more effective than intact CLR against S. aureus so that the former showed equal antibacterial effect at 1/8 concentration of the intact drug. In conclusion, the prepared CLR nanoparticles are more potent against S. aureus with improved MICs and appropriate physicochemical properties that may be useful for other susceptible microorganisms and could be an appropriate candidate for intravenous, ocular and oral and topical preparations. 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2011.05.050
    Antibacterial activity of clarithromycin loaded PLGA nanoparticles. Valizadeh H,Mohammadi G,Ehyaei R,Milani M,Azhdarzadeh M,Zakeri-Milani P,Lotfipour F Die Pharmazie Novel drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles (NPs) have been proved to enhance the effectiveness of many drugs. Clarithromycin is a broad spectrum macrolide antibiotic, used in many infectious conditions like upper and lower respiratory tract infections, and skin and other soft tissue infections. This paper describes the preparation and enhanced in vitro antibacterial activities of clarithromycin loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles. A modified quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion (MQESD) method was used to prepare clarithromycin (CLR) NPs. The antibacterial activity of the NPs was evaluated using the agar well diffusion method against Escherichia coli (PTCC 1330), Haemophilus influenzae (PTCC 1623), Salmonella typhi (PTCC 1609), Staphylococcus aureus (PTCC 1112) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (PTCC 1240). The inhibition zone diameters related to each nano formulation were compared with those for untreated CLR at the same concentrations. The results indicated that the mean inhibition zone diameters of NPs against all the bacteria tested were significantly higher than those of untreated CLR, particularly in the case of S. aureus. The increased potency of CLR NPs may be related to some physicochemical properties of NPs like modified surface characteristics, lower drug degradation, and increased drug adsorption and uptake.
    Gastric Acid Powered Nanomotors Release Antibiotics for In Vivo Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection. Wu Yang,Song Zhiyong,Deng Guiyun,Jiang Kai,Wang Huajuan,Zhang Xueji,Han Heyou Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has ≈75% probability of causing gastric cancer, so it is considered to be the strongest single risk factor for gastric malignancies. However, the harsh gastric acid environment has created obstacles to medical treatment. This work reports a nanomotor with a bottle-shaped container that can be loaded with small molecules of clarithromycin, nano calcium peroxide (CaO ), and Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) by ultrasound. Nanomotors can quickly consume gastric acid through the chemical reaction of CaO to temporarily neutralize gastric acid. The product hydrogen peroxide (H O ) is catalytically decomposed into a large amount of oxygen (O ) by Pt NPs. The local concentration gradient of O bubbles causes it to be expelled from the nanobottles through a narrow opening, and then push the nanobottles forward to provide maximum release and prodrug efficacy. Experiments in animal models show that 15 mg nanomotors can safely and quickly neutralize gastric acid in the stomach and simultaneously release prodrugs to achieve good therapeutic effects without causing acute toxicity. H. pylori burden in mice was 2.6 orders of magnitude lower than that in the control group. The stomach returns to normal pH within 1 d after administration. 10.1002/smll.202006877
    Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles: Structural Features and In Vivo and In Vitro Therapeutic Effects against Helicobacter pylori Induced Gastritis. Amin Muhammad,Hameed Sadaf,Ali Asghar,Anwar Farooq,Shahid Shaukat Ali,Shakir Imran,Yaqoob Aqdas,Hasan Sara,Khan Safyan Akram,Sajjad-Ur-Rahman Bioinorganic chemistry and applications This study evaluates in vivo and in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) efficacy of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) prepared via a cost-effective green chemistry route wherein Peganum harmala L. seeds extract was used as a reducing and capping agent. The structural features, as elucidated by surface plasmon resonance spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, revealed the Ag-NPs synthesized to be polydispersed in nature and spherical in shape with 5-40 nm size. A typical Ag-NPs suspension (S5), with size being 15 nm, when tested in vitro against forty-two local isolates and two reference strains, showed a considerable anti-H. pylori activity. In case of in vivo trial against H. pylori