Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer and brain metastases: exploratory final analysis of cohort 1 from KAMILLA, a single-arm phase IIIb clinical trial.
Montemurro F,Delaloge S,Barrios C H,Wuerstlein R,Anton A,Brain E,Hatschek T,Kelly C M,Peña-Murillo C,Yilmaz M,Donica M,Ellis P
Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
BACKGROUND:Patients with brain metastases (BM) from human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer represent a difficult-to-treat population. Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) has shown potential activity in this subset of patients in small clinical series. PATIENTS AND METHODS:KAMILLA is an ongoing, phase IIIb study of T-DM1 in patients with HER2-positive locally advanced/metastatic breast cancer with prior HER2-targeted therapy and chemotherapy. Patients received T-DM1 3.6 mg/kg every 3 weeks (intravenously) until unacceptable toxicity, withdrawal of consent, or disease progression. Tumor response and clinical outcomes in patients with baseline BM were evaluated in this post hoc, exploratory analysis. The main outcome measures were best overall response rate (complete response + partial response) and clinical benefit rate (complete response + partial response + stable disease lasting ≥6 months) by RECIST v1.1 criteria, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. RESULTS:Of 2002 treated patients, 398 had baseline BM. In 126 patients with measurable BM, the best overall response rate and clinical benefit rate were 21.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 14.6-29.6] and 42.9% (95% CI 34.1-52.0), respectively. A reduction in the sum of the major diameters of BM ≥30% occurred in 42.9% (95% CI 34.1-52.0), including 49.3% (95% CI 36.9-61.8) of 67 patients without prior radiotherapy to BM. In the 398 patients with baseline BM, median progression-free survival and overall survival were 5.5 (95% CI 5.3-5.6) months and 18.9 (95% CI 17.1-21.3) months, respectively. The adverse event profile was broadly similar in patients with and without baseline BM, although nervous system adverse events were more common in patients with [208 (52.3%)] versus without [701 (43.7%)] baseline BM. CONCLUSION:This exploratory analysis of patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer and BM enrolled in a prospective clinical trial shows that T-DM1 is active and well-tolerated in this population. T-DM1 should be explored further in this setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01702571.
Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) versus lapatinib plus capecitabine in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer and central nervous system metastases: a retrospective, exploratory analysis in EMILIA.
Krop I E,Lin N U,Blackwell K,Guardino E,Huober J,Lu M,Miles D,Samant M,Welslau M,Diéras V
Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
BACKGROUND:We characterized the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) metastases after treatment with trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) versus capecitabine-lapatinib (XL), and treatment efficacy among patients with pre-existing CNS metastases in the phase III EMILIA study. PATIENTS AND METHODS:In EMILIA, patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive advanced breast cancer previously treated with trastuzumab and a taxane were randomized to T-DM1 or XL until disease progression. Patients with treated, asymptomatic CNS metastases at baseline and patients developing postbaseline CNS metastases were identified retrospectively by independent review; exploratory analyses were carried out. RESULTS:Among 991 randomized patients (T-DM1 = 495; XL = 496), 95 (T-DM1 = 45; XL = 50) had CNS metastases at baseline. CNS progression occurred in 9 of 450 (2.0%) and 3 of 446 (0.7%) patients without CNS metastases at baseline in the T-DM1 and XL arms, respectively, and in 10 of 45 (22.2%) and 8 of 50 (16.0%) patients with CNS metastases at baseline. Among patients with CNS metastases at baseline, a significant improvement in overall survival (OS) was observed in the T-DM1 arm compared with the XL arm [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.38; P = 0.008; median, 26.8 versus 12.9 months]. Progression-free survival by independent review was similar in the two treatment arms (HR = 1.00; P = 1.000; median, 5.9 versus 5.7 months). Multivariate analyses demonstrated similar results. Grade ≥3 adverse events were reported in 48.8% and 63.3% of patients with CNS metastases at baseline administered T-DM1 and XL, respectively; no new safety signals were observed. CONCLUSION:In this retrospective, exploratory analysis, the rate of CNS progression in patients with HER2-positive advanced breast cancer was similar for T-DM1 and for XL, and higher overall in patients with CNS metastases at baseline compared with those without CNS metastases at baseline. In patients with treated, asymptomatic CNS metastases at baseline, T-DM1 was associated with significantly improved OS compared with XL.
The blood-brain barrier and blood-tumour barrier in brain tumours and metastases.
Arvanitis Costas D,Ferraro Gino B,Jain Rakesh K
Nature reviews. Cancer
For a blood-borne cancer therapeutic agent to be effective, it must cross the blood vessel wall to reach cancer cells in adequate quantities, and it must overcome the resistance conferred by the local microenvironment around cancer cells. The brain microenvironment can thwart the effectiveness of drugs against primary brain tumours as well as brain metastases. In this Review, we highlight the cellular and molecular components of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a specialized neurovascular unit evolved to maintain brain homeostasis. Tumours are known to compromise the integrity of the BBB, resulting in a vasculature known as the blood-tumour barrier (BTB), which is highly heterogeneous and characterized by numerous distinct features, including non-uniform permeability and active efflux of molecules. We discuss the challenges posed by the BBB and BTB for drug delivery, how multiple cell types dictate BBB function and the role of the BTB in disease progression and treatment. Finally, we highlight emerging molecular, cellular and physical strategies to improve drug delivery across the BBB and BTB and discuss their impact on improving conventional as well as emerging treatments, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors and engineered T cells. A deeper understanding of the BBB and BTB through the application of single-cell sequencing and imaging techniques, and the development of biomarkers of BBB integrity along with systems biology approaches, should enable new personalized treatment strategies for primary brain malignancies and brain metastases.
