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    Metformin promotes cell proliferation and osteogenesis under high glucose condition by regulating the ROS‑AKT‑mTOR axis. Zhou Renyi,Ma Yue,Qiu Shui,Gong Zunlei,Zhou Xiaoshu Molecular medicine reports Metformin, a cost‑effective and safe orally administered antidiabetic drug used by millions of patients, has exhibited great interest for its potential osteogenic‑promoting properties in different types of cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Diabetic osteopathy is a common comorbidity of diabetes mellitus; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms of metformin on the physiological processes of MSCs, under high glucose condition, remain unknown. To determine the effects of metformin on the regulatory roles of proliferation and differentiation in MSCs, under high glucose conditions, osteogenesis after metformin treatment was detected with Alizarin Red S and ALP staining. The results demonstrated that high glucose levels significantly inhibited cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation under high glucose conditions. Notably, addition of metformin reversed the inhibitory effects induced by high glucose levels on cell proliferation and osteogenesis. Furthermore, high glucose levels significantly decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), whereas treatment with metformin helped maintain MMP. Further analysis of mitochondrial function revealed that metformin significantly promoted ATP synthesis, mitochondrial DNA mass and mitochondrial transcriptional activity, which were inhibited by high glucose culture. Furthermore, metformin significantly scavenged reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by high glucose levels, and regulated the ROS‑AKT‑mTOR axis inhibited by high glucose levels, suggesting the protective effects of metformin against high glucose levels via regulation of the ROS‑AKT‑mTOR axis. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrated the protective role of metformin on the physiological processes of MSCs, under high glucose condition and highlighted the potential molecular mechanism underlying the effect of metformin in promoting cell proliferation and osteogenesis under high glucose condition. 10.3892/mmr.2020.11391
    High Glucose Level Impairs Human Mature Bone Marrow Adipocyte Function Through Increased ROS Production. Rharass Tareck,Lucas Stéphanie Frontiers in endocrinology Bone marrow adipocytes (BMAds) accumulate in aging, menopause, and metabolic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes. These osteoporotic conditions are associated with oxidative stress and hyperglycemia which are both considered as critical factors underlying bone fragility. Glucose excess and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to favor adipogenesis over osteoblastogenesis. In this study, we investigated whether high glucose exposure could determine dysfunction of mature BMAds, specifically through ROS production. The effects of low (LG, 5 mM) or high glucose (HG, 25 mM) concentrations were examined using human bone mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs) in the time course of differentiation, and, up to 21 days once adipocytes were mature. HG did not alter the adipocyte differentiation process of hBMSCs. Yet, after 21 days under HG exposure, , and adiponectin mRNA expressions were decreased. These alterations were also observed following adipogenic inducer withdrawal as well as in adipocytes fully differentiated in LG then cultured in HG for the last 11 days. Without inducers, HG condition also led to decreased leptin mRNA level. Importantly, intracellular and extracellular ROS concentrations measured using Amplex Red were significantly raised by 50% under HG exposure. This rise was observed once adipocytes ended differentiation and was reproduced within the different cell culture settings without any cytotoxicity. Among genes involved in ROS metabolism, the mRNA level of the HO generating enzyme NOX4 was found upregulated in the presence of HG. Following cell separation, mature BMAds were shown to overproduce ROS and to display the gene alterations in contrast to non-lipid-laden cells. Finally, a non-lethal treatment with a pro-oxidant agent under LG condition reduces the mRNA levels of , adiponectin, and leptin as the HG condition does in the absence of inducers, and amplifies the effect of glucose excess on gene expression. HG concentration drives mature BMAds toward altered expression of the main adipokines and transcriptional factors. These perturbations are associated with a rise in ROS generation likely mediated through enhanced expression of . Mature BMAds are thus responsive to changes in glucose and ROS concentrations, which is relevant regarding with their phenotype and function in age- or metabolic disease-related osteoporosis. 10.3389/fendo.2019.00607
    Aging phenotype(s) in kidneys of diabetic mice are p66ShcA dependent. Vashistha H,Marrero L,Reiss K,Cohen A J,Malhotra A,Javed T,Bradley A,Abbruscato F,Giusti S,Jimenez A,Mehra S,Kaushal D,Giorgio M,Pelicci P G,Kakoki M,Singhal P C,Bunnell B,Meggs L G American journal of physiology. Renal physiology The p66ShcA protein controls cellular responses to oxidative stress, senescence, and apoptosis. Here, we test the hypothesis that aging phenotype(s) commonly associated with the broad category of chronic kidney disease are accelerated in diabetic kidneys and linked to the p66ShcA locus. At the organ level, tissue stem cells antagonize senescent phenotypes by replacing old dysfunctional cells. Using established methods, we isolated a highly purified population of stem cell antigen-1-positive mesenchymal stem cells (Sca-1 MSCs) from kidneys of wild-type (WT) and p66 knockout (p66 KO) mice. Cells were plated in culture medium containing normal glucose (NG) or high glucose (HG). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism was substantially increased in WT MSCs in HG medium in association with increased cell death by apoptosis and acquisition of the senescent phenotype. DNA microarray analysis detected striking differences in the expression profiles of WT and p66 KO-MSCs in HG medium. Unexpectedly, the analysis for p66 KO-MSCs revealed upregulation of Wnt genes implicated in self-renewal and differentiation. To test the in vivo consequences of constitutive p66 expression in diabetic kidneys, we crossed the Akita diabetic mouse with the p66KO mouse. Homozygous mutation at the p66 locus delays or prevents aging phenotype(s) in the kidney that may be precursors to diabetic nephropathy. 10.1152/ajprenal.00608.2017
