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    Double lung, unlike single lung transplantation might provide a protective effect on mortality and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Fakhro Mohammed,Broberg Ellen,Algotsson Lars,Hansson Lennart,Koul Bansi,Gustafsson Ronny,Wierup Per,Ingemansson Richard,Lindstedt Sandra Journal of cardiothoracic surgery BACKGROUND:Survival after lung transplantation (LTx) is often limited by bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). METHOD:Survey of 278 recipients who underwent LTx. The endpoint used was BOS (BOS grade ≥ 2), death or Re-lung transplantation (Re-LTx) assessed by competing risk regression analyses. RESULTS:The incidence of BOS grade ≥ 2 among double LTx (DLTx) recipients was 16 ± 3% at 5 years, 30 ± 4% at 10 years, and 37 ± 5% at 20 years, compared to single LTx (SLTx) recipients whose corresponding incidence of BOS grade ≥ 2 was 11 ± 3%, 20 ± 4%, and 24 ± 5% at 5, 10, and 20 years, respectively (p > 0. 05). The incidence of BOS grade ≥ 2 by major indications ranked in descending order: other, PF, CF, COPD, PH and AAT1 (p < 0. 05). The mortality rate by major indication ranked in descending order: COPD, PH, AAT1, PF, Other and CF (p < 0. 05). CONCLUSION:No differences were seen in the incidence of BOS grade ≥ 2 regarding type of transplant, however, DLTx recipients showed a better chance of survival despite developing BOS compared to SLTx recipients. The highest incidence of BOS was seen among CF, PF, COPD, PH, and AAT1 recipients in descending order, however, CF and PF recipients showed a better chance of survival despite developing BOS compared to COPD, PH, and AAT1 recipients. 10.1186/s13019-017-0666-5
    Acute postoperative management after lung transplantation. Potestio Christopher,Jordan Desmond,Kachulis Bessie Best practice & research. Clinical anaesthesiology Despite many advances in the field of lung transplantation, lung transplant recipients have the lowest median survival of any solid organ transplant population. Complications such as reperfusion injury, graft rejection, infection, and anastomotic breakdown increase morbidity and mortality during the immediate postoperative period. Ventilator management with lung protective strategies can not only minimize ventilator time and mitigate the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia, but it may also decrease the risk of primary graft dysfunction and graft failure. Maintaining fluid balance, pain control, and preserving renal function also decrease postoperative complications. Advancements in immunotherapy with the use of calcineurin inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies have been shown to decrease the incidence of acute rejection. However, when unexpected complications occur, appropriately timed rescue therapies such as the initiation of extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation, retransplantation, and plasmapheresis are important considerations geared toward a positive transplant outcome. 10.1016/j.bpa.2017.07.004
    Worldwide trends in heart and lung transplantation: Guarding the most precious gift ever. von Dossow Vera,Costa Joseph,D'Ovidio Frank,Marczin Nandor Best practice & research. Clinical anaesthesiology Transplantation is sadly a therapy to die for. The survival of a recipient with end-stage heart or lung disease requires the demise of a human being through brain death or cessation of circulation, with the noblest final act of offering one's organs to another. However, transplantation is constrained by severe hemodynamic, regulatory, inflammatory, and metabolic stresses in the donor, rendering the majority of offered organs unsuitable for transplantation. Coupled with our inability to acquire exact molecular and cellular information and missed opportunities for effectively modulating deteriorations of donors and allografts, anesthesia and critical care contributes to ongoing organ shortages. Progress is made with improving waiting lists by bridging patients for transplantation using mechanical support. However, this represents more complex recipients, higher risk transplant operations, and increased resource utilization. The advent of ex vivo perfusion allows implementing novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies with real potential of reconditioning less ideal organs. This review advocates a paradigm change in critical care management of the potential donor for improving retrieval practices and for more intellectual involvement of our specialties in organ preservation, ex vivo evaluation and reconditioning, and the need for great advancement in our efficiency in converting unacceptable allografts to suitable donor organs. 10.1016/j.bpa.2017.08.001
