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    The coming of age of chaperone-mediated autophagy. Kaushik Susmita,Cuervo Ana Maria Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) was the first studied process that indicated that degradation of intracellular components by the lysosome can be selective - a concept that is now well accepted for other forms of autophagy. Lysosomes can degrade cellular cytosol in a nonspecific manner but can also discriminate what to target for degradation with the involvement of a degradation tag, a chaperone and a sophisticated mechanism to make the selected proteins cross the lysosomal membrane through a dedicated translocation complex. Recent studies modulating CMA activity in vivo using transgenic mouse models have demonstrated that selectivity confers on CMA the ability to participate in the regulation of multiple cellular functions. Timely degradation of specific cellular proteins by CMA modulates, for example, glucose and lipid metabolism, DNA repair, cellular reprograming and the cellular response to stress. These findings expand the physiological relevance of CMA beyond its originally identified role in protein quality control and reveal that CMA failure with age may aggravate diseases, such as ageing-associated neurodegeneration and cancer. 10.1038/s41580-018-0001-6
    Interconnection between Metabolism and Cell Cycle in Cancer. Icard Philippe,Fournel Ludovic,Wu Zherui,Alifano Marco,Lincet Hubert Trends in biochemical sciences Cell cycle progression and division is regulated by checkpoint controls and sequential activation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Understanding of how these events occur in synchrony with metabolic changes could have important therapeutic implications. For biosynthesis, cancer cells enhance glucose and glutamine consumption. Inactivation of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) promotes transcription in G1 phase. Glutamine metabolism supports DNA replication in S phase and lipid synthesis in G2 phase. A boost in glycolysis and oxidative metabolism can temporarily furnish more ATP when necessary (G1/S transition, segregation of chromosomes). Recent studies have shown that a few metabolic enzymes [PKM2, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase (PFKFB3), GAPDH] also periodically translocate to the nucleus and oversee cell cycle regulators or oncogene expression (c-Myc). Targeting these metabolic enzymes could increase the response to CDK inhibitors (CKIs). 10.1016/j.tibs.2018.12.007
    Ferroptosis: mechanisms, biology and role in disease. Jiang Xuejun,Stockwell Brent R,Conrad Marcus Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology The research field of ferroptosis has seen exponential growth over the past few years, since the term was coined in 2012. This unique modality of cell death, driven by iron-dependent phospholipid peroxidation, is regulated by multiple cellular metabolic pathways, including redox homeostasis, iron handling, mitochondrial activity and metabolism of amino acids, lipids and sugars, in addition to various signalling pathways relevant to disease. Numerous organ injuries and degenerative pathologies are driven by ferroptosis. Intriguingly, therapy-resistant cancer cells, particularly those in the mesenchymal state and prone to metastasis, are exquisitely vulnerable to ferroptosis. As such, pharmacological modulation of ferroptosis, via both its induction and its inhibition, holds great potential for the treatment of drug-resistant cancers, ischaemic organ injuries and other degenerative diseases linked to extensive lipid peroxidation. In this Review, we provide a critical analysis of the current molecular mechanisms and regulatory networks of ferroptosis, the potential physiological functions of ferroptosis in tumour suppression and immune surveillance, and its pathological roles, together with a potential for therapeutic targeting. Importantly, as in all rapidly evolving research areas, challenges exist due to misconceptions and inappropriate experimental methods. This Review also aims to address these issues and to provide practical guidelines for enhancing reproducibility and reliability in studies of ferroptosis. Finally, we discuss important concepts and pressing questions that should be the focus of future ferroptosis research. 10.1038/s41580-020-00324-8
    Influence of glycosphingolipids on cancer cell energy metabolism. Schömel Nina,Geisslinger Gerd,Wegner Marthe-Susanna Progress in lipid research A growing number of studies describe a connection between glycosphingolipids (GSLs) and glutamine metabolism, glucose metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer cells. Since deregulated cell energy metabolism is one of cancer cells hallmarks, investigating this connection is an important step in the development of anti-cancer therapies. GSL species are often aberrantly regulated in human cancers. They cluster in signaling platforms in the plasma membrane and organelle membranes in so called glycosphingolipid enriched microdomains (GEMs), thereby regulating cell signaling pathways. The most important glutamine transporter for epithelial