    Sucralose promotes accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and adipogenesis in mesenchymal stromal cells. Kundu Nabanita,Domingues Cleyton C,Patel Jay,Aljishi Mohammed,Ahmadi Neeki,Fakhri Mona,Sylvetsky Allison C,Sen Sabyasachi Stem cell research & therapy Consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) has been consistently associated with obesity and cardiometabolic disease in epidemiologic studies. Herein, we investigated effects of sucralose, a widely used NNS, at a cellular level. We wanted to investigate effect of sucralose on reactive oxygen species accumulation and adipogenesis in a human adipocyte tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in a controlled fashion. METHODS:In vitro experiments were conducted on commercially available MSCs obtained from human adipose tissue. hMSCs were exposed with sucralose at 0.2 mM (a concentration which could plausibly be observed in the circulatory system of high NNS consumers) up to 1.0 mM (supra-physiologic concentration) in the presence of both normal and high glucose media to detect a dose response based on the outcome measures. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected using Mitosox Red staining and further analyzed by ImageJ and gene expression analysis. Effect of sucralose on adipogenic differentiation was observed in different concentrations of sucralose followed by gene expression analysis and Oil Red O staining. RESULTS:Increased ROS accumulation was observed within 72 h of exposure. Increased adipogenesis was also noted when exposed to higher dose of sucralose. CONCLUSION:Sucralose promotes ROS accumulation and adipogenesis in human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stromal cells. 10.1186/s13287-020-01753-0
    Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cell-conditioned medium exerts in vitro antiaging effects in human fibroblasts. Li Meirong,Zhao Yali,Hao Haojie,Dong Liang,Liu Jiejie,Han Weidong,Fu Xiaobing Cytotherapy BACKGROUND AIMS:Chronic wounds are a common complication of diabetes. Fibroblast-myofibroblast differentiation is important for wound repair, which is commonly impaired in non-healing wounds, and the underlying mechanisms need to be further elucidated. METHODS:We used high glucose (HG) to simulated the diabetes microenvironment and explored its effects on the biological features of fibroblasts in vitro. RESULTS:The results showed that prolonged HG induced senescence in fibroblasts through activation of p21 and p16 in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent manner, further delayed the viability and migration in fibroblasts and also depressed fibroblast differentiation through the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. However, mesenchymal stromal cell-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) counteracts the effects of HG. Treatment of fibroblasts with MSC-CM decreased HG-induced ROS overproduction, ameliorated HG-induced senescence in fibroblasts and reversed the defects in myofibroblast formation. Our results may provide clues for the pathogenesis of chronic wounds and a theoretical basis to develop MSC-CM as an alternative therapeutic method to treatment of chronic wounds. 10.1016/j.jcyt.2016.12.001
    Control of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Senescence by Tryptophan Metabolites. Wu Kenneth K International journal of molecular sciences Cellular senescence contributes to aging and age-related disorders. High glucose (HG) induces mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (MSC) senescence, which hampers cell expansion and impairs MSC function. Intracellular HG triggers metabolic shift from aerobic glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction. It causes mitochondrial dysfunction and morphological changes. Tryptophan metabolites such as 5-methoxytryptophan (5-MTP) and melatonin attenuate HG-induced MSC senescence by protecting mitochondrial integrity and function and reducing ROS generation. They upregulate the expression of antioxidant enzymes. Both metabolites inhibit stress-induced MSC senescence by blocking p38 MAPK signaling pathway, NF-κB, and p300 histone acetyltransferase activity. Furthermore, melatonin upregulates SIRT-1, which reduces NF-κB activity by de-acetylation of NF-κB subunits. Melatonin and 5-MTP are a new class of metabolites protecting MSCs against replicative and stress-induced cellular senescence. They provide new strategies to improve the efficiency of MSC-based therapy for diverse human diseases. 10.3390/ijms22020697
