Comparison of therapeutic response of lycopene and curcumin in oral submucous fibrosis: A randomized controlled trial. Piyush Prerna,Mahajan Anshul,Singh Khushboo,Ghosh Sujoy,Gupta Sunita Oral diseases OBJECTIVES:To evaluate and compare the therapeutic response of lycopene and curcumin with placebo in patients suffering from oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and to correlate the habit variables of smoked and smokeless tobacco products in OSMF. METHODS:A randomized placebo-controlled parallel clinical study was conducted on ninety OSMF patients, who were divided into three treatment groups using computer-generated randomization. Group A patients (n = 30) were given curcumin tablet (300 mg) twice daily, Group B patients (n = 30) received lycopene capsules (8 mg) twice daily, and for Group C (n = 30), placebo capsules were given once daily for a period of six months. Both the participant and outcome assessor were blinded. Pre- and post-treatment comparison of mouth opening, burning sensation, tongue protrusion, and cheek flexibility was analyzed at periodic follow-up of 9 months. RESULTS:The overall improvement in mouth opening, burning sensation, tongue protrusion, and cheek flexibility was 3.9 ± 4.9 mm, 4.8 ± 2.6, 5.0 ± 7.2 mm, & 0.36 ± 0.71 mm, respectively, for curcumin and 4.1 ± 4.2 mm, 5.0 ± 2.3, 2.4 ± 3.5 mm, & 0.66 ± 0.80 mm, respectively, for lycopene with the p value <0.05. CONCLUSION:Statistically significant improvement in clinical findings was observed in both curcumin and lycopene treatment groups in comparison with placebo. However, the therapeutic efficacy of curcumin and lycopene was found to be almost equal in OSMF patients. 10.1111/odi.12947
    Oral delivery of lycopene-loaded microemulsion for brain-targeting: preparation, characterization, pharmacokinetic evaluation and tissue distribution. Guo Yunliang,Mao Xuyan,Zhang Jing,Sun Peng,Wang Haiyang,Zhang Yue,Ma Yingjuan,Xu Song,Lv Renjun,Liu Xueping Drug delivery Lycopene is considered as a promising neuroprotector with multiple bioactivities, while its therapeutic use in neurological disorders is restricted due to low solubility, instability and limited bioavailability. Our work aimed to develop lycopene-loaded microemulsion (LME) and investigate its potentials in improving bioavailability and brain-targeting efficiency following oral administration. The blank microemulsion (ME) excipients were selected based on orthogonal design and pseudo-ternary phase diagrams, and LME was prepared using the water titration method and characterized in terms of stability, droplet size distribution, zeta potential, shape and lycopene content. The optimized LME encompassed lycopene, ()-(+)-limonene, Tween 80, Transcutol HP and water and lycopene content was 463.03 ± 8.96 µg/mL. This novel formulation displayed transparent appearance and satisfactory physical and chemical stabilities. It was spherical and uniform in morphology with an average droplet size of 12.61 ± 0.46 nm and a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.086 ± 0.028. The pharmacokinetics and tissue distributions of optimized LME were evaluated in rats and mice, respectively. The pharmacokinetic study revealed a dramatic 2.10-fold enhancement of relative bioavailability with LME against the control lycopene dissolved in olive oil (LOO) dosage form in rats. Moreover, LME showed a preferential targeting distribution of lycopene toward brain in mice, with the value of drug targeting index (DTI) up to 3.45. In conclusion, the optimized LME system demonstrated excellent physicochemical properties, enhanced oral bioavailability and superior brain-targeting capability. These findings provide a basis for the applications of ME-based strategy in brain-targeted delivery via oral route, especially for poorly water-soluble drugs. 10.1080/10717544.2019.1689312
    A high consumption of tomato and lycopene is associated with a lower risk of cancer mortality: results from a multi-ethnic cohort. Mazidi Mohsen,Ferns Gordon A,Banach Maciej Public health nutrition OBJECTIVE:We investigated the association between the consumption of tomato and lycopene and cancer mortality among US adults. DESIGN:Prospective. SETTING:The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2010). PARTICIPANTS:Participants with estimated dietary data on tomato and lycopene consumption were included. Outcome data up until 31 December 2011 were also ascertained. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to relate baseline tomato and lycopene consumption with cancer mortality. We conducted a competing-risk survival analysis to account for deaths from other causes. RESULTS:Adjusted Cox models showed that tomato and lycopene intake were inversely related (hazard ratio (95 % CI)) to cancer mortality: 0·86 (0·81, 0·92) and 0·79 (0·74, 0·82), respectively. In the adjusted competing-risk models, the sub-hazard ratios (95 % CI) were 0·89 (0·83, 0·94) and 0·82 (0·78, 0·86) for cancer mortality for tomato and lycopene intake, respectively. No significant interaction was found for the association between tomato and lycopene consumption and cancer mortality while comparing older (aged >50 years) v. younger adults (Pinteraction > 0·173 for all) and obese v. non-obese (Pinteraction > 0·352 for all). CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrate the potential beneficial effects of a high dietary intake of tomato and lycopene on cancer death. Further prospective studies are needed to explore the association. 10.1017/S1368980019003227
    ProDiet: A Phase II Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial of Green Tea Catechins and Lycopene in Men at Increased Risk of Prostate Cancer. Lane J Athene,Er Vanessa,Avery Kerry N L,Horwood Jeremy,Cantwell Marie,Caro Gema P,Crozier Alan,Smith George Davey,Donovan Jenny L,Down Liz,Hamdy Freddie C,Gillatt David,Holly Jeff,Macefield Rhiannon,Moody Hilary,Neal David E,Walsh Eleanor,Martin Richard M,Metcalfe Chris Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.) Epidemiologic studies suggest that diet can alter prostate cancer risk. This study aimed to establish the feasibility and acceptability of dietary modification in men at increased risk of prostate cancer. Men were invited with a PSA level of 2.0-2.95 ng/mL or 3.0-19.95 ng/mL with negative prostate biopsies. Randomization (3 × 3 factorial design) to daily green tea and lycopene: green tea drink (3 cups, unblinded) or capsules [blinded, 600 mg flavan-3-ol ()-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) or placebo] and lycopene-rich foods (unblinded) or capsules (blinded, 15 mg lycopene or placebo) for 6 months. Primary endpoints were randomization rates and intervention adherence (blinded assessment of metabolites) at 6 months with secondary endpoints of acceptability (from interviews), safety, weight, blood pressure, and PSA. A total of 133 of 469 (28.4%) men approached agreed to be randomized and 132 were followed-up (99.2%). Mean lycopene was 1.28 [95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.09-1.50, = 0.003] times higher in the lycopene capsule group and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.21-1.66; < 0.001) times higher in the lycopene-enriched diet group compared with placebo capsules. Median EGCG was 10.7 nmol/L (95% CI, 7.0-32.0) higher in in the active capsule group and 20.0 nmol/L (95% CI, 0.0-19.0) higher in the green tea drink group compared with placebo capsules (both < 0.001). All interventions were acceptable and well tolerated although men preferred the capsules. Dietary prevention is acceptable to men at risk of prostate cancer. This intervention trial demonstrates that a chemoprevention clinical trial is feasible. . 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-18-0147