induced gastritis, after oral administration of 16 mg/kg body weight of S5 for seven days, a complete clearance was recorded in male albino rates. In comparative time-killing kinetics, S5 exhibited dose- and time-dependent anti-H. pylori activity that was almost similar to tetracycline and clarithromycin, less than amoxicillin, but higher than metronidazole. Furthermore, S5 was found to be an equally effective anti-H. pylori agent at low (≤4) and high pH with no drug resistance observed even up to 10 repeated exposures while a significant drug resistance was recorded for most of the standard drugs employed. The present results revealed the potential of the synthesized Ag-NPs as safer bactericidal agents for the treatment of H. pylori induced gastritis. 10.1155/2014/135824
    Dissolution rate enhancement of clarithromycin using ternary ground mixtures: nanocrystal formation. Shahbaziniaz Malihe,Foroutan Seyed Mohsen,Bolourchian Noushin Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research : IJPR Clarithromycin (CLA), a broad-spectrum macrolide, is a poorly soluble drug with dissolution rate limited absorption. The aim of this investigation was to prepare CLA nanoparticles from a ternary ground mixture in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as co-grinding water-soluble compounds, in order to improve the drug dissolution rate. Different weight ratios of CLA: SLS: PVP were ground in a dry process by planetary ball mill using different grinding ball size. Following the dissolution rate study, physical properties of the best dissolved co-ground formulation was studied. The accelerated stability studies were also conducted on the co-ground formulation. The results revealed that the dissolution rate of ternary ground mixtures was much higher than that of the intact drug (p < 0.001). Decreasing the grinding ball size and weight with the same rotation speed resulted in particles with decreased dissolution. On the other hand, increasing the PVP concentration in the formulations reduced the drug dissolution. Dissolution efficiencies (DE10 and DE30) for the best dissolved formulation, which consisted of the equal ratio of each co-ground component, were 8.7 and 5 folds higher than the untreated CLA, respectively. This formulation formed nanocrystals with enhanced solubility after dispersing in water. X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectrophotometry confirmed no chemical interaction and phase transition during the process. Accelerated stability studies confirmed that the co-ground mixture almost remained unchanged in terms of dissolution rate, drug assay and particle size after exposing in stability conditions for three months.
    A microscopy method for scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging of the antibacterial activity of polymeric nanoparticles on a biofilm with an ionic liquid. Takahashi Chisato,Muto Shunsuke,Yamamoto Hiromitsu Journal of biomedical materials research. Part B, Applied biomaterials In this study, we developed a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) method for imaging the antibacterial activity of organic polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) toward biofilms formed by Staphylococcus epidermidis bacterial cells, for optimizing NPs to treat biofilm infections. The combination of sample preparation method using a hydrophilic ionic liquid (IL) and STEM observation using the cooling holder eliminates the need for specialized equipment and techniques for biological sample preparation. The annular dark-field STEM results indicated that the two types of biodegradable poly-(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) NPs: PLGA modified with chitosan (CS), and clarithromycin (CAM)-loaded + CS-modified PLGA, prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion exhibited different antibacterial activities in nanoscale. To confirm damage to the sample during STEM observation, we observed the PLGA NPs and the biofilm treated with PLGA NPs by both the conventional method and the newly developed method. The optimized method allows microstructure of the biofilm treated with PLGA NPs to be maintained for 25 min at a current flow of 40 pA. The developed simple sample preparation method would be helpful to understand the interaction of drugs with target materials. In addition, this technique could contribute to the visualization of other deformable composite materials at the nanoscale level. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1432-1437, 2017. 10.1002/jbm.b.33680
