Rosiglitazone and cognitive stability in older individuals with type 2 diabetes and mild cognitive impairment.
Abbatecola Angela M,Lattanzio Fabrizia,Molinari Anna M,Cioffi Michele,Mansi Luigi,Rambaldi Pierfrancesco,DiCioccio Luigi,Cacciapuoti Federico,Canonico Raffaele,Paolisso Giuseppe
OBJECTIVE:Studies have suggested that insulin resistance plays a role in cognitive impairment in individuals with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to determine whether an improvement in insulin resistance could explain cognitive performance variations over 36 weeks in older individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:A total of 97 older individuals (mean +/- SD age 76 +/- 6 years) who had recently (<2 months) started an antidiabetes treatment of metformin (500 mg twice a day) (n = 30) or metformin (500 mg/day)+rosiglitazone (4 mg/day) (n = 32) or diet (n = 35) volunteered. The neuropsychological test battery consisted of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Rey Verbal Auditory Learning Test (RAVLT) total recall, and Trail Making Tests (TMT-A and TMT-B) performed at baseline and every 12 weeks for 36 weeks along with clinical testing. RESULTS:At baseline, no significant differences were found between groups in clinical or neuropsychological parameters. Mean +/- SD values in the entire population were as follows: A1C 7.5 +/- 0.5%, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) 8.6 +/- 1.3 mmol/l, fasting plasma insulin (FPI) 148 +/- 74 pmol/l, MMSE 24.9 +/- 2.4, TMT-A 61.6 +/- 42.0, TMT-B 162.8 +/- 78.7, the difference between TMT-B and TMT-A [DIFFBA] 101.2 +/- 58.1, and RAVLT 24.3 +/- 2.1. At follow-up, ANOVA models tested changes in metabolic control parameters (FPI, FPG, and A1C). Such parameters improved in the metformin and metformin/rosiglitazone groups (P(trend) < 0.05 in both groups). ANCOVA repeated models showed that results for the metformin/rosiglitazone group remained stable for all neuropsychological tests, and results for the diet group remained stable for the MMSE and TMT-A and declined for the TMT-B (P(trend) = 0.024), executive efficiency (DIFFBA) (P(trend) = 0.026), and RAVLT memory test (P(trend) = 0.011). Results for the metformin group remained stable for the MMSE and TMTs but declined for the RAVLT (P(trend) = 0.011). With use of linear mixed-effects models, the interaction term, FPI x time, correlated with cognitive stability on the RAVLT in the metformin/rosiglitazone group (beta = -1.899; P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS:Rosiglitazone may protect against cognitive decline in older individuals with type 2 diabetes and MCI.
Cognitive function and brain structure in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus after intensive lowering of blood pressure and lipid levels: a randomized clinical trial.
Williamson Jeff D,Launer Lenore J,Bryan R Nick,Coker Laura H,Lazar Ronald M,Gerstein Hertzel C,Murray Anne M,Sullivan Mark D,Horowitz Karen R,Ding Jingzhong,Marcovina Santica,Lovato Laura,Lovato James,Margolis Karen L,Davatzikos Christos,Barzilay Joshua,Ginsberg Henry N,Linz Peter E,Miller Michael E,
JAMA internal medicine
IMPORTANCE:Persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk for decline in cognitive function, reduced brain volume, and increased white matter lesions in the brain. Poor control of blood pressure (BP) and lipid levels are risk factors for T2DM-related cognitive decline, but the effect of intensive treatment on brain function and structure is unknown. OBJECTIVE:To examine whether intensive therapy for hypertension and combination therapy with a statin plus a fibrate reduces the risk of decline in cognitive function and total brain volume (TBV) in patients with T2DM. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:A North American multicenter clinical trial including 2977 participants without baseline clinical evidence of cognitive impairment or dementia and with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels less than 7.5% randomized to a systolic BP goal of less than 120 vs less than 140 mm Hg (n = 1439) or to a fibrate vs placebo in patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels less than 100 mg/dL (n = 1538). Participants were recruited from August 1, 2003, through October 31, 2005, with the final follow-up visit by June 30, 2009. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Cognition was assessed at baseline and 20 and 40 months. A subset of 503 participants underwent baseline and 40-month brain magnetic resonance imaging to assess for change in TBV and other structural measures of brain health. RESULTS:Baseline mean HbA1c level was 8.3%; mean age, 62 years; and mean duration of T2DM, 10 years. At 40 months, no differences in cognitive function were found in the intensive BP-lowering trial or in the fibrate trial. At 40 months, TBV had declined more in the intensive vs standard BP-lowering group (difference, -4.4 [95% CI, -7.8 to -1.1] cm(3); P = .01). Fibrate therapy had no effect on TBV compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:In participants with long-standing T2DM and at high risk for cardiovascular events, intensive BP control and fibrate therapy in the presence of controlled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels did not produce a measurable effect on cognitive decline at 40 months of follow-up. Intensive BP control was associated with greater decline in TBV at 40 months relative to standard therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00000620.