    Lycopene and bone: an in vitro investigation and a pilot prospective clinical study. Russo Cristina,Ferro Yvelise,Maurotti Samantha,Salvati Maria Antonietta,Mazza Elisa,Pujia Roberta,Terracciano Rosa,Maggisano Giuseppina,Mare Rosario,Giannini Sandro,Romeo Stefano,Pujia Arturo,Montalcini Tiziana Journal of translational medicine BACKGROUND:There are several effective therapies for osteoporosis but these agents might cause serious adverse events. Lycopene intake could prevent bone loss, however studies on its effects on bone are scarce. Our aim was to investigate the effects of lycopene on osteoblast cells as well as bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women. METHODS:We investigated the effect of lycopene on the Wnt/β-catenin and ERK 1/2 pathways, RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, RANKL and COL1A of Saos-2. We also carried out a pilot controlled clinical study to verify the feasibility of an approach for bone loss prevention through the intake of a lycopene-rich tomato sauce in 39 postmenopausal women. RESULTS:Lycopene 10 µM resulted in higher β-catenin and phERK1/2 protein Vs the vehicle (p = 0.04 and p = 0.006). RUNX2 and COL1A mRNA was induced by both 5 and 10 µM doses (p = 0.03; p = 0.03 and p = 0.03; p = 0.05) while RANKL mRNA was reduced (p < 0.05). A significant bone density loss was not detected in women taking the tomato sauce while the control group had bone loss (p = 0.002). Tomato sauce intake resulted in a greater bone alkaline phosphatase reduction than the control (18% vs 8.5%, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS:Lycopene activates the WNT/β-catenin and ERK1/2 pathways, upregulates RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, COL1A and downregulates RANKL Saos-2. These processes contributed to prevent bone loss in postmenopausal women. 10.1186/s12967-020-02238-7
    Effect of 12-Week Daily Intake of the High-Lycopene Tomato (), A Variety Named "PR-7", on Lipid Metabolism: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study. Nishimura Mie,Tominaga Naoki,Ishikawa-Takano Yuko,Maeda-Yamamoto Mari,Nishihira Jun Nutrients Tomato () is a rich source of lycopene, a carotenoid that confers various positive biological effects such as improved lipid metabolism. Here, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative study to investigate the effects of regular and continuous intake of a new high-lycopene tomato, a variety named PR-7, for 12 weeks, based on 74 healthy Japanese subjects with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels ≥120 to <160 mg/dL. The subjects were randomly assigned to either the high-lycopene tomato or placebo (lycopene-free tomato) group. Each subject in the high-lycopene group ingested 50 g of semidried PR-7 (lycopene, 22.0-27.8 mg/day) each day for 12 weeks, while subjects in the placebo group ingested placebo semidried tomato. Medical interviews were conducted, vital signs were monitored, body composition was determined, and blood and saliva samples were taken at weeks 0 (baseline), 4, 8, and 12. The primary outcome assessed was LDL-C. The intake of high-lycopene tomato increased lycopene levels in this group compared to levels in the placebo group ( < 0.001). In addition, high-lycopene tomato intake improved LDL-C ( = 0.027). The intake of high-lycopene tomato, PR-7, reduced LDL-C and was confirmed to be safe. 10.3390/nu11051177
    Lycopene and Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Senkus Katelyn E,Tan Libo,Crowe-White Kristi M Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.) Cardiometabolic risk factors increase the likelihood of cardiovascular disease development by 2-fold. Lycopene, a potent lipophilic antioxidant, may be able to mediate oxidative stress, a mechanism underpinning metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its risk factors. This is, to our knowledge, the first systematic review of the literature with the purpose of investigating the relation between circulating lycopene or dietary intake of lycopene and MetS as well as its risk factors. The review was conducted using PubMed and EBSCOhost databases with the search terms "lycopene" and "metabolic syndrome."  Inclusion criteria included human studies published in English in a scholarly, peer-reviewed journal and evaluation of lycopene in relation to ≥3 of the 5 MetS risk factors as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) report. The process identified 11 studies, including 8 cross-sectional and 3 intervention studies. Cross-sectional studies were grouped into 3 categories, with several studies falling into >1 category, based on results reporting associations of lycopene with the prevalence and outcomes of MetS (5 studies), presence of ATP III risk factors (4 studies), and variables mediating lycopene's influence on MetS risk (3 studies). All studies in each category reported significant protective associations. Of the 3 intervention studies, all reported significant protective effects from a lycopene-rich beverage, despite varying doses and durations of intake. Although a protective relation between lycopene and MetS was generally supported, different MetS components appeared to be influenced by lycopene rather than demonstrating consistent improvement in a single component. Thus, additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanistic effects of lycopene on MetS, as well as to determine evidence-based recommendations concerning dose-durational effects of lycopene and MetS risk reduction. In conclusion, the evidence of lycopene's benefit exists such that lycopene status or lycopene consumption may be associated with favorable alterations to the components of MetS. 10.1093/advances/nmy069
    Systemic and skin-targeting beneficial effects of lycopene-enriched ice cream: A pilot study. Chernyshova Marina P,Pristenskiy Dmitry V,Lozbiakova Marina V,Chalyk Natalia E,Bandaletova Tatiana Y,Petyaev Ivan M Journal of dairy science The health-promoting dietary antioxidant lycopene has limited natural bioavailability, but lycopene-rich functional foods can improve its bioavailability. We assessed a new lycopene-enriched ice cream for systemic antioxidant effects and influence on morphological characteristics of facial skin surface in healthy volunteers. In a randomized crossover study, we used 4-wk dietary interventions with either control or lycopene-enriched ice cream. Samples of serum and residual skin surface components (RSSC) from facial skin were taken before interventions, at 2 wk, and at intervention end. Lycopene concentration, conventional blood biochemistry, and oxidative stress biomarkers comprising inflammatory oxidative damage and low-density lipoprotein peroxidase proteins were assessed in the serum. Lycopene-associated immunofluorescence, lipid droplet size, corneocyte desquamation, and microbial presence were measured in the RSSC. The results show that lycopene concentrations in the serum and skin steadily increased during lycopene-enriched ice cream consumption. Whereas we found no intervention-dependent changes in conventional biochemical parameters, both inflammatory oxidative damage and low-density lipoprotein peroxidase protein values significantly decreased by the end of intervention with lycopene-enriched ice cream, but remained unchanged during control ice cream consumption. Control ice cream significantly increased corneocyte desquamation and bacterial presence in the RSSC. These adverse effects, which could potentially predispose consumers to acne development, were absent when volunteers consumed lycopene-enriched ice cream. We concluded that lycopene-enriched ice cream is a new functional food with clear antioxidant properties. In addition, enrichment with lycopene may alleviate proinflammatory action of ice cream at the level of facial skin, thus decreasing diet-associated acne development risk in young consumers. 10.3168/jds.2018-15282
