加载中

    High Prevalence of Iron Deficiency Despite Standardized High-Dose Iron Supplementation During Recombinant Erythropoietin Therapy in Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns. Siddappa Ashajyothi M,Olson Rose M,Spector Miriam,Northrop Elise,Zamora Tara,Brearley Ann M,Georgieff Michael K,Rao Raghavendra The Journal of pediatrics OBJECTIVE:To assess the effects of protocolized recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) therapy and standardized high dose iron supplementation on hematologic and iron status measures in a cohort of extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs). STUDY DESIGN:Charts of extremely low gestational age newborns admitted from 2006 to 2016 and who had received r-HuEPO per neonatal intensive care unit protocol were reviewed. The r-HuEPO was started at a dose of 900 IU/kg per week after 7 days of age and continued until 35 weeks postmenstrual age. Oral iron supplementation at 6-12 mg/kg per day was used to maintain a transferrin saturation of >20% during r-HuEPO treatment. Data on demographic features, hematologic and iron panel indices, red blood cell transfusions, and clinical outcomes were collected. Quartile groups were created based on serum ferritin levels at the conclusion of the r-HuEPO treatment and the quartiles were compared. RESULTS:The cohort included 116 infants with mean gestational age 25.8 ± 1.5 weeks and birth weight 793 ± 174.1 g. The r-HuEPO promoted erythropoiesis as indicated by increasing hemoglobin, hematocrit, and reticulocyte count. Serum ferritin decreased over time and was ≤75 ng/mL in 60.2% of infants at the conclusion of r-HuEPO therapy; 87% received packed red blood cell transfusions. Transfusion volume, total iron intake, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin concentration differed among infants in the different serum ferritin quartiles (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS:In extremely low gestational age newborns, r-HuEPO therapy promoted erythropoiesis. Despite a biomarker-based standardized high-dose iron supplementation, the majority of infants had evidence of iron deficiency to a degree that is associated with reduced brain function. 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.03.055
    The Effect of Size, Maturation, Global Asphyxia, Cerebral Ischemia, and Therapeutic Hypothermia on the Pharmacokinetics of High-Dose Recombinant Erythropoietin in Fetal Sheep. Dhillon Simerdeep K,Wassink Guido,Lear Christopher A,Davidson Joanne O,Holford Nicholas H G,Gunn Alistair J,Bennet Laura International journal of molecular sciences High-dose human recombinant erythropoietin (rEPO) is a promising potential neuroprotective treatment in preterm and full-term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). There are limited data on the pharmacokinetics of high-dose rEPO in neonates. We examined the effects of body weight, gestation age, global asphyxia, cerebral ischemia, hypothermia and exogenous rEPO on the pharmacokinetics of high-dose rEPO in fetal sheep. Near-term fetal sheep on gestation day 129 (0.87 gestation) (full term 147 days) received sham-ischemia ( = 5) or cerebral ischemia for 30 min followed by treatment with vehicle ( = 4), rEPO ( = 8) or combined treatment with rEPO and hypothermia ( = 8). Preterm fetal sheep on gestation day 104 (0.7 gestation) received sham-asphyxia ( = 1) or complete umbilical cord occlusion for 25 min followed by infusion of vehicle ( = 8) or rEPO ( = 27) treatment. rEPO was given as a loading bolus, followed by a prolonged continuous infusion for 66 to 71.5 h in preterm and near-term fetuses. A further group of preterm fetal sheep received repeated bolus injections of rEPO ( = 8). The plasma concentrations of rEPO were best described by a pharmacokinetic model that included first-order and mixed-order elimination with linear maturation of elimination with gestation age. There were no detectable effects of therapeutic hypothermia, cerebral ischemia, global asphyxia or exogenous treatment on rEPO pharmacokinetics. The increase in rEPO elimination with gestation age suggests that to maintain target exposure levels during prolonged treatment, the dose of rEPO may have to be adjusted to match the increase in size and growth. These results are important for designing and understanding future studies of neuroprotection with high-dose rEPO. 10.3390/ijms21093042
    Neonatal erythropoietin mitigates impaired gait, social interaction and diffusion tensor imaging abnormalities in a rat model of prenatal brain injury. Robinson Shenandoah,Corbett Christopher J,Winer Jesse L,Chan Lindsay A S,Maxwell Jessie R,Anstine Christopher V,Yellowhair Tracylyn R,Andrews Nicholas A,Yang Yirong,Sillerud Laurel O,Jantzie Lauren L Experimental neurology Children who are born preterm are at risk for encephalopathy of prematurity, a leading cause of cerebral palsy, cognitive delay and behavioral disorders. Current interventions are limited and none have been shown to reverse cognitive and behavioral impairments, a primary determinant of poor quality of life for these children. Moreover, the mechanisms of perinatal brain injury that result in functional deficits and imaging abnormalities in the mature brain are poorly defined, limiting the potential to target interventions to those who may benefit most. To determine whether impairments are reversible after a prenatal insult, we investigated a spectrum of functional deficits and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) abnormalities in young adult animals. We hypothesized that prenatal transient systemic hypoxia-ischemia (TSHI) would induce multiple functional deficits concomitant with reduced microstructural white and gray matter integrity, and tested whether these abnormalities could be ameliorated using postnatal erythropoietin (EPO), an emerging neurorestorative intervention. On embryonic day 18 uterine arteries were transiently occluded for 60min via laparotomy. Shams underwent anesthesia and laparotomy for 60min. Pups were born and TSHI pups were randomized to receive EPO or vehicle via intraperitoneal injection on postnatal days 1 to 5. Gait, social interaction, olfaction and open field testing was performed from postnatal day 25-35 before brains underwent ex vivo DTI to measure fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity. Prenatal TSHI injury causes hyperactivity, impaired gait and poor social interaction in young adult rats that mimic the spectrum of deficits observed in children born preterm. Collectively, these data show for the first time in a model of encephalopathy of prematurity that postnatal EPO treatment mitigates impairments in social interaction, in addition to gait deficits. EPO also normalizes TSHI-induced microstructural abnormalities in fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity in multiple regions, consistent with improved structural integrity and recovery of myelination. Taken together, these results show behavioral and memory deficits from perinatal brain injury are reversible. Furthermore, resolution of DTI abnormalities may predict responsiveness to emerging interventions, and serve as a biomarker of CNS injury and recovery. 10.1016/j.expneurol.2017.12.010
    The Differential Effects of Erythropoietin Exposure to Oxidative Stress on Microglia and Astrocytes in vitro. Pathipati Praneeti,Ferriero Donna M Developmental neuroscience The neonatal brain is especially susceptible to oxidative stress owing to its reduced antioxidant capacity. Following hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury, for example, there is a prolonged elevation in levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the immature brain compared to the adult brain, resulting in lasting injury that can lead to life-long disability or morbidity. Erythropoietin (Epo) is one of few multifaceted treatment options that have been promising enough to trial in the clinic for both term and preterm brain injury. Despite this, there is a lack of clear understanding of how Epo modulates glial cell activity following oxidative injury, specifically, whether it affects microglia (Mg) and astrocytes (Ast) differently. Using an in vitro approach using primary murine Mg and Ast subjected to H2O2 injury, we studied the oxidative and inflammatory responses of Mg and Ast to recombinant murine (rm)Epo treatment. We found that Epo protects Ast from H2O2 injury (p < 0.05) and increases secreted nitric oxide levels in these cells (p < 0.05) while suppressing intracellular reactive oxygen species (p < 0.05) and superoxide ion (p < 0.05) levels only in Mg. Using a multiplex analysis, we noted that although H2O2 induced the levels of several chemokines, rmEpo did not have any significant specific effects on their levels, either with or without the presence of conditioned medium from injured neurons (NCM). Ultimately, it appears that rmEpo has pleiotropic effects based on the cell type; it has a protective effect on Ast but an antioxidative effect only on Mg without any significant modulation of chemokine and cytokine levels in either cell type. These findings highlight the importance of considering all cell types when assessing the benefits and pitfalls of Epo use. 10.1159/000467391
    Iron stores at birth in a full-term normal birth weight birth cohort with a low level of inflammation. Zhang Joy Y,Wang Jing,Lu Qinsheng,Tan Meizhen,Wei Ru,Lash Gendie E Bioscience reports Iron stores at birth are essential to meet iron needs during the first 4-6 months of life. The present study aimed to investigate iron stores in normal birth weight, healthy, term neonates. Umbilical cord blood samples were collected from apparently normal singleton vaginal deliveries (n=854). Subjects were screened and excluded if C-reactive protein (CRP) > 5 mg/l or α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) > 1 g/l, preterm (<37 complete weeks), term < 2500g or term > 4000g. In total, 762 samples were included in the study. Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), hepcidin, and erythropoietin (EPO) were measured in umbilical cord blood samples; total body iron (TBI) (mg/kg) was calculated using sTfR and ferritin concentrations. A total of 19.8% newborns were iron deficient (ferritin 35 μg/l) and an additional 46.6% had insufficient iron stores (ferritin < 76 μg/l). There was a positive association between serum ferritin and sTfR, hepcidin, and EPO. Gestational age was positively associated with ferritin, sTfR, EPO, and hepcidin. In conclusion, we demonstrate a high prevalence of insufficient iron stores in a Chinese birth cohort. The value of cord sTfR and TBI in the assessment of iron status in the newborn is questionable, and reference ranges need to be established. 10.1042/BSR20202853
    Erythropoietin protects intestinal epithelial barrier function and lowers the incidence of experimental neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. Shiou Sheng-Ru,Yu Yueyue,Chen Sangzi,Ciancio Mae J,Petrof Elaine O,Sun Jun,Claud Erika C The Journal of biological chemistry The impermeant nature of the intestinal barrier is maintained by tight junctions (TJs) formed between adjacent intestinal epithelial cells. Disruption of TJs and loss of barrier function are associated with a number of gastrointestinal diseases, including neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), the leading cause of death from gastrointestinal diseases in preterm infants. Human milk is protective against NEC, and the human milk factor erythropoietin (Epo) has been shown to protect endothelial cell-cell and blood-brain barriers. We hypothesized that Epo may also protect intestinal epithelial barriers, thereby lowering the incidence of NEC. Our data demonstrate that Epo protects enterocyte barrier function by supporting expression of the TJ protein ZO-1. As immaturity is a key factor in NEC, Epo regulation of ZO-1 in the human fetal immature H4 intestinal epithelial cell line was examined and demonstrated Epo-stimulated ZO-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner through the PI3K/Akt pathway. In a rat NEC model, oral administration of Epo lowered the incidence of NEC from 45 to 23% with statistical significance. In addition, Epo treatment protected intestinal barrier function and prevented loss of ZO-1 at the TJs in vivo. These effects were associated with elevated Akt phosphorylation in the intestine. This study reveals a novel role of Epo in the regulation of intestinal epithelial TJs and barrier function and suggests the possible use of enteral Epo as a therapeutic agent for gut diseases. 10.1074/jbc.M110.154625