    Is Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Withdrawal a Safe Option After Double-Lung Transplantation? Fessler Julien,Sage Edouard,Roux Antoine,Feliot Elodie,Gayat Etienne,Pirracchio Romain,Parquin François,Cerf Charles,Fischler Marc,Le Guen Morgan The Annals of thoracic surgery BACKGROUND:Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is commonly used during double-lung transplantation. ECMO can be planned or unplanned, and used only during the procedure or extended postoperatively (intraoperative or extended). Our practice is to limit its use and duration as much as possible. We conducted this retrospective single-center study to assess prognoses of patients undergoing unplanned-intraoperative ECMO. METHODS:From among 436 patients who underwent double-lung transplantation from 2012 to 2018, we excluded those who underwent bridge-to-transplantation, multiorgan transplantation, repeated transplantation during the study period, and cardiopulmonary bypass. Unplanned-intraoperative ECMO group was compared with no-ECMO and planned-intraoperative ECMO groups. RESULTS:In our sample, 209 patients did not require ECMO, 77 underwent unplanned-intraoperative ECMO, and 14 underwent planned-intraoperative ECMO. One-year and 3-year survival were lower in unplanned-intraoperative ECMO group than in the no-ECMO group (P = .043 and P = .032, respectively). The only independent protective factor related to 1-year mortality was history of cystic fibrosis (P = .013). Lung allocation score (P = .001), grade 3 pulmonary graft dysfunction at end-surgery status (P = .014), and estimated intraoperative blood loss (P = .031) were risk factors. CONCLUSIONS:Patients who underwent unplanned-intraoperative ECMO showed poorer prognoses than patients who did not require ECMO. This finding may be explained by differences in initial condition severity, by long-term consequences of the intraoperative complications leading to ECMO pump implantation, or by flaws in our weaning protocol. 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.03.077
    Suicide right ventricle after lung transplantation for pulmonary vascular disease. Gangahanumaiah Shivanand,Scarr Bronwyn C,Buckland Mark R,Pilcher David V,Paraskeva Miranda A,McGiffin David C Journal of cardiac surgery A 27-year-old female with Eisenmenger's syndrome underwent closure of a patent ductus arteriosus, closure of a perimembranous ventricular septal defect and mid muscular defect and bilateral lung transplantation. Her immediate postoperative course was complicated by severe right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) obstruction resulting in hemodynamic collapse, a condition described as suicide right ventricle. The patient was placed on central Veno-Arterial Extra-Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation as a bridge to the relief of RVOT obstruction which included a right ventricular outflow muscle resection and a right ventricle outflow tract patch. The patient made an uneventful recovery. 10.1111/jocs.13725
    Anesthesia for Placement of a Paracorporeal Lung Assist Device and Subsequent Heart-Lung Transplantation in a Child with Suprasystemic Pulmonary Hypertension and End-Stage Respiratory Failure. Char Danton S,Yarlagadda Vamsi,Maeda Katsuhide,Williams Glyn A & A case reports Pediatric patients with end-stage respiratory failure and pulmonary hypertension traditionally have poor outcomes when bridged with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to lung or heart-lung transplantation. Therefore, several institutions have attempted paracorporeal lung assist devices as a bridge. However, given the small number of patients, little is known about approaches to anesthetic induction in these hemodynamically unstable patients either before placement of a device or anesthetic induction once a device is in situ. In this case report, we describe our anesthetic experience managing a 13-year-old boy for both paracorporeal lung assist device placement and subsequent heart-lung transplantation. 10.1213/XAA.0000000000000300
    Inflammation and primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation: CT-PET findings. Gotti Miriam,Chiumello Davide,Cressoni Massimo,Guanziroli Mariateresa,Brioni Matteo,Safaee Fakhr Bijan,Chiurazzi Chiara,Colombo Andrea,Massari Dario,Algieri Ilaria,Lonati Caterina,Cadringher Paolo,Taccone Paolo,Pizzocri Marta,Fumagalli Jacopo,Rosso Lorenzo,Palleschi Alessandro,Benti Riccardo,Zito Felicia,Valenza Franco,Gattinoni Luciano Minerva anestesiologica BACKGROUND:The leading cause of early mortality after lung transplantation is Primary graft dysfunction (PGD). We assessed the lung inflammation, inflation status and inhomogeneities after lung transplantation. Our purpose was to investigate the possible differences between patients who did or did not develop PGD. METHODS:We designed a prospective observational study enrolling patients who underwent a CT-PET study within 1 week after lung transplantation. Twenty-four