cells, alanine-serine-cysteine transporter 2 (ASCT2) locates in GEMs and is regulated by GEM composition. The accumulation of glucosylceramide and lactosylceramide in mitochondria associated ER membranes (MAMs) leads to increased oxidative phosphorylation. This increases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and influences mitochondrial dynamics. Here, we review current knowledge about deregulated GSL species in cancer, GSL influence on glutamine and glucose metabolism. In addition, the role of GSLs in MAMs, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and mitochondrial dynamics with a special focus on mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is discussed. mTOR seems to play a pivotal role in the connection between GSLs and glutamine metabolism as well as in mitochondrial signaling. 10.1016/j.plipres.2020.101050
    Metabolic rearrangements in primary liver cancers: cause and consequences. Satriano Letizia,Lewinska Monika,Rodrigues Pedro M,Banales Jesus M,Andersen Jesper B Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology Primary liver cancer (PLC) is the fourth most frequent cause of cancer-related death. The high mortality rates arise from late diagnosis and the limited accuracy of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. The liver is a major regulator, orchestrating the clearance of toxins, balancing glucose, lipid and amino acid uptake, managing whole-body metabolism and maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Tumour onset and progression is frequently accompanied by rearrangements of metabolic pathways, leading to dysregulation of metabolism. The limitation of current therapies targeting PLCs, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma, points towards the importance of deciphering this metabolic complexity. In this Review, we discuss the role of metabolic liver disruptions and the implications of these processes in PLCs, emphasizing their clinical relevance and value in early diagnosis and prognosis and as putative therapeutic targets. We also describe system biology approaches able to reconstruct the metabolic complexity of liver diseases. We also discuss whether metabolic rearrangements are a cause or consequence of PLCs, emphasizing the opportunity to clinically exploit the rewired metabolism. In line with this idea, we discuss circulating metabolites as promising biomarkers for PLCs. 10.1038/s41575-019-0217-8
    Insulin-PI3K signalling: an evolutionarily insulated metabolic driver of cancer. Hopkins Benjamin D,Goncalves Marcus D,Cantley Lewis C Nature reviews. Endocrinology Cancer is driven by incremental changes that accumulate, eventually leading to oncogenic transformation. Although genetic alterations dominate the way cancer biologists think about oncogenesis, growing evidence suggests that systemic factors (for example, insulin, oestrogen and inflammatory cytokines) and their intracellular pathways activate oncogenic signals and contribute to targetable phenotypes. Systemic factors can have a critical role in both tumour initiation and therapeutic responses as increasingly targeted and personalized therapeutic regimens are used to treat patients with cancer. The endocrine system controls cell growth and metabolism by providing extracellular cues that integrate systemic nutrient status with cellular activities such as proliferation and survival via the production of metabolites and hormones such as insulin. When insulin binds to its receptor, it initiates a sequence of phosphorylation events that lead to activation of the catalytic activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), a lipid kinase that coordinates the intake and utilization of glucose, and mTOR, a kinase downstream of PI3K that stimulates transcription and translation. When chronically activated, the PI3K pathway can drive malignant transformation. Here, we discuss the insulin-PI3K signalling cascade and emphasize its roles in normal cells (including coordinating cell metabolism and growth), highlighting the features of this network that make it ideal for co-option by cancer cells. Furthermore, we discuss how this signalling network can affect therapeutic responses and how novel metabolic-based strategies might enhance treatment efficacy for cancer. 10.1038/s41574-020-0329-9
    Endoplasmic reticulum stress signalling and the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Lebeaupin Cynthia,Vallée Deborah,Hazari Younis,Hetz Claudio,Chevet Eric,Bailly-Maitre Béatrice Journal of hepatology The global epidemic of obesity has been accompanied by a rising burden of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), with manifestations ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, potentially developing into hepatocellular carcinoma. Although much attention has focused on NAFLD, its pathogenesis remains largely obscure. The hallmark of NAFLD is the hepatic accumulation of lipids, which subsequently leads to cellular stress and hepatic injury, eventually resulting in chronic liver disease. Abnormal lipid accumulation often coincides with insulin resistance in steatotic livers and is associated with perturbed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis in hepatocytes. In response to chronic ER stress, an adaptive signalling pathway known as the unfolded protein response is triggered to restore ER proteostasis. However, the unfolded protein response can cause inflammation, inflammasome activation and, in the case of non-resolvable ER stress, the death of hepatocytes. Experimental data suggest that the unfolded protein response influences hepatic tumour development, aggressiveness and response to treatment, offering novel therapeutic avenues. Herein, we provide an overview of the evidence linking ER stress to NAFLD and discuss possible points of intervention. 10.1016/j.jhep.2018.06.008
