Admission serum potassium level is associated with in-hospital and long-term mortality in ST-elevation myocardial infarction.
Uluganyan Mahmut,Ekmekçi Ahmet,Murat Ahmet,Avşar Şahin,Ulutaş Türker Kemal,Uyarel Hüseyin,Bozbay Mehmet,Çiçek Gökhan,Karaca Gürkan,Eren Mehmet
Anatolian journal of cardiology
OBJECTIVE:Current guidelines recommend a serum potassium (sK) level of 4.0-5.0 mmol/L in acute myocardial infarction patients. Recent trials have demonstrated an increased mortality rate with an sK level of>4.5 mmol/L. The aim of this study was to figure out the relation between admission sK level and in-hospital and long-term mortality and ventricular arrhythmias. METHODS:Retrospectively, 611 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention were recruited. Admission sK levels were categorized accordingly: <3.5, 3.5-<4, 4-<4.5, 4.5-<5, and ≥5 mmol/L. RESULTS:The lowest in-hospital and long-term mortality occurred in patients with sK levels of 3.5 to <4 mmol/L. The long-term mortality risk increased for admission sK levels of >4.5 mmol/L [odds ratio (OR), 1.58; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42-5.9 and OR, 2.27; 95% CI 0.44-11.5 for sK levels of 4.5-<5 mmol/L and ≥5 mmol/L, respectively]. At sK levels <3 mmol/L and ≥5 mmol/L, the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias was higher (p=0.019). CONCLUSION:Admission sK level of >4.5 mmol/L was associated with increased long-term mortality in STEMI. A significant relation was found between sK level of <3 mmol/L and ≥5 mmol/L and ventricular arrhythmias.
Prevalence and Prognosis of Hyperkalemia in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.
Grodzinsky Anna,Goyal Abhinav,Gosch Kensey,McCullough Peter A,Fonarow Gregg C,Mebazaa Alexandre,Masoudi Frederick A,Spertus John A,Palmer Biff F,Kosiborod Mikhail
The American journal of medicine
BACKGROUND:Hyperkalemia is common and potentially dangerous in hospitalized patients; its contemporary prevalence and prognostic importance after acute myocardial infarction are not well described. METHODS:In 38,689 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction from the Cerner Health Facts database, we evaluated the association between maximum in-hospital potassium levels and in-hospital mortality. Patients were stratified by dialysis status and grouped by maximum potassium as follows: <5 mEq/L, 5 to <5.5 mEq/L, 5.5 to <6.0 mEq/L, 6.0 to <6.5 mEq/L, and ≥6.5 mEq/L. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for multiple patient and site characteristics. The relationship between the number of hyperkalemic values and the in-hospital mortality was evaluated. RESULTS:Of 38,689 patients with acute myocardial infarction, 886 were on dialysis. The rate of hyperkalemia (maximum potassium ≥5.0 mEq/L) was 22.6% in patients on dialysis and 66.8% in patients not on dialysis. Moderate to severe hyperkalemia (maximum potassium ≥5.5 mEq/L) occurred in 9.8% of patients. There was a steep increase in mortality with higher maximum potassium levels. In-hospital mortality exceeded 15% once maximum potassium was ≥5.5 mEq/L regardless of dialysis status. The relationship between higher maximum potassium and increased mortality risk persisted after multivariable adjustment. In addition, patients with a greater number of hyperkalemic values (vs a single value) experienced higher in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS:Hyperkalemia is common in patients who are hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction. Higher maximum potassium levels and number of hyperkalemic events are associated with a steep mortality increase, with higher risks for adverse outcomes observed even at mild levels of hyperkalemia. Whether more intensive management of hyperkalemia may improve outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction merits further study.
Serum Potassium Levels and Short-Term Outcomes in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.
Ma Wenfang,Liang Yan,Zhu Jun,Yang Yanmin,Tan Huiqiong,Yu Litian,Gao Xin,Feng Guangxun,Li Jiandong
Current guidelines recommend maintaining serum potassium levels between 4.0 and 5.0 mEq/L (1 mEq/L = mmol/L) in patients with acute myocardial infarction. However, these guidelines are based on studies conducted before the β blocker and reperfusion era. We retrospectively analyzed 6613 patients diagnosed with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who presented without renal insufficiency. Patients were categorized into 5 groups according to mean serum potassium levels: <3.5, 3.5 to <4.0, 4.0 to <4.5, 4.5 to <5.0, and ≥5.0 mEq/L. Patients with potassium levels of 4.0 to <4.5 mEq/L had the lowest predefined event rates, which were 6.4% for 7-day malignant arrhythmia, 3.7% for 7-day mortality, and 5.3% for 30-day mortality. Compared with the reference group (4.0 to <4.5 mEq/L), multivariate regression analysis revealed significantly higher 30-day mortality risk in patients with potassium level of 4.5 to <5.0 (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-1.98; P = .002) and even higher risk in patients with potassium level of ≥5.0 mEq/L (HR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.22-2.66; P = .002). The lowest 30-day mortality was observed in patients with STEMI having potassium levels between 4.0 and 4.5 mEq/L, and a level >4.5 mEq/L significantly increased mortality risk.