    Ionic polymeric micelles based on chitosan and fatty acids and intended for wound healing. Comparison of linoleic and oleic acid. Bonferoni M C,Sandri G,Dellera E,Rossi S,Ferrari F,Mori M,Caramella C European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V Chitosan is well known for its positive properties in wound healing. Also unsaturated fatty acids are described as able to accelerate tissue repairing mechanisms. In this work hydrophobically modified chitosan was obtained by ionic interaction with either oleic or linoleic acid. In aqueous environment self-assembling into nanoparticles occurred. The presence of hydrophobic domains, similar to those present in polymeric micelles, was demonstrated by changes in pyrene spectra. Both oleate and linoleate derivatives showed mucoadhesion behaviour. Cytotoxicity tests on human dermal fibroblasts demonstrated good biocompatibility of especially oleate derivatives. Clarithromycin, a poorly soluble model drug proposed for use in infected wounds was successfully encapsulated in both oleic and linoleic based polymeric micelles. The ionic structure of the carriers is responsible for their loosening at neutral pH and in the presence of salts. This behaviour should impair parenteral administration of the systems, but can be useful for topical delivery where the micelle components, chitosan and fatty acid, can play a positive role in dermal regeneration and tissue repairing. 10.1016/j.ejpb.2013.12.018
    Oral delivery of paclitaxel nanocrystal (PNC) with a dual Pgp-CYP3A4 inhibitor: preparation, characterization and antitumor activity. Patel Ketan,Patil Anand,Mehta Miten,Gota Vikram,Vavia Pradeep International journal of pharmaceutics Several molecular inheritances have severely restrained the peroral delivery of taxanes. The main objective of the present investigation was to develop a paclitaxel (PTX) formulation which can circumvent the hurdles of its extremely poor solubility and permeability, Pgp efflux and high pre-systemic metabolism. Positively charged PTX nanocrystals of 209 nm were prepared by sonoprecipitation with high pressure homogenization technique, wherein an arginine based surfactant was explored as a stabilizer. The BET surface area analysis revealed that the surface area of PNC was 8.53 m(2)/gm, reflecting significant rise in surface area with nanonization of PTX. The DSC and XRD pattern suggested that the PTX is in the form of the most stable dihydrate crystal. The PNC showed very rapid dissolution profile compared to plain PTX in both sinks and non-sink conditions. Clarithromycin (CLM) was evaluated as a better alternative to cyclosporin A in improving PTX permeability. The PNC-CLM showed remarkable enhancement of 453% in relative bioavailability along with maintaining the therapeutic concentration of PTX for 8h. Efficacy data in B16 F10 melanoma tumor bearing mice showed substantial reduction in tumor volume and improvement in percentage survival compared to the control group. 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2014.06.031
    [Development of Novel Functional Formulations Based on Pharmaceutical Technologies]. Itai Shigeru Yakugaku zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan After 32 years as a researcher in a pharmaceutical company, the author has served as a professor in the Development of Pharmaceutical Engineering and Drug Delivery Science at University of Shizuoka for the past 11 years. The research I was involved in can be categorized into four main items. First, the crystal transformation of clarithromycin (CAM) was focused on to develop the CAM high-loaded sustained release and gastro-floating formulations. Furthermore, the stabilization mechanism of CAM in the gastro-intestinal tract was clarified to elucidate gel formation under conditions of low pH. Second, the development of novel dosage regimens and optimization of formulation design were carried out using powder technology. In this category, a wax matrix formulation for taste masking, highly drug-loaded fine globular granules using a multi-functional rotor processor, and orally disintegrating tablets treated with microwave or high-pressure carbon dioxide were our targets. The third category was the manufacture of dispersion systems including lipid nanoparticles and cubosomes in order to improve the bioavailability and stability of poorly water-soluble drugs. The fourth category was the development and application of novel physical testing methods including investigation of the internal structure of fine granules using microtomography with synchrotron X-ray radiation, dissolution of spherical granules under non-sink conditions, mathematical models to analyze the dissolution behavior of metastable crystals or amorphous drugs and prediction of the available surface area of tablets during dissolution process. 10.1248/yakushi.18-00183