    Lipids and cancer: Emerging roles in pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. Butler Lisa M,Perone Ylenia,Dehairs Jonas,Lupien Leslie E,de Laat Vincent,Talebi Ali,Loda Massimo,Kinlaw William B,Swinnen Johannes V Advanced drug delivery reviews With the advent of effective tools to study lipids, including mass spectrometry-based lipidomics, lipids are emerging as central players in cancer biology. Lipids function as essential building blocks for membranes, serve as fuel to drive energy-demanding processes and play a key role as signaling molecules and as regulators of numerous cellular functions. Not unexpectedly, cancer cells, as well as other cell types in the tumor microenvironment, exploit various ways to acquire lipids and extensively rewire their metabolism as part of a plastic and context-dependent metabolic reprogramming that is driven by both oncogenic and environmental cues. The resulting changes in the fate and composition of lipids help cancer cells to thrive in a changing microenvironment by supporting key oncogenic functions and cancer hallmarks, including cellular energetics, promoting feedforward oncogenic signaling, resisting oxidative and other stresses, regulating intercellular communication and immune responses. Supported by the close connection between altered lipid metabolism and the pathogenic process, specific lipid profiles are emerging as unique disease biomarkers, with diagnostic, prognostic and predictive potential. Multiple preclinical studies illustrate the translational promise of exploiting lipid metabolism in cancer, and critically, have shown context dependent actionable vulnerabilities that can be rationally targeted, particularly in combinatorial approaches. Moreover, lipids themselves can be used as membrane disrupting agents or as key components of nanocarriers of various therapeutics. With a number of preclinical compounds and strategies that are approaching clinical trials, we are at the doorstep of exploiting a hitherto underappreciated hallmark of cancer and promising target in the oncologist's strategy to combat cancer. 10.1016/j.addr.2020.07.013
    Acetate Metabolism in Physiology, Cancer, and Beyond. Bose Shree,Ramesh Vijyendra,Locasale Jason W Trends in cell biology Acetate and the related metabolism of acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) confer numerous metabolic functions, including energy production, lipid synthesis, and protein acetylation. Despite its importance as a nutrient for cellular metabolism, its source has been unclear. Recent studies have provided evidence to support the existence of a de novo pathway for acetate production derived from pyruvate, the end product of glycolysis. This mechanism of pyruvate-derived acetate generation could have far-reaching implications for the regulation of central carbon metabolism. In this Opinion, we discuss our current understanding of acetate metabolism in the context of cell-autonomous metabolic regulation, cell-cell interactions, and systemic physiology. Applications relevant to health and disease, particularly cancer, are emphasized. 10.1016/j.tcb.2019.05.005
    Mitochondrial membrane lipid remodeling in pathophysiology: a new target for diet and therapeutic interventions. Monteiro João P,Oliveira Paulo J,Jurado Amália S Progress in lipid research Mitochondria are arbiters in the fragile balance between cell life and death. These organelles present an intricate membrane system, with a peculiar lipid composition and displaying transverse as well as lateral asymmetry. Some lipids are synthesized inside mitochondria, while others have to be imported or acquired in the form of precursors. Here, we review different processes, including external interventions (e.g., diet) and a range of biological events (apoptosis, disease and aging), which may result in alterations of mitochondrial membrane lipid content. Cardiolipin, the mitochondria lipid trademark, whose biosynthetic pathway is highly regulated, will deserve special attention in this review. The modulation of mitochondrial membrane lipid composition, especially by diet, as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of some pathologies will be also addressed. 10.1016/j.plipres.2013.06.002
    Cellular fatty acid metabolism and cancer. Currie Erin,Schulze Almut,Zechner Rudolf,Walther Tobias C,Farese Robert V Cell metabolism Cancer cells often have characteristic changes in metabolism. Cellular proliferation, a common feature of all cancers, requires fatty acids for synthesis of membranes and signaling molecules. Here, we provide a view of cancer cell metabolism from a lipid perspective, and we summarize evidence that limiting fatty acid availability can control cancer cell proliferation. 10.1016/j.cmet.2013.05.017