The effect of serum potassium level on in-hospital and long-term mortality in ST elevation myocardial infarction.
Keskin Muhammed,Kaya Adnan,Tatlısu Mustafa Adem,Hayıroğlu Mert İlker,Uzman Osman,Börklü Edibe Betül,Çinier Göksel,Çakıllı Yasin,Yaylak Barış,Eren Mehmet
International journal of cardiology
Current studies evaluating the effect of serum potassium levels on mortality in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are lacking. We analyzed retrospectively 3760 patients diagnosed with STEMI. Mean serum potassium levels were categorized accordingly: <3.0, 3.0 to <3.5, 3.5 to <4.0, 4.0 to <4.5, 4.5 to <5.0, 5.0 to <5.5, and ≥5.5mEq/L. The lowest mortality was determined in patients with serum potassium level of 4 to <4.5mEq/L whereas mortality was higher in patients with serum potassium levels of ≥5.0 and <3.5mEq/L. In a multivariable Cox-proportional regression analysis, the mortality risk was higher for patients with serum potassium levels of ≥5mEq/L [hazard ratio (HR), 2.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-4.74 and HR, 4.20; 95% CI 1.08-8.23, for patients with potassium levels of 5 to <5.5mEq/L and ≥5.5mEq/L, respectively]. In-hospital and long-term mortality risks were also higher for patients with serum potassium levels of ≤3.5mEq/L. Conversely, ventricular arrhythmias were higher only for patients with serum potassium level of ≤3.5mEq/L. Furthermore, a significant relationship was found between the patient with serum potassium levels of ≤3.5mEq/L and ventricular arrhythmias.
Association of serum potassium concentration with mortality and ventricular arrhythmias in patients with acute myocardial infarction: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Colombo Miriam Giovanna,Kirchberger Inge,Amann Ute,Dinser Lisa,Meisinger Christa
European journal of preventive cardiology
Background Challenging clinical practice guidelines that recommend serum potassium concentration between 4.0-5.0 mEq/L or ≥4.5 mEq/L in patients with acute myocardial infarction, recent studies found increased mortality risks in patients with a serum potassium concentration of ≥4.5 mEq/L. Studies investigating consequences of hypokalemia after acute myocardial infarction revealed conflicting results. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to combine evidence from previous studies on the association of serum potassium concentration with both short and long-term mortality as well as the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods A structured search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases yielded 23 articles published between 1990 and January 2017 that met the inclusion criteria. Study selection, data extraction and quality assessment were carried out by three reviewers. Random effects models were used to pool estimates across the included studies and sensitivity analyses were performed when possible. Results Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis. Both pooled results from six studies investigating short-term mortality and from five studies examining long-term mortality revealed significantly increased risks in patients with serum potassium concentrations of <3.5 mEq/L, 4.5-<5.0 mEq/L and ≥5.0 mEq/L after acute myocardial infarction. In addition, a serum potassium concentration of <3.5 mEq/L was significantly associated with the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias. Conclusions Mortality, both short and long term, and the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with acute myocardial infarction seem to be negatively associated with hypokalemic serum potassium concentration. There is evidence for adverse consequences of serum potassium concentrations of ≥4.5 mEq/L. Due to the heterogeneity among existing studies, further research is necessary to confirm the need to change clinical practice guidelines.
Potassium Fluctuations Are Associated With Inhospital Mortality From Acute Myocardial Infarction. Soroka Acute Myocardial Infarction II (SAMI-II) Project.