Effect of apolipoprotein E genotype and diet on apolipoprotein E lipidation and amyloid peptides: randomized clinical trial.
Hanson Angela J,Bayer-Carter Jennifer L,Green Pattie S,Montine Thomas J,Wilkinson Charles W,Baker Laura D,Watson G Stennis,Bonner Laura M,Callaghan Maureen,Leverenz James B,Tsai Elaine,Postupna Nadia,Zhang Jing,Lampe Johanna,Craft Suzanne
IMPORTANCE:Sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD) is caused in part by decreased clearance of the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide breakdown products. Lipid-depleted (LD) apolipoproteins are less effective at binding and clearing Aβ, and LD Aβ peptides are more toxic to neurons. However, not much is known about the lipid states of these proteins in human cerebrospinal fluid. OBJECTIVE:To characterize the lipidation states of Aβ peptides and apolipoprotein E in the cerebrospinal fluid in adults with respect to cognitive diagnosis and APOE ε4 allele carrier status and after a dietary intervention. DESIGN:Randomized clinical trial. SETTING:Veterans Affairs Medical Center clinical research unit. PARTICIPANTS:Twenty older adults with normal cognition (mean [SD] age, 69  years) and 27 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (67  years). INTERVENTIONS:Randomization to a diet high in saturated fat content and with a high glycemic index (High diet; 45% of energy from fat [>25% saturated fat], 35%-40% from carbohydrates with a mean glycemic index >70, and 15%-20% from protein) or a diet low in saturated fat content and with a low glycemic index (Low diet; 25% of energy from fat [<7% saturated fat], 55%-60% from carbohydrates with a mean glycemic index <55, and 15%-20% from protein). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:Lipid-depleted Aβ42 and Aβ40 and apolipoprotein E in cerebrospinal fluid. RESULTS:Baseline levels of LD Aβ were greater for adults with mild cognitive impairment compared with adults with normal cognition (LD Aβ42, P = .05; LD Aβ40, P = .01). These findings were magnified in adults with mild cognitive impairment and the ε4 allele, who had higher LD apolipoprotein E levels irrespective of cognitive diagnosis (P < .001). The Low diet tended to decrease LD Aβ levels, whereas the High diet increased these fractions (LD Aβ42, P = .01; LD Aβ40, P = .15). Changes in LD Aβ levels with the Low diet negatively correlated with changes in cerebrospinal fluid levels of insulin (LD Aβ42 and insulin, r = -0.68 [P = .01]; LD Aβ40 and insulin, r = -0.78 [P = .002]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:The lipidation states of apolipoproteins and Aβ peptides in the brain differ depending on APOE genotype and cognitive diagnosis. Concentrations can be modulated by diet. These findings may provide insight into the mechanisms through which apolipoprotein E4 and unhealthy diets impart risk for developing AD.
Association of CTRP13 With Liver Enzymes and Cognitive Symptoms in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.
An Kyungeh,Starkweather Angela,Sturgill Jamie,Salyer Jeanne,Sterling Richard K
BACKGROUND:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease in which patients present with metabolic dysregulation and obesity as well as fat accumulation in the liver. Those with NAFLD frequently have symptoms of fatigue, sleep disturbance, depression, and cognitive dysfunction. C1q/TNF-related protein 13 (CTRP13) regulates glucose metabolism and obesity in mice, yet the role of CTRP13 in human NAFLD has not been elucidated. AIMS:Our aims were to examine whether the plasma levels of CTRP13 are (a) increased in patients with NAFLD; (b) associated with metabolic dysregulation, obesity, liver enzymes, and dyslipidemia; and (c) associated with putative symptoms of NAFLD. METHODS:An observational study was conducted with 23 adults with confirmed NAFLD. Plasma levels of CTRP13, insulin resistance, insulin sensitivity, HbA1C, lipid profile, and liver enzymes were collected. Anthropometric analysis (body mass index, waist-hip circumference ratio) and bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition were used to assess obesity. Symptom questionnaires were used to assess putative symptoms of NAFLD. Plasma levels of CTRP13 were measured in 21 age- and sex-matched control samples from a biobank. Paired t test was used for comparison of the CTRP13 between NAFLD and controls. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to examine associations among variables. RESULTS:Plasma levels of CTRP13 were significantly higher in patients with NAFLD than in normal controls (p < .001), were associated with higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (both p < .05), triglycerides (p < .001), and poorer cognitive function, particularly visuospatial memory (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS:CTRP13 may be a surrogate biomarker of NAFLD symptoms and associated with hepatocellular damage, dyslipidemia, and cognitive dysfunction.