    6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase links oxidative PPP, lipogenesis and tumour growth by inhibiting LKB1-AMPK signalling. Lin Ruiting,Elf Shannon,Shan Changliang,Kang Hee-Bum,Ji Quanjiang,Zhou Lu,Hitosugi Taro,Zhang Liang,Zhang Shuai,Seo Jae Ho,Xie Jianxin,Tucker Meghan,Gu Ting-Lei,Sudderth Jessica,Jiang Lei,Mitsche Matthew,DeBerardinis Ralph J,Wu Shaoxiong,Li Yuancheng,Mao Hui,Chen Peng R,Wang Dongsheng,Chen Georgia Zhuo,Hurwitz Selwyn J,Lonial Sagar,Arellano Martha L,Khoury Hanna J,Khuri Fadlo R,Lee Benjamin H,Lei Qunying,Brat Daniel J,Ye Keqiang,Boggon Titus J,He Chuan,Kang Sumin,Fan Jun,Chen Jing Nature cell biology The oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) contributes to tumour growth, but the precise contribution of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), the third enzyme in this pathway, to tumorigenesis remains unclear. We found that suppression of 6PGD decreased lipogenesis and RNA biosynthesis and elevated ROS levels in cancer cells, attenuating cell proliferation and tumour growth. 6PGD-mediated production of ribulose-5-phosphate (Ru-5-P) inhibits AMPK activation by disrupting the active LKB1 complex, thereby activating acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and lipogenesis. Ru-5-P and NADPH are thought to be precursors in RNA biosynthesis and lipogenesis, respectively; thus, our findings provide an additional link between the oxidative PPP and lipogenesis through Ru-5-P-dependent inhibition of LKB1-AMPK signalling. Moreover, we identified and developed 6PGD inhibitors, physcion and its derivative S3, that effectively inhibited 6PGD, cancer cell proliferation and tumour growth in nude mice xenografts without obvious toxicity, suggesting that 6PGD could be an anticancer target. 10.1038/ncb3255
    Metabolic pathways promoting cancer cell survival and growth. Boroughs Lindsey K,DeBerardinis Ralph J Nature cell biology Activation of oncogenes and loss of tumour suppressors promote metabolic reprogramming in cancer, resulting in enhanced nutrient uptake to supply energetic and biosynthetic pathways. However, nutrient limitations within solid tumours may require that malignant cells exhibit metabolic flexibility to sustain growth and survival. Here, we highlight these adaptive mechanisms and also discuss emerging approaches to probe tumour metabolism in vivo and their potential to expand the metabolic repertoire of malignant cells even further. 10.1038/ncb3124
    Metabolic Pathways Fueling the Endothelial Cell Drive. Li Xuri,Kumar Anil,Carmeliet Peter Annual review of physiology Endothelial cell (EC) metabolism is important for health and disease. Metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and amino acid metabolism, determine vasculature formation. These metabolic pathways have different roles in securing the production of energy and biomass and the maintenance of redox homeostasis in vascular migratory tip cells, proliferating stalk cells, and quiescent phalanx cells, respectively. Emerging evidence demonstrates that perturbation of EC metabolism results in EC dysfunction and vascular pathologies. Here, we summarize recent insights into EC metabolic pathways and their deregulation in vascular diseases. We further discuss the therapeutic implications of targeting EC metabolism in various pathologies. 10.1146/annurev-physiol-020518-114731
    Interplay between YAP/TAZ and Metabolism. Koo Ja Hyun,Guan Kun-Liang Cell metabolism Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) are two homologous transcriptional coactivators that promote cell proliferation, stem cell maintenance, and tissue homeostasis. Under favorable conditions, YAP and TAZ are active to promote cell growth through a transcriptional program mediated by the TEAD family transcription factors. Given the indispensability of cellular energy and metabolites for survival and growth, YAP and TAZ are inhibited when energy level is low. Indeed, glucose, fatty acids, hormones, and other metabolic factors have been recently revealed to regulate YAP and TAZ. Conversely, YAP and TAZ are also involved in metabolism regulation, such as to promote glycolysis, lipogenesis, and glutaminolysis, suggesting YAP and TAZ as emerging nodes in coordinating nutrient availability with cell growth and tissue homeostasis. In this Review, we summarize recent findings and provide a current overview of YAP and TAZ in metabolism by focusing on the role of YAP and TAZ as integrators for metabolic cues and cell growth. 10.1016/j.cmet.2018.07.010