    HAMSCs/HBMSCs coculture system ameliorates osteogenesis and angiogenesis against glucolipotoxicity. Zhang Chunli,Du Yifei,Yuan Hua,Jiang Fei,Shen Ming,Wang Yuli,Wang Ruixia Biochimie Osteoporosis and vascular lesions induced by glucolipotoxicity are common complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). In order to deal with these complications, we designed a new therapeutic strategy, i.e. coculture system containing human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HAMSCs) and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs). Two in vitro coculture models, transwell and mixed cocultures, were proposed for 7 days with variable HAMSCs: HBMSCs ratios. Then, supernatant from each coculture was used to reverse the deficiency of HBMSCs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) impaired by high glucose and palmitic acid (GP). We found that glucolipotoxicity caused by GP remarkably inhibited cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, as well as induced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in HBMSCs. Meanwhile, glucolipotoxicity suppressed cell proliferation, tube formation capacity and angiogenic potential of HUVECs. Though, HAMSCs/HBMSCs coculture system reduced HBMSCs dysfunction by antioxidant properties and promoted angiogenesis in HUVECs. The mixed HAMSCs/HBMSCs coculture at the optimal ratio of 3/1 showed significantly greater cell proliferation, antioxidant properties, osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation than HBMSCs or HUVECs alone. In conclusion, the current coculture system of HAMSCs/HBMSCs can be a potential therapeutic material for advancing bone and vascular regeneration against DM-induced glucolipotoxicity. 10.1016/j.biochi.2018.06.028
    High glucose-induced reactive oxygen species generation promotes stemness in human adipose-derived stem cells. Cheng Nai-Chen,Hsieh Tsung-Yu,Lai Hong-Shiee,Young Tai-Horng Cytotherapy BACKGROUND AIMS:Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) represent an important source of cell therapy to treat diabetic complications. However, hyperglycemia may alter several cellular functions, so the present study aimed to investigate the influence of a diabetic environment on the stemness and differentiation capabilities of ASCs. METHODS:Human ASCs were obtained from subcutaneous adipose tissues of diabetic (dASCs) and nondiabetic donors (nASCs) and characterized. To reproduce an in vitro hyperglycemia environment, the nASCs were also cultured under prolonged high-glucose (HG; 4.5 g/L) or low-glucose (LG; 1.0 g/L) conditions. RESULTS:The expression of cell surface markers in dASCs and nASC was similar and characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells. Although dASCs or HG-treated nASCs exhibited decreased proliferation, enhanced expression of the pluripotent markers Sox-2, Oct-4, and Nanog was observed. Moreover, HG-treated nASCs exhibited decreased cell migration, enhanced senescence, and significantly higher intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas their adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacities remained comparable to LG-treated cells. With antioxidant treatment, HG-treated nASCs showed improved cell proliferative activity without stemness enhancement. This HG-induced biological response was associated with ROS-mediated AKT attenuation. When cultured in an appropriate induction medium, the HG-treated nASCs and dASCs exhibited enhanced potential of transdifferentiation into neuron-like cells. DISCUSSION:Despite lower proliferative activity and higher senescence in a diabetic environment, ASCs also exhibit enhanced stemness and neurogenic transdifferentiation potential via a ROS-mediated mechanism. The information is important for future application of autologous ASCs in diabetic patients. 10.1016/j.jcyt.2015.11.012
    Mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate hyperglycemia-induced endothelial injury through modulation of mitophagy. Zhu Wuzheng,Yuan Yujia,Liao Guangneng,Li Lan,Liu Jingping,Chen Younan,Zhang Jie,Cheng Jingqiu,Lu Yanrong Cell death & disease Mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) are fundamental contributors to endothelial injury in diabetic states. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have exhibited an extraordinary cytoprotective effect that extends to the modulation of mitochondrial homeostasis. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been clearly defined. Emerging evidence has suggested that mitophagy could counteract mitochondrial-derived oxidative stress through the selective elimination of impaired or dysfunctional mitochondria. Therefore, we investigated whether MSCs could ameliorate high-glucose-induced endothelial injury through the modulation of mitophagy. We observed that exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to high glucose triggers mitochondrial impairment with excessive mitochondrial fragmentation and ROS generation, loss of membrane potential and reduced ATP production. Furthermore, mitophagy was blunted upon high glucose insult, which accelerated dysfunctional mitochondrial accumulation, initiating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and, eventually, endothelial dysfunction. MSCs treatment notably attenuated these perturbations accompanied by an enhancement of Pink1 and Parkin expression, whereas these beneficial effects of MSCs were abolished when either Pink1 or Parkin was knocked down. In aortas of diabetic rats, defective mitophagy was observed, which coincided with marked mitochondrial dysfunction. Ultrastructurally, RAECs from diabetic rats revealed a significant reduction in autophagic vacuoles and a marked increase in fragmented mitochondria. Importantly, the infusion of MSCs restored Pink1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy, ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction and attenuated apoptosis in endothelial cells in diabetic rats. These results suggest that MSCs may protect endothelial cells from hyperglycemia-induced injury by ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction via Pink1/Parkin -mediated mitophagy. 10.1038/s41419-018-0861-x