    Transfusions and neurodevelopmental outcomes in extremely low gestation neonates enrolled in the PENUT Trial: a randomized clinical trial. Vu Phuong T,Ohls Robin K,Mayock Dennis E,German Kendell R,Comstock Bryan A,Heagerty Patrick J,Juul Sandra E, Pediatric research BACKGROUND:Outcomes of extremely low gestational age neonates (ELGANs) may be adversely impacted by packed red blood cell (pRBC) transfusions. We investigated the impact of transfusions on neurodevelopmental outcome in the Preterm Erythropoietin (Epo) Neuroprotection (PENUT) Trial population. METHODS:This is a post hoc analysis of 936 infants 24-0/6 to 27-6/7 weeks' gestation enrolled in the PENUT Trial. Epo 1000 U/kg or placebo was given every 48 h × 6 doses, followed by 400 U/kg or sham injections 3 times a week through 32 weeks postmenstrual age. Six hundred and twenty-eight (315 placebo, 313 Epo) survived and were assessed at 2 years of age. We evaluated associations between BSID-III scores and the number and volume of pRBC transfusions. RESULTS:Each transfusion was associated with a decrease in mean cognitive score of 0.96 (95% CI of [-1.34, -0.57]), a decrease in mean motor score of 1.51 (-1.91, -1.12), and a decrease in mean language score of 1.10 (-1.54, -0.66). Significant negative associations between BSID-III score and transfusion volume and donor exposure were observed in the placebo group but not in the Epo group. CONCLUSIONS:Transfusions in ELGANs were associated with worse outcomes. We speculate that strategies to minimize the need for transfusions may improve outcomes. IMPACT:Transfusion number, volume, and donor exposure in the neonatal period are associated with worse neurodevelopmental (ND) outcome at 2 years of age, as assessed by the Bayley Infant Scales of Development, Third Edition (BSID-III). The impact of neonatal packed red blood cell transfusions on the neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants is unknown. We speculate that strategies to minimize the need for transfusions may improve neurodevelopmental outcomes. 10.1038/s41390-020-01273-w
    Erythropoietin Modulates Cerebral and Serum Degradation Products from Excess Calpain Activation following Prenatal Hypoxia-Ischemia. Jantzie Lauren L,Winer Jesse L,Corbett Christopher J,Robinson Shenandoah Developmental neuroscience Preterm infants suffer central nervous system (CNS) injury from hypoxia-ischemia and inflammation - termed encephalopathy of prematurity. Mature CNS injury activates caspase and calpain proteases. Erythropoietin (EPO) limits apoptosis mediated by activated caspases, but its role in modulating calpain activation has not yet been investigated extensively following injury to the developing CNS. We hypothesized that excess calpain activation degrades developmentally regulated molecules essential for CNS circuit formation, myelination and axon integrity, including neuronal potassium-chloride co-transporter (KCC2), myelin basic protein (MBP) and phosphorylated neurofilament (pNF), respectively. Further, we predicted that post-injury EPO treatment could mitigate CNS calpain-mediated degradation. Using prenatal transient systemic hypoxia-ischemia (TSHI) in rats to mimic CNS injury from extreme preterm birth, and postnatal EPO treatment with a clinically relevant dosing regimen, we found sustained postnatal excess cortical calpain activation following prenatal TSHI, as shown by the cleavage of alpha II-spectrin (αII-spectrin) into 145-kDa αII-spectrin degradation products (αII-SDPs) and p35 into p25. Postnatal expression of the endogenous calpain inhibitor calpastatin was also reduced following prenatal TSHI. Calpain substrate expression following TSHI, including cortical KCC2, MBP and NF, was modulated by postnatal EPO treatment. Calpain activation was reflected in serum levels of αII-SDPs and KCC2 fragments, and notably, EPO treatment also modulated KCC2 fragment levels. Together, these data indicate that excess calpain activity contributes to the pathogenesis of encephalopathy of prematurity. Serum biomarkers of calpain activation may detect ongoing cerebral injury and responsiveness to EPO or similar neuroprotective strategies. 10.1159/000441024
    Erythropoietin for neuroprotection in neonatal encephalopathy: safety and pharmacokinetics. Wu Yvonne W,Bauer Larry A,Ballard Roberta A,Ferriero Donna M,Glidden David V,Mayock Dennis E,Chang Taeun,Durand David J,Song Dongli,Bonifacio Sonia L,Gonzalez Fernando F,Glass Hannah C,Juul Sandra E Pediatrics OBJECTIVE:To determine the safety and pharmacokinetics of erythropoietin (Epo) given in conjunction with hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We hypothesized that high dose Epo would produce plasma concentrations that are neuroprotective in animal studies (ie, maximum concentration = 6000-10000 U/L; area under the curve = 117000-140000 U*h/L). METHODS:In this multicenter, open-label, dose-escalation, phase I study, we enrolled 24 newborns undergoing hypothermia for HIE. All patients had decreased consciousness and acidosis (pH < 7.00 or base deficit ≥ 12), 10-minute Apgar score ≤ 5, or ongoing resuscitation at 10 minutes. Patients received 1 of 4 Epo doses intravenously: 250 (N = 3), 500 (N = 6), 1000 (N = 7), or 2500 U/kg per dose (N = 8). We gave up to 6 doses every 48 hours starting at <24 hours of age and performed pharmacokinetic and safety analyses. RESULTS:Patients received mean 4.8 ± 1.2 Epo doses. Although Epo followed nonlinear pharmacokinetics, excessive accumulation did not occur during multiple dosing. At 500, 1000, and 2500 U/kg Epo, half-life was 7.2, 15.0, and 18.7 hours; maximum concentration was 7046, 13780, and 33316 U/L, and total Epo exposure (area under the curve) was 50306, 131054, and 328002 U*h/L, respectively. Drug clearance at a given dose was slower than reported in uncooled preterm infants. No deaths or serious adverse effects were seen. CONCLUSIONS:Epo 1000 U/kg per dose intravenously given in conjunction with hypothermia is well tolerated and produces plasma concentrations that are neuroprotective in animals. A large efficacy trial is needed to determine whether Epo add-on therapy further improves outcome in infants undergoing hypothermia for HIE. 10.1542/peds.2012-0498
    Is the erythropoietin-erythroferrone-hepcidin axis intact in human neonates? Bahr Timothy M,Ward Diane M,Jia Xuan,Ohls Robin K,German Kendell R,Christensen Robert D Blood cells, molecules & diseases In a two-part process, we assessed elements of the principal hormonal pathway regulating iron homeostasis in human neonates. Part 1: Quantifying erythropoietin (Epo), erythroferrone (ERFE), hepcidin, and relevant serum and erythrocytic iron-related metrics in umbilical cord blood from term (n = 13) and preterm (n = 10) neonates, and from neonates born to mothers with diabetes and obesity (n = 13); Part 2: Quantifying serum Epo, ERFE, and hepcidin before and following darbepoetin administration. Part 1: We measured Epo, ERFE and hepcidin in all cord blood samples. Epo and ERFE levels did not differ between the three groups. Preterm neonates had the lowest hepcidin levels, while neonates born to diabetic women with a very high BMI had the lowest ferritin and RET-He levels. Part 2: Following darbepoetin dosing, ERFE levels generally increased (p < 0.05) and hepcidin levels generally fell (p < 0.05). Our observations suggest that the Epo/ERFE/hepcidin axis is intact in the newborn period. 10.1016/j.bcmd.2021.102536
    Extended Combined Neonatal Treatment With Erythropoietin Plus Melatonin Prevents Posthemorrhagic Hydrocephalus of Prematurity in Rats. Robinson Shenandoah,Conteh Fatu S,Oppong Akosua Y,Yellowhair Tracylyn R,Newville Jessie C,Demerdash Nagat El,Shrock Christine L,Maxwell Jessie R,Jett Stephen,Northington Frances J,Jantzie Lauren L Frontiers in cellular neuroscience Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus of prematurity (PHHP) remains a global challenge. Early preterm infants (<32 weeks gestation), particularly those exposed to chorioamnionitis (CAM), are prone to intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and PHHP. We established an age-appropriate, preclinical model of PHHP with progressive macrocephaly and ventriculomegaly to test whether non-surgical neonatal treatment could modulate PHHP. We combined prenatal CAM and postnatal day 1 (P1, equivalent to 30 weeks human gestation) IVH in rats, and administered systemic erythropoietin (EPO) plus melatonin (MLT), or vehicle, from P2 to P10. CAM-IVH rats developed progressive macrocephaly through P21. Macrocephaly was accompanied by ventriculomegaly at P5 (histology), and P21 ( MRI). CAM-IVH rats showed impaired performance of cliff aversion, a neonatal neurodevelopmental test. Neonatal EPO+MLT treatment prevented macrocephaly and cliff aversion impairment, and significantly reduced ventriculomegaly. EPO+MLT treatment prevented matted or missing ependymal motile cilia observed in vehicle-treated CAM-IVH rats. EPO+MLT treatment also normalized ependymal yes-associated protein (YAP) mRNA levels, and reduced ependymal GFAP-immunolabeling. Vehicle-treated CAM-IVH rats exhibited loss of microstructural integrity on diffusion tensor imaging, which was normalized in EPO+MLT-treated CAM-IVH rats. In summary, combined prenatal systemic inflammation plus early postnatal IVH caused progressive macrocephaly, ventriculomegaly and delayed development of cliff aversion reminiscent of PHHP. Neonatal systemic EPO+MLT treatment prevented multiple hallmarks of PHHP, consistent with a clinically viable, non-surgical treatment strategy. 10.3389/fncel.2018.00322
    Repetitive Neonatal Erythropoietin and Melatonin Combinatorial Treatment Provides Sustained Repair of Functional Deficits in a Rat Model of Cerebral Palsy. Jantzie Lauren L,Oppong Akosua Y,Conteh Fatu S,Yellowhair Tracylyn R,Kim Joshua,Fink Gabrielle,Wolin Adam R,Northington Frances J,Robinson Shenandoah Frontiers in neurology Cerebral palsy (CP) is the leading cause of motor impairment for children worldwide and results from perinatal brain injury (PBI). To test novel therapeutics to mitigate deficits from PBI, we developed a rat model of extreme preterm birth (<28 weeks of gestation) that mimics dual intrauterine injury from placental underperfusion and chorioamnionitis. We hypothesized that a sustained postnatal treatment regimen that combines the endogenous neuroreparative agents erythropoietin (EPO) and melatonin (MLT) would mitigate molecular, sensorimotor, and cognitive abnormalities in adults rats following prenatal injury. On embryonic day 18 (E18), a laparotomy was performed in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. Uterine artery occlusion was performed for 60 min to induce placental insufficiency transient systemic hypoxia-ischemia, followed by intra-amniotic injections of lipopolysaccharide, and laparotomy closure. On postnatal day 1 (P1), approximately equivalent to 30 weeks of gestation, injured rats were randomized to an extended EPO + MLT treatment regimen, or vehicle (sterile saline) from P1 to P10. Behavioral assays were performed along an extended developmental time course ( = 6-29). Open field testing shows injured rats exhibit hypermobility and disinhibition and that combined neonatal EPO + MLT treatment repairs disinhibition in injured rats, while EPO alone does not. Furthermore, EPO + MLT normalizes hindlimb deficits, including reduced paw area and paw pressure at peak stance, and elevated percent shared stance after prenatal injury. Injured rats had fewer social interactions than shams, and EPO + MLT normalized social drive. Touchscreen operant chamber testing of visual discrimination and reversal shows that EPO + MLT at least partially normalizes theses complex cognitive tasks. Together, these data indicate EPO + MLT can potentially repair multiple sensorimotor, cognitive, and behavioral realms following PBI, using highly translatable and sophisticated developmental testing platforms. 10.3389/fneur.2018.00233