Shiyovich Arthur,Gilutz Harel,Plakht Ygal
Potassium levels (K, mEq/L) fluctuate in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Potassium was reported to be associated with prognosis in patients with AMI; however, studies evaluating the prognostic value of K fluctuations in this setting are scarce. We retrospectively analyzed patients with AMI hospitalized in a tertiary medical center, through 2002 to 2012. Patients on chronic dialysis or mechanical ventilation were excluded. Based on all K values during hospitalization, minimal, maximal, and fluctuation (gap between 2 consecutive K) were recorded. Primary outcome was inhospital all-cause mortality. Overall, 10 032 patients were studied (age 68.1 ± 14.3 years, 65.4% males, 44.2% ST-segment elevation MI), of which 507 (3.7%) died in hospital. Potassium decreased during the first 2 to 3 days ( P for trend <.001), followed by stabilization ( P for trend = .807). Potassium in the extreme categories (<3.8 and ≥4.7) and absolute fluctuations >0.1 mEq/L were more common among nonsurvivors than survivors ( P < .001 each). In a multivariate analysis, combinations of minimal K <3.8 with maximal K ≥4.7 (odds ratio [OR] = 18.1), K ≥4.4 with fluctuation ≥0.1 (OR = 1.74), or <-0.1 (OR = 2.6) and minimal K after the first 2 admission days (OR = 2.07) were associated with increased risk of mortality ( P < .001 each). Potassium fluctuations, peak and nadir K, and its timing independently predict inhospital mortality in patients with AMI.
Effect of Dynamic Potassium Change on In-Hospital Mortality, Ventricular Arrhythmias, and Long-Term Mortality in STEMI.
Kaya Adnan,Keskin Muhammed,Tatlisu Mustafa Adem,Kayapinar Osman
We evaluated the effect of serum potassium (K) deviation on in-hospital and long-term clinical outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who were normokalemic at admission. A total of 2773 patients with an admission serum K level of 3.5 to 4.5 mEq/L were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were categorized into 3 groups according to their K deviation: normokalemia-to-hypokalemia, normokalemia-to-normokalemia, and normokalemia-to-hyperkalemia. In-hospital mortality, long-term mortality, and ventricular arrhythmias rates were compared among the groups. In a hierarchical multivariable regression analysis, the in-hospital mortality risk was higher in normokalemia-to-hypokalemia (odds ratio [OR] 3.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72-6.82) and normokalemia-to-hyperkalemia groups (OR 2.81; 95% CI, 1.93-4.48) compared with the normokalemia-to-normokalemia group. In a Cox regression analysis, long-term mortality risk was also higher in normokalemia-to-hypokalemia (hazard ratio [HR] 3.78; 95% CI, 2.07-7.17) and normokalemia-to-hyperkalemia groups (HR, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.10-4.19) compared with the normokalemia-to-normokalemia group. Ventricular arrhythmia risk was also higher in normokalemia-to-hypokalemia group (OR 2.98; 95% CI, 1.41-5.75) compared with normokalemia-to-normokalemia group. The current study showed an increased in-hospital ventricular arrhythmia and mortality and long-term mortality rates with the deviation of serum K levels from normal ranges.
Hyperkalemia Is Associated With Increased Mortality Among Unselected Cardiac Intensive Care Unit Patients.
Brueske Benjamin,Sidhu Mandeep S,Schulman-Marcus Joshua,Kashani Kianoush B,Barsness Gregory W,Jentzer Jacob C
Journal of the American Heart Association
Background Hyperkalemia has been associated with increased mortality in patients with myocardial infarction, but few data exist regarding hyperkalemia in cardiac intensive care unit ( CICU ) patients. We hypothesize that hyperkalemia is associated with increased mortality in unselected CICU patients. Methods and Results We retrospectively reviewed a historical cohort of 9681 CICU patients admitted from January 2007 to December 2015. Hyperkalemia was defined as admission potassium ≥5.0 mEq/L and hypokalemia as admission potassium <3.5 mEq/L. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of in-hospital mortality. Postdischarge survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards models. The mean age of included patients was 67±15 years, with 36% females, and in-hospital mortality was 9%. Hyperkalemia occurred in 1187 (12.3%) and hypokalemia occurred in 719 (7.4%) patients. Both patients with hyperkalemia (unadjusted odds ratio, 2.85; 95% CI, 2.40-3.39; P<0.001) and patients with hypokalemia (unadjusted odds ratio, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.85-2.88; P<0.001) were at increased risk of unadjusted in-hospital mortality. After adjustment for illness severity and renal function, only patients with hyperkalemia demonstrated increased risk of in-hospital death (adjusted odds ratio, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.11-1.87; P=0.006). Among hospital survivors, only patients with hyperkalemia had lower postdischarge survival by Kaplan-Meier analysis ( P<0.001). After adjustment for illness severity and renal function, hospital survivors with admission hyperkalemia remained at increased risk for postdischarge mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.08-1.34; P<0.001). Conclusions Hyperkalemia on CICU admission is associated with higher in-hospital and postdischarge mortality, independent of renal function and illness severity. These findings emphasize the importance of potassium abnormalities as a risk predictor in patients admitted to the CICU .
The association of concomitant serum potassium and glucose levels and in-hospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Soroka acute myocardial infarction II (SAMI-II) project.