    The effects of lycopene supplement on the spermatogram and seminal oxidative stress in infertile men: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Nouri Mehran,Amani Reza,Nasr-Esfahani Mohammadhossein,Tarrahi Mohammad Javad Phytotherapy research : PTR Infertility is a major, worldwide problem that is affected, and mediated, by several factors, in particular, oxidative stress. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lycopene supplementation on spermatogram and seminal oxidative stress. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial study, 44 infertile men with oligozoospermia were randomly divided into two groups: The experimental group was supplemented with 25 mg of lycopene, and the control group received placebo for 12 weeks. Anthropometric, physical activity and dietary assessment, semen analysis, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde, and glutathione peroxidase were measured pre- and post-intervention. At the end of the study, there was a significant increase in total sperm count and concentration in the lycopene group, and the latter total count remained significant after adjustment (p < .05). Intragroup analysis showed a significant increase in ejaculate volume, total sperm count, concentration total motility, nonprogressive, and nonmotility in lycopene group (p < .05). The TAC changes, in both groups, remained significant after adjustment (p < .05). Also, within-group analysis showed a significant increase in TAC levels (p < .05). Lycopene supplement can improve sperm parameters and oxidative stress biomarkers in oligozoospermia infertile men; however, further studies with larger sample size and duration are required. 10.1002/ptr.6493
    The Role of Circulating Lycopene in Low-Grade Chronic Inflammation: A Systematic Review of the Literature. van Steenwijk Hidde P,Bast Aalt,de Boer Alie Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) BACKGROUND AND AIMS:In recent years, it has become clear that low-grade chronic inflammation is involved in the onset and progression of many non-communicable diseases. Many studies have investigated the association between inflammation and lycopene, however, results have been inconsistent. This systematic review aims to determine the impact of circulating lycopene on inflammation and to investigate the effect of consuming tomato products and/or lycopene supplements on markers of inflammation. METHODS:Eligible studies, published before March 2020, were identified from PubMed, EBSCOhost and ScienceDirect. Human studies published in English, that evaluated the effect of circulating lycopene in relation to inflammation biomarkers were screened and included. Studies assessing lycopene intake or general intake of carotenoids/antioxidants without measuring circulating lycopene, as well as those not reporting inflammation biomarkers as outcomes, were excluded. RESULTS:Out of 80 publications identified and screened, 35 met the inclusion criteria. Results from 18 cross-sectional studies suggest that lycopene levels are adversely affected during inflammation and homeostatic imbalance. Most of the 17 included intervention studies reported increased circulating lycopene levels after tomato/lycopene supplementation, but almost no changes in inflammation biomarkers were observed. CONCLUSIONS:There is little evidence that increasing tomato intake or lycopene supplementation diminuates this inflammation. However, depletion of lycopene may be one of the first signs of low-grade inflammation. The available data thereby imply that it is beneficial to consume lycopene-rich foods occasionally to stay healthy and keep circulating lycopene at a basal level. 10.3390/molecules25194378
    Investigating the effects of lycopene and green tea on the metabolome of men at risk of prostate cancer: The ProDiet randomised controlled trial. Beynon Rhona A,Richmond Rebecca C,Santos Ferreira Diana L,Ness Andrew R,May Margaret,Smith George Davey,Vincent Emma E,Adams Charleen,Ala-Korpela Mika,Würtz Peter,Soidinsalo Sebastian,Metcalfe Christopher,Donovan Jenny L,Lane Athene J,Martin Richard M, , International journal of cancer Lycopene and green tea consumption have been observationally associated with reduced prostate cancer risk, but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the effect of factorial randomisation to a 6-month lycopene and green tea dietary advice or supplementation intervention on 159 serum metabolite measures in 128 men with raised PSA levels (but prostate cancer-free), analysed by intention-to-treat. The causal effects of metabolites modified by the intervention on prostate cancer risk were then assessed by Mendelian randomisation, using summary statistics from 44,825 prostate cancer cases and 27,904 controls. The systemic effects of lycopene and green tea supplementation on serum metabolic profile were comparable to the effects of the respective dietary advice interventions (R = 0.65 and 0.76 for lycopene and green tea respectively). Metabolites which were altered in response to lycopene supplementation were acetate [β (standard deviation difference vs. placebo): 0.69; 95% CI = 0.24, 1.15; p = 0.003], valine (β: -0.62; -1.03, -0.02; p = 0.004), pyruvate (β: -0.56; -0.95, -0.16; p = 0.006) and docosahexaenoic acid (β: -0.50; -085, -0.14; p = 0.006). Valine and diacylglycerol were lower in the lycopene dietary advice group (β: -0.65; -1.04, -0.26; p = 0.001 and β: -0.59; -1.01, -0.18; p = 0.006). A genetically instrumented SD increase in pyruvate increased the odds of prostate cancer by 1.29 (1.03, 1.62; p = 0.027). An intervention to increase lycopene intake altered the serum metabolome of men at risk of prostate cancer. Lycopene lowered levels of pyruvate, which our Mendelian randomisation analysis suggests may be causally related to reduced prostate cancer risk. 10.1002/ijc.31929
    trans-Lycopene from tomato juice attenuates inflammatory biomarkers in human plasma samples: An intervention trial. Colmán-Martínez Mariel,Martínez-Huélamo Miriam,Valderas-Martínez Palmira,Arranz-Martínez Sara,Almanza-Aguilera Enrique,Corella Dolores,Estruch Ramón,Lamuela-Raventós Rosa M Molecular nutrition & food research SCOPE:The effect of carotenoids from tomato juice (TJ) on inflammatory biomarkers was evaluated by performing a 4-week dose-response nutritional trial in a population at high cardiovascular risk. METHODS AND RESULTS:An open, prospective, randomized, cross-over, and controlled clinical trial was carried out with 28 volunteers (mean age 69.7 ± 3.1 years; mean BMI 31.5 ± 3.6 kg/m ) at high cardiovascular risk, which were assigned to consume daily for 4 weeks in random order: 200 mL (LD) or 400 mL (HD) of TJ, or water as a control (C), with a 21-day wash-out period between each intervention. Blood samples were collected at baseline (B) and after each intervention. Endpoints included significant changes in plasmatic carotenoids, and adhesion molecules ICAM-1, and VCAM-1, as well as a tendency to decrease the chemokine IL-8. Compared to C, concentration of ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were significantly lower (p ˂ 0.001), after each TJ intervention. Decreases were correlated remarkably with the trans-lycopene, while the other carotenoids present in TJ have presented a minor association or no association with changes in these molecules. CONCLUSION:trans-Lycopene from TJ may attenuate the risk of cardiovascular disease by reducing the concentration of important inflammatory molecules related to atherosclerosis. 10.1002/mnfr.201600993
    Lycopene dietary intervention: a pilot study in patients with heart failure. Biddle Martha J,Lennie Terry A,Bricker Gregory V,Kopec Rachel E,Schwartz Steven J,Moser Debra K The Journal of cardiovascular nursing BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Heart failure (HF) is a condition of chronic exacerbations and injury resulting from an intricate relationship between biochemical and biological mechanisms. Inflammation can be a significant contributor in the pathophysiology of HF. Antioxidants may slow the progression of HF because of their ability to inhibit damaging inflammatory processes. The purpose of this study was to test a dietary intervention in patients with HF to assess the impact of lycopene on biomarkers of inflammation. SUBJECTS/METHODS:Forty participants with HF were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: lycopene intervention and usual care. The lycopene intervention group received 29.4 mg of lycopene intake per day by drinking an 11.5 oz serving of V8 100% vegetable juice for 30 days. We obtained serum lycopene, uric acid, C-reactive protein (CRP), and b-type natriuretic peptide to determine the impact of the intervention. RESULTS:Plasma lycopene levels increased in the intervention group compared with the usual care group (0.51 μmol/L to 0.76 μmol/L, P = .002; 0.56 μmol/L to 0.58 μmol/L). C-reactive protein levels decreased significantly in the intervention group in women and but not in men (P = .04). The preintervention CRP level for women was 5.9 ± 3.7 mg/dL and for men was 2.2 ± 2.1 mg/dL. The postintervention CRP level for women was 4.5 ± 3.6 mg/dL and for men was 2.4 ± 2.1 mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest that the antioxidants in a 30-day intervention of V8 juice affect CRP levels in a sample of female patients with HF. 10.1097/JCN.0000000000000108