    Neonatal administration of erythropoietin attenuates cognitive deficits in adult rats following placental insufficiency. Robinson Shenandoah,Winer Jesse L,Kitase Yuma,Brigman Jonathan L,Jantzie Lauren L Journal of neuroscience research Preterm birth is a principal cause of neurological disability later in life, including cognitive and behavioral deficits. Notably, cognitive impairment has greater impact on quality of life than physical disability. Survivors of preterm birth commonly have deficits of executive function. Difficulties with tasks and planning complexity correlate positively with increasing disability. To overcome these barriers for children born preterm, preclinical and clinical studies have emphasized the importance of neurorestoration. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a endogenous cytokine with multiple beneficial mechanisms of action following perinatal brain injury. While most preclinical investigations have focused on pathology and molecular mechanisms, translational studies of repair using clinically viable biobehavioral biomarkers are still lacking. Here, using an established model of encephalopathy of prematurity secondary to placental insufficiency, we tested the hypothesis that administration of EPO in the neonatal period would attenuate deficits in recognition memory and cognitive flexibility in adult rats of both sexes. We assessed cognition and executive function in two ways. First, using the classic test of novel object recognition and second, using a touchscreen platform. Touchscreen testing allows for rigorous testing of cognition and executive function in preclinical and clinical scenarios. Data show that adult rats exhibit deficits in recognition memory and cognitive flexibility following in utero placental insufficiency. Notably, neonatal treatment of EPO attenuates these deficits in adulthood and facilitates functional repair. Together, these data validate EPO neurorestoration using a clinically relevant outcome measure and support the concept that postnatal treatment following in utero injury can improve cognition and executive function through adulthood. 10.1002/jnr.24815
    The effect of erythropoietin on the severity of retinopathy of prematurity. Kandasamy Y,Kumar P,Hartley L Eye (London, England) AIMS:Exogenous human erythropoietin (EPO) artificially synthesised through recombinant DNA technology (rHuEPO) is currently used as a substitute for blood transfusion in preterm and low birth weight neonates. The objective of this study is to determine whether the use of rHuEPO is associated with an increased severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in preterm neonates. METHOD:This retrospective review studies neonates who were admitted to a tertiary perinatal unit and screened for ROP during the 10-year period from January 2003 to December 2012. RESULTS:: During the 10-year period, 688 preterm neonates underwent ROP screening, with 198 identified as having ROP. The incidence of stage 1 ROP was 51.5% (102/198), followed by 35.9% (71/198) for stage 2, and 12.6% (25/198) for stage 3 and greater. Plus disease was seen in 14 neonates (7.1%). Treatment (laser photocoagulation) was administered in 64% of neonates (16/25) with stage 3 of the disease and above because of progression to threshold ROP. Twenty-six (13%) of the neonates received rHuEPO treatment. There were no statistically significant differences in birth weight (910.4 vs 885 g; P=0.71), gestational age (26.5 vs 25.8 weeks; P=0.09), and duration of ventilation (512 vs 501.4 h; P=0.92) between neonates who did not receive rHuEPO compared with those who were treated with rHuEPO. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the use of EPO was associated with increased severity of ROP. CONCLUSIONS:EPO therapy appears to increase the risk of development and worsening of ROP. 10.1038/eye.2014.95
    Elevated endogenous erythropoietin concentrations are associated with increased risk of brain damage in extremely preterm neonates. Korzeniewski Steven J,Allred Elizabeth,Logan J Wells,Fichorova Raina N,Engelke Stephen,Kuban Karl C K,O'Shea T Michael,Paneth Nigel,Holm Mari,Dammann Olaf,Leviton Alan, PloS one BACKGROUND:We sought to determine, in very preterm infants, whether elevated perinatal erythropoietin (EPO) concentrations are associated with increased risks of indicators of brain damage, and whether this risk differs by the co-occurrence or absence of intermittent or sustained systemic inflammation (ISSI). METHODS:Protein concentrations were measured in blood collected from 786 infants born before the 28th week of gestation. EPO was measured on postnatal day 14, and 25 inflammation-related proteins were measured weekly during the first 2 postnatal weeks. We defined ISSI as a concentration in the top quartile of each of 25 inflammation-related proteins on two separate days a week apart. Hypererythropoietinemia (hyperEPO) was defined as the highest quartile for gestational age on postnatal day 14. Using logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models, we compared risks of brain damage among neonates with hyperEPO only, ISSI only, and hyperEPO+ISSI, to those who had neither hyperEPO nor ISSI, adjusting for gestational age. RESULTS:Newborns with hyperEPO, regardless of ISSI, were more than twice as likely as those without to have very low (< 55) Mental (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.5-3.5) and/or Psychomotor (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.6-3.7) Development Indices (MDI, PDI), and microcephaly at age two years (OR 2.4; 95%CI 1.5-3.8). Newborns with both hyperEPO and ISSI had significantly increased risks of ventriculomegaly, hemiparetic cerebral palsy, microcephaly, and MDI and PDI < 55 (ORs ranged from 2.2-6.3), but not hypoechoic lesions or other forms of cerebral palsy, relative to newborns with neither hyperEPO nor ISSI. CONCLUSION:hyperEPO, regardless of ISSI, is associated with elevated risks of very low MDI and PDI, and microcephaly, but not with any form of cerebral palsy. Children with both hyperEPO and ISSI are at higher risk than others of very low MDI and PDI, ventriculomegaly, hemiparetic cerebral palsy, and microcephaly. 10.1371/journal.pone.0115083
    Use of erythropoietin is associated with threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in preterm ELBW neonates: a retrospective, cohort study from two large tertiary NICUs in Italy. Manzoni Paolo,Memo Luigi,Mostert Michael,Gallo Elena,Guardione Roberta,Maestri Andrea,Saia Onofrio Sergio,Opramolla Anna,Calabrese Sara,Tavella Elena,Luparia Martina,Farina Daniele Early human development BACKGROUND:Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a multifactorial disease with evidence of many associated risk factors. Erythropoietin has been reported to be associated with this disorder in a murine model, as well as in humans in some single-center reports. We reviewed the data from two large tertiary NICUs in Italy to test the hypothesis that the use of erythropoietin may be associated with the development of the most severe stages of ROP in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) neonates. DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective study by review of patient charts and eye examination index cards on infants with birth weight <1000g admitted to two large tertiary NICUs in Northern Italy (Sant'Anna Hospital NICU in Torino, and Ca' Foncello Hospital Neonatology in Treviso) in the years 2005 to 2007. Standard protocol of administration of EPO in the two NICUs consisted of 250 UI/kg three times a week for 6-week courses (4-week in 1001-1500g infants). Univariate analysis was performed to assess whether the use of EPO was associated with severe (threshold) ROP. A control, multivariate statistical analysis was performed by entering into a logistic regression model a number of neonatal and perinatal variables that - in univariate analysis - had been associated with threshold ROP. RESULTS:During the study period, 211 ELBW infants were born at the two facilities and survived till discharge. Complete data were obtained for 197 of them. Threshold retinopathy of prematurity occurred in 26.9% (29 of 108) of ELBW infants who received erythropoietin therapy, as compared with 13.5% (12 of 89) of those who did not receive erythropoietin (OR 2.35; 95% CI 1.121-4.949; p=0.02 in univariate analysis, and p=0.04 at multivariate logistic regression after controlling for the following variables: birth weight, gestational age, days on supplemental oxygen, systemic fungal infection, vaginal delivery). Use of erythropoietin was not significantly associated with other major sequelae of prematurity (intraventricular hemorrhage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis). © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. CONCLUSIONS:Use of erythropoietin is an additional, independent predictor of threshold ROP in ELBW neonates. Larger prospective, population-based studies should further clarify the extent of this association. 10.1016/S0378-3782(14)50009-6
    Erythropoietin serum levels, versus anaemia as risk factors for severe retinopathy of prematurity. Lundgren Pia,Hellgren Gunnel,Pivodic Aldina,Sävman Karin,Smith Lois E H,Hellström Ann Pediatric research BACKGROUND:Preterm infants with anaemia are treated with recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). It is debated whether rhEPO treatment is a risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). We evaluated longitudinal EPO and haemoglobin levels, blood transfusions and neonatal morbidities as risk factors for severe ROP. METHOD:This prospective study included 78 Swedish infants, born <28 weeks gestational age (GA), screened for ROP. We tested serum EPO levels on postnatal days 1, 7, 14 and 28 and at postmenstrual ages 32, 36 and 40 weeks. Haemoglobin levels and blood transfusions were recorded during postnatal weeks 1-4. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin ≤110 g/L. RESULTS:During postnatal week 1, infants with severe ROP requiring treatment (28%) more frequently developed anaemia (42.9% versus 8.0%, P = 0.003) and had higher mean EPO levels (postnatal day 7: 14.2 versus 10.8 mIU/mL, P = 0.003) compared to infants with no or less severe ROP not requiring treatment. In multivariable analyses, GA and anaemia during week 1 remained significant risk factors, but elevated EPO level postnatal day 7 was no longer significant. CONCLUSIONS:Among infants born <28 weeks GA, anaemia during week 1 was a significant risk factor for severe ROP requiring treatment but not elevated EPO levels. 10.1038/s41390-018-0186-6