    Genetic modification of human mesenchymal stem cells helps to reduce adiposity and improve glucose tolerance in an obese diabetic mouse model. Sen Sabyasachi,Domingues Cleyton C,Rouphael Carol,Chou Cyril,Kim Chul,Yadava Nagendra Stem cell research & therapy INTRODUCTION:Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate into fat, muscle, bone and cartilage cells. Exposure of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue derived AD-MSCs to high glucose (HG) leads to superoxide accumulation and up-regulation of inflammatory molecules. Our aim was to inquire how HG exposure affects MSCs differentiation and whether the mechanism is reversible. METHODS:We exposed human adipose tissue derived MSCs to HG (25 mM) and compared it to normal glucose (NG, 5.5 mM) exposed cells at 7, 10 and 14 days. We examined mitochondrial superoxide accumulation (Mitosox-Red), cellular oxygen consumption rate (OCR, Seahorse) and gene expression. RESULTS:HG increased reactive superoxide (ROS) accumulation noted by day 7 both in cytosol and mitochondria. The OCR between the NG and HG exposed groups however did not change until 10 days at which point OCR of HG exposed cells were reduced significantly. We noted that HG exposure upregulated mRNA expression of adipogenic (PPARG, FABP-4, CREBP alpha and beta), inflammatory (IL-6 and TNF alpha) and antioxidant (SOD2 and Catalase) genes. Next, we used AdSOD2 to upregulate SOD2 prior to HG exposure and thereby noted reduction in superoxide generation. SOD2 upregulation helped reduce mRNA over-expression of PPARG, FABP-4, IL-6 and TNFα. In a series of separate experiments, we delivered the eGFP and SOD2 upregulated MSCs (5 days post ex-vivo transduction) and saline intra-peritoneally (IP) to obese diabetic (db/db) mice. We confirmed homing-in of eGFP labeled MSCs, delivered IP, to different inflamed fat pockets, particularly omental fat. Mice receiving SOD2-MSCs showed progressive reduction in body weight and improved glucose tolerance (GTT) at 4 weeks, post MSCs transplantation compared to the GFP-MSC group (control). CONCLUSIONS:High glucose evokes superoxide generation, OCR reduction and adipogenic differentiation. Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase upregulation quenches excess superoxide and reduces adipocyte inflammation. Delivery of superoxide dismutase (SOD2) using MSCs as a gene delivery vehicle reduces inflammation and improves glucose tolerance in vivo. Suppression of superoxide production and adipocyte inflammation using mitochondrial superoxide dismutase may be a novel and safe therapeutic tool to combat hyperglycemia mediated effects. 10.1186/s13287-015-0224-9
    17β-Estradiol protects mesenchymal stem cells against high glucose-induced mitochondrial oxidants production via Nrf2/Sirt3/MnSOD signaling. Oh Ji Young,Choi Gee Euhn,Lee Hyun Jik,Jung Young Hyun,Chae Chang Woo,Kim Jun Sung,Lee Chang-Kyu,Han Ho Jae Free radical biology & medicine 17β-estradiol (E2) is an important regulator of energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism, thus making it a potential target for preventing or treating metabolic disorders. However, the exact mechanism by which E2 affects high glucose-induced oxidative stress remains unclear. Therefore, the present study investigated the role of E2 in high glucose-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) production through estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated signaling in human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) in vitro. In addition, the effect of hUCB-MSC transplantation on mouse skin wound healing induced by E2 in ovariectomized (OVX) diabetic mice in vivo was also studied. High glucose (D-glucose, 25 mM) increased mtROS production, resulting in increase of Beclin1 expression and the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, leading to decreased cell viability. Conversely, E2 (10 nM) treatment significantly decreased high glucose-induced mtROS levels and subsequently restored cell viability, suggesting that E2 serves as a strong antioxidant. High glucose downregulated Nrf2 levels in nucleus, subsequently culminating in Sirt3 downregulation and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) acetylation. However, we found that E2 induces nuclear Nrf2 expression via interaction with ERα. The increased nuclear translocation of Nrf2 triggered Sirt3 upregulation and MnSOD activation, both of which play important roles in decreasing mtROS levels. Thus, the therapeutic effect of hUCB-MSC transplantation on skin wound healing in OVX diabetic mice was enhanced by E2 treatment compared with the findings in OVX diabetic mice treated only with hUCB-MSCs. In addition, blood vessels with well-developed branches were observed in OVX diabetic mice that underwent hUCB-MSC transplantation and E2 treatment compared with the effects of ERα siRNA-transfected hUCB-MSC transplantation alone. In conclusion, our results imply that E2 protects cells against high glucose-induced mtROS production and autophagic cell death through increasing nuclear translocation of Nrf2, which was followed by Sirt3 upregulation and MnSOD activation in hUCB-MSCs. 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2018.11.003
    Adipose mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles containing microRNA-26a-5p target TLR4 and protect against diabetic nephropathy. Duan Yurui,Luo Qingyang,Wang Yun,Ma Yali,Chen Fang,Zhu Xiaoguang,Shi Jun The Journal of biological chemistry Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a complication of diabetes that is increasing in prevalence in China. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) carrying microRNAs (miRs) may represent a useful tool in the development of therapies for DN. Here, we report that EVs released by adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) during DN contain a microRNA, miR-26a-5p, that suppresses DN. Using bioinformatic analyses, we identified differentially expressed miRs in EVs from ADSCs and in DN and predicted downstream regulatory target genes. We isolated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from adipose tissues and collected EVs from the ADSCs. We exposed mouse glomerular podocytes and MP5 cells to high glucose (HG), ADSC-derived EVs, miR-26a-5p inhibitor/antagomir, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plasmids, or the NF-κB pathway activator (phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, or PMA). We used the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and flow cytometry to investigate the impact of miR-26a-5p on cell viability and apoptosis and validated the results of these assays with experiments in nude mice. We found that in DN, miR-26a-5p is expressed at very low levels, whereas TLR4 is highly expressed. Of note, EVs from ADSCs ameliorated the pathological symptoms of DN in diabetic mice and transferred miR-26a-5p to HG-induced MP5 cells, improving viability while suppressing the apoptosis of MP5 cells. We also found that miR-26a-5p protects HG-induced MP5 cells from injury by targeting TLR4, inactivating the NF-κB pathway, and downregulating vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). Moreover, ADSC-derived EVs transferred miR-26a-5p to mouse glomerular podocytes, which ameliorated DN pathology. These findings suggest that miR-26a-5p from ADSC-derived EVs protects against DN. 10.1074/jbc.RA120.012522