Plakht Ygal,Gilutz Harel,Shiyovich Arthur
International journal of cardiology
BACKGROUND:Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with significant systemic metabolic changes. These changes include increased plasma concentrations of counter-regulatory hormones and changes in potassium (K, mEq/L) and glucose (mg/dL) levels. The latter are associated with outcomes and investigated as potential focus for intervention; glucose-insulin‑potassium (GIK) solution. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the associations of concomitant K and glucose (K/glucose) levels with in-hospital mortality in AMI patients. METHODS:AMI patients hospitalized in a tertiary Medical Center through 2002-2012 were studied. K/glucose levels were divided into equally sized categories. The intermediate category (glucose 124-143 mg/dL, K 4-4.9 mEq/L) was the reference group. The associations of these tests with the outcome were assessed using Generalized Estimating Equations model which included the interaction of K and glucose levels, adjusted for the patient's baseline characteristics and other laboratory results. RESULTS:17,670 AMI admissions (mean age 67.8 ± 4.0 years, 66.6% males, mortality rate 7.7%) were included; 112,531 results of K/glucose tests were recorded. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that K/glucose levels were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality, with highest risk being in patients with concomitant low K (<3.7 mEq/L) and high glucose (≥217 mg/dL), adjOR = 2.53. It seems that low-normal glucose levels attenuate the increased risk associated with low K. CONCLUSIONS:The highest independent risk for mortality is found with low K and concomitant high glucose levels. Additional studies evaluating mechanisms and therapeutic interventions in K/glucose levels in this setting are warranted.
Potassium Disturbances and Risk of Ventricular Fibrillation Among Patients With ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.
Ravn Jacobsen Mia,Jabbari Reza,Glinge Charlotte,Kjær Stampe Niels,Butt Jawad Haider,Blanche Paul,Lønborg Jacob,Wendelboe Nielsen Olav,Køber Lars,Torp-Pedersen Christian,Pedersen Frants,Tfelt-Hansen Jacob,Engstrøm Thomas
Journal of the American Heart Association
Background Potassium disturbances per se increase the risk of ventricular fibrillation (VF). Whether potassium disturbances in the acute phase of ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are associated with VF before primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is uncertain. Methods and Results All consecutive STEMI patients were identified in the Eastern Danish Heart Registry from 1999 to 2016. Comorbidities and medication use were assessed from Danish nationwide registries. Potassium levels were collected immediately before PPCI start. Multivariate logistic models were performed to determine the association between potassium and VF. The main analysis included 8624 STEMI patients of whom 822 (9.5%) had VF before PPCI. Compared with 6693 (77.6%) patients with normokalemia (3.5-5.0 mmol/L), 1797 (20.8%) patients with hypokalemia (<3.5 mmol/L) were often women with fewer comorbidities, whereas 134 (1.6%) patients with hyperkalemia (>5.0 mmol/L) were older with more comorbidities. After adjustment, patients with hypokalemia and hyperkalemia had a higher risk of VF before PPCI (odds ratio 1.90, 95% CI 1.57-2.30, <0.001) and (odds ratio 3.36, 95% CI 1.95-5.77, <0.001) compared with normokalemia, respectively. Since the association may reflect a post-resuscitation phenomenon, a sensitivity analysis was performed including 7929 STEMI patients without VF before PPCI of whom 127 (1.6%) had VF during PPCI. Compared with normokalemia, patients with hypokalemia had a significant association with VF during PPCI (odds ratio 1.68, 95% CI 1.01-2.77, =0.045) after adjustment. Conclusions Hypokalemia and hyperkalemia are associated with increased risk of VF before PPCI during STEMI. For hypokalemia, the association may be independent of the measurement of potassium before or after VF.
Potassium levels as a marker of imminent acute kidney injury among patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction. Soroka Acute Myocardial Infarction II (SAMI-II) Project.
Plakht Ygal,Gad Saad Shiran Nili,Gilutz Harel,Shiyovich Arthur
International journal of cardiology
BACKGROUND:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and associated with worse outcomes. Serum Potassium levels (K, mEq/L), which are regulated by the kidneys, are related with poor prognosis in patients with AMI. OBJECTIV:To evaluate whether K levels predict imminent AKI in patients with AMI. METHODS:This retrospective nested case-control study was based on medical records of hospitalized AMI patients, 2002-2012. The cases (AKI group) were defined as an increase of ≥1.5-fold in serum creatinine level or a decrease of ≥25% in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) during the hospitalization. The control group comprised of matched randomly selected patients that did not develop AKI. For both groups, all creatinine and K levels were obtained for up-to 72 h prior to the AKI diagnosis (index time). RESULTS:A total of 12,498/17,678 admissions met the inclusion criteria. The AKI and the control groups consisted of 430 and 1345 matched admission respectively. K levels, prior AKI diagnosis seemed to be higher in the AKI group. Multivariate analysis showed that K ≥ 4.5 within 36-56 h prior to the index time was an independent predictor of the subsequent AKI, OR = 2.3, p < .001. The c-statistic of the model was 0.859, p < .001. Predictivity of K for AKI was stronger among ST-elevation (STEMI) vs. Non-ST-elevation AMI (NSTEMI) patients (OR = 4, p < .001 vs. 1.7, p = .025 respectively; p-for-interaction = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS:K ≥ 4.5 is an independent and incremental marker of imminent AKI in patients with AMI, predictivity is stronger in patients with STEMI than NSTEMI.