    Pancreatic Cancer Metabolism: Breaking It Down to Build It Back Up. Perera Rushika M,Bardeesy Nabeel Cancer discovery UNLABELLED:How do cancer cells escape tightly controlled regulatory circuits that link their proliferation to extracellular nutrient cues? An emerging theme in cancer biology is the hijacking of normal stress response mechanisms to enable growth even when nutrients are limiting. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is the quintessential aggressive malignancy that thrives in nutrient-poor, hypoxic environments. PDAs overcome these limitations through appropriation of unorthodox strategies for fuel source acquisition and utilization. In addition, the interplay between evolving PDA and whole-body metabolism contributes to disease pathogenesis. Deciphering how these pathways function and integrate with one another can reveal novel angles of therapeutic attack. SIGNIFICANCE:Alterations in tumor cell and systemic metabolism are central to the biology of pancreatic cancer. Further investigation of these processes will provide important insights into how these tumors develop and grow, and suggest new approaches for its detection, prevention, and treatment. 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-15-0671
    Lipidomics: Techniques, Applications, and Outcomes Related to Biomedical Sciences. Yang Kui,Han Xianlin Trends in biochemical sciences Lipidomics is a newly emerged discipline that studies cellular lipids on a large scale based on analytical chemistry principles and technological tools, particularly mass spectrometry. Recently, techniques have greatly advanced and novel applications of lipidomics in the biomedical sciences have emerged. This review provides a timely update on these aspects. After briefly introducing the lipidomics discipline, we compare mass spectrometry-based techniques for analysis of lipids and summarize very recent applications of lipidomics in health and disease. Finally, we discuss the status of the field, future directions, and advantages and limitations of the field. 10.1016/j.tibs.2016.08.010
    Even Cancer Cells Watch Their Cholesterol! Riscal Romain,Skuli Nicolas,Simon M Celeste Molecular cell Deregulated cell proliferation is an established feature of cancer, and altered tumor metabolism has witnessed renewed interest over the past decade, including the study of how cancer cells rewire metabolic pathways to renew energy sources and "building blocks" that sustain cell division. Microenvironmental oxygen, glucose, and glutamine are regarded as principal nutrients fueling tumor growth. However, hostile tumor microenvironments render O/nutrient supplies chronically insufficient for increased proliferation rates, forcing cancer cells to develop strategies for opportunistic modes of nutrient acquisition. Recent work shows that cancer cells overcome this nutrient scarcity by scavenging other substrates, such as proteins and lipids, or utilizing adaptive metabolic pathways. As such, reprogramming lipid metabolism plays important roles in providing energy, macromolecules for membrane synthesis, and lipid-mediated signaling during cancer progression. In this review, we highlight more recently appreciated roles for lipids, particularly cholesterol and its derivatives, in cancer cell metabolism within intrinsically harsh tumor microenvironments. 10.1016/j.molcel.2019.09.008
    Metabolic regulation of cell growth and proliferation. Zhu Jiajun,Thompson Craig B Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology Cellular metabolism is at the foundation of all biological activities. The catabolic processes that support cellular bioenergetics and survival have been well studied. By contrast, how cells alter their metabolism to support anabolic biomass accumulation is less well understood. During the commitment to cell proliferation, extensive metabolic rewiring must occur in order for cells to acquire sufficient nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, lipids and nucleotides, which are necessary to support cell growth and to deal with the redox challenges that arise from the increased metabolic activity associated with anabolic processes. Defining the mechanisms of this metabolic adaptation for cell growth and proliferation is now a major focus of research. Understanding the principles that guide anabolic metabolism may ultimately enhance ways to treat diseases that involve deregulated cell growth and proliferation, such as cancer. 10.1038/s41580-019-0123-5
    Lipogenesis and lipolysis: the pathways exploited by the cancer cells to acquire fatty acids. Zaidi Nousheen,Lupien Leslie,Kuemmerle Nancy B,Kinlaw William B,Swinnen Johannes V,Smans Karine Progress in lipid research One of the most important metabolic hallmarks of cancer cells is enhanced lipogenesis. Depending on the tumor type, tumor cells synthesize up to 95% of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (FA) de novo in spite of sufficient dietary lipid supply. This lipogenic conversion starts early when cells become cancerous and further expands as the tumor cells become more malignant. It is suggested that activation of FA synthesis is required for carcinogenesis and for tumor cell survival. These observations suggest that the enzymes involved in FA synthesis would be rational therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. However, several recent reports have shown that the anti-tumor effects, following inhibition of endogenous FA synthesis in cancer cell lines may be obviated by adding exogenous FAs. Additionally, high intake of dietary fat is reported to be a potential risk factor for development and poor prognosis for certain cancers. Recently it was reported that breast and liposarcoma tumors are equipped for both de novo fatty acid synthesis pathway as well as LPL-mediated extracellular lipolysis. These observations indicate that lipolytically acquired FAs may provide an additional source of FAs for cancer. This review focuses on our current understanding of lipogenic and lipolytic pathways in cancer cell progression. 10.1016/j.plipres.2013.08.005