    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in β-Carotene Oxygenase 1 are Associated with Plasma Lycopene Responses to a Tomato-Soy Juice Intervention in Men with Prostate Cancer. Moran Nancy E,Thomas-Ahner Jennifer M,Fleming Jessica L,McElroy Joseph P,Mehl Rebecca,Grainger Elizabeth M,Riedl Ken M,Toland Amanda E,Schwartz Steven J,Clinton Steven K The Journal of nutrition BACKGROUND:Human plasma and tissue lycopene concentrations are heterogeneous even when consuming controlled amounts of tomato or lycopene. OBJECTIVES:Our objective is to determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near known or putative carotenoid metabolism genes [β-carotene 15,15' monooxygenase 1 (BCO1), scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1), ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), apolipoprotein B-48, elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 2 (ELOVL2), and ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1), and an intergenic superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial-associated SNP] are predictive of plasma lycopene responses to steady state tomato juice consumption. METHODS:Secondary linear regression analyses of data from a dose-escalation study of prostate cancer patients [n = 47; mean ± SEM age: 60 ± 1 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 32 ± 1] consuming 0, 1, or 2 cans of tomato-soy juice/d (163 mL/can; 20.6 mg lycopene 1.2 mg β-carotene/can) for 24 ± 0.7 d before prostatectomy were conducted to explore 11 SNP genotype effects on the change in plasma lycopene and plasma and prostate tissue concentrations of lycopene, β-carotene, phytoene, and phytofluene. RESULTS:Two BCO1 SNP genotypes were significant predictors of the change in plasma lycopene, with SNP effects differing in magnitude and direction, depending on the level of juice intake (rs12934922 × diet group P = 0.02; rs6564851 × diet group P = 0.046). Further analyses suggested that plasma β-carotene changes were predicted by BCO1 rs12934922 (P < 0.01), prostate lycopene by trending interaction and main effects of BCO1 SNPs (rs12934922 × diet group P = 0.09; rs12934922 P = 0.02; rs6564851 P = 0.053), and prostate β-carotene by BCO1 SNP interaction and main effects (rs12934922 × diet group P = 0.01; rs12934922 P < 0.01; rs7501331 P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS:In conclusion, SNPs in BCO1 and other genes may modulate human plasma and prostate tissue responses to dietary lycopene intake and warrant validation in larger, human controlled feeding intervention and cohort studies. Genetic variants related to carotenoid metabolism may partially explain heterogeneous human blood and tissue responses and may be critical covariates for population studies and clinical trials. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01009736. 10.1093/jn/nxy304
    Phase II randomised control feasibility trial of a nutrition and physical activity intervention after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Hackshaw-McGeagh Lucy E,Penfold Chris,Shingler Ellie,Robles Luke A,Perks Claire M,Holly Jeff M P,Rowe Edward,Koupparis Anthony,Bahl Amit,Persad Raj,Shiridzinomwa Constance,Johnson Lyndsey,Biernacka Kalina M,Frankow Aleksandra,Woodside Jayne V,Gilchrist Sarah,Oxley Jon,Abrams Paul,Lane J Athene,Martin Richard M BMJ open OBJECTIVE:Dietary factors and physical activity may alter prostate cancer progression. We explored the feasibility of lifestyle interventions following radical prostatectomy for localised prostate cancer. DESIGN:Patients were recruited into a presurgical observational cohort; following radical prostatectomy, they were offered randomisation into a 2×3 factorial randomised controlled trial (RCT). SETTING:A single National Health Service trust in the South West of England, UK. PARTICIPANTS:Those with localised prostate cancer and listed for radical prostatectomy were invited to participate. RANDOMISATION:Random allocation was performed by the Bristol Randomised Trial Collaboration via an online system. INTERVENTIONS:Men were randomised into both a modified nutrition group (either increased vegetable and fruit, and reduced dairy milk; or lycopene supplementation; or control) and a physical activity group (brisk walking or control) for 6 months. BLINDING:Only the trial statistician was blind to allocations. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Primary outcomes were measures of feasibility: randomisation rates and intervention adherence at 6 months. Collected at trial baseline, three and six months, with daily adherence reported throughout. Our intended adherence rate was 75% or above, the threshold for acceptable adherence was 90%. RESULTS:108 men entered the presurgical cohort, and 81 were randomised into the postsurgical RCT (randomisation rate: 93.1%) and 75 completed the trial. Of 25 men in the nutrition intervention, 10 (40.0%; 95% CI 23.4% to 59.3%) adhered to the fruit and vegetable recommendations and 18 (72.0%; 95% CI 52.4% to 85.7%) to reduced dairy intake. Adherence to lycopene (n=28), was 78.6% (95% CI 60.5% to 89.8%), while 21/39 adhered to the walking intervention (53.8%; 95% CI 38.6% to 68.4%). Most men were followed up at 6 months (75/81; 92.6%). Three 'possibly related' adverse events were indigestion, abdominal bloating and knee pain. CONCLUSIONS:Interventions were deemed feasible, with high randomisation rates and generally good adherence. A definitive RCT is proposed. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ISRCTN 99048944. 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-029480
    The role of tomato products and lycopene in the prevention of gastric cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. Yang Tingsong,Yang Xiaohu,Wang Xudong,Wang Yiling,Song Zhenshun Medical hypotheses BACKGROUND:Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. Epidemiologic studies have examined the possible association between tomato products consumption and gastric cancer, but the relationship between tomato products and the risk of gastric cancer is controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies to analyze this association. METHODS:We systematically searched MEDLINE and EMBASE and contacted authors to identify potential studies published from January 1966 to June 2012. We pooled the relative risks from individual studies using a random-effects model and performed heterogeneity and publication bias analyses. RESULTS:Twenty-one studies were eligible for our inclusion criteria, in a pooled analysis of all studies, consumption of large amounts of tomato products (in a comparison of the highest and lowest consumption groups) reduced the risk for gastric cancer (odds ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.90). The pooled OR of lycopene consumption and serum lycopene was 0.88 (95% CI=0.67-1.16) and 0.79 (95% CI=0.59-1.07), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Consumption of large amounts of tomato products is associated with a reduced risk of gastric cancer. However, because of potential confounding factors and exposure misclassification, further studies are required to establish these findings. 10.1016/j.mehy.2013.01.005