    Observation of antibacterial effect of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm using FE-SEM with an ionic liquid. Takahashi Chisato,Ogawa Noriko,Kawashima Yoshiaki,Yamamoto Hiromitsu Microscopy (Oxford, England) We successfully visualized the antibacterial behavior of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) on a biofilm formed by Staphylococcus epidermidis using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). A hydrophilic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]), was applied for observation using FE-SEM. The differences in adherence and penetration behavior of three types of NPs were revealed using this method and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Biodegradable poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) NPs were prepared by the emulsion solvent diffusion method. In this study, we treated the biofilm with three PLGA NPs: unmodified PLGA, PLGA modified with chitosan (CS) and clarithromycin (CAM)-loaded + CS-modified PLGA. The viability of S. epidermidis cells treated with PLGA NPs was estimated using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight kit to understand the antibacterial ability of each NP sample in a quantitative way. The results confirmed that CAM-loaded + CS-modified PLGA had high antibacterial ability on the biofilm. This novel observation technique would be useful in the development of drug formations and medical agents. 10.1093/jmicro/dfv010
    Ethyl cellulose nanoparticles: clarithomycin encapsulation and eradication of H. pylori. Pan-In Porntip,Banlunara Wijit,Chaichanawongsaroj Nuntaree,Wanichwecharungruang Supason Carbohydrate polymers The extreme acidic environment of the stomach, its regular voidance of contents and the restricted access to the mucus covered habitat combined with the antibiotic resistance of the bacteria, all contribute to the poor success in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori gastric infections. Here, we demonstrate that by encapsulating clarithromycin into ethyl cellulose (EC) nanoparticles, the efficiency of H. pylori clearance in C57BL/6 mice infected with these bacteria was significantly improved. Clarithomycin-loaded EC nanoparticles were prepared via a simple yet effective anti-solvent particle induction method, to yield sub-micron sized particles with 22.3 ± 0.17% (w/w) clarithromycin loading at 86 ± 0.5% (w/w) encapsulation efficiency. The particles dispersed well in water and simulated gastric fluid and gave a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.09-0.18 μg/ml against four strains of H. pylori. Encapsulation into EC particles not only enhanced the anti-adhesion activity of clarithromycin when tested with H. pylori and Hep-2 cells, but also gave significant enhancement of H. pylori clearance in the stomach of C57BL/6 mice infected with the bacteria. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.03.025
    Clarithromycin-Loaded Poly (Lactic--glycolic Acid) (PLGA) Nanoparticles for Oral Administration: Effect of Polymer Molecular Weight and Surface Modification with Chitosan on Formulation, Nanoparticle Characterization and Antibacterial Effects. Öztürk A Alper,Yenilmez Evrim,Özarda Mustafa Güçlü Polymers Clarithromycin (CLR) is a member of the macrolide antibiotic group. CLR has low systemic oral bioavailability and is a drug of class II of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System. In many studies, using nanoparticles (NPs) as a drug delivery system has been shown to increase the effectiveness and bioavailability of active drug substances. This study describes the development and evaluation of poly (lactic--glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs and chitosan (CS)-coated PLGA NPs for oral delivery of CLR. NPs were obtained by nanoprecipitation technique and characterized in detail, and the effect of three molecular weights (M: 7.000-17.000, M: 38.000-54.000, M: 50.000-190.000) of PLGA and CS coating on particle size (PS), zeta potential (ZP), entrapment efficiency (EE%), and release properties etc. were elucidated. Gastrointestinal stability and cryoprotectant effect tests were performed on the NPs. The PS of the prepared NPs were in the range of 178 to 578 nm and they were affected by the M and CS coating. In surface-modified formulations with CS, the ZP of the NPs increased significantly to positive values. EE% varied from 62% to 85%, depending upon the M and CS coating. release studies of CLR-loaded NPs showed an extended release up to 144 h. Peppas-Sahlin and Weibull kinetic model was found to fit best for CLR release from NPs. By the broth microdilution test method, the antibacterial activity of the formulations was determined on (ATCC 25923), (ATCC 1911), and (ATCC 700603). The structures of the formulations were clarified by thermal (DSC), FT-IR, and H-NMR analysis. The results showed that PS, ZP, EE%, and dissolution rates of NPs were directly related to the M of PLGA and CS coating. 10.3390/polym11101632