    Full title: High glucose protects mesenchymal stem cells from metformin-induced apoptosis through the AMPK-mediated mTOR pathway. He Xiao,Yang Yi,Yao Meng-Wei,Ren Ting-Ting,Guo Wei,Li Ling,Xu Xiang Scientific reports Micro- and macro-vascular events are directly associated with hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (TDM), but whether intensive glucose control decreases the risk of diabetic cardiovascular complications remains uncertain. Many studies have confirmed that impaired quality and quantity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) plays a pathogenic role in diabetes. Our previous study found that the abundance of circulating MSCs was significantly decreased in patients with TDM, which was correlated with the progression of diabetic complications. In addition, metformin-induced MSC apoptosis is one of the reasons for the decreased quantity of endogenous or exogenous MSCs during intensive glucose control. However, the role of glucose in metformin-induced MSC apoptosis during intensive glucose control in TDM remains unknown. In this study, we found that metformin induces MSC apoptosis during intensive glucose control, while high glucose (standard glucose control) could significantly reverse its adverse effect in an AMPK-mTOR pathway dependent manner. Thus, our results indicate that the poorer clinical benefit of the intensive glucose control strategy may be related to an adverse effect due to metformin-induced MSC apoptosis during intensive glucose control therapy in patients with TDM. 10.1038/s41598-019-54291-y
    High Glucose Affects the Cytotoxic Potential of Rapamycin, Metformin and Hydrogen Peroxide in Cultured Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Roohi Azam,Nikougoftar Mahin,Montazeri Hamed,Navabi Shadisadat,Shokri Fazel,Ostad Seyed Nasser,Ghahremani Mohammad Hossein Current molecular medicine BACKGROUND:Oxidative stress and chronic hyperglycemia are two major side effects of type 2 diabetes affecting all cell types including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). As a cell therapy choice, understanding the behavior of MSCs will provide crucial information for efficient treatment. METHODS:Placental mesenchymal stem cells were treated with various concentrations of glucose, metformin, rapamycin, and hydrogen peroxide to monitor their viability and cell cycle distribution. Cellular viability was examined via the MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution was studied by propidium iodide staining and apoptosis was determined using Annexin Vpropidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. Involvement of potential signaling pathways was evaluated by Western blotting for activation of Akt, P70S6K, and AMPK. RESULTS:The results indicated that high glucose augmented cell viability and reduced metformin toxic potential. However, the hydrogen peroxide and rapamycin toxicities were exacerbated. CONCLUSION:Our findings suggest that high glucose concentration has a major effect on placental mesenchymal stem cell viability in the presence of rapamycin, metformin and hydrogen peroxide in culture. 10.2174/1566524019666190722115842
    The effect of high glucose on the biological characteristics of nucleus pulposus-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Liu Yang,Li Yan,Nan Li-Ping,Wang Feng,Zhou Shi-Feng,Wang Jing-Cheng,Feng Xin-Min,Zhang Liang Cell biochemistry and function Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a dependent risk factor in the progression of intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD). High glucose supply has negative effects on nucleus pulpous (NP) cell and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) biology. However, the effect of hyperglycaemia on the biological characterization of nucleus pulpous-derived mesenchymal stem cell (NPMSC) has not been investigated previously. Therefore, further exploration of the effects of DM-associated hyperglycaemia on NPMSC biology is important to better understand and develop endogenous repair strategies of DM patient-associated IVDD. Therefore, the cell biological characteristics were compared between NPMSC cultured in media with low glucose concentration (LG-NPMSC) and high glucose concentration (HG-NPMSC). The results demonstrated that HG-NPMSC showed significantly decreased cell proliferation, colony formation ability, migration and wound-healing capability compared with those of LG-NPMSC. HG-NPMSC also showed significantly decreased expressions of stemness genes and mRNA and protein expressions of silent information regulator protein 1 (SIRT1), SIRT6, hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1), whereas increased cell apoptosis, cell senescence and caspase-3 expression. These results suggest that high glucose may decrease proliferation and stemness maintenance ability and increase apoptosis and senescence of NPMSC. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: We found that high glucose concentration significantly decreased cell proliferation, colony formation ability, migration and wound-healing capability of nucleus pulposus-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Moreover, high glucose cultured nucleus pulposus-derived mesenchymal stem cells showed significantly decreased expression of stemness genes, related mRNA and protein, whereas increased cell apoptosis, cell senescence and expression of caspase-3. The present study indicated that better control of high concentration glucose in the early stage of diabetes mellitus should be recommended to prevent or limit intervertebral disc degeneration. 10.1002/cbf.3441
    Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell conditioned medium restored the expression of collagen II and aggrecan in nucleus pulposus mesenchymal stem cells exposed to high glucose. Qi Lei,Wang Ran,Shi Qing,Yuan Ming,Jin Min,Li Dong Journal of bone and mineral metabolism Diabetes can cause intervertebral disc degeneration by accelerating apoptosis and senescence of nucleus pulposus mesenchymal stem cells (NPMSCs). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) conditioned medium on high glucose (HG) induced degradation of NPMSCs produced extracellular matrix. NPMSCs were isolated from the inner intervertebral disc tissue using type XI collagenase digestion. According to Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) flow cytometry analysis; HG leads to an increase in the rate of NPMSCs apoptosis. HG injury also resulted in a marked decrease in the percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase and an increase in cells in S and G2/M phases, indicating that HG induces cell cycle arrest of NPMSCs. Treatment with MSC-CM abolished the effect of HG on cell senescence. HG also significantly inhibited collagen II and aggrecan expression in NPMSCs. After MSC-CM treatment, the expression of these two extracellular matrix components was restored. Exposure to HG resulted in phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, while the levels of total p38 MAPK were not affected. When treated with MSC-CM, phosphorylated p38 MAPK levels of NPMSCs were lower than those without CM treatment. Our data also showed that p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 can attenuated phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and resumed the collagen II and aggrecan expression in NPMSCs. In summary, this study demonstrated that MSC-CM has the potential to alleviate HG induced extracellular matrix degradation via the p38 MAPK pathway. 10.1007/s00774-018-0953-9
    Mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from gestationally diabetic human placenta exhibit insulin resistance, decreased clonogenicity and angiogenesis. Mathew Suja Ann,Bhonde Ramesh Placenta Pregnancy is known to be a diabetogenic state. With sedentary lifestyle and wrong dietary choices, gestational diabetes mellitus is on the rise. This raises a concern as placenta is becoming an acceptable choice, as a source of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs). In our current study we questioned whether there exists a difference between MSCs isolated from normal and diabetic (Gd-P-MSCs) placenta, as the health of the cells used in therapy is of prime importance. We isolated and verified the Gd-P-MSCs based on their surface markers and differentiation potential. We looked at viability and proliferation and did not see a difference between the two. We analysed the glucose uptake potential of these cells by assessing the remnant glucose in the media, glucose within the cells by 2-NBDG and by glycogen storage. Despite only a slight downregulation of mRNA expression levels of glucose transporters, Gd-P-MSCs exhibited decreased glucose uptake even upon insulin stimulation and decreased glycogen storage, indicative of an insulin resistant state. We then assessed the colony forming ability of the cells and found a decreased clonogenicity in Gd-P-MSCs. We also examined the angiogenic potential of the cells by tube formation. Gd-P-MSCs showed decreased angiogenic potential when compared to normal cells. Thus we show for the first time, the effect of gestational diabetes on cells isolated from the chorionic villi of term placenta. Gd-P-MSCs are indeed insulin resistant, exhibit decreased clonogenicity and angiogenic potential. The present investigation is of relevance to the choice of sample for MSC isolation for therapeutic purposes. 10.1016/j.placenta.2017.09.002
    Gestational diabetes impacts fetal precursor cell responses with potential consequences for offspring. Algaba-Chueca Francisco,Maymó-Masip Elsa,Ejarque Miriam,Ballesteros Mónica,Llauradó Gemma,López Carlos,Guarque Albert,Serena Carolina,Martínez-Guasch Laia,Gutiérrez Cristina,Bosch Ramón,Vendrell Joan,Megía Ana,Fernández-Veledo Sonia Stem cells translational medicine Fetal programming has been proposed as a key mechanism underlying the association between intrauterine exposure to maternal diabetes and negative health outcomes in offspring. To determine whether gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) might leave an imprint in fetal precursors of the amniotic membrane and whether it might be related to adverse outcomes in offspring, a prospective case-control study was conducted, in which amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) and resident macrophages were isolated from pregnant patients, with either GDM or normal glucose tolerance, scheduled for cesarean section. After characterization, functional characteristics of AMSCs were analyzed and correlated with anthropometrical and clinical variables from both mother and offspring. GDM-derived AMSCs displayed an impaired proliferation and osteogenic potential when compared with control cells, accompanied by superior invasive and chemotactic capacity. The expression of genes involved in the inflammatory response (TNFα, MCP-1, CD40, and CTSS) was upregulated in GDM-derived AMSCs, whereas anti-inflammatory IL-33 was downregulated. Macrophages isolated from the amniotic membrane of GDM mothers consistently showed higher expression of MCP-1 as well. In vitro studies in which AMSCs from healthy control women were exposed to hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and palmitic acid confirmed these results. Finally, genes involved in the inflammatory response were associated with maternal insulin sensitivity and prepregnancy body mass index, as well as with fetal metabolic parameters. These results suggest that the GDM environment could program stem cells and subsequently favor metabolic dysfunction later in life. Fetal adaptive programming in the setting of GDM might have a direct negative impact on insulin resistance of offspring. 10.1002/sctm.19-0242