    Lycopene Does Not Affect Prostate-Specific Antigen in Men with Non-Metastatic Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Sadeghian Mehdi,Asadi Maryam,Rahmani Sepideh,Sadeghi Narges,Hosseini Seyed Ahmad,Zare Javid Ahmad Nutrition and cancer Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have investigated the effect of lycopene supplementation on serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in patients with prostate cancer. However, results have been inconclusive. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and Scopus up to January 2020 to find RCTs investigating the effect of lycopene supplementation on serum levels of PSA in patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer. Using a random-effects model, the reported risk estimates were pooled. A total of six trials were included in the final analysis. we found no significant effect of lycopene on circulating PSA (WMD: -0.60, 95% CI: -2.01, 0.81 µg/L). However, we observed a significant reducing effect when the analysis was confined to studies that included patients with higher baseline levels of PSA (≥6.5 µg/L) (WMD: -3.74 µg/L, 95% CI: -5.15, -2.32,  < 0.001). Subgroup analysis based on the duration of intervention did not result in any significant effect. Non-linear dose-response analysis did not show any significant effects of lycopene dosage ( = 0.50) and duration of the intervention ( = 0.63) on serum levels of PSA. Although lycopene supplementation did not produce any reduction in PSA levels overall, a significant reducing effect was observed in patients with higher levels of baseline PSA. Due to the heterogeneity of our results, further high-quality clinical trials with long-term duration are required to determine the efficacy of lycopene in patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer. 10.1080/01635581.2020.1862254
    Lycopene supplement and blood pressure: an updated meta-analysis of intervention trials. Li Xinli,Xu Jiuhong Nutrients Epidemiological studies suggested that lycopene supplement could decrease blood pressure, but the results were conflicting. We conducted an updated meta-analysis by screening PubMed databases, and calculated the combined effect size using a random effect model. In addition, subgroup analysis stratified by baseline blood pressure, lycopene dosage, duration, study location and the funding support of the paper was also conducted. Six studies met our inclusion criteria, and the pooled analysis demonstrated a significant reduction of systolic blood pressure (SBP) (mean SBP = -4.953 [-8.820, -1.086], p = 0.012) with obvious heterogeneity (p = 0.034, I2 = 58.5%). Subgroup analysis results showed that higher dosage of lycopene supplement (>12 mg/day) could lower SBP more significantly, especially for participants with baseline SBP >120 mmHg, or Asians, while lycopene intervention had no statistical effect on diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (mean DBP = -3.809 [-8.177, 0.560], p = 0.087), and obvious heterogeneity was also observed (p = 0.074, I2 = 53.1%). Our present study suggests that lycopene supplement >12 mg/day might effectively decrease SBP, particularly among Asians or population with higher baseline SBP. 10.3390/nu5093696
    Meta-analysis of the association between dietary lycopene intake and ovarian cancer risk in postmenopausal women. Li Xinli,Xu Jiuhong Scientific reports Accumulating evidence suggests the protective role of dietary lycopene against the risk of ovarian cancer due to its antioxidant activity, but not all relevant studies have deduced positive results. The aim of the present study was to investigate the exact relationship between dietary lycopene intake and ovarian cancer risk by conducting a meta-analysis. The 10 studies included in our meta-analysis were selected from the PubMed database, and final risk estimates were calculated by using a random-effects model. Our study demonstrated an insignificant reverse association between dietary lycopene and ovarian cancer risk (OR, 0.963; 95% CI, 0.859-1.080), and subgroup analysis stratified by study design, location, histological type of ovarian cancer, and length of dietary recall showed no statistically significant results. No heterogeneity was observed (p = 0.336, I(2) = 11.6%). Our present meta-analysis suggests the potential role of dietary lycopene against the risk of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women, which provides opportunity for developments in the prevention of ovarian cancer. 10.1038/srep04885
    Dietary and circulating lycopene and stroke risk: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Li Xinli,Xu Jiuhong Scientific reports Epidemiological studies support a protective role of lycopene against stroke occurrence or mortality, but the results have been conflicting. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between dietary or circulating lycopene and stroke risk (including stroke occurrence or mortality). Relevant papers were collected by screening the PubMed database through October 2013. Only prospective studies providing relative risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals for the association between lycopene and stroke were included. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled estimate. Subgroup analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of various factors on the final results. The pooled analysis of seven prospective studies, with 116,127 participants and 1,989 cases, demonstrated that lycopene decreased stroke risk by 19.3% (RR=0.807, 95% CI=0.680-0.957) after adjusting for confounding factors. No heterogeneity was observed (p=0.234, I2=25.5%). Circulating lycopene, not dietary lycopene, was associated with a statistically significant decrease in stroke risk (RR=0.693, 95% CI=0.503-0.954). Lycopene could protect European, or males against stroke risk. Duration of follow-up had no effect on the final results. There was no evidence of publication bias. Lycopene, especially circulating lycopene, is negatively associated with stroke risk. 10.1038/srep05031
    The effects of lycopene supplementation on serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels and cardiovascular disease: A dose-response meta-analysis of clinical trials. Xie Zhihong,Yang Feng Complementary therapies in medicine BACKGROUND:The results of human studies assessing the efficacy of lycopene on insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels are inconsistent. Thus, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effects of lycopene supplementation on serum IGF-1 levels and cardiovascular disease. METHODS:The literature published up to January 2020 was searched using the electronic databases Scopus, PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Embase and Google Scholar. RESULTS:Seven qualified trials were included in the current meta-analysis. IGF-1 levels were non-significantly decreased in lycopene group compared to the control (WMD: -6.74 ng/mL, 95 % CI: -23.01 to 9.52, p = 0.42; I = 94.3 %). Subgroup analysis revealed a significantly decrease in IGF-1 levels upon lycopene supplementation at doses ≥15 mg/d (WMD: -6.40 ng/mL), intervention period <12 weeks (WMD: -6.49 ng/mL), and subjects aged ≥60 years (WMD: -24.98 mg/dl). In addition, lycopene intake significantly reduced IGF-1 levels upon healthy conditions (WMD: -25.59 ng/mL) when compared with cancer patients (WMD: 0.35 ng/mL). In addition, the effect of lycopene supplementation was significant in patients diagnosed with cardiac disorders. CONCLUSION:Overall, lycopene intake was not associated with reduced serum IGF-1 levels. However, association was significant when lycopene was administrated at doses >15 mg/d, for <12 weeks, as well as for healthy conditions and patients aged ≥60 years. In addition, lycopene supplementation exhibited potential health benefits in the management of patients with cardiac disorders. 10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102632
    Effect of Carotene and Lycopene on the Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Wang Yulan,Cui Ran,Xiao Yuanyuan,Fang Juemin,Xu Qing PloS one BACKGROUND:Many epidemiologic studies have investigated the association between carotenoids intake and risk of Prostate cancer (PCa). However, results have been inconclusive. METHODS:We conducted a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of dietary intake or blood concentrations of carotenoids in relation to PCa risk. We summarized the data from 34 eligible studies (10 cohort, 11 nested case-control and 13 case-control studies) and estimated summary Risk Ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using random-effects models. RESULTS:Neither dietary β-carotene intake nor its blood levels was associated with reduced PCa risk. Dietary α-carotene intake and lycopene consumption (both dietary intake and its blood levels) were all associated with reduced risk of PCa (RR for dietary α-carotene intake: 0.87, 95%CI: 0.76-0.99; RR for dietary lycopene intake: 0.86, 95%CI: 0.75-0.98; RR for blood lycopene levels: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.69-0.96). However, neither blood α-carotene levels nor blood lycopene levels could reduce the risk of advanced PCa. Dose-response analysis indicated that risk of PCa was reduced by 2% per 0.2mg/day (95%CI: 0.96-0.99) increment of dietary α-carotene intake or 3% per 1mg/day (95%CI: 0.94-0.99) increment of dietary lycopene intake. CONCLUSIONS:α-carotene and lycopene, but not β-carotene, were inversely associated with the risk of PCa. However, both α-carotene and lycopene could not lower the risk of advanced PCa. 10.1371/journal.pone.0137427