    The role of recombinant Human erythropoietin in neonatal anemia. El-Lahony Dalia M,Saleh Nagwan Y,Habib Mona S,Shehata Mohammed A,El-Hawy Mahmoud A Hematology/oncology and stem cell therapy AIM:To estimate the blood level of Erythropoietin(EPO) in neonates with anemia of prematurity (APO) and in late hypo-regenerative anemia and to clarify role of EPO in correction of anemia and reducing the number of blood transfusions. METHODS:This study was carried out on 60 neonates divided into; group I (30 preterm neonates) with AOP received EPO (250 IU/kg/dose subcutaneously 3 times weekly for 4 weeks), compared to group II (30 neonates) with AOP treated only with blood transfusion. CBC parameters and transfusion requirements were followed during therapy. Serum level of EPO was measured by ELISA technique. RESULTS:By the end of the 4th week of therapy, there was significant increase in group I post r-Hu EPO compared to group II regarding reticulocyte counts (P < 0.001) leading to rise of the Hb (P < 0.001), Hct levels (P < 0.001) with subsequent reduction in the overall number of blood transfusions (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION:EPO therapy in conjunction with iron, vitamin E and folic acid, stimulated erythropoiesis and significantly reduced the need for blood transfusion in AOP. 10.1016/j.hemonc.2019.08.004
    High-Dose Erythropoietin in Extremely Low Gestational Age Neonates Does Not Alter Risk of Retinopathy of Prematurity. Mayock Dennis E,Xie Zimeng,Comstock Bryan A,Heagerty Patrick J,Juul Sandra E, Neonatology INTRODUCTION:The Preterm Erythropoietin (Epo) Neuroprotection (PENUT) Trial sought to determine the safety and efficacy of early high-dose Epo as a potential neuroprotective treatment. We hypothesized that Epo would not increase the incidence or severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS:A total of 941 infants born between 24-0/7 and 27-6/7 weeks' gestation were randomized to 1,000 U/kg Epo or placebo intravenously for 6 doses, followed by subcutaneous or sham injections of 400 U/kg Epo 3 times a week through 32 weeks post-menstrual age. In this secondary analysis of PENUT trial data, survivors were evaluated for ROP. A modified intention-to-treat approach was used to compare treatment groups. In addition, risk factors for ROP were evaluated using regression methods that account for multiples and allow for adjustment for treatment and gestational age at birth. RESULTS:Of 845 subjects who underwent ROP examination, 503 were diagnosed with ROP with similar incidence and severity between treatment groups. Gestational age at birth, birth weight, prenatal magnesium sulfate, maternal antibiotic exposure, and presence of heart murmur at 2 weeks predicted the development of any ROP, while being on high-frequency oscillator or high-frequency jet ventilation (HFOV/HFJV) at 2 weeks predicted severe ROP. CONCLUSION:Early high-dose Epo followed by maintenance dosing through 32 weeks does not increase the risk of any or severe ROP in extremely low gestational age neonates. Gestational age, birth weight, maternal treatment with magnesium sulfate, antibiotic use during pregnancy, and presence of a heart murmur at 2 weeks were associated with increased risk of any ROP. Treatment with HFOV/HFJV was associated with an increased risk of severe ROP. 10.1159/000511262
    Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at Age 5 Years After Prophylactic Early High-Dose Recombinant Human Erythropoietin for Neuroprotection in Very Preterm Infants. Natalucci Giancarlo,Latal Bea,Koller Brigitte,Rüegger Christoph,Sick Beate,Held Leonhard,Fauchère Jean-Claude, JAMA 10.1001/jama.2020.19395
    Cord Blood Erythropoietin and Hepcidin Reflect Lower Newborn Iron Stores due to Maternal Obesity during Pregnancy. Korlesky Colin,Kling Pamela J,Pham Daphne Q D,Ovasapyan Albina A,Leyns Cheryl E G,Weber Morgan B,Coe Christopher L American journal of perinatology OBJECTIVE:Obesity during pregnancy impedes fetal iron endowment. In adults, both iron depletion and hypoxia stimulate erythropoietin (Epo) production, while hepcidin, the primary iron regulator, is inhibited by Epo and stimulated by obesity. To understand this relationship in fetuses, we investigated obesity, inflammation, and fetal iron status on fetal Epo and hepcidin levels. STUDY DESIGN:Epo, hepcidin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and ferritin levels were measured in 201 newborns of 35 to 40 weeks' gestation with historical risk factors for a low fetal iron endowment, including half with maternal obesity. RESULTS:Epo was unrelated to fetal size, but Epo was directly related to maternal body mass index (BMI; kg/m) ( < 0.03) and CRP ( < 0.0005) at delivery. Epo levels were twice as likely to be elevated (≥50 IU/L) while comparing the lowest quartile of ferritin with the upper three quartiles (< 0.01). Hepcidin was directly related to ferritin (< 0.001) and indirectly related to maternal BMI ( < 0.015), but BMI became nonsignificant when undergoing multivariate analysis. Hepcidin was unrelated to Epo. CONCLUSION:Although some of the fetal responses involving Epo were similar to adults, we did not find a hepcidin-Epo relationship like that of adults, where fetal liver is the site of both hepcidin and Epo production. 10.1055/s-0038-1669444
    [Risk factors involved in the need for blood transfusion in very low birth weight newborns treated with erythropoietin]. Guzmán Cabañas J M,de la Torre Aguilar M J,Tofé Valera I M,Muñoz Gomariz E,Ordoñez Diaz M D,Párraga Quiles M J,Ruiz González M D Anales de pediatria (Barcelona, Spain : 2003) OBJECTIVE:To identify and quantify risk factors related to red blood cell transfusion in premature babies weighing<1,500g who received erythropoietin (EPO). Secondly, to assess the relationship between retinopathy of prematurity and rh-EPO. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Prospective descriptive study of infants admitted to the Reina Sofía University Hospital between January 2006 and March 2009. Infants reviewed had a birth weight<1,500g and gestational age<32 weeks. Infants were administered rh-EPO 750IU/kg/week subcutaneously 3 days/week/ 6 weeks. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regressions with PASW Statistics 18 for Windows. RESULTS:Data were obtained from 110 infants, with a mean birth weight of 1154grs and mean gestational age of 29.3 weeks. Risk factors (OR; 95% CI) for being transfused were: male sex (4.41; 1.24-15.66), GA (1.64; 1.14-2.36, 1 week), Hb level on admission (1.45; 1.04-2.04; 1g/dl), late onset sepsis (7.75; 2.21-21.11), late onset treatment with rh-EPO (6.27; 1.22-32.35). All surgically treated infants with patent ductus arteriosus ligation or necrotizing enterocolitis needed transfusion. There is no relationship between rh-EPO administration and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), but there was a relationship with transfusion. CONCLUSIONS:Premature infants with the lower gestational age, being male, a lower Hb level on admission and late onset sepsis are those with the greatest risk for blood transfusion. 10.1016/j.anpedi.2010.09.003
    Iron homeostasis after blood transfusion in stable preterm infants - an observational study. Herzlich Jacky,Litmanovitz Ita,Regev Rivka,Bauer Sofia,Sirota Gisela,Steiner Zvi,Arnon Shmuel Journal of perinatal medicine AIM:To evaluate the short-term effects of blood transfusion on iron status [hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and reticulocyte count], hepcidin, and erythropoietin in stable preterm infants. METHOD:Sixty-three preterm infants treated with red blood cell transfusions (RBCTs) were included. Venous blood samples were collected before and within 24 h after each transfusion. RESULTS:Hemoglobin concentration increased after RBCT (7.2±1.2 g/dL vs. 13.7±2.3 g/dL, P=0.02), as well as ferritin [131 (63-110.4) ng/mL vs. 211 (125.7-299.2) ng/mL, P=0.05); reticulocyte count decreased. sTfR did not change. Hepcidin serum levels increased from 37.5 (21.3-84.7) ng/mL to 72.6 (31.3-126.2) ng/mL, (P=0.04) and erythropoietin decreased (48±19 pg/mL vs. 29±17 pg/mL, P=0.06) after RBCT. A positive linear correlation was found (R2=0.76, P=0.0001) between hepcidin and ferritin levels of post-minus-pre RBCT. Hepcidin levels increased significantly in preterm infants who received RBCT after 1 month of age compared to those who received RBCT at <1 month (P=0.03). No correlation was found between gestational age, weight appropriate for age, or length of blood storage and hepcidin levels. CONCLUSION:Preterm infants can control iron levels by regulating hepcidin and decreasing erythropoietin. This ability varies with postnatal age. 10.1515/jpm-2015-0361
    Repetitive Erythropoietin Treatment Improves Long-Term Neurocognitive Outcome by Attenuating Hyperoxia-Induced Hypomyelination in the Developing Brain. Dewan Monia Vanessa,Serdar Meray,van de Looij Yohan,Kowallick Mirjam,Hadamitzky Martin,Endesfelder Stefanie,Fandrey Joachim,Sizonenko Stéphane V,Herz Josephine,Felderhoff-Müser Ursula,Bendix Ivo Frontiers in neurology Preterm infants born before 28 weeks of gestation are at high risk of neurodevelopmental impairment in later life. Cerebral white and gray matter injury is associated with adverse outcomes. High oxygen levels, often unavoidable in neonatal intensive care, have been identified as one of the main contributing factors to preterm brain injury. Thus, preventive and therapeutic strategies against hyperoxia-induced brain injury are needed. Erythropoietin (Epo) is a promising and also neuroprotective candidate due to its clinical use in infants as erythropoiesis-stimulating agent. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of repetitive Epo treatment on the cerebral white matter and long-term motor-cognitive outcome in a neonatal rodent model of hyperoxia-induced brain injury. Three-day old Wistar rats were exposed to hyperoxia (48 h, 80% oxygen). Four doses of Epo (5,000 IU/kg body weight per day) were applied intraperitoneally from P3-P6 with the first dose at the onset of hyperoxia. Oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination were evaluated via immunohistochemistry and Western blot on P11. Motor-cognitive deficits were assessed in a battery of complex behavior tests (Open Field, Novel Object Recognition, Barnes maze) in adolescent and fully adult animals. Following behavior tests animals underwent post-mortem diffusion tensor imaging to investigate long-lasting microstructural alterations of the white matter. Repetitive treatment with Epo significantly improved myelination deficits following neonatal hyperoxia at P11. Behavioral testing revealed attenuated hyperoxia-induced cognitive deficits in Epo-treated adolescent and adult rats. A multiple Epo dosage regimen protects the developing brain against hyperoxia-induced brain injury by improving myelination and long-term cognitive outcome. Though current clinical studies on short-term outcome of Epo-treated prematurely born children contradict our findings, long-term effects up to adulthood are still lacking. Our data support the essential need for long-term follow-up of preterm infants in current clinical trials. 10.3389/fneur.2020.00804