patients (10 after double- and 14 after single-lung) were enrolled. Respiratory and hemodynamic data were collected before, during and after lung transplantation. Each patient underwent computed tomography-positron emission tomography (CT-PET) scan early after surgery. Broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid collection was performed to analyze inflammatory mediators. RESULTS:The grafts showed a [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) uptake rate of 26[18-33]*10-4 mLblood/mLtissue/min (reference values 11[7-15]*10-4). Three double- and six single-lung recipients developed PGD. The grafts of patients who developed PGD had similar [18F]FDG uptake than grafts of patients who did not (28[18-26]*10-4 versus 26[22-31]*10-4, P=0.79). Not-inflated tissue fraction was significantly higher (28[20-38]% versus 14[7-21]%, P=0.01) while well-inflated fraction was significantly lower (29[25-41]% versus 53[39-65]%, P<0.01). Inhomogeneity extent was higher in patients who developed PGD (23[18-26]% versus 14[10-20]%, P=0.01)The lung weight was 650[591-820]g versus 597[480-650]g (P=0.09)). BAL fluid analysis for inflammatory mediators did not detect a difference between the study groups. CONCLUSIONS:Compared to healthy lungs, all the grafts showed increased [18F]FDG uptake rate, but there were no differences between patients who developed PGD and patients who did not. Of note, the PGD patients showed a worse inflation status of lungs and a higher inhomogeneity extent. 10.23736/S0375-9393.18.12651-4
    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a bridge to lung transplantation in a Turkish lung transplantation program: our initial experience. Vayvada Mustafa,Uygun Yesim,Cıtak Sevinc,Sarıbas Ertan,Erkılıc Atakan,Tasci Erdal Journal of artificial organs : the official journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs Lung transplantation is a life-saving treatment for patients with end-stage lung disease. Although the number of lung transplants has increased over the years, the number of available donor lungs has not increased at the same rate, leading to the death of transplant candidates on waiting lists. In this paper, we presented our initial experience with the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a bridge to lung transplantation. Between December 2016 and August 2018, we retrospectively reviewed the use of ECMO as a bridge to lung transplantation. Thirteen patients underwent preparative ECMO for bridging to lung transplantation, and seven patients successfully underwent bridging to lung transplantation. The average age of the patients was 45.7 years (range, 19-62 years). The ECMO support period lasted 3-55 days (mean, 18.7 days; median, 13 days). In seven patients, bridging to lung transplantation was performed successfully. The mean age of patients was 49.8 years (range 42-62). Bridging time was 3-55 days (mean, 19 days; median, 13 days). Two patients died in the early postoperative period. Five patients survived until discharge from the hospital. One-year survival was achieved in four patients. ECMO can be used safely for a long time to meet the physiological needs of critically ill patients. The use of ECMO as a bridge to lung transplantation is an acceptable treatment option to reduce the number of deaths on the waiting list. Despite the successful results achieved, this approach still involves risks and complications. 10.1007/s10047-020-01204-w
    Improved survival after lung transplantation for adults requiring preoperative invasive mechanical ventilation: A national cohort study. Hamilton Barbara C S,Dincheva Gabriela R,Matthay Michael A,Hays Steven,Singer Jonathan P,Brzezinski Marek,Kukreja Jasleen The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery OBJECTIVE:Early survival after lung transplantation has improved in the last decade. Mechanically ventilated recipients are known to be at greater risk for early post-transplant mortality. We hypothesized that post-transplant survival in mechanically ventilated recipients has improved over time. METHODS:Using a national registry, we compared hazard of death at 30 days, 4 and 14 months, 3 and 5 years, and overall for adults on mechanical ventilation who underwent lung or heart-lung transplantation from May 4, 2011, to April 4, 2018 (modern group) with those undergoing transplantation from May 4, 2005, to May 3, 2011 (early group). We quantified the impact of mechanical ventilation on survival using population-attributable fractions. We also compared mechanically ventilated recipients with nonmechanically ventilated recipients. RESULTS:Mechanically ventilated recipients from the modern group had lower hazard of death than recipients in the early group at all time-points, lowest at 30-days post-transplant (hazard ratio, 0.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.08). In the modern period, mechanically ventilated recipients had greater hazard of death than nonmechanically ventilated recipients at 30 days' post-transplant (9.53; 4.57-19.86). For mechanically ventilated recipients, the population attributable fraction was lower in the modern group compared to the earlier group (0.6% vs 5.7%). CONCLUSIONS:While mechanically ventilated recipients remain at high risk, survival in this patient population has improved over time. This may reflect improvements in perioperative recipient management. 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2020.02.080