    Effect of tomato, lycopene and related products on blood pressure: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. Rattanavipanon Wipharak,Nithiphongwarakul Chonruepat,Sirisuwansith Pornsawan,Chaiyasothi Thanaputt,Thakkinstian Ammarin,Nathisuwan Surakit,Pathomwichaiwat Thanika Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology BACKGROUND:A number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been conducted to evaluate the hypotensive effects of tomato, lycopene, and related products. However, the findings were conflicting, partly due to differences in the types of products investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to assess and compare the hypotensive effects of different tomato-related preparations through a network meta-analysis based on randomized controlled trials. STUDY DESIGN:A systematic review and network meta-analysis. METHODS:A network meta-analysis based on a systematic review of RCTs comparing the effect of various tomato, lycopene and related products versus placebo on blood pressure in adults was performed. PubMed, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and Clinicaltrial.gov databases were searched up to October 2020 without language restrictions. The primary outcomes were systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Mean differences (MDs) along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated and pooled using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using the global inconsistency test. RESULTS:A total of 11 studies including six forms of tomato, lycopene and related products met the inclusion criteria. Among these trials, eight (N = 617) and seven trials (N = 501) were included in the analysis of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) outcomes, respectively. The standardized tomato extract (STE) significantly decreased SBP compared to placebo, with a pooled MD (95% CI) of -5.89 (-9.13 to -2.64) mmHg. The effect on DBP was not significant, with a pooled MD (95% CI) of -3.51 (-7.39 to 0.38) mmHg. Subgroup analysis in hypertensive patients showed that STE significantly reduced both SBP and DBP with pooled MDs (95% CIs) of -8.09 (-11.52 to -4.67) and -4.25 (-6.97 to -1.53) mmHg, respectively, compared to placebo. Other forms of tomato, including other dose ranges of standardized tomato extract, tomato-containing diet, lycopene-free preparation, and synthetic lycopene, did not show consistent and significant effects on either SBP or DBP in all analyses. CONCLUSION:Standardized tomato extract (STE) significantly decreased SBP compared to placebo in a mixed population of healthy volunteers and hypertensive patients. The BP-lowering effect was more pronounced among hypertensive patients. No significant BP effects were seen with other forms of tomato, lycopene and related products in the overall population or any subgroup of the population. 10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153512
    Lycopene and Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Chen Ping,Zhang Wenhao,Wang Xiao,Zhao Keke,Negi Devendra Singh,Zhuo Li,Qi Mao,Wang Xinghuan,Zhang Xinhua Medicine Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common illness for aging males. Lycopene has been identified as an antioxidant agent with potential anticancer properties. Studies investigating the relation between lycopene and PCa risk have produced inconsistent results. This study aims to determine dietary lycopene consumption/circulating concentration and any potential dose-response associations with the risk of PCa. Eligible studies published in English up to April 10, 2014, were searched and identified from Pubmed, Sciencedirect Online, Wiley online library databases and hand searching. The STATA (version 12.0) was applied to process the dose-response meta-analysis. Random effects models were used to calculate pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and to incorporate variation between studies. The linear and nonlinear dose-response relations were evaluated with data from categories of lycopene consumption/circulating concentrations. Twenty-six studies were included with 17,517 cases of PCa reported from 563,299 participants. Although inverse association between lycopene consumption and PCa risk was not found in all studies, there was a trend that with higher lycopene intake, there was reduced incidence of PCa (P = 0.078). Removal of one Chinese study in sensitivity analysis, or recalculation using data from only high-quality studies for subgroup analysis, indicated that higher lycopene consumption significantly lowered PCa risk. Furthermore, our dose-response meta-analysis demonstrated that higher lycopene consumption was linearly associated with a reduced risk of PCa with a threshold between 9 and 21 mg/day. Consistently, higher circulating lycopene levels significantly reduced the risk of PCa. Interestingly, the concentration of circulating lycopene between 2.17 and 85 μg/dL was linearly inversed with PCa risk whereas there was no linear association >85 μg/dL. In addition, greater efficacy for the circulating lycopene concentration on preventing PCa was found for studies with high quality, follow-up >10 years and where results were adjusted by the age or the body mass index. In conclusion, our novel data demonstrates that higher lycopene consumption/circulating concentration is associated with a lower risk of PCa. However, further studies are required to determine the mechanism by which lycopene reduces the risk of PCa and if there are other factors in tomato products that might potentially decrease PCa risk and progression. 10.1097/MD.0000000000001260
    Lycopene Consumption and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Wang Xin,Yang Hui-Hui,Liu Yan,Zhou Quan,Chen Zi-Hua Nutrition and cancer A number of epidemiological studies have explored the association between lycopene or lycopene-rich food intake and the risk of colorectal cancer, but the results of these studies have not been consistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies published in the PubMed and EMBASE databases to quantitatively assess the association between lycopene consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer. A total of 15 studies were included in the meta-analysis, and the summary relative risk (RR) for highest versus lowest category indicated no significant association between lycopene consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer [RR = 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80-1.10]. However, a significant inverse association was observed between lycopene consumption and the site of cancer in the colon (RR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.81-0.96). We also found that the incidence of colon cancer and lycopene intake did not exhibit dose-response relationships. The Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) quality in our study was very low. In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicates that lycopene consumption is not associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. Further research will be needed in this area to provide conclusive evidence. 10.1080/01635581.2016.1206579