    High density lipoprotein cholesterol and cancer: Marker or causative? Pirro Matteo,Ricciuti Biagio,Rader Daniel J,Catapano Alberico L,Sahebkar Amirhossein,Banach Maciej Progress in lipid research The relationship between high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), HDL-cholesterol (HDLC) and cancer incidence and mortality is controversial. Although most studies conducted so far, including well-designed prospective studies and meta-analyses, have revealed a significant inverse association between HDL-C levels and cancer risk, several confounding factors and opposite results showing either a direct or an inverse association between HDL-C levels and cancer mortality have hindered the possibility to derive definitive conclusions. Moreover, different lines of research also pointed out that this association might actually reflect an inverse causality, which would imply that low HDL-C levels merely represent an epiphenomenon of cancer-related inflammation and cancer cell renewal. Accordingly, the pharmacological increase of plasma HDL-C levels in large lipid modifying trials has not resulted in an amelioration of cancer-related outcomes. In such an intricate scenario, we conducted a comprehensive review of the literature with the aim to provide a wide perspective on the association between HDLs, mild and extreme changes in plasma HDL-C levels and cancer incidence and mortality, touching upon the certainties, the failures and the open issues in this intriguing area of research. 10.1016/j.plipres.2018.06.001
    Sphingolipids and their metabolism in physiology and disease. Hannun Yusuf A,Obeid Lina M Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology Studies of bioactive lipids in general and sphingolipids in particular have intensified over the past several years, revealing an unprecedented and unanticipated complexity of the lipidome and its many functions, which rivals, if not exceeds, that of the genome or proteome. These results highlight critical roles for bioactive sphingolipids in most, if not all, major cell biological responses, including all major cell signalling pathways, and they link sphingolipid metabolism to key human diseases. Nevertheless, the fairly nascent field of bioactive sphingolipids still faces challenges in its biochemical and molecular underpinnings, including defining the molecular mechanisms of pathway and enzyme regulation, the study of lipid-protein interactions and the development of cellular probes, suitable biomarkers and therapeutic approaches. 10.1038/nrm.2017.107
    The interaction of hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism in liver diseases. Bechmann Lars P,Hannivoort Rebekka A,Gerken Guido,Hotamisligil Gökhan S,Trauner Michael,Canbay Ali Journal of hepatology It is widely known that the liver is a central organ in lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis and cholesterol metabolism. However, over the last decades, a variety of pathological conditions highlighted the importance of metabolic functions within the diseased liver. As observed in Western societies, an increase in the prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome promotes pathophysiological changes that cause non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD increases the susceptibility of the liver to acute liver injury and may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer. Alterations in insulin response, β-oxidation, lipid storage and transport, autophagy and an imbalance in chemokines and nuclear receptor signaling are held accountable for these changes. Furthermore, recent studies revealed a role for lipid accumulation in inflammation and ER stress in the clinical context of liver regeneration and hepatic carcinogenesis. This review focuses on novel findings related to nuclear receptor signaling - including the vitamin D receptor and the liver receptor homolog 1 - in hepatic lipid and glucose uptake, storage and metabolism in the clinical context of NAFLD, liver regeneration, and cancer. 10.1016/j.jhep.2011.08.025
    Lysosome: regulator of lipid degradation pathways. Settembre Carmine,Ballabio Andrea Trends in cell biology Autophagy is a catabolic pathway that has a fundamental role in the adaptation to fasting and primarily relies on the activity of the endolysosomal system, to which the autophagosome targets substrates for degradation. Recent studies have revealed that the lysosomal-autophagic pathway plays an important part in the early steps of lipid degradation. In this review, we discuss the transcriptional mechanisms underlying co-regulation between lysosome, autophagy, and other steps of lipid catabolism, including the activity of nutrient-sensitive transcription factors (TFs) and of members of the nuclear receptor family. In addition, we discuss how the lysosome acts as a metabolic sensor and orchestrates the transcriptional response to fasting. 10.1016/j.tcb.2014.06.006