    Neuroprotection of the preterm brain. Fleiss Bobbi,Gressens Pierre Handbook of clinical neurology Despite notable advances in the care and survival of preterm infants, a significant proportion of preterm neonates will have life-long cognitive, behavioral, and motor deficits, and robustly effective neuroprotective strategies are still missing. These therapies must target the pathophysiologic mechanisms observed in contemporaneous infants and rely on modern epidemiology, imaging, and experimental models and assessment techniques. Two drugs, magnesium sulfate and caffeine, are already in use in several units, and although their targets are apnea of prematurity and myometrial contractility (respectively), they do offer improved odds of positive outcomes. Nevertheless, these drugs have limited efficacy, and NICU-to-NICU administration varies greatly. As such, there is an obvious need for additional specific neurotherapeutic strategies to further enhance the outcome of this very fragile population of neonates. The chapter reviews these issues, highlights bottlenecks that need to be solved for meaningful progress in the field, and proposes future innovative avenues for intervention, including delayed interventions. 10.1016/B978-0-444-64029-1.00015-1
    Erythropoietin Improves Atrophy, Bleeding and Cognition in the Newborn Intraventricular Hemorrhage. Hierro-Bujalance Carmen,Infante-Garcia Carmen,Sanchez-Sotano Daniel,Del Marco Angel,Casado-Revuelta Ana,Mengual-Gonzalez Carmen Maria,Lucena-Porras Carmen,Bernal-Martin Marcos,Benavente-Fernandez Isabel,Lubian-Lopez Simon,Garcia-Alloza Monica Frontiers in cell and developmental biology The germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) is one of the most devastating complications of prematurity. The short- and long-term neurodevelopmental consequences after severe GM-IVH are a major concern for neonatologists. These kids are at high risk of psychomotor alterations and cerebral palsy; however, therapeutic approaches are limited. Erythropoietin (EPO) has been previously used to treat several central nervous system complications due to its role in angiogenesis, neurogenesis and as growth factor. In addition, EPO is regularly used to reduce the number of transfusions in the preterm infant. Moreover, EPO crosses the blood-brain barrier and EPO receptors are expressed in the human brain throughout development. To analyze the role of EPO in the GM-IVH, we have administered intraventricular collagenase (Col) to P7 mice, as a model of GM-IVH of the preterm infant. After EPO treatment, we have characterized our animals in the short (14 days) and the long (70 days) term. In our hands, EPO treatment significantly limited brain atrophy and ventricle enlargement. EPO also restored neuronal density and ameliorated dendritic spine loss. Likewise, inflammation and small vessel bleeding were also reduced, resulting in the preservation of learning and memory abilities. Moreover, plasma gelsolin levels, as a feasible peripheral marker of GM-IVH-induced damage, recovered after EPO treatment. Altogether, our data support the positive effect of EPO treatment in our preclinical model of GM-IVH, both in the short and the long term. 10.3389/fcell.2020.571258
    Effects of early parenteral iron combined erythropoietin in preterm infants: A randomized controlled trial. Qiao Linxia,Tang Qingya,Zhu Wenying,Zhang Haiyan,Zhu Yuefang,Wang Hua Medicine BACKGROUD:The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of early parenteral iron supplementation combined erythropoietin for prevention of anemia in preterm infants. METHODS:In total, 96 preterm infants were randomly assigned to 3 groups: a control group receiving standard parenteral nutrition (group 1: n = 31), an iron-supplemented group (group 2: IS, n = 33), and an iron-supplemented combined erythropoietin group (group 3: IS+EPO, n = 32). The primary objective was to assess hemoglobin (Hb) levels. The secondary objectives included assessment of red blood cell counts (RBC), mean cell volume (MCV), serum iron, ferritin, percentages of reticulocyte (RET), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and oxidative stress, which was assessed by measuring plasma levels of malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase at baseline and at 2 weeks. The blood routine indices including Hb, RBC, MCV, and percentages of RET were measured at corrected age of 1 and 3 months. RESULTS:At 2 weeks of life, the percentages of reticulocyte in group 2 and group 3 were significantly higher than those in group 1 (2.1±0.4, 2.5±0.3, and 1.7±0.3, respectively, P < 0.001, P<0.001), whereas TIBC were significantly lower than those in group 1 (36.7±4.6, 36.0±4.7, and 41.6 ± 5.2 respectively, P = 0.011, P = 0.006). There were no significant differences in RBC counts, the levels of hemoglobin, ferritin, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase among the 3 groups at 2weeks of life. RBC, Hb, MCV, body weight, body length, and head circumference at a corrected age of 1 month did not differ among 3 groups. At corrected age of 3months, more infants in the control group had abnormal Hb and MCV levels (Hb levels: 114.3 ± 21.3, 123.7 ± 31.6, and 125.1 ± 21.2, P = 0.021, P = 0.034, respectively; MCV: 74.1 ± 3.5, 78.3 ± 4.7 and 79.1 ± 5.2, P = 0.017, P = 0.012, respectively), whereas cases of oral iron, cases of breastfeeding, RBC, body weight, body length, and head circumference were not different among 3 groups. CONCLUSION:Early parenteral iron supplementation combined erythropoietin in preterm infants improved the percentages of reticulocyte, decreased total iron binding capacity, and improved the Hb and MCV levels at 3 months of age. Early parenteral iron supplementations with EPO were beneficial for the preterm infants. 10.1097/MD.0000000000005795
    Erythropoietin treatment is associated with a reduction in moderate to severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants. A regional retrospective study. Bui Kim Chi T,Kim Romina,Abbasi Afshan,Nguyen Marielle,Villosis Maria Fe,Chen Qiaoling Early human development Erythropoietin treatment is associated with a reduction in moderate to severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants. A regional retrospective study. OBJECTIVE:To determine whether premature infants treated with erythropoietin (Epo) in the neonatal period for anemia had a lower incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), defined as oxygen need at 36 weeks postmenstrual age, and lower rehospitalization rates in the first year of life than infants not exposed. METHODS:Retrospective study of a population of infants born at 23 to 32 weeks gestational age, between January 2009 and December 2014, with birthweight ≤1500 g. Patient characteristics, and risk factors for BPD were compared between patients who received erythropoietin, and those not exposed. To examine the association between the outcomes of BPD at 36 weeks PMA, rehospitalization, and erythropoietin treatment, we performed a propensity score (PS) analysis using inverse probability of treatment weighted (IPTW) approach. For comparison, we conducted a logistic regression adjusting for the same covariates used to generate PS using the original population. RESULTS:The study population included 1821 preterm infants: 928 received Epo and 893 did not. Epo treatment was associated with a reduction in BPD (18.8% versus 25.9%, p < 0.01) at 36 weeks PMA and reduced median length of stay with lowest BPD rate with Epo initiation before 2 weeks of age. There was no difference in rehospitalization rates in the first year of life. CONCLUSION:Erythropoietin treatment was associated with a reduction in BPD but not in rehospitalization rate in the first year of life. 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2019.104831
    Partial white and grey matter protection with prolonged infusion of recombinant human erythropoietin after asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep. Wassink Guido,Davidson Joanne O,Dhillon Simerdeep K,Fraser Mhoyra,Galinsky Robert,Bennet Laura,Gunn Alistair J Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism Perinatal asphyxia in preterm infants remains a significant contributor to abnormal long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. Recombinant human erythropoietin has potent non-haematopoietic neuroprotective properties, but there is limited evidence for protection in the preterm brain. Preterm (0.7 gestation) fetal sheep received sham asphyxia (sham occlusion) or asphyxia induced by umbilical cord occlusion for 25 min, followed by an intravenous infusion of vehicle (occlusion-vehicle) or recombinant human erythropoietin (occlusion-Epo, 5000 international units by slow push, then 832.5 IU/h), starting 30 min after asphyxia and continued until 72 h. Recombinant human erythropoietin reduced neuronal loss and numbers of caspase-3-positive cells in the striatal caudate nucleus, CA3 and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and thalamic medial nucleus ( P < 0.05 vs. occlusion-vehicle). In the white matter tracts, recombinant human erythropoietin increased total, but not immature/mature oligodendrocytes ( P < 0.05 vs. occlusion-vehicle), with increased cell proliferation and reduced induction of activated caspase-3, microglia and astrocytes ( P < 0.05). Finally, occlusion-Epo reduced seizure burden, with more rapid recovery of electroencephalogram power, spectral edge frequency, and carotid blood flow. In summary, prolonged infusion of recombinant human erythropoietin after severe asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep was partially neuroprotective and improved electrophysiological and cerebrovascular recovery, in association with reduced apoptosis and inflammation. 10.1177/0271678X16650455
    Lack of relationship between cord blood erythropoietin and intraventricular hemorrhage in premature neonates: a controversial result. Najib Khadijehsadat,Hashemi Zahra,Moghtaderi Mozhgan,Pishdad Parisa,Pishva Narjes,Najib Fatemehsadat Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery PURPOSE:The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and risk factors of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) as well as the role of cord blood erythropoietin (EPO) level in predicting the possibility of IVH in premature neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This prospective study included 140 preterm neonates born at hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences from May 2014 to April 2015. Complete blood count and cord blood EPO level was measured after birth. Brain ultrasonography was performed at 3 and 7-10 days after birth in these newborns. RESULTS:Brain ultrasonography showed IVH in 8.57% (12/140) until the third day and 20% (28/140) at 7-10 days of life in premature neonates. Early gestational age, low birth weight, low Apgar score, and failure to give prenatal steroid were significant risk factors for developing IVH. The mean level of cord blood EPO was 20.95 ± 21.09 mIU/mL in premature newborns without IVH and 15.82 ± 17.11 mIU/mL with IVH. There was no correlation between the cord blood EPO and IVH in premature newborns. CONCLUSION:Antenatal steroids therapy should be encouraged among women at risk of premature delivery. Our results showed that the cord blood EPO was not correlated with IVH in preterm neonates and further research is required to assess this relationship. 10.1007/s00381-018-3872-0