    Intra-operative protective mechanical ventilation in lung transplantation: a randomised, controlled trial. Verbeek G L,Myles P S,Westall G P,Lin E,Hastings S L,Marasco S F,Jaffar J,Meehan A C Anaesthesia Primary graft dysfunction occurs in up to 25% of patients after lung transplantation. Contributing factors include ventilator-induced lung injury, cardiopulmonary bypass, ischaemia-reperfusion injury and excessive fluid administration. We evaluated the feasibility, safety and efficacy of an open-lung protective ventilation strategy aimed at reducing ventilator-induced lung injury. We enrolled adult patients scheduled to undergo bilateral sequential lung transplantation, and randomly assigned them to either a control group (volume-controlled ventilation with 5 cmH O, positive end-expiratory pressure, low tidal volumes (two-lung ventilation 6 ml.kg , one-lung ventilation 4 ml.kg )) or an alveolar recruitment group (regular step-wise positive end-expiratory pressure-based alveolar recruitment manoeuvres, pressure-controlled ventilation set at 16 cmH O with 10 cmH O positive end-expiratory pressure). Ventilation strategies were commenced from reperfusion of the first lung allograft and continued for the duration of surgery. Regular PaO /F O ratios were calculated and venous blood samples collected for inflammatory marker evaluation during the procedure and for the first 24 h of intensive care stay. The primary end-point was the PaO /F O ratio at 24 h after first lung reperfusion. Thirty adult patients were studied. The primary outcome was not different between groups (mean (SD) PaO /F O ratio control group 340 (111) vs. alveolar recruitment group 404 (153); adjusted p = 0.26). Patients in the control group had poorer mean (SD) PaO /F O ratios at the end of the surgical procedure and a longer median (IQR [range]) time to tracheal extubation compared with the alveolar recruitment group (308 (144) vs. 402 (154) (p = 0.03) and 18 (10-27 [5-468]) h vs. 15 (11-36 [5-115]) h (p = 0.01), respectively). An open-lung protective ventilation strategy during surgery for lung transplantation is feasible, safe and achieves favourable ventilation parameters. 10.1111/anae.13964
    Mitigation of Primary Graft Dysfunction in Lung Transplantation: Current Understanding and Hopes for the Future. Wilkey Barbara J,Abrams Benjamin A Seminars in cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is a form of acute lung injury that develops within the first 72 hours after lung transplantation. The overall incidence of PGD is estimated to be around 30%, and the 30-day mortality for grade 3 PGD around 36%. PGD is also associated with the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, a specific form of chronic lung allograft dysfunction. In this article, we will discuss perioperative strategies for PGD prevention as well as possible future avenues for prevention and treatment. 10.1177/1089253219881980
    Risk Factors and Outcomes of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation as a Bridge to Lung Transplantation. Kukreja Jasleen,Tsou Sarah,Chen Joy,Trinh Binh N,Feng Chunmiao,Golden Jeffrey A,Hays Steven,Deuse Tobias,Singer Jonathan P,Brzezinski Marek Seminars in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery This study aimed to identify outcome determinants for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a bridge to lung transplantation (BTT) at our institution.This retrospective single-center study reviewed patients on ECMO between 2010 and 2018 and compared clinical characteristics between patients who underwent successful-BTT and those who did not. Additionally, we examined differences between actively versus emergently listed patients and reasons for failure-to-list. Seventy-six patients were placed on ECMO with the intent to bridge to transplant. Of those, 42 were actively on the waitlist (AWL) prior to ECMO initiation, 20 were emergently evaluated and waitlisted (EWL) after ECMO initiation, and 14 failed-to-list. Of the 62 listed patients, 42 (68%) were successfully transplanted. Risk factors of failed-BTT included right ventricular dysfunction prior to ECMO initiation, longer ECMO duration, reduced mobility status, shorter stature, higher prevalence of blood type B, worse kidney and liver function, and increased