    Gestational Diabetes Alters Functions in Offspring's Umbilical Cord Cells With Implications for Cardiovascular Health. Amrithraj Ajith Isaac,Kodali Anjaneyulu,Nguyen Linh,Teo Adrian Kee Keong,Chang Cheng Wei,Karnani Neerja,Ng Kai Lyn,Gluckman Peter D,Chong Yap Seng,Stünkel Walter Endocrinology Because noncommunicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus have their roots in prenatal development and conditions such as maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), we aimed to test this hypothesis in primary cells derived from the offspring of mothers with GDM compared with control subjects. We have assessed primary umbilical cord-derived cells such as human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells from the offspring of mothers with and without GDM. We have compared the primary isolates in cell-based assays measuring proliferation, mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and the ability to support blood vessel growth. We conducted gene expression microarray studies with subsequent pathway analysis and candidate gene validation. We observed striking differences between the two groups, such as lower metabolic rates and impairment of endothelial tube formation in cells with GDM background. HUVECs from subjects with maternal GDM have lower expression of the antiapoptotic protein BCL-xL, suggesting compromised angiogenic capabilities. Comparative gene expression analysis revealed blood vessel formation as a major pathway enriched in the GDM-derived HUVECs with the surface marker CD44 as a gene underexpressed in the GDM group. Functional validation of CD44 revealed that it regulates tube formation in HUVECs, thereby providing insights into a pathway imprinted in primary umbilical cord-derived cells from GDM offspring. Our data demonstrate that primary cells isolated from the umbilical cord of offspring born to mothers with GDM maintain metabolic and molecular imprints of maternal hyperglycemia, reflecting an increased risk for cardiovascular disease later in life. 10.1210/en.2016-1889
    Transcriptional profiling reveals altered biological characteristics of chorionic stem cells from women with gestational diabetes. Chen Liyun,Wang Chung-Teng,Forsyth Nicholas R,Wu Pensee Stem cell research & therapy BACKGROUND:Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a common complication of pregnancy. The impact of pregnancy complications on placental function suggests that extraembryonic stem cells in the placenta may also be affected during pregnancy. Neonatal tissue-derived stem cells, with the advantages of their differentiation capacity and non-invasive isolation processes, have been proposed as a promising therapeutic avenue for GDM management through potential cell therapy approaches. However, the influence of GDM on autologous stem cells remains unclear. Thus, studies that provide comprehensive understanding of stem cells isolated from women with GDM are essential to guide future clinical applications. METHODS:Human chorionic membrane-derived stem cells (CMSCs) were isolated from placentas of healthy and GDM pregnancies. Transcriptional profiling was performed by DNA microarray, and differentially regulated genes between GDM- and Healthy-CMSCs were used to analyse molecular functions, differentiation, and pathway enrichment. Altered genes and biological functions were validated via real-time PCR and in vitro assays. RESULTS:GDM-CMSCs displayed, vs. Healthy-CMSCs, 162 upregulated genes associated with increased migration ability, epithelial development, and growth factor-associated signal transduction while the 269 downregulated genes were strongly linked to angiogenesis and cellular metabolic processes. Notably, significantly reduced expression of detoxification enzymes belonging to the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene families (ALDH1A1/1A2, ALDH2, ALDH3) accounted for downregulation across several metabolic pathways. ALDH activity and inhibitor assays indicated that reduced gene expression of ALDHs affected ALDH enzymatic functions and resulted in oxidative stress dysregulation in GDM-CMSCs. CONCLUSION:Our combined transcriptional analysis and in vitro functional characterisation have provided novel insights into fundamental biological differences in GDM- and Healthy-CMSCs. Enhanced mobility of GDM-CMSCs may promote MSC migration toward injured sites; however, impaired cellular metabolic activity may negatively affect any perceived benefit. 10.1186/s13287-020-01828-y
    Maternal diabetes modulates offspring cell proliferation and apoptosis during odontogenesis via the TLR4/NF-κB signalling pathway. Chen Guoqing,Sun Wenhua,Liang Yan,Chen Tian,Guo Weihua,Tian Weidong Cell proliferation OBJECTIVES:Maternal gestational diabetes leads to an adverse in utero environment and increases the risk of malformations during embryo organogenesis. In the present study, we analysed the effects of maternal diabetes on tooth germ cell proliferation and apoptosis in offspring, and investigated their underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A rat model of maternal diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin and the pregnant rats were divided into three groups: controls, the diabetic group and diabetic group with insulin treatment. Offspring of the three groups were collected and cell proliferation and apoptosis in tooth germs were analysed. Primary dental papilla cells and dental epithelial stem cells were isolated and treated with high glucose in vitro, in an attempt to simulate maternal diabetes-induced hyperglycaemia in vivo. RESULTS:Maternal diabetes significantly affected cell proliferation and apoptosis in offspring tooth germs. The TLR4/NF-ĸB signalling pathway was activated in the tooth germs of offspring of diabetic dams. High glucose treatment activated the TLR4/NF-ĸB signalling pathway in primary dental papilla cells and dental epithelial stem cells in vitro, resulting in suppression of cell proliferation and enhancement of apoptosis. TLR4 knockdown significantly reduced adverse effects induced by high glucose treatment. CONCLUSIONS:Maternal gestational diabetes significantly impaired dental epithelial and mesenchymal cell proliferation and apoptosis in offspring, possibly by activation of the TLR4/NF-ĸB signalling pathway. 10.1111/cpr.12324