    A Mechanism-Based Population Pharmacokinetics Model of Erythropoietin in Premature Infants and Healthy Adults Following Multiple Intravenous Doses. D'Cunha Ronilda,Widness John A,Yan Xiaoyu,Schmidt Robert L,Veng-Pedersen Peter,An Guohua Journal of clinical pharmacology The objective of the current study was to develop a population pharmacokinetics (PK) model for erythropoietin (Epo) in premature infants and healthy adults to characterize the variation in PK, and to study the differences in Epo PK in these 2 populations. Thirteen very low-birth-weight premature infants (<1500 g at birth), and 10 healthy adults received up to 4 intravenous doses of Epo that ranged from 10 to 500 U/kg. The final model had a target-mediated saturable, nonlinear, elimination pathway that incorporated the mechanism of Epo binding to its receptors along with a parallel linear, central elimination pathway. Epo clearance was found to be significantly higher in preterm infants compared to adults. Epo clearance via the nonlinear pathway was found to be much higher in infants; they had an Epo receptor capacity of 133 pM vs 86.6 pM in adults, which is most likely due to the higher erythroid progenitor cell mass per kilogram of body weight in infants. The parallel linear elimination was found to be more dominant in adults, reaching 91% of the total clearance with a 500-U/kg dose compared to just 6.1% of the total clearance following the same dose in preterm infants. Thus, this mechanism-based population PK model revealed that receptor-based nonlinear elimination is the dominant Epo elimination pathway in premature infants, and parallel linear elimination is dominant in adults. 10.1002/jcph.1368
    Randomized trial of early erythropoietin supplementation after preterm birth: Iron metabolism and outcome. Peltoniemi O M,Anttila E,Kaukola T,Buonocore G,Hallman M Early human development BACKGROUND:Excess of iron and oxidant injury shortly after birth may be associated with neonatal morbidities in preterm infants. AIMS:The aim was to determine whether administration of erythropoietin without iron supplementation decreases iron load and morbidity. STUDY DESIGN AND SUBJECTS:In a randomized trial, we administered erythropoietin (EPO 250IU/kg daily during the first 6days of life) or placebo to 39 preterm infants (BW 700-1500g, GA≤30.0weeks). OUTCOME MEASURES:The iron status, postnatal morbidities and follow-up at the age of two years were investigated. RESULTS:In all, 21 EPO- and 18 placebo-treated infants were recruited. A requirement of red blood cell transfusions during first 28days was similar between the study groups. EPO treatment decreased total serum iron concentration (p=0.035). EPO supplementation had no significant effect on serum transferrin receptors or reactive non-protein-bound iron. There were no differences in neonatal morbidity or in survival without major neurological abnormality at two years of age. CONCLUSIONS:A 6-day course of EPO decreased the iron load in preterm infants. There was no change in reactive, non-protein bound iron plasma levels and no influence on the outcomes during early childhood. Whether the neurocognitive effects of early EPO treatment can be detectable later in childhood remained to be verified. 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2017.04.001
    The effects of enteral artificial amniotic fluid-containing erythropoietin on short term outcomes of preterm infants. Hosseini Mohammadbagher,Azampour Hamid,Raeisi Sina,Behtari Meysam,Valizadeh Hadi,Saboohi Roya The Turkish journal of pediatrics Hosseini M, Azampour H, Raeisi S, Behtari M, Valizadeh H, Saboohi R. The effects of enteral artificial amniotic fluid-containing erythropoietin on short term outcomes of preterm infants. Turk J Pediatr 2019; 61: 392-398. Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) is a common devastating gastrointestinal disease, which usually develops in premature infants. Erythropoietin (EPO) as a hematopoietic hormone produced by the kidney can also be naturally found in amniotic fluid and breast milk. There is some evidence that supports the contribution of EPO in the prevention of inflammation and intestinal tissue repair. This study was aimed to determine if oral administration of artificial amniotic fluid with or without EPO would protect preterm infants against NEC and improve the certain neonatal outcomes. In this study, 150 preterm infants with gestational age 28 weeks or less and birth weight 1250 grams or less were enrolled. The infants were divided randomly into 3 groups: 1) Control group (n=50) with routine feeding protocol without any administration; 2) Amniotic fluid group (n=50) with 5mL/kg synthetic amniotic fluid; 3) EPO group (n=50) with RhuEPO dissolved in the synthetic amniotic fluid. The administrations of the study solution were started 3 days after the birth and were continued for 3 weeks (21 days). The infants in the study groups were followed up until discharge and the frequency of NEC, mortality, and other complications of the disease among the groups were compared. The mortality rate in preterm infants of the amniotic fluid and EPO groups were significantly lower than in the control group (p=0.027). We couldn`t find any significant differences in the frequency of NEC and other complications among the three study groups. The administration of synthetic amniotic fluid (with or without EPO) in preterm infants may decrease the mortality rate. Use of EPO in synthetic amniotic fluid did not affect the frequency of NEC. 10.24953/turkjped.2019.03.011
    Early versus late erythropoietin for preventing red blood cell transfusion in preterm and/or low birth weight infants. Aher Sanjay M,Ohlsson Arne The Cochrane database of systematic reviews BACKGROUND:Low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO) in preterm infants provide a rationale for the use of EPO to prevent or treat anaemia. OBJECTIVES:To assess the effectiveness and safety of early versus late initiation of EPO in reducing red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in preterm and/or low birth weight (LBW) infants. SEARCH METHODS:The standard search of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group (CNRG) was performed in 2006 and updated in 2009. Updated search in September 2009 as follows: The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (search via PubMed), CINAHL and EMBASE were searched from 2005 to September 2009. The searches were repeated in March 2012. The Pediatric Academic Societies' Annual meetings were searched electronically from 2000 to 2012 at Abstracts2View as were clinical trials registries (clinicaltrials.gov; controlled-trials.com; and who.int/ictrp). SELECTION CRITERIA:Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials enrolling preterm or LBW infants less than eight days of age. INTERVENTION:Early initiation of EPO (initiated at less than eight days of age) versus late initiation of EPO (initiated at eight to 28 days of age). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:The standard methods of the CNRG were followed. Weighted treatment effects included typical risk ratio (RR), typical risk difference (RD), number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB), number needed to treat to harm (NNTH) and mean difference (MD), all with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A fixed-effect model was used for meta-analyses and heterogeneity was evaluated using the I-squared (I) test. MAIN RESULTS:No new trials were identified in March of 2012. Two high quality randomised double-blind controlled studies enrolling 262 infants were identified. A non-significant reduction in the 'Use of one or more RBC transfusions' [two studies 262 infants; typical RR 0.91 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.06); typical RD -0.07 (95% CI -0.18 to 0.04; I = 0% for both RR and RD] favouring early EPO was noted. Early EPO administration resulted in a non-significant reduction in the "number of transfusions per infant" compared with late EPO [typical MD - 0.32 (95% CI -0.92 to 0.29)]. There was no significant reduction in total volume of blood transfused per infant or in the number of donors to whom the infant was exposed. Early EPO led to a significant increase in the risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (all stages) [two studies, 191 infants; typical RR 1.40 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.86); typical RD 0.16 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.29); NNTH 6 (95% CI 3 to 33)]. There was high heterogeneity for this outcome (I = 86% for RR and 81% for RD). Both studies (191 infants) reported on ROP stage > 3. No statistically significant increase in risk was noted [typical RR 1.56 (95% CI 0.71 to 3.41); typical RD 0.05 (-0.04 to 0.14)] There was no heterogeneity for this outcome (0% for both RR and RD). No other important favourable or adverse neonatal outcomes or side effects were reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:The use of early EPO did not significantly reduce the 'Use of one or more RBC transfusions' or the 'Number of transfusions per infant" compared with late EPO administration. The finding of a statistically significant increased risk of ROP (any grade) and a similar trend for ROP stage > 3 with early EPO treatment is of great concern. 10.1002/14651858.CD004865.pub4
    Late erythropoiesis-stimulating agents to prevent red blood cell transfusion in preterm or low birth weight infants. Aher Sanjay M,Ohlsson Arne The Cochrane database of systematic reviews BACKGROUND:Preterm infants have low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO), providing a rationale for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) to prevent or treat anaemia. Darbepoetin (Darbe) and EPO are currently available ESAs. OBJECTIVES:To assess the effectiveness and safety of late initiation of ESAs, between eight and 28 days after birth, in reducing the use of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in preterm or low birth weight infants. SEARCH METHODS:We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2018, Issue 5), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 5 June 2018), Embase (1980 to 5 June 2018), and CINAHL (1982 to 5 June 2018). We searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. SELECTION CRITERIA:Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of late initiation of EPO treatment (started at ≥ eight days of age) versus placebo or no intervention in preterm (< 37 weeks) or low birth weight (< 2500 grams) neonates. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:We performed data collection and analyses in accordance with the methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS:We include 31 studies (32 comparisons) randomising 1651 preterm infants. Literature searches in 2018 identified one new study for inclusion. No new on-going trials were identified and no studies used darbepoetin.Most included trials were of small sample size. The meta-analysis showed a significant effect on the use of one or more RBC transfusions (21 studies (n = 1202); typical risk ratio (RR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65 to 0.79; typical risk difference (RD) -0.17, 95% CI -0.22 to -0.12; typical number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 6, 95% CI 5 to 8). There was moderate heterogeneity for this outcome (RR I² = 66%; RD I² = 58%). The quality of the evidence was very low. We obtained similar results in secondary analyses based on different combinations of high/low doses of EPO and iron supplementation. There was no significant reduction in the total volume (mL/kg) of blood transfused per infant (typical mean difference (MD) -1.6 mL/kg, 95% CI -5.8 to 2.6); 5 studies, 197 infants). There was high heterogeneity for this outcome (I² = 92%). There was a significant reduction in the number of transfusions per infant (11 studies enrolling 817 infants; typical MD -0.22, 95% CI -0.38 to -0.06). There was high heterogeneity for this outcome (I² = 94%).Three studies including 404 infants reported on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (all stages or stage not reported), with a typical RR 1.27 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.64) and a typical RD of 0.09 (95% CI -0.00 to 0.18). There was high heterogeneity for this outcome for both RR (I² = 83%) and RD (I² = 82%). The quality of the evidence was very low.Three trials enrolling 442 infants reported on ROP (stage ≥ 3). The typical RR was 1.73 (95% CI 0.92 to 3.24) and the typical RD was 0.05 (95% CI -0.01 to 0.10). There was no heterogeneity for this outcome for RR (I² = 18%) but high heterogeneity for RD (I² = 79%). The quality of the evidence was very low.There were no significant differences in other clinical outcomes including mortality and necrotising enterocolitis. For the outcomes of mortality and necrotising enterocolitis, the quality of the evidence was moderate. Long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes were not reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:Late administration of EPO reduces the use of one or more RBC transfusions, the number of RBC transfusions per infant (< 1 transfusion per infant) but not the total volume (mL/kg) of RBCs transfused per infant. Any donor exposure is likely not avoided as most studies included infants who had received RBC transfusions prior to trial entry. Late EPO does not significantly reduce or increase any clinically important adverse outcomes except for a trend in increased risk for ROP. Further research of the use of late EPO treatment, to prevent donor exposure, is not indicated. Research efforts should focus on limiting donor exposure during the first few days of life in sick neonates, when RBC requirements are most likely to be required and cannot be prevented by late EPO treatment. The use of satellite packs (dividing one unit of donor blood into many smaller aliquots) may reduce donor exposure. 10.1002/14651858.CD004868.pub5