Inflammatory stress exacerbates lipid accumulation in hepatic cells and fatty livers of apolipoprotein E knockout mice.
Ma Kun L,Ruan Xiong Z,Powis Stephen H,Chen Yaxi,Moorhead John F,Varghese Zac
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
UNLABELLED:The prevailing theory in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the "two-hit" hypothesis. The first hit mainly consists of lipid accumulation, and the second is subsequent systemic inflammation. The current study was undertaken to investigate whether inflammatory stress exacerbates lipid accumulation in liver and its underlying mechanisms. We used interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulation in human hepatoblastoma cell line (HepG2) cells and primary hepatocytes in vitro, and casein injection in apolipoprotein E knockout mice in vivo to induce inflammatory stress. The effects of inflammatory stress on cholesterol accumulation were examined by histochemical staining and a quantitative intracellular cholesterol assay. The gene and protein expressions of molecules involved in cholesterol trafficking were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot. Cytokine production in the plasma of apolipoprotein E knockout mice was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results showed that inflammatory stress increased cholesterol accumulation in hepatic cells and in the livers of apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Further analysis showed that inflammatory stress increased the expression of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLr), sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) cleavage activating protein (SCAP), and SREBP-2. Confocal microscopy showed that IL-1beta increased the translocation of SCAP/SREBP-2 complex from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi in HepG2 cells, thereby activating LDLr gene transcription. IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and systemic inflammation induced by casein injection also inhibited expression of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha), and liver X receptor-alpha (LXRalpha). This inhibitory effect may cause cholesterol efflux reduction. CONCLUSION:Inflammatory stress up-regulates LDLr-mediated cholesterol influx and down-regulates ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux in vivo and in vitro. This may exacerbate the progression of NAFLD by disrupting cholesterol trafficking control, especially during the second hit phase of liver damage.
FibroGENE: A gene-based model for staging liver fibrosis.
Eslam Mohammed,Hashem Ahmed M,Romero-Gomez Manuel,Berg Thomas,Dore Gregory J,Mangia Alessandra,Chan Henry Lik Yuen,Irving William L,Sheridan David,Abate Maria Lorena,Adams Leon A,Weltman Martin,Bugianesi Elisabetta,Spengler Ulrich,Shaker Olfat,Fischer Janett,Mollison Lindsay,Cheng Wendy,Nattermann Jacob,Riordan Stephen,Miele Luca,Kelaeng Kebitsaone Simon,Ampuero Javier,Ahlenstiel Golo,McLeod Duncan,Powell Elizabeth,Liddle Christopher,Douglas Mark W,Booth David R,George Jacob,
Journal of hepatology
BACKGROUND & AIMS:The extent of liver fibrosis predicts long-term outcomes, and hence impacts management and therapy. We developed a non-invasive algorithm to stage fibrosis using non-parametric, machine learning methods designed for predictive modeling, and incorporated an invariant genetic marker of liver fibrosis risk. METHODS:Of 4277 patients with chronic liver disease, 1992 with chronic hepatitis C (derivation cohort) were analyzed to develop the model, and subsequently validated in an independent cohort of 1242 patients. The model was assessed in cohorts with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) (n=555) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n=488). Model performance was compared to FIB-4 and APRI, and also to the NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) and Forns' index, in those with NAFLD. RESULTS:Significant fibrosis (⩾F2) was similar in the derivation (48.4%) and validation (47.4%) cohorts. The FibroGENE-DT yielded the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROCs) of 0.87, 0.85 and 0.804 for the prediction of fast fibrosis progression, cirrhosis and significant fibrosis risk, respectively, with comparable results in the validation cohort. The model performed well in NAFLD and CHB with AUROCs of 0.791, and 0.726, respectively. The negative predictive value to exclude cirrhosis was>0.96 in all three liver diseases. The AUROC of the FibroGENE-DT performed better than FIB-4, APRI, and NFS and Forns' index in most comparisons. CONCLUSION:A non-invasive decision tree model can predict liver fibrosis risk and aid decision making.