    Endothelial Cell Metabolism in Health and Disease. Rohlenova Katerina,Veys Koen,Miranda-Santos Ines,De Bock Katrien,Carmeliet Peter Trends in cell biology The metabolism of endothelial cells (ECs) has only recently been recognized as a driving force of angiogenesis. Metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and glutamine metabolism, have distinct, essential roles during vessel formation. Moreover, EC metabolism is markedly perturbed in pathologies such as cancer and diabetes. For instance, because tumor ECs increase glycolysis, lowering hyperglycolysis in tumor ECs induces therapeutic benefits in preclinical tumor models. Expanding our knowledge of how ECs alter their metabolism in disease could pave the way for novel therapeutic opportunities. In this review, we discuss the most recent insights into EC metabolism in health and disease, with emphasis on the changes in metabolism in the tumor endothelium. 10.1016/j.tcb.2017.10.010
    Phospholipids and cholesterol: Inducers of cancer multidrug resistance and therapeutic targets. Kopecka Joanna,Trouillas Patrick,Gašparović Ana Čipak,Gazzano Elena,Assaraf Yehuda G,Riganti Chiara Drug resistance updates : reviews and commentaries in antimicrobial and anticancer chemotherapy Lipids, phospholipids and cholesterol in particular, are the predominant components of the plasma membrane, wherein multidrug efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily reside as integral pump proteins. In the current review, we discuss how lipids potently modulate the expression and activity of these multidrug efflux pumps, contributing to the development of the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype in cancer. The molecular mechanisms underlying this modulation of the MDR phenotype are pleiotropic. First, notwithstanding the high intra-and inter-tumor variability, MDR cells display an altered composition of plasma membrane phospholipids and glycosphingolipids, and are enriched with very long saturated fatty acid chains. This feature, along with the increased levels of cholesterol, decrease membrane fluidity, alter the spatial organization of membrane nano- and micro-domains, interact with transmembrane helices of ABC transporters, hence favoring drug binding and release. Second, MDR cells exhibit a peculiar membrane lipid composition of intracellular organelles including mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In this respect, they contain a lower amount of oxidizable fatty acids, hence being more resistant to oxidative stress and chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Third, drug resistant cancer cells have a higher ratio of monosatured/polyunsatured fatty acids: this lipid signature reduces the production of reactive aldehydes with cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory activity and, together with the increased activity of anti-oxidant enzymes, limits the cellular damage induced by lipid peroxidation. Finally, specific precursors of phospholipids and cholesterol including ceramides and isoprenoids, are highly produced in MDR cells; by acting as second messengers, they trigger multiple signaling cascades that induce the transcription of drug efflux transporter genes and/or promote a metabolic reprogramming which supports the MDR phenotype. High-throughput lipidomics and computational biology technologies are a great tool in analyzing the tumor lipid signature in a personalized manner and in identifying novel biomarkers of drug resistance. Moreover, beyond the induction of MDR, lipid metabolism offers a remarkable opportunity to reverse MDR by using lipid analogues and repurposing lipid-targeting drugs (e.g. statins and aminobisphosphonates) that reprogram the lipid composition of drug resistant cells, hence rendering them drug sensitive. 10.1016/j.drup.2019.100670
    The multifaceted roles of fatty acid synthesis in cancer. Röhrig Florian,Schulze Almut Nature reviews. Cancer Lipid metabolism, in particular the synthesis of fatty acids (FAs), is an essential cellular process that converts nutrients into metabolic intermediates for membrane biosynthesis, energy storage and the generation of signalling molecules. This Review explores how different aspects of FA synthesis promote tumorigenesis and tumour progression. FA synthesis has received substantial attention as a potential target for cancer therapy, but strategies to target this process have not yet translated into clinical practice. Furthermore, efforts to target this pathway must consider the influence of the tumour microenvironment. 10.1038/nrc.2016.89