    Early erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in preterm or low birth weight infants. Ohlsson Arne,Aher Sanjay M The Cochrane database of systematic reviews BACKGROUND:Preterm infants have low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO), providing a rationale for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) to prevent or treat anaemia and to provide neuro protection and protection against necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). Darbepoetin (Darbe) and EPO are currently available ESAs. OBJECTIVES:To assess the effectiveness and safety of ESAs (erythropoietin (EPO) and/or Darbe) initiated early (before eight days after birth) compared with placebo or no intervention in reducing red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, adverse neurological outcomes, and feeding intolerance including necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm and/or low birth weight infants. Primary objective for studies that primarily investigate the effectiveness and safety of ESAs administered early in reducing red blood cell transfusions:To assess the effectiveness and safety of ESAs initiated early in reducing red blood cell transfusions in preterm infants. Secondary objectives:Review authors performed subgroup analyses of low (≤ 500 IU/kg/week) and high (> 500 IU/kg/week) doses of EPO and the amount of iron supplementation provided: none, low (≤ 5 mg/kg/d), and high (> 5 mg/kg/d). Primary objective for studies that primarily investigate the neuro protective effectiveness of ESAs:To assess the effectiveness and safety of ESAs initiated early in reducing adverse neurological outcomes in preterm infants. Primary objective for studies that primarily investigate the effectiveness of EPO or Darbe administered early in reducing feeding intolerance:To assess the effectiveness and safety of ESAs administered early in reducing feeding intolerance (and NEC) in preterm infants. Other secondary objectives:To compare the effectiveness of ESAs in reducing the incidence of adverse events and improving long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. SEARCH METHODS:We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 2), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 10 March 2017), Embase (1980 to 10 March 2017), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to 10 March 2017). We searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials. SELECTION CRITERIA:Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of early initiation of EAS treatment versus placebo or no intervention in preterm or low birth weight infants. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:We used the methods described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS:This updated review includes 34 studies enrolling 3643 infants. All analyses compared ESAs versus a control consisting of placebo or no treatment.Early ESAs reduced the risk of 'use of one or more [red blood cell] RBC transfusions' (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74 to 0.85; typical risk difference (RD) -0.14, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.10; I = 69% for RR and 62% for RD (moderate heterogeneity); number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 7, 95% CI 6 to 10; 19 studies, 1750 infants). The quality of the evidence was low.Necrotising enterocolitis was significantly reduced in the ESA group compared with the placebo group (typical RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.91; typical RD -0.03, 95% CI -0.05 to -0.01; I = 0% for RR and 22% for RD (low heterogeneity); NNTB 33, 95% CI 20 to 100; 15 studies, 2639 infants). The quality of the evidence was moderate.Data show a reduction in 'Any neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months' corrected age in the ESA group (typical RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.80; typical RD -0.08, 95% CI -0.12 to -0.04; NNTB 13, 95% CI 8 to 25. I = 76% for RR (high heterogeneity) and 66% for RD (moderate); 4 studies, 1130 infants). The quality of the evidence was low.Results reveal increased scores on the Bayley-II Mental Development Index (MDI) at 18 to 24 months in the ESA group (weighted mean difference (WMD) 8.22, 95% CI 6.52 to 9.92; I = 97% (high heterogeneity); 3 studies, 981 children). The quality of the evidence was low.The total volume of RBCs transfused per infant was reduced by 7 mL/kg. The number of RBC transfusions per infant was minimally reduced, but the number of donors to whom infants who were transfused were exposed was not significantly reduced. Data show no significant difference in risk of stage ≥ 3 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) with early EPO (typical RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.90; typical RD 0.01, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.04; I = 0% (no heterogeneity) for RR; I = 34% (low heterogeneity) for RD; 8 studies, 1283 infants). Mortality was not affected, but results show significant reductions in the incidence of intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:Early administration of ESAs reduces the use of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, the volume of RBCs transfused, and donor exposure after study entry. Small reductions are likely to be of limited clinical importance. Donor exposure probably is not avoided, given that all but one study included infants who had received RBC transfusions before trial entry. This update found no significant difference in the rate of ROP (stage ≥ 3) for studies that initiated EPO treatment at less than eight days of age, which has been a topic of concern in earlier versions of this review. Early EPO treatment significantly decreased rates of IVH, PVL, and NEC. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 to 22 months and later varied in published studies. Ongoing research should evaluate current clinical practices that will limit donor exposure. Promising but conflicting results related to the neuro protective effect of early EPO require further study. Very different results from the two largest published trials and high heterogeneity in the analyses indicate that we should wait for the results of two ongoing large trials before drawing firm conclusions. Administration of EPO is not currently recommended because limited benefits have been identified to date. Use of darepoetin requires further study. 10.1002/14651858.CD004863.pub5
    Late erythropoiesis-stimulating agents to prevent red blood cell transfusion in preterm or low birth weight infants. Aher Sanjay M,Ohlsson Arne The Cochrane database of systematic reviews BACKGROUND:Preterm infants have low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO), providing a rationale for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) to prevent or treat anaemia. Darbepoetin (Darbe) and EPO are currently available ESAs. OBJECTIVES:To assess the effectiveness and safety of late initiation of ESAs, between eight and 28 days after birth, in reducing the use of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in preterm or low birth weight infants. SEARCH METHODS:We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2018, Issue 5), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 5 June 2018), Embase (1980 to 5 June 2018), and CINAHL (1982 to 5 June 2018). We searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. SELECTION CRITERIA:Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of late initiation of EPO treatment (started at ≥ eight days of age) versus placebo or no intervention in preterm (< 37 weeks) or low birth weight (< 2500 grams) neonates. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:We performed data collection and analyses in accordance with the methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS:We include 31 studies (32 comparisons) randomising 1651 preterm infants. Literature searches in 2018 identified one new study for inclusion. No new on-going trials were identified and no studies used darbepoetin. Most included trials were of small sample size. The meta-analysis showed a significant effect on the use of one or more RBC transfusions (21 studies (n = 1202); typical risk ratio (RR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65 to 0.79; typical risk difference (RD) -0.17, 95% CI -0.22 to -0.12; typical number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 6, 95% CI 5 to 8). There was moderate heterogeneity for this outcome (RR I² = 66%; RD I² = 58%). The quality of the evidence was very low. We obtained similar results in secondary analyses based on different combinations of high/low doses of EPO and iron supplementation. There was no significant reduction in the total volume (mL/kg) of blood transfused per infant (typical mean difference (MD) -1.6 mL/kg, 95% CI -5.8 to 2.6); 5 studies, 197 infants). There was high heterogeneity for this outcome (I² = 92%). There was a significant reduction in the number of transfusions per infant (11 studies enrolling 817 infants; typical MD -0.22, 95% CI -0.38 to -0.06). There was high heterogeneity for this outcome (I² = 94%). Three studies including 404 infants reported on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (all stages or stage not reported), with a typical RR 1.27 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.64) and a typical RD of 0.09 (95% CI -0.00 to 0.18). There was high heterogeneity for this outcome for both RR (I² = 83%) and RD (I² = 82%). The quality of the evidence was very low.Three trials enrolling 442 infants reported on ROP (stage ≥ 3). The typical RR was 1.73 (95% CI 0.92 to 3.24) and the typical RD was 0.05 (95% CI -0.01 to 0.10). There was no heterogeneity for this outcome for RR (I² = 18%) but high heterogeneity for RD (I² = 79%). The quality of the evidence was very low.There were no significant differences in other clinical outcomes including mortality and necrotising enterocolitis. For the outcomes of mortality and necrotising enterocolitis, the quality of the evidence was moderate. Long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes were not reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:Late administration of EPO reduces the use of one or more RBC transfusions, the number of RBC transfusions per infant (< 1 transfusion per infant) but not the total volume (mL/kg) of RBCs transfused per infant. Any donor exposure is likely not avoided as most studies included infants who had received RBC transfusions prior to trial entry. Late EPO does not significantly reduce or increase any clinically important adverse outcomes except for a trend in increased risk for ROP. Further research of the use of late EPO treatment, to prevent donor exposure, is not indicated. Research efforts should focus on limiting donor exposure during the first few days of life in sick neonates, when RBC requirements are most likely to be required and cannot be prevented by late EPO treatment. The use of satellite packs (dividing one unit of donor blood into many smaller aliquots) may reduce donor exposure. 10.1002/14651858.CD004868.pub6