transfusion requirements. The number of patients transitioned to central VA-ECMO was higher in the failed-BTT group. Thirty-day survival post-transplantation was 98%, with 90% successfully discharged; 1-year survival conditional upon discharge was 97%. AWL and EWL groups had comparable outcomes. Reasons for failure-to-list are not readily modifiable. ECMO-BTT has become a viable option with satisfactory 1-year survival in patients with irreversible lung injury. Our results support rescue transplant for emergently evaluated and waitlisted patients on ECMO. Our data suggests that modification in national organ allocation policies especially as they pertain to high-acuity recipients with rare blood types and short stature could enhance successful outcome. 10.1053/j.semtcvs.2020.05.008
    A donor PaO/FiO < 300 mm Hg does not determine graft function or survival after lung transplantation. Whitford Helen,Kure Christina E,Henriksen Aimee,Hobson Jamie,Snell Greg I,Levvey Bronwyn J,Marasco Silvana F,Gooi Julian H,Zimmet Adam,Negri Justin,Pick Adrian,Buckland Mark,Williams Trevor,Westall Glenn,Paraskeva Miranda A,Martin Catherine,McGiffin David C The Journal of heart and lung transplantation : the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation BACKGROUND:A donor arterial PO/FiO (P/F ratio) of less than the 300 threshold would frequently result in either exclusion of the donor or placement of the lungs on ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP). The aim was to investigate the veracity of the P/F ratio threshold of 300 for donor lung acceptability. METHODS:In 93 brain dead lung donors, arterial blood gases were drawn in the intensive care unit (ICU) just before procurement and each of the 4 donor pulmonary veins in the operating room (OR). No donor lungs were rejected for transplantation based on the last ICU or OR P/F ratio, and EVLP was not used. The recipients were followed up 6 and 12 months following transplantation. RESULTS:There were 93 recipients of bilateral lung transplantation. An arterial P/F ratio of < 300 was largely driven by a low P/F ratio in the lower lobes. There were no differences between the recipients receiving donor lungs where the ICU P/F ratio was < 300 compared with ≥ 300 in the time to extubation, grade of primary graft dysfunction, pulmonary function at 6 and 12 months, and 12-month survival. CONCLUSIONS:From this study:(1) If a donor P/F threshold of 300 was adhered to, 36% would have been rejected, and (2) The donor P/F ratio threshold of 300 is excessively conservative and results in the wastage of donor lungs and the application of unnecessary EVLP. 10.1016/j.healun.2019.08.021
    [Research progress in lung transplantation]. Sun Meng,Wen Zongmei Zhonghua wei zhong bing ji jiu yi xue OBJECTIVE:Lung transplantation is the only effective treatment for end-stage lung disease. The problems, including acute rejection, infection, primary graft dysfunction (PGD) and ischemia/reperfusion injury after lung transplantation, as well as surgical techniques and anesthesia management, donor, cardiopulmonary bypass or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and the main pathogenesis of the receptor, that restrict the development of lung transplantation seriously, and affect the prognosis of patients. Through the description of above major bottlenecks related to lung transplantation and the factors that seriously affect the survival of lung transplant patients and the current response measures, new ideas for the clinical treatment of lung transplantation are presented. 10.3760/cma.j.issn.2095-4352.2019.03.024
    Risk factors for early bleeding complications after lung transplantation - a retrospective cohort study. Adelmann Dieter,Koch Stefan,Menger Johannes,Opfermann Philipp,Jaksch Peter,Hoetzenecker Konrad,Kurz Martin,Mouhieddine Mohammed,Steinlechner Barbara Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation Risk factors for early bleeding complications after lung transplantation are not well described. Our aim was to evaluate coagulation test results and the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as risk factors for bleeding after lung transplantation. We analyzed a single-center cohort of bilateral lung transplants between January 2009 and August 2015. Predictors of severe postoperative bleeding (bleeding requiring reoperation within 48 h of transplantation) were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. The effect of bleeding on survival was assessed using a Cox proportional-hazards model. Twenty-nine (4.5%) of 641 patients experienced severe postoperative bleeding. Postoperative fibrinogen levels (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.98-0.995, P = 0.001; per mg/dl increase) and pre- and postoperative use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (OR = 14.41% 95% CI 5.4-40.19, P < 0.001 and OR = 4.25, 95% CI 1.0-11.09, P = 0.002, respectively) were associated with an increased risk of severe postoperative bleeding. Severe postoperative bleeding was associated with decreased survival within 60 days after transplantation (adjusted HR = 5.73, 95% CI 2.52-13.02, P < 0.001). Low postoperative fibrinogen levels, and pre- and postoperative use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were risk factors for bleeding after lung transplantation. 10.1111/tri.13491