Potassium variability during hospitalization and outcomes after discharge in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Zhang Xi-Ling,Cai Heng-Xuan,Wang Shan-Jie,Zhang Xiao-Yuan,Hao Xin-Ran,Fang Shao-Hong,Gao Xue-Qin,Yu Bo
Journal of geriatric cardiology : JGC
BACKGROUND:The variability of metabolic biomarkers has been determined to provide incremental prognosis information, but the implications of electrolyte variability remained unclear. METHODS:We investigate the relationships between electrolyte fluctuation and outcomes in survivors of acute myocardial infarction ( = 4386). Ion variability was calculated as the coefficient of variation, standard deviation, variability independent of the mean (VIM) and range. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using the multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional regression method. RESULTS:During a median follow-up of 12 months, 161 (3.7%) patients died, and heart failure occurred in 550 (12.5%) participants after discharge, respectively. Compared with the bottom quartile, the highest quartile potassium VIM was associated with increased risks of all-cause mortality (HR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.36-4.06) and heart failure (HR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.01-1.72) independent of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), N terminal pro B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), infarction site, mean potassium and other traditional factors, while those associations across sodium VIM quartiles were insignificant. Similar trend remains across the strata of variability by other three indices. These associations were consistent after excluding patients with any extreme electrolyte value and diuretic use. CONCLUSIONS:Higher potassium variability but not sodium variability was associated with adverse outcomes post-infarction. Our findings highlight that potassium variability remains a robust risk factor for mortality regardless of clinical dysnatraemia and dyskalaemia.
The association between blood pressure, age, and dietary sodium and potassium: a population study.
Khaw K T,Barrett-Connor E
We examined the relationship between blood pressure and dietary sodium and potassium intake estimated from 24 hr diet recall in a population of 584 men and 718 women 30 to 79 years old in Southern California. In men, but not women, age-adjusted systolic and diastolic blood pressure correlated significantly with dietary sodium intake. In both men and women, age-adjusted diastolic blood pressure significantly inversely correlated with dietary potassium intake. Age-adjusted systolic and diastolic blood pressure correlated significantly with the dietary sodium/potassium ratio in each sex; correlations were better for the ratio than for either sodium or potassium alone. The relationship was apparent over the whole range of blood pressure and dietary intake. A marked age gradient was apparent in men, the regression slope for blood pressure vs sodium/potassium ratio increasing with increasing age, suggesting increasing sensitivity to dietary sodium/potassium ratio with age. Adjusting for intake of other dietary variables, including calories, protein, carbohydrate, saturated fat, alcohol, calcium, and fiber, did not alter the relationships; adjusting for body mass index reduced the strength of the association in women but not in men. These results support the hypothesis that dietary sodium and potassium are related to blood pressure within a population.
Prognostic role of serum sodium levels across different serum potassium levels in heart failure patients: A Danish register-based cohort study.