    A combination of silver nanoparticles and visible blue light enhances the antibacterial efficacy of ineffective antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Akram Fatma Elzahraa,El-Tayeb Tarek,Abou-Aisha Khaled,El-Azizi Mohamed Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials BACKGROUND:Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are potential antimicrobials agents, which can be considered as an alternative to antibiotics for the treatment of infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria. The antimicrobial effects of double and triple combinations of AgNPs, visible blue light, and the conventional antibiotics amoxicillin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, linezolid, and vancomycin, against ten clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were investigated. METHODS:The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs, applied in combination with blue light, against selected isolates of MRSA was investigated at 1/2-1/128 of its minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in 24-well plates. The wells were exposed to blue light source at 460 nm and 250 mW for 1 h using a photon emitting diode. Samples were taken at different time intervals, and viable bacterial counts were determined. The double combinations of AgNPs and each of the antibiotics were assessed by the checkerboard method. The killing assay was used to test possible synergistic effects when blue light was further combined to AgNPs and each antibiotic at a time against selected isolates of MRSA. RESULTS:The bactericidal activity of AgNPs, at sub-MIC, and blue light was significantly (p < 0.001) enhanced when both agents were applied in combination compared to each agent alone. Similarly, synergistic interactions were observed when AgNPs were combined with amoxicillin, azithromycin, clarithromycin or linezolid in 30-40 % of the double combinations with no observed antagonistic interaction against the tested isolates. Combination of the AgNPs with vancomycin did not result in enhanced killing against all isolates tested. The antimicrobial activity against MRSA isolates was significantly enhanced in triple combinations of AgNPs, blue light and antibiotic, compared to treatments involving one or two agents. The bactericidal activities were highest when azithromycin or clarithromycin was included in the triple therapy compared to the other antibiotics tested. CONCLUSIONS:A new strategy can be used to combat serious infections caused by MRSA by combining AgNPs, blue light, and antibiotics. This triple therapy may include antibiotics, which have been proven to be ineffective against MRSA. The suggested approach would be useful to face the fast-growing drug-resistance with the slow development of new antimicrobial agents, and to preserve last resort antibiotics such as vancomycin. 10.1186/s12941-016-0164-y
    PLGA nanocapsules improve the delivery of clarithromycin to kill intracellular Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium abscessus. Anversa Dimer Frantiescoli,de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz Cristiane,Goes Adriely,Cirnski Katarina,Herrmann Jennifer,Schmitt Viktoria,Pätzold Linda,Abed Nadia,De Rossi Chiara,Bischoff Markus,Couvreur Patrick,Müller Rolf,Lehr Claus-Michael Nanomedicine : nanotechnology, biology, and medicine Drug delivery systems are promising for targeting antibiotics directly to infected tissues. To reach intracellular Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium abscessus, we encapsulated clarithromycin in PLGA nanocapsules, suitable for aerosol delivery by nebulization of an aqueous dispersion. Compared to the same dose of free clarithromycin, nanoencapsulation reduced 1000 times the number of intracellular S. aureus in vitro. In RAW cells, while untreated S. aureus was located in acidic compartments, the treated ones were mostly situated in non-acidic compartments. Clarithromycin-nanocapsules were also effective against M. abscessus (70-80% killing efficacy). The activity of clarithromycin-nanocapsules against S. aureus was also confirmed in vivo, using a murine wound model as well as in zebrafish. The permeability of clarithromycin-nanocapsules across Calu-3 monolayers increased in comparison to the free drug, suggesting an improved delivery to sub-epithelial tissues. Thus, clarithromycin-nanocapsules are a promising strategy to target intracellular S. aureus and M. abscessus. 10.1016/j.nano.2019.102125