    The Evolution of Anesthesia for Lung Transplantation. Sellers Daniel,Cassar-Demajo Wilfred,Keshavjee Shaf,Slinger Peter Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 10.1053/j.jvca.2016.11.034
    Intraoperative Anesthetic Management of Lung Transplantation: Center-Specific Practices and Geographic and Centers Size Differences. Tomasi Roland,Betz David,Schlager Sophie,Kammerer Tobias,Hoechter Dominik J,Weig Thomas,Slinger Peter,Klotz Laura V,Zwißler Bernhard,Marczin Nandor,von Dossow Vera Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia OBJECTIVE:Although increasing evidence in lung transplantation (LTx) suggests that intraoperative management could influence outcomes, there are no guidelines available regarding intraoperative management of LTx. The overall goal of the study was to assess geographic and center volume-specific clinical practices in perioperative management. DESIGN:Prospective data analysis. SETTING:Online survey from a single-center university hospital. PARTICIPANTS:European and non-European LTx centers. INTERVENTIONS:An online survey was sent to 176 centers currently performing LTx procedures. It covered organizational data, general anesthesia considerations, fluid therapy and coagulation, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory therapies, and ventilation strategies. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:The response rates were 57.5% (n = 42) from European and 32% (n = 33) from non-European countries. Significant differences between European and non-European countries were use of volatile hypnotics (p = 0.016), use of sufentanil (p < 0.001), inotropic agents (p = 0.001) and colloid infusion (p < 0.001), use of calibrated pulse contour analysis (p = 0.004), use of intraoperative traditional laboratory-based coagulation tests (p = 0.001) and platelet function analysis (p = 0.005), and use of higher peak inspiratory pressure (p = 0.009). Center volume-specific differences were use of fentanyl (p = 0.03) and the use of higher peak inspiratory pressure (p = 0.005) for ventilation. Induction of anesthesia and use of advanced hemodynamic monitoring, therapy for pulmonary hypertension, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory therapies, and ventilation strategies were not different among the centers. CONCLUSIONS:This survey demonstrated for the first time statistically significant differences among European and non-European centers and among low- versus high-volume centers regarding intraoperative management during LTx. These observations will be of some guidance for the LTx community and may trigger more extensive studies. 10.1053/j.jvca.2017.05.025
    The Evolving Role of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Lung Transplantation: Implications for Anesthetic Management. Moreno Garijo Jacobo,Cypel Marcelo,McRae Karen,Machuca Tiago,Cunningham Valerie,Slinger Peter Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia Lung transplantation has become an accepted therapy for most causes of end-stage lung disease. Between 30 to 50% of lung transplants require extracorporeal life support (ECLS). In many lung transplantation centers, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is replacing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) as the primary choice for intraoperative ECLS. This review will discuss the evolving role of ECMO in lung transplantation and its implications for anesthetic management. 10.1053/j.jvca.2018.10.007
    Intraoperative anesthetic management of lung transplantation patients. Kachulis Bessie,Mitrev Ludmil,Jordan Desmond Best practice & research. Clinical anaesthesiology Lung transplantation is a high-risk procedure that requires a highly trained cardiothoracic anesthesiologist and a considerable degree of vigilance. In the 50 years since the first lung transplantation, improvements in immunosuppression, preservation solutions, and surgical techniques and technologies have led to increased survival rates. The development of the extracorporeal circulatory membrane oxygenation allowed for bridge to transplantation and for donor organ recovery from primary graft dysfunction post transplantation [1]. In addition, changes in the criteria for lung allocation will cause the anesthesiologist to encounter older recipients with comorbidities that would have been disqualifying for transplantation a decade ago [2]. 10.1016/j.bpa.2017.04.004