Retrospective on Cholesterol Homeostasis: The Central Role of Scap.
Brown Michael S,Radhakrishnan Arun,Goldstein Joseph L
Annual review of biochemistry
Scap is a polytopic membrane protein that functions as a molecular machine to control the cholesterol content of membranes in mammalian cells. In the 21 years since our laboratory discovered Scap, we have learned how it binds sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) and transports them from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi for proteolytic processing. Proteolysis releases the SREBP transcription factor domains, which enter the nucleus to promote cholesterol synthesis and uptake. When cholesterol in ER membranes exceeds a threshold, the sterol binds to Scap, triggering several conformational changes that prevent the Scap-SREBP complex from leaving the ER. As a result, SREBPs are no longer processed, cholesterol synthesis and uptake are repressed, and cholesterol homeostasis is restored. This review focuses on the four domains of Scap that undergo concerted conformational changes in response to cholesterol binding. The data provide a molecular mechanism for the control of lipids in cell membranes.
Understanding multifactorial brain changes in type 2 diabetes: a biomarker perspective.
Biessels Geert Jan,Nobili Flavio,Teunissen Charlotte E,Simó Rafael,Scheltens Philip
The Lancet. Neurology
People with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia (including Alzheimer's disease), as well as subtle forms of cognitive dysfunction. Current diabetes guidelines recommend screening for cognitive impairment in groups at high risk and providing guidance for diabetes management in patients with diabetes and cognitive impairment. Yet, no disease-modifying treatment is available and important questions remain about the mechanisms underlying diabetes-associated cognitive dysfunction. These mechanisms are likely to be multifactorial and different for subtle and more severe forms of diabetes-associated cognitive dysfunction. Over the past years, research on dementia, brain ageing, diabetes, and vascular disease has identified novel biomarkers of specific dementia aetiologies, brain parenchymal injury, and cerebral blood flow and metabolism. These markers shed light on the processes underlying diabetes-associated cognitive dysfunction, have clear applications in current research and increasingly in clinical diagnosis, and might ultimately guide targeted treatment.
Type 2 diabetes and cognitive dysfunction-towards effective management of both comorbidities.
Srikanth Velandai,Sinclair Alan J,Hill-Briggs Felicia,Moran Chris,Biessels Geert Jan
The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology
Type 2 diabetes and cognitive dysfunction are highly prevalent disorders worldwide. Although type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of dementia, awareness of the link between the two conditions is poor, and few recommendations are available to guide clinicians about how to approach cognitive dysfunction in people with diabetes. Clinical guidelines in diabetes have only recently begun to emphasise the importance of cognitive impairment in diabetes and its management. This Series paper aims to synthesise knowledge about the link between diabetes and cognitive dysfunction, issues pertaining to screening and diagnosis of cognitive impairment and dementia in those with type 2 diabetes, management of diabetes in people with cognitive dysfunction (accounting for age and frailty), and emerging therapies for prevention. A conceptual framework for approaching screening and diagnosis is included, and future research directions to guide the field forward are suggested.
Central nervous pathways of insulin action in the control of metabolism and food intake.
Kullmann Stephanie,Kleinridders André,Small Dana M,Fritsche Andreas,Häring Hans-Ulrich,Preissl Hubert,Heni Martin
The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology
Insulin acts on the CNS to modulate behaviour and systemic metabolism. Disturbances in brain insulin action represent a possible link between metabolic and cognitive health. Current findings from human research suggest that boosting central insulin action in the brain modulates peripheral metabolism, enhancing whole-body insulin sensitivity and suppressing endogenous glucose production. Moreover, central insulin action curbs food intake by reducing the salience of highly palatable food cues and increasing cognitive control. Animal models show that the mesocorticolimbic circuitry is finely tuned in response to insulin, driven mainly by the dopamine system. These mechanisms are impaired in people with obesity, which might increase their risk of developing type 2 diabetes and associated diseases. Overall, current findings highlight the role of insulin action in the brain and its consequences on peripheral metabolism and cognition. Hence, improving central insulin action could represent a therapeutic option for people at an increased risk of developing metabolic and cognitive diseases.