Polcwiartek Christoffer,Hansen Steen Møller,Kragholm Kristian,Krogager Maria Lukács,Aldahl Mette,Køber Lars,Torp-Pedersen Christian,Jensen Svend Eggert,Søgaard Peter
International journal of cardiology
BACKGROUND:In heart failure (HF), evidence on the prognosis of simultaneously abnormal sodium and potassium levels remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated associations between sodium levels and 90-day all-cause mortality across potassium levels in HF patients. METHODS:Using Danish registers, we identified HF patients with sodium and potassium levels within 90 days following a redeemed loop diuretic prescription from 2000 to 2012. We grouped sodium (<139, 139-143, >143 mmol/L) and potassium levels (<3.5 [hypokalemia], 3.5-4.0, 4.1-4.6, 4.7-5.0, >5.0 mmol/L [hyperkalemia]). First, by adjusting for potassium groups using multivariable Cox regression, we compared mortality of sodium <139 mmol/L and >143 mmol/L with 139-143 mmol/L as reference. Second, by combining sodium and potassium groups, we compared mortality of the resulting 15 combinations using sodium 139-143 mmol/L and potassium 4.1-4.6 mmol/L as reference. RESULTS:We included 16,343 HF patients (median age: 77.0 years; males: 53.7%). When adjusting for potassium groups, sodium <139 mmol/L and >143 mmol/L were associated with excess mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.74-2.09; HR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.25-1.68; respectively). When stratifying across potassium groups (interaction term: P = 0.291), we observed excess mortality with hyperkalemia for sodium <139 mmol/L (HR: 3.30, 95% CI: 2.76-3.96) and >143 mmol/L (HR: 3.46, 95% CI: 2.31-5.18), whereas mortality risk was lower for sodium 139-143 mmol/L (HR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.30-2.14). Correspondingly, hypokalemia was associated with excess mortality (<139 mmol/L: HR: 3.53, 95% CI: 2.76-4.52; 139-143 mmol/L: HR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.88-3.24; >143 mmol/L: HR: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.73-4.12). Lowest mortality risk appeared with sodium 139-143 mmol/L combined with remaining potassium groups. CONCLUSION:Abnormal sodium is an important risk factor for mortality in HF patients receiving diuretics, and the importance is independent of potassium levels.
Urinary sodium and potassium excretion and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study in Finland.
Hu G,Jousilahti P,Peltonen M,Lindström J,Tuomilehto J
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:No previous studies on the association between salt intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes have been reported. The aim of this study was to assess whether high salt intake, measured by 24-h urinary sodium excretion, is an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes. METHODS:We followed prospectively 932 Finnish men and 1,003 women aged 35-64 years with complete data on 24-h urinary sodium and potassium excretion and other study parameters. Hazard ratios for the incidence of type 2 diabetes were estimated for different levels of 24-h urinary sodium and potassium excretion. RESULTS:During a mean follow-up of 18.1 years, there were 129 incident cases of type 2 diabetes. The multivariate-adjusted (age, sex, study year, body mass index, physical activity, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive drug treatment, education, smoking and coffee, alcohol, fruit, vegetable, sausage, bread and saturated fat consumption) hazard ratio for diabetes for the highest vs combined lower quartiles of 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 2.05 (95% CI, 1.43-2.96). This positive association persisted in non-obese and obese subjects, in normotensive and hypertensive subjects, as well as in men and women. Potassium excretion was not associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:High sodium intake predicted the risk of type 2 diabetes, independently of other risk factors including physical inactivity, obesity and hypertension. These results provide direct evidence of the harmful effects of high salt intake in the adult population, although the confounding effect of other dietary factors cannot be fully excluded.
Relationship and interaction between sodium and potassium.
Morris R Curtis,Schmidlin Olga,Frassetto Lynda A,Sebastian Anthony
Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Compared with the Stone Age diet, the modern human diet is both excessive in NaCl and deficient in fruits and vegetables which are rich in K+ and HCO3- -yielding organates like citrate. With the modern diet, the K+/Na+ ratio and the HCO3-/Cl- ratio have both become reversed. Yet, the biologic machinery that evolved to process these dietary electrolytes remains largely unchanged, genetically fixed in Paleolithic time. Thus, the electrolytic mix of the modern diet is profoundly mismatched to its processing machinery. Dietary potassium modulates both the pressor and hypercalciuric effects of the modern dietary excess of NaCl. A marginally deficient dietary intake of potassium amplifies both of these effects, and both effects are dose-dependently attenuated and may be abolished either with dietary potassium or supplemental KHCO3. The pathogenic effects of a dietary deficiency of potassium amplify, and are amplified by, those of a dietary excess of NaCl and in some instances a dietary deficiency of bicarbonate precursors. Thus, in those ingesting the modern diet, it may not be possible to discern which of these dietary electrolytic dislocations is most determining of salt-sensitive blood pressure and hypercalciuria, and the hypertension, kidney stones, and osteoporosis they may engender. Obviously abnormal plasma electrolyte concentrations rarely characterize these dietary electrolytic dislocations, and when either dietary potassium or supplemental KHCO3 corrects the pressor and hypercalciuric effects of these dislocations, the plasma concentrations of sodium, potassium, bicarbonate and chloride change little and remain well within the normal range.
Sodium and potassium intake and risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality: the Rotterdam Study.