    Intrauterine Hyperglycemia Is Associated with an Impaired Postnatal Response to Oxidative Damage. Tozour Jessica N,Delahaye Fabien,Suzuki Masako,Praiss Aaron,Zhao Yongmei,Cai Lingguang,Heo Hye J,Greally John M,Hughes Francine Stem cells and development Hyperglycemia and other adverse exposures early in life that reprogram stem cells may lead to long-lasting phenotypic influences over the lifetime of an individual. Hyperglycemia and oxidative stress cause DNA damage when they exceed the protective capabilities of the cell, in turn affecting cellular function. DNA damage in response to hyperglycemia and oxidative stress was studied in human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) from large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (LGA-GDM) and control subjects. We tested the response of these cells to hyperglycemia and oxidative stress, measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and antioxidant enzyme activities. We find that hUC-MSCs from LGA-GDM infants have increased DNA damage when exposed to oxidative stress. With the addition of hyperglycemic conditions, these cells have an increase in ROS and a decrease in antioxidant glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, indicating a mechanism for the increased ROS and DNA damage. This study demonstrates that a memory of in utero hyperglycemia, mediated through downregulation of GPx activity, leads to an increased susceptibility to oxidative stress. The alteration of GPx function in self-renewing stem cells, can mediate the effect of intrauterine hyperglycemia to be propagated into adulthood and contribute to disease susceptibility. 10.1089/scd.2017.0232
    Chorionic and amniotic placental membrane-derived stem cells, from gestational diabetic women, have distinct insulin secreting cell differentiation capacities. Chen Liyun,Forsyth Nicholas R,Wu Pensee Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and their offspring, are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Chorionic (CMSCs) and amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) derived from placental membranes provide a source of autologous stem cells for potential diabetes therapy. We established an approach for the CMSC/AMSC-based generation of functional insulin-producing cells (IPCs). CMSCs/AMSCs displayed significantly elevated levels of NANOG and OCT4 versus bone marrow-derived MSCs, indicating a potentially broad differentiation capacity. Exposure of Healthy- and GDM-CMSCs/AMSCs to long-term high-glucose culture resulted in significant declines in viability accompanied by elevation, markedly so in GDM-CMSCs/AMSCs, of senescence/stress markers. Short-term high-glucose culture promoted pancreatic transcription factor expression when coupled to a 16-day step-wise differentiation protocol; activin A, retinoic acid, epidermal growth factor, glucagon-like peptide-1 and other chemical components, generated functional IPCs from both Healthy- and GDM-CMSCs. Healthy-/GDM-AMSCs displayed betacellulin-sensitive insulin expression, which was not secreted upon glucose challenge. The pathophysiological state accompanying GDM may cause irreversible impairment to endogenous AMSCs; however, GDM-CMSCs possess comparable therapeutic potential with Healthy-CMSCs and can be effectively reprogrammed into insulin-secreting cells. 10.1002/term.2988
    Downregulation of the Netrin-1 Receptor UNC5b Underlies Increased Placental Angiogenesis in Human Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Prieto Catalina P,Casas Bárbara S,Falcón Paulina,Villanueva Andrea,Lois Pablo,Lattus José,Palma Verónica International journal of molecular sciences Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common metabolic disorder, defined by high blood glucose levels during pregnancy, which affects foetal and post-natal development. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of this detrimental condition are still poorly understood. A dysregulation in circulating angiogenic trophic factors, due to a dysfunction of the feto-placental unit, has been proposed to underlie GDM. But even the detailed study of canonical pro-angiogenic factors like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) has not been able to fully explain this detrimental condition during pregnancy. Netrins are non-canonical angiogenic ligands produced by the stroma have shown to be important in placental angiogenesis. In order to address the potential role of Netrin signalling in GDM, we tested the effect of Netrin-1, the most investigated member of the family, produced by Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells (WJ-MSC), on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) angiogenesis. WJ-MSC and HUVEC primary cell cultures from either healthy or GDM pregnancies were exposed to physiological (5 mM) or high (25 mM) d-glucose. Our results reveal that Netrin-1 is secreted by WJ-MSC from healthy and GDM and both expression and secretion of the ligand do not change with distinct experimental glucose conditions. Noteworthy, the expression of its anti-angiogenic receptor UNC5b is reduced in GDM HUVEC compared with its expression in healthy HUVEC, accounting for an increased Netrin-1 signalling in these cells. Consistently, in healthy HUVEC, UNC5b overexpression induces cell retraction of the sprouting phenotype. 10.3390/ijms20061408