    [Efficacy of lycopene intake in primary prevention of prostate cancer: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis.] Cataño Juan Guillermo,Trujillo Carlos Gustavo,Caicedo Juan Ignacio,Bravo-Balado Alejandra,Robledo Daniela,Mariño-Alvarez Angela Marcela,Pedraza Adriana,Arcila María Juliana,Plata Mauricio Archivos espanoles de urologia OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the efficacy of lycopene intake in primary prevention of prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS:A systematic search of the literature was conducted in March 2015 and the articles published between the years 1990-2015 were reviewed. The following search terms were used: prostate cancer, prostatic neoplasm, lycopene, prevention, effectiveness and efficacy (MeSH). Publications including research in humans, written in English and whose texts were accessible were reviewed. The types of studies included were: clinical trials, cohort and case-control studies. We found 343 articles; of these, 27 were included in the systematic review. After the latter were rigorously analyzed, 23 were included in the meta-analysis using the pooled odds ratios (OR) and risk ratios (RR) of case-control and cohort studies, respectively, and their confidence intervals (95% CI), using random-effects models with Review Manager 5.2. RESULTS:Out of the 27 articles included in the systematic review, 22 were case-control and 5 were cohort studies. For the case-control studies, the total number of patients with PCa was 13,999 and the total number of controls 22,028. Cohort studies included 187,417 patients and PCa was diagnosed in 8,619 of these. The metaanalysis determined an OR = 0.94 (IC 95% 0.89-1.00) and RR = 0.9 (IC 95% 0.85-0.95) of PCa related with lycopene and/or raw or cooked tomatoes intake. CONCLUSIONS:Although our study found that there is a statistically significant inverse association between lycopene intake and PCa, the magnitude of this association is weak and comes solely from observational studies, which do not allow recommending its use as a standard of practice. High-quality randomized clinical trials are required to clarify current evidence.
    Increased dietary and circulating lycopene are associated with reduced prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Rowles J L,Ranard K M,Smith J W,An R,Erdman J W Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases BACKGROUND:Prostate cancer (PCa) is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Many epidemiological studies have investigated the association between prostate cancer and lycopene, however, results have been inconsistent. This study aims to determine the impact of dietary and circulating concentrations of lycopene on PCa risk and to investigate potential dose-response associations. METHODS:We conducted a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis for the for the association between dietary and circulating lycopene and PCa risk. Eligible studies were published before 1 December 2016 and were identified from PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. We estimated pooled relative risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using random and fixed effects models. Linear and nonlinear dose-response relationships were also evaluated for PCa risk. RESULTS:Forty-two studies were included in the analysis, which included 43 851 cases of PCa reported from 692 012 participants. Both dietary intake (RR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.78-0.98, P=0.017) and circulating concentrations (RR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.79-0.98, P=0.019) of lycopene were significantly associated with reduced PCa risk. Sensitivity analyses within the dose-response analysis further revealed a significant linear dose-response for dietary lycopene and PCa risk such that PCa decreased by 1% for every additional 2 mg of lycopene consumed (P=0.026). Additionally, PCa risk decreased by 3.5 to 3.6% for each additional 10 μgdl of circulating lycopene in the linear and nonlinear models respectively (p=0.004, p=0.006). While there were no associations between lycopene and advanced PCa, there was a trend for protection against PCa aggressiveness (RR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.55-1.00, P=0.052). CONCLUSIONS:Our data demonstrate that higher dietary and circulating lycopene concentrations are inversely associated with PCa risk. This was accompanied by dose-response relationships for dietary and circulating lycopene. However, lycopene was not associated with a reduced risk of advanced PCa. Further studies are required to determine the mechanisms underlying these associations. 10.1038/pcan.2017.25
    Tomato and lycopene and multiple health outcomes: Umbrella review. Li Ni,Wu Xiaoting,Zhuang Wen,Xia Lin,Chen Yi,Wu Chuncheng,Rao Zhiyong,Du Liang,Zhao Rui,Yi Mengshi,Wan Qianyi,Zhou Yong Food chemistry Lycopene is a potent lipophilic antioxidant in tomato. We aim to clarify the evidence for associations between tomato and lycopene and multiple health outcomes. Umbrella review of meta-analyses and systematic reviews was performed in humans. A total of 174 articles were searched, 17 articles with 20 health outcomes were identified by eligibility criteria. Tomato intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease mortality, cerebrovascular disease mortality, prostate cancer, and gastric cancer. Dietary lycopene intake or serum lycopene was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, prostate cancer, stroke, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and male infertility. Caution was warranted for potential allergy and pollution. The quality of the vast majority of evidence by GRADE was low or very low with the remaining six as moderate. The intake of tomato or lycopene was generally safe and beneficial for multiple health outcomes in humans. But the quality of the evidence was not high. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128396
    Tomato and lycopene supplementation and cardiovascular risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Cheng Ho Ming,Koutsidis Georgios,Lodge John K,Ashor Ammar,Siervo Mario,Lara José Atherosclerosis BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Epidemiological evidence suggests an association between consumption of tomato products or lycopene and lower risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Our aim was to evaluate the state of the evidence from intervention trials on the effect of consuming tomato products and lycopene on markers of cardiovascular (CV) function. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effect of supplementing tomato and lycopene on CV risk factors. METHODS:Three databases including Medline, Web of science, and Scopus were searched from inception to August 2016. Inclusion criteria were: intervention trials reporting effects of tomato products and lycopene supplementation on CV risk factors among adult subjects >18 years of age. The outcomes of interest included blood lipids (total-, HDL-, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, oxidised-LDL), endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation (FMD), pulse wave velocity (PWV)) and blood pressure (BP) inflammatory factors (CRP, IL-6) and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1). Random-effects models were used to determine the pooled effect sizes. RESULTS:Out of 1189 publications identified, 21 fulfilled inclusion criteria and were meta-analysed. Overall, interventions supplementing tomato were associated with significant reductions in LDL-cholesterol (-0.22 mmol/L; p = 0.006), IL-6 (standardised mean difference -0.25; p = 0.03), and improvements in FMD (2.53%; p = 0.01); while lycopene supplementation reduced systolic-BP (-5.66 mmHg; p = 0.002). No other outcome was significantly affected by these interventions. CONCLUSIONS:The available evidence on the effects of tomato products and lycopene supplementation on CV risk factors supports the view that increasing the intake of these has positive effects on blood lipids, blood pressure and endothelial function. These results support the development of promising individualised nutritional strategies involving tomatoes to tackle CVD. 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2017.01.009