Geleijnse Johanna M,Witteman Jacqueline C M,Stijnen Theo,Kloos Margot W,Hofman Albert,Grobbee Diederick E
European journal of epidemiology
BACKGROUND:Dietary electrolytes influence blood pressure, but their effect on clinical outcomes remains to be established. We examined sodium and potassium intake in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in an unselected older population. METHODS:A case-cohort analysis was performed in the Rotterdam Study among subjects aged 55 years and over, who were followed for 5 years. Baseline urinary samples were analyzed for sodium and potassium in 795 subjects who died, 206 with an incident myocardial infarction and 181 subjects with an incident stroke, and in 1,448 randomly selected subjects. For potassium, dietary data were additionally obtained by food-frequency questionnaire for 78% of the cohort. RESULTS:There was no consistent association of urinary sodium, potassium, or sodium/potassium ratio with CVD and all-cause mortality over the range of intakes observed in this population. Dietary potassium estimated by food frequency questionnaire, however, was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality in subjects initially free of CVD and hypertension (RR = 0.71 per standard deviation increase; 95% confidence interval: 0.51-1.00). We observed a significant positive association between urinary sodium/potassium ratio and all-cause mortality, but only in overweight subjects who were initially free of CVD and hypertension (RR = 1.19 (1.02-1.39) per unit). CONCLUSION:The effect of sodium and potassium intake on CVD morbidity and mortality in Western societies remains to be established.
Association of urinary sodium/potassium ratio with blood pressure: sex and racial differences.
Hedayati S Susan,Minhajuddin Abu T,Ijaz Adeel,Moe Orson W,Elsayed Essam F,Reilly Robert F,Huang Chou-Long
Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Previous studies reporting an association between high BP and high sodium and low potassium intake or urinary sodium/potassium ratio (U[Na(+)]/[K(+)]) primarily included white men and did not control for cardiovascular risk factors. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:This cross-sectional study investigated the association of U[Na(+)]/[K(+)] with BP in 3303 participants using robust linear regression. RESULTS:Mean age was 43±10 years, 56% of participants were women, and 52% were African American. BP was higher in African Americans than in non-African Americans, 131/81±20/11 versus 120/76±16/9 mmHg (P<0.001). Mean U[Na(+)]/[K(+)] was 4.4±3.0 in African Americans and 4.1±2.5 in non-African Americans (P=0.002), with medians (interquartile ranges) of 3.7 (3.2) and 3.6 (2.8). Systolic BP increased by 1.6 mmHg (95% confidence interval, 1.0, 2.2) and diastolic BP by 1.0 mmHg (95% confidence interval, 0.6, 1.4) for each 3-unit increase in U[Na(+)]/[K(+)] (P<0.001 for both). This association remained significant after adjusting for diabetes mellitus, smoking, body mass index, total cholesterol, GFR, and urine albumin/creatinine ratio. There was no interaction between African-American race and U[Na(+)]/[K(+)], but for any given value of U[Na(+)]/[K(+)], both systolic BP and diastolic BP were higher in African Americans than in non-African Americans. The diastolic BP increase was higher in men than in women per 3-unit increase in U[Na(+)]/[K(+)] (1.6 versus 0.9 mmHg, interaction P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS:Dietary Na(+) excess and K(+) deficiency may play an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension independent of cardiovascular risk factors. This association may be more pronounced in men than in women.
Urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio associates with hypertension and current disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study.
Minamino Hiroto,Katsushima Masao,Hashimoto Motomu,Fujita Yoshihito,Yoshida Tamami,Ikeda Kaori,Isomura Nozomi,Oguri Yasuo,Yamamoto Wataru,Watanabe Ryu,Murakami Kosaku,Murata Koichi,Nishitani Kohei,Tanaka Masao,Ito Hiromu,Ohmura Koichiro,Matsuda Shuichi,Inagaki Nobuya,Morinobu Akio
Arthritis research & therapy
BACKGROUND:Excessive salt intake is thought to exacerbate both development of hypertension and autoimmune diseases in animal models, but the clinical impact of excessive salt in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients is still unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study to clarify the associations between salt load index (urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio (Na/K ratio)), current disease activity, and hypertension in an RA population. METHODS:Three hundred thirty-six participants from our cohort database (KURAMA) were enrolled. We used the spot urine Na/K ratio as a simplified index of salt loading and used the 28-Joint RA Disease Activity Score (DAS28-ESR) as an indicator of current RA disease activity. Using these indicators, we evaluated statistical associations between urinary Na/K ratio, DAS28-ESR, and prevalence of hypertension. RESULTS:Urinary Na/K ratio was positively associated with measured systolic and diastolic blood pressure and also with prevalence of hypertension even after covariate adjustment (OR 1.34, p < 0.001). In addition, increased urinary Na/K ratio was significantly and positively correlated with DAS28-ESR in multiple regression analysis (estimate 0.12, p < 0.001), as was also the case in gender-separated and prednisolone-separated sub-analyses. CONCLUSION:Urinary Na/K ratio was independently associated with current disease activity as well as with prevalence of hypertension in RA patients. Thus, dietary modifications such as salt restriction and potassium supplementation should be investigated as a potential candidate for attenuating both disease activity and hypertension in RA patients.