    The spectrum of T cell metabolism in health and disease. Bantug Glenn R,Galluzzi Lorenzo,Kroemer Guido,Hess Christoph Nature reviews. Immunology In healthy individuals, metabolically quiescent T cells survey lymph nodes and peripheral tissues in search of cognate antigens. During infection, T cells that encounter cognate antigens are activated and - in a context-specific manner - proliferate and/or differentiate to become effector T cells. This process is accompanied by important changes in cellular metabolism (known as metabolic reprogramming). The magnitude and spectrum of metabolic reprogramming as it occurs in T cells in the context of acute infection ensure host survival. By contrast, altered T cell metabolism, and hence function, is also observed in various disease states, in which T cells actively contribute to pathology. In this Review, we introduce the idea that the spectrum of immune cell metabolic states can provide a basis for categorizing human diseases. Specifically, we first summarize the metabolic and interlinked signalling requirements of T cells responding to acute infection. We then discuss how metabolic reprogramming of T cells is linked to disease. 10.1038/nri.2017.99
    mTOR signalling and cellular metabolism are mutual determinants in cancer. Mossmann Dirk,Park Sujin,Hall Michael N Nature reviews. Cancer Oncogenic signalling and metabolic alterations are interrelated in cancer cells. mTOR, which is frequently activated in cancer, controls cell growth and metabolism. mTOR signalling regulates amino acid, glucose, nucleotide, fatty acid and lipid metabolism. Conversely, metabolic inputs, such as amino acids, activate mTOR. In this Review, we discuss how mTOR signalling rewires cancer cell metabolism and delineate how changes in metabolism, in turn, sustain mTOR signalling and tumorigenicity. Several drugs are being developed to perturb cancer cell metabolism. However, their efficacy as stand-alone therapies, similar to mTOR inhibitors, is limited. Here, we discuss how the interdependence of mTOR signalling and metabolism can be exploited for cancer therapy. 10.1038/s41568-018-0074-8
    Lipids in the tumor microenvironment: From cancer progression to treatment. Corn Kevin C,Windham McKenzie A,Rafat Marjan Progress in lipid research Over the past decade, the study of metabolic abnormalities in cancer cells has risen dramatically. Cancer cells can thrive in challenging environments, be it the hypoxic and nutrient-deplete tumor microenvironment or a distant tissue following metastasis. The ways in which cancer cells utilize lipids are often influenced by the complex interactions within the tumor microenvironment and adjacent stroma. Adipocytes can be activated by cancer cells to lipolyze their triglyceride stores, delivering secreted fatty acids to cancer cells for uptake through numerous fatty acid transporters. Cancer-associated fibroblasts are also implicated in lipid secretion for cancer cell catabolism and lipid signaling leading to activation of mitogenic and migratory pathways. As these cancer-stromal interactions are exacerbated during tumor progression, fatty acids secreted into the microenvironment can impact infiltrating immune cell function and phenotype. Lipid metabolic abnormalities such as increased fatty acid oxidation and de novo lipid synthesis can provide survival advantages for the tumor to resist chemotherapeutic and radiation treatments and alleviate cellular stresses involved in the metastatic cascade. In this review, we highlight recent literature that demonstrates how lipids can shape each part of the cancer lifecycle and show that there is significant potential for therapeutic intervention surrounding lipid metabolic and signaling pathways. 10.1016/j.plipres.2020.101055
    Dendritic Cell Metabolism and Function in Tumors. Giovanelli Paolo,Sandoval Tito A,Cubillos-Ruiz Juan R Trends in immunology Dendritic cells (DCs) are fundamental for the initiation and maintenance of immune responses against malignant cells. Despite the unique potential of DCs to elicit robust anticancer immunity, the tumor microenvironment poses a variety of challenges that hinder competent DC function and consequently inhibit the development of protective immune responses. Here, we discuss recent studies uncovering new molecular pathways and metabolic programs that tumors manipulate in DCs to disturb their homeostasis and evade immune control. We also examine certain state-of-the-art strategies that seek to improve DC function and elicit antitumor responses in hosts with cancer. Understanding and modulating DC metabolism and activity within tumors might help improve the efficacy of T cell-centric immunotherapies. 10.1016/j.it.2019.06.004
    Greasing the Wheels of the Cancer Machine: The Role of Lipid Metabolism in Cancer. Snaebjornsson Marteinn Thor,Janaki-Raman Sudha,Schulze Almut Cell metabolism Altered lipid metabolism is among the most prominent metabolic alterations in cancer. Enhanced synthesis or uptake of lipids contributes to rapid cancer cell growth and tumor formation. Lipids are a highly complex group of biomolecules that not only constitute the structural basis of biological membranes but also function as signaling molecules and an energy source. Here, we summarize recent evidence implicating altered lipid metabolism in different aspects of the cancer phenotype and discuss potential strategies by which targeting lipid metabolism could provide a therapeutic window for cancer treatment. 10.1016/j.cmet.2019.11.010