    Chorioamnionitis, neuroinflammation, and injury: timing is key in the preterm ovine fetus. Gussenhoven Ruth,Westerlaken Rob J J,Ophelders Daan R M G,Jobe Alan H,Kemp Matthew W,Kallapur Suhas G,Zimmermann Luc J,Sangild Per T,Pankratova Stanislava,Gressens Pierre,Kramer Boris W,Fleiss Bobbi,Wolfs Tim G A M Journal of neuroinflammation BACKGROUND:Antenatal infection (i.e., chorioamnionitis) is an important risk factor for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes after preterm birth. Destructive and developmental disturbances of the white matter are hallmarks of preterm brain injury. Understanding the temporal effects of antenatal infection in relation to the onset of neurological injury is crucial for the development of neurotherapeutics for preterm infants. However, these dynamics remain unstudied. METHODS:Time-mated ewes were intra-amniotically injected with lipopolysaccharide at 5, 12, or 24 h or 2, 4, 8, or 15 days before preterm delivery at 125 days gestational age (term ~ 150 days). Post mortem analyses for peripheral immune activation, neuroinflammation, and white matter/neuronal injury were performed. Moreover, considering the neuroprotective potential of erythropoietin (EPO) for perinatal brain injury, we evaluated (phosphorylated) EPO receptor (pEPOR) expression in the fetal brain following LPS exposure. RESULTS:Intra-amniotic exposure to this single bolus of LPS resulted in a biphasic systemic IL-6 and IL-8 response. In the developing brain, intra-amniotic LPS exposure induces a persistent microgliosis (IBA-1 immunoreactivity) but a shorter-lived increase in the pro-inflammatory marker COX-2. Cell death (caspase-3 immunoreactivity) was only observed when LPS exposure was greater than 8 days in the white matter, and there was a reduction in the number of (pre) oligodendrocytes (Olig2- and PDGFRα-positive cells) within the white matter at 15 days post LPS exposure only. pEPOR expression displayed a striking biphasic regulation following LPS exposure which may help explain contradicting results among clinical trials that tested EPO for the prevention of preterm brain injury. CONCLUSION:We provide increased understanding of the spatiotemporal pathophysiological changes in the preterm brain following intra-amniotic inflammation which may aid development of new interventions or implement interventions more effectively to prevent perinatal brain damage. 10.1186/s12974-018-1149-x
    Early erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in preterm or low birth weight infants. Ohlsson Arne,Aher Sanjay M The Cochrane database of systematic reviews BACKGROUND:Preterm infants have low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO), providing a rationale for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) to prevent or treat anaemia and to provide neuro protection and protection against necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). Darbepoetin (Darbe) and EPO are currently available ESAs. OBJECTIVES:To assess the effectiveness and safety of ESAs (erythropoietin (EPO) and/or Darbe) initiated early (before eight days after birth) compared with placebo or no intervention in reducing red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, adverse neurological outcomes, and feeding intolerance including necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm and/or low birth weight infants. Primary objective for studies that primarily investigate the effectiveness and safety of ESAs administered early in reducing red blood cell transfusions: To assess the effectiveness and safety of ESAs initiated early in reducing red blood cell transfusions in preterm infants. Secondary objectives: Review authors performed subgroup analyses of low (≤ 500 IU/kg/week) and high (> 500 IU/kg/week) doses of EPO and the amount of iron supplementation provided: none, low (≤ 5 mg/kg/d), and high (> 5 mg/kg/d). Primary objective for studies that primarily investigate the neuro protective effectiveness of ESAs: To assess the effectiveness and safety of ESAs initiated early in reducing adverse neurological outcomes in preterm infants. Primary objective for studies that primarily investigate the effectiveness of EPO or Darbe administered early in reducing feeding intolerance: To assess the effectiveness and safety of ESAs administered early in reducing feeding intolerance (and NEC) in preterm infants. Other secondary objectives: To compare the effectiveness of ESAs in reducing the incidence of adverse events and improving long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. SEARCH METHODS:We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 2), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 10 March 2017), Embase (1980 to 10 March 2017), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to 10 March 2017). We searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials. SELECTION CRITERIA:Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of early initiation of EAS treatment versus placebo or no intervention in preterm or low birth weight infants. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:We used the methods described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS:This updated review includes 34 studies enrolling 3643 infants. All analyses compared ESAs versus a control consisting of placebo or no treatment. Early ESAs reduced the risk of 'use of one or more [red blood cell] RBC transfusions' (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74 to 0.85; typical risk difference (RD) -0.14, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.10; I = 69% for RR and 62% for RD (moderate heterogeneity); number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 7, 95% CI 6 to 10; 19 studies, 1750 infants). The quality of the evidence was low. Necrotising enterocolitis was significantly reduced in the ESA group compared with the placebo group (typical RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.91; typical RD -0.03, 95% CI -0.05 to -0.01; I = 0% for RR and 22% for RD (low heterogeneity); NNTB 33, 95% CI 20 to 100; 15 studies, 2639 infants). The quality of the evidence was moderate. Data show a reduction in 'Any neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months' corrected age in the ESA group (typical RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.80; typical RD -0.08, 95% CI -0.12 to -0.04; NNTB 13, 95% CI 8 to 25. I = 76% for RR (high heterogeneity) and 66% for RD (moderate); 4 studies, 1130 infants). The quality of the evidence was low. Results reveal increased scores on the Bayley-II Mental Development Index (MDI) at 18 to 24 months in the ESA group (weighted mean difference (WMD) 8.22, 95% CI 6.52 to 9.92; I = 97% (high heterogeneity); 3 studies, 981 children). The quality of the evidence was low. The total volume of RBCs transfused per infant was reduced by 7 mL/kg. The number of RBC transfusions per infant was minimally reduced, but the number of donors to whom infants who were transfused were exposed was not significantly reduced. Data show no significant difference in risk of stage ≥ 3 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) with early EPO (typical RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.90; typical RD 0.01, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.04; I = 0% (no heterogeneity) for RR; I = 34% (low heterogeneity) for RD; 8 studies, 1283 infants). Mortality was not affected, but results show significant reductions in the incidence of intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:Early administration of ESAs reduces the use of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, the volume of RBCs transfused, and donor exposure after study entry. Small reductions are likely to be of limited clinical importance. Donor exposure probably is not avoided, given that all but one study included infants who had received RBC transfusions before trial entry. This update found no significant difference in the rate of ROP (stage ≥ 3) for studies that initiated EPO treatment at less than eight days of age, which has been a topic of concern in earlier versions of this review. Early EPO treatment significantly decreased rates of IVH, PVL, and NEC. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 to 22 months and later varied in published studies. Ongoing research should evaluate current clinical practices that will limit donor exposure. Promising but conflicting results related to the neuro protective effect of early EPO require further study. Very different results from the two largest published trials and high heterogeneity in the analyses indicate that we should wait for the results of two ongoing large trials before drawing firm conclusions. Administration of EPO is not currently recommended because limited benefits have been identified to date. Use of darbepoetin requires further study. 10.1002/14651858.CD004863.pub6
    Erythropoietin prevents LPS-induced preterm birth and increases offspring survival. Zhang Jie,Luo Xianqiong,Huang Caicai,Pei Zheng,Xiao Huimei,Luo Xingang,Huang Shuangmiao,Chang Yanqun American journal of reproductive immunology (New York, N.Y. : 1989) PROBLEM:Preterm delivery is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and contributes to delayed physical and cognitive development in children. At present, there is no efficient therapy to prevent preterm labor. A large body of evidence suggests that infections might play a significant and potentially preventable cause of premature birth. This work assessed the effects of erythropoietin (EPO) in a murine model of inflammation-associated preterm delivery, which mimics central features of preterm infections in humans. METHOD OF STUDY:BALB/c mice were injected i.p. with 20 000 IU/kg EPO or normal saline twice on gestational day (GD) 15, with a 3 hours time interval between injections. An hour after the first EPO or normal saline injection, all mice received two injections of 50 μg/kg LPS, also given 3 hours apart. RESULTS:EPO significantly prevented preterm labor and increased offspring survival in an LPS induced preterm delivery model. EPO prevented LPS-induced leukocyte infiltration into the placenta. Moreover, EPO inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in maternal serum and amniotic fluid. EPO also prevented LPS-induced increase in placental prostaglandin (PG)E2 and uterine inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) production, while decreasing nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κβ) activity in the myometrium. EPO also increased the gene expression of placental programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in LPS-treated mice. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that EPO could be a potential novel therapeutic strategy to tackle infection-related preterm labor. 10.1111/aji.13283