Associations of urinary sodium and sodium to potassium ratio with hypertension prevalence and the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with prehypertension.
Zhao Xin,Zhang Yan,Zhang Xiaolin,Kang Yi,Tian Xiaoxiang,Wang Xiaozeng,Peng Junyin,Zhu Zhiming,Han Yaling
Journal of clinical hypertension (Greenwich, Conn.)
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of urinary sodium and sodium to potassium ratio on inflammatory cytokines, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease in patients with prehypertension. The authors observed 627 patients with prehypertension in the General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region. Rank correlation analysis revealed that interleukin 6 expression exhibited significant positive correlations with urinary sodium (R = .13) and sodium to potassium ratio (R = .13). The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio of 24-hour urinary sodium was 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 1.00 - 1.01) for hypertension and 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 1.00 - 1.02) for cardiovascular disease, whereas the hazard ratio for 24-hour urinary sodium to potassium ratio was 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.08 - 1.19) for hypertension and 1.10 (95% confidence interval, 1.04 - 1.17) for cardiovascular disease. The study suggests that a high-salt diet may lead to increased interleukin 6 levels and may contribute to hypertension. In addition, a high sodium to potassium ratio and high sodium levels are associated with increased risks of cardiovascular disease and hypertension in patients with prehypertension.
Sodium-to-potassium ratio and blood pressure, hypertension, and related factors.
Perez Vanessa,Chang Ellen T
Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.)
The potential cost-effectiveness and feasibility of dietary interventions aimed at reducing hypertension risk are of considerable interest and significance in public health. In particular, the effectiveness of restricted sodium or increased potassium intake on mitigating hypertension risk has been demonstrated in clinical and observational research. The role that modified sodium or potassium intake plays in influencing the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, and endothelial dysfunction remains of interest in current research. Up to the present date, no known systematic review has examined whether the sodium-to-potassium ratio or either sodium or potassium alone is more strongly associated with blood pressure and related factors, including the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, the augmentation index, and endothelial dysfunction, in humans. This article presents a systematic review and synthesis of the randomized controlled trials and observational research related to this issue. The main findings show that, among the randomized controlled trials reviewed, the sodium-to-potassium ratio appears to be more strongly associated with blood pressure outcomes than either sodium or potassium alone in hypertensive adult populations. Recent data from the observational studies reviewed provide additional support for the sodium-to-potassium ratio as a superior metric to either sodium or potassium alone in the evaluation of blood pressure outcomes and incident hypertension. It remains unclear whether this is true in normotensive populations and in children and for related outcomes including the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, the augmentation index, and endothelial dysfunction. Future study in these populations is warranted.
Hyponatraemia on admission to hospital is associated with increased long-term risk of mortality in survivors of myocardial infarction.
Burkhardt Katrin,Kirchberger Inge,Heier Margit,Zirngibl Angelika,Kling Elisabeth,von Scheidt Wolfgang,Kuch Bernhard,Meisinger Christa
European journal of preventive cardiology
BACKGROUND:Hyponatremia is associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with heart failure and in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim was to assess the impact of hyponatremia on admission on long-term mortality of patients with first ever STEMI or non-STEMI (NSTEMI). DESIGN:This was a longitudinal observation study METHODS:The study population consisted of 3558 patients, aged 25-74 years, with an incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the years 2000-2008 who survived for at least 28 days. All consecutive patients were registered through the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) Myocardial Infarction Registry. Serum sodium levels were obtained on admission. The association with long-term-mortality was examined using Cox regression models. RESULTS:Hyponatraemia, defined as a sodium level less than 136 mmol/l, was present in 658 (18.5%) patients on admission. During a median follow-up period of six years (interquartile range (IQR) 4.0-8.2 years), 526 patients (14.8%) died. Hyponatraemia was significantly associated with long-term mortality by an 83% higher risk in the age- and sex-adjusted analysis. After further adjustment for reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), glomerular filtration rate, haemoglobin, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, any recanalization therapy, diabetes, medication with diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor/angiotensin-receptor blocker before admission and other parameters hyponatraemia remained a strong predictor for higher long-term mortality (hazard ratio 1.61; 95% confidence interval 1.32-1.97). CONCLUSIONS:Patients with incident AMI and hyponatraemia on admission showed a significantly higher risk of long-term mortality than patients without. This strong predictive value was independent of a number of prognostic factors, including diabetes, glomerular filtration rate or reduced LVEF.