    Lycopene and risk of cardiovascular diseases: A meta-analysis of observational studies. Song Bo,Liu Kai,Gao Yuan,Zhao Lu,Fang Hui,Li Yusheng,Pei Lulu,Xu Yuming Molecular nutrition & food research SCOPE:The aim of current meta-analysis was to investigate the relation between lycopene and risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). METHODS AND RESULTS:Studies concerning about the association between lycopene and risk of CVD were searched on Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science from inception to October 2016. A total of 14 eligible studies were identified. A significantly inverse association with a pooled risk ratio (RR) of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.76-0.90) was shown between lycopene exposure and risk of CVD. Findings were similar restricting to dietary studies (RR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.79-0.96) and biomarker studies (RR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0. 62-0.87).Dietary lycopene intake was statistically significant for coronary heart disease (CHD) (RR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76-0.98) and stroke (RR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.69-0.96).The pooled risk estimate was generally similar for lycopene biomarker concentrations, but the association was only statistically significant for stroke (RR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.42-0.87). Subgroup analyses showed that retrospective and low quality studies were statistically significant sources of heterogeneity. CONCLUSION:Higher lycopene exposure is inversely associated with a lower risk of CVD. Further well-designed randomized clinical trials are required to assess the role of lycopene on CVD. 10.1002/mnfr.201601009
    Effect of Dietary and Supplemental Lycopene on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Tierney Audrey C,Rumble Chloe E,Billings Lauren M,George Elena S Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.) Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death globally and the presence of ≥1 cardiovascular risk factors elevates total risk. Lycopene, a carotenoid with high antioxidant capacity, may be protective. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analyses is to determine the efficacy of consuming dietary and/or supplemental lycopene on cardiovascular risk factors. Using the PRISMA guidelines, 4 databases were systematically searched from inception: Medline, Cinahl, Proquest, and Scopus. Intervention trials assessing dietary or supplemental lycopene on CVD outcomes were included. The Cochrane Risk-of-Bias tool was used to assess the quality of the included papers. Pooled analysis was conducted using outcomes with available data. Forty-three studies were included. Lycopene interventions were highly variable (supplement with or without food, based as tomato juice/paste/raw product, or combined with olive oil), the dose ranged from 1.44 to 75 mg lycopene/d and was not reported in 11 of 43 included studies. Studies reported conflicting findings for the effect of lycopene on cardiovascular risk factors, This was supported by meta-analyses where there were no significant differences between lycopene intervention and control groups for blood pressure and lipids (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides). This was observed for overall groups and in subgroup analyses for individuals with elevated risk factor concentrations at baseline. Lycopene interventions for cardiovascular risk factors were highly variable across studies in both the dosage provided and the mode of delivery (supplement or food based). As such, there are conflicting findings regarding the efficacy of lycopene to improve cardiovascular risk factors. This systematic review was registered with PROSPERO as CRD42018112174. 10.1093/advances/nmaa069
    Efficacy of Lycopene in the Treatment of Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Guo Jincai,Xie Hui,Wu Hao,Liang Mining The journal of evidence-based dental practice OBJECTIVES:The aim of this meta-analysis was to systematically evaluate the efficacy of lycopene in improving maximum mouth opening and other clinical symptoms in patients with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). METHODS:We searched 5 databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and EBSCO. Randomized controlled trials were collected to evaluate the efficacy of lycopene in the treatment of OSF. Each database was searched from inception to April 30, 2019. The RevMan 5.3 software was used for this meta-analysis. RESULTS:The included studies were 7 randomized controlled trials involving 758 patients with OSF. The results of this meta-analysis showed that lycopene was significantly more effective in improving maximum mouth opening in OSF patients than placebo treatment (mean difference [MD]: 3.15; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.19-4.10, P < .0001, I = 0%). Compared with control groups, lycopene could significantly increase the maximum mouth opening in patients with OSF after 1 month of treatment (MD, 2.40; 95% CI, 2.22-2.58; P = .91; I = 0%), 2 months of treatment (MD, 3.19; 95% CI, 2.87-3.51; P = .93; I = 0%), and 3 months of treatment (MD, 4.89; 95% CI, 4.51-5.28; P = .86; I = 0%). However, no significant difference was found in alleviation of burning sensation after 1 month (risk ratio [RR], 1.04; 95% CI, 0.89-1.23; P = .73; I = 0%), 2 months (RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.73-1.31; P = .69; I = 0%), and 3 months of treatment (RR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.47-1.52; P = .81; I = 0%); tongue protrusion (MD, -1.59; 95% CI, -4.15 to 0.97; P = .12; I = 58%); and pain associated with the lesion after 1 month (RR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.92-1.21; P = .77; I = 0%), 2 months (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.75-1.19; P = .35; I = 0%), and 3 months (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.68-1.33; P = .14; I = 51%) in patients with OSF between lycopene and control groups. CONCLUSIONS:The results of this meta-analysis showed that lycopene is more effective for improving symptoms of maximum mouth opening than placebo groups and control groups, but there were no significant differences in burning sensation, pain associated with lesion, and tongue protrusion in patients with OSF compared with control groups. 10.1016/j.jebdp.2020.101471
    Lycopene and tomato and risk of cardiovascular diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological evidence. Cheng Ho M,Koutsidis Georgios,Lodge John K,Ashor Ammar W,Siervo Mario,Lara Jose Critical reviews in food science and nutrition BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Worldwide, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remains as the main cause of mortality. Observational studies supports an association between intake of tomato products or lycopene with a reduced CVDs risk. Our aim was to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence on the topic. METHODS:Medline, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched from inception until July 2017. We included longitudinal and cross-sectional studies reporting associations between lycopene and tomato consumption and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among adult subjects. Random-effects models were used to determine the pooled effect sizes. RESULTS:Twenty-eight publications met our inclusion criteria and 25 studies provided quantitative data for meta-analysis. Results showed that individuals in the highest consumption category of, or with the highest serum concentration of, lycopene had significantly lower risk of stroke (hazard ratio (HR) 0.74, 0.62-0.89, p = 0.02; I = 32) and CVDs (HR 0.86, 0.77-0.95, p = 0.003; I = 0). In addition, individuals categorised in the highest serum concentration of lycopene also had significantly lower risk of mortality (HR 0.63, 0.49-0.81, p<0.001; I = 46). Lycopene was not significantly associated with myocardial infarction, while scarce evidence on the association of lycopene with atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, or atrial fibrillation was evident. Evidence from three studies suggested that higher intakes of tomato were associated with non-significantly lower stroke, CVDs and CHD. CONCLUSIONS:This comprehensive meta-analysis suggests that high-intakes or high-serum concentration of lycopene are associated with significant reductions in the risk of stroke (26%), mortality (37%) and CVDs (14%). 10.1080/10408398.2017.1362630