    Perioperative management of pulmonary hypertension during lung transplantation (a lesson for other anaesthesia settings). Rabanal J M,Real M I,Williams M Revista espanola de anestesiologia y reanimacion Patients with pulmonary hypertension are some of the most challenging for an anaesthesiologist to manage. Pulmonary hypertension in patients undergoing surgical procedures is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to right ventricular failure, arrhythmias and ischaemia leading to haemodynamic instability. Lung transplantation is the only therapeutic option for end-stage lung disease. Patients undergoing lung transplantation present a variety of challenges for anaesthesia team, but pulmonary hypertension remains the most important. The purpose of this article is to review the anaesthetic management of pulmonary hypertension during lung transplantation, with particular emphasis on the choice of anaesthesia, pulmonary vasodilator therapy, inotropic and vasopressor therapy, and the most recent intraoperative monitoring recommendations to optimize patient care. 10.1016/j.redar.2014.05.015
    Anesthesia for Lung Transplantation. Nicoara Alina,Anderson-Dam John Anesthesiology clinics Perioperative management of patients undergoing lung transplantation is challenging and requires constant communication among the surgical, anesthesia, perfusion, and nursing teams. Although all aspects of anesthetic management are important, certain intraoperative strategies (mechanical ventilation, fluid management, extracorporeal mechanical support deployment) have tremendous impact on the subsequent evolution of the lung transplant recipient, especially with respect to allograft function, and should be carefully considered. This review highlights some of the intraoperative anesthetic challenges and opportunities during lung transplantation. 10.1016/j.anclin.2017.05.003
    Anesthesia for Lung Transplantation in Cystic Fibrosis: Retrospective Review from the Irish National Transplantation Centre. Lenihan Martin,Mullane Darren,Buggy Donal,Flood Georgina,Griffin Michael Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder affecting approximately 1 in 2,500 live births worldwide, with double this estimated frequency in Ireland. CF is characterized by a genetic defect of the CF transmembrane regulator protein, causing impairment of chloride ion transportation. This has multisystem consequences, particularly in the lungs, where it results in intensely mucoid secretions, which increases susceptibility to infection. Lung transplantation is indicated in CF when there is progressive decline in a patient's functional reserve. In this report, the authors present a 6-year case review of allograft lung transplantations in 41 CF patients from the Irish National Centre for Lung Transplantation from 2010 through 2015. Preoperative risk factors for morbidity and major mortality are discussed. The authors' experience with intraoperative anesthetic challenges and management options are outlined, and postoperative complications are discussed. 10.1053/j.jvca.2017.11.041
    Statement From the Society for the Advancement of Transplant Anesthesia: White Paper Advocating Desirable Milestones and Competencies for Anesthesiology Fellowship Training in the Field of Lung Transplantation. Wilkey Barbara J,Abrams Benjamin A,Del Rio J Mauricio,Kertai Miklos D,Subramaniam Kathirvel,Srinivas Coimbatore,Peng Yong G,Berrio-Valencia Marta,Martin Archer K Seminars in cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia The clinical, educational, and research facets of lung transplantation have advanced significantly since the first lung transplant in 1963. The formation of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) and subsequent Registry has forged a precedent of collaborative teamwork that has significantly affected current lung transplantation outcomes. The Society for the Advancement of Anesthesia (SATA) is dedicated to developing educational platforms for all facets of transplant anesthesia. Additionally, we believe that the anesthetic training for lung transplantation has not kept pace with other advances in the field. As such, SATA presents for consideration these educational milestones and competencies for anesthetic fellowship training in the field of lung transplantation. The proposed milestones were designed on the framework of 6 core competencies created by the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education. The milestones were identified by combining the expert opinion of our Thoracic Transplant Committee, our experience as educators, and literature review. We offer this White Paper to the anesthesiology and transplant communities as a starting point for the discussion and evolution of perioperative anesthetic care in the field of lung transplantation. 10.1177/1089253219867695