Advances in Meningeal Immunity.
Rua Rejane,McGavern Dorian B
Trends in molecular medicine
The central nervous system (CNS) is an immunologically specialized tissue protected by a blood-brain barrier. The CNS parenchyma is enveloped by a series of overlapping membranes that are collectively referred to as the meninges. The meninges provide an additional CNS barrier, harbor a diverse array of resident immune cells, and serve as a crucial interface with the periphery. Recent studies have significantly advanced our understanding of meningeal immunity, demonstrating how a complex immune landscape influences CNS functions under steady-state and inflammatory conditions. The location and activation state of meningeal immune cells can profoundly influence CNS homeostasis and contribute to neurological disorders, but these cells are also well equipped to protect the CNS from pathogens. In this review, we discuss advances in our understanding of the meningeal immune repertoire and provide insights into how this CNS barrier operates immunologically under conditions ranging from neurocognition to inflammatory diseases.
Osimertinib in Patients With Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Leptomeningeal Metastases: The BLOOM Study.
Yang James C H,Kim Sang-We,Kim Dong-Wan,Lee Jong-Seok,Cho Byoung Chul,Ahn Jin-Seok,Lee Dae H,Kim Tae Min,Goldman Jonathan W,Natale Ronald B,Brown Andrew P,Collins Barbara,Chmielecki Juliann,Vishwanathan Karthick,Mendoza-Naranjo Ariadna,Ahn Myung-Ju
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
PURPOSE:In this phase I study (BLOOM), osimertinib, a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), was evaluated in patients with leptomeningeal metastases (LMs) from EGFR-mutated (EGFRm) advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose disease had progressed on previous EGFR-TKI therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients with cytologically confirmed LM received osimertinib 160 mg once daily. Objectives were to assess confirmed objective response rate (ORR), duration of response (DoR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), pharmacokinetics (PK), and safety. Additional efficacy evaluations included changes from baseline in CSF cytology and neurologic examination. Measurable lesions were assessed by investigator according to RECIST version 1.1. LMs were assessed by neuroradiologic blinded central independent review (BICR) according to Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology LM radiologic criteria and by investigator. RESULTS:Forty-one patients were enrolled. LM ORR and DoR by neuroradiologic BICR were 62% (95% CI, 45% to 78%) and 15.2 months (95% CI, 7.5 to 17.5 months), respectively. Overall, ORR by investigator was 41% (95% CI, 26% to 58%), and median DoR was 8.3 months (95% CI, 5.6 to 16.5 months). Median investigator-assessed PFS was 8.6 months (95% CI, 5.4 to 13.7 months) with 78% maturity; median OS was 11.0 months (95% CI, 8.0 to 18.0 months) with 68% maturity. CSF tumor cell clearance was confirmed in 11 (28%; 95% CI, 15% to 44%) of 40 patients. Neurologic function was improved in 12 (57%) of 21 patients with an abnormal assessment at baseline. The adverse event and PK profiles were consistent with previous reports for osimertinib. CONCLUSION:Osimertinib showed meaningful therapeutic efficacy in the CNS and a manageable safety profile at 160 mg once daily in patients with EGFRm NSCLC and LM.
Single-arm, open-label phase 2 trial of pembrolizumab in patients with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis.
Brastianos Priscilla K,Lee Eudocia Quant,Cohen Justine V,Tolaney Sara M,Lin Nancy U,Wang Nancy,Chukwueke Ugonma,White Michael D,Nayyar Naema,Kim Albert,Alvarez-Breckenridge Christopher,Krop Ian,Mahar Maura Keeley,Bertalan Mia S,Shaw Brian,Mora Joana L,Goss Nathaniel,Subramanian Megha,Nayak Lakshmi,Dietrich Jorg,Forst Deborah A,Nahed Brian V,Batchelor Tracy T,Shih Helen A,Gerstner Elizabeth R,Moy Beverly,Lawrence Donald,Giobbie-Hurder Anita,Carter Scott L,Oh Kevin,Cahill Daniel P,Sullivan Ryan J
An increasing fraction of patients with metastatic cancer develop leptomeningeal dissemination of disease (LMD), and survival is dismal. We conducted a single-arm, phase 2 study of pembrolizumab in patients with solid tumor malignancies and LMD (NCT02886585). Patients received 200 mg of pembrolizumab intravenously every 3 weeks until definitive progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was rate of overall survival at 3 months (OS3). Secondary objectives included toxicity, response rate and time to intracranial or extracranial disease progression. A Simon two-stage design was used to compare a null hypothesis OS3 of 18% against an alternative of 43%. Twenty patients-17 with breast cancer, two with lung cancer and one with ovarian cancer-were enrolled into the pre-specified evaluation group having received at least one dose of pembrolizumab. The median follow-up of surviving patients was 6.3 months (range, 2.2-12.5 months). The percentage of patients who experienced one (or more) grade 3 or higher adverse events at least possibly related to treatment was 40%, the most frequent being hyperglycemia (n = 6), nausea (n = 7) and vomiting (n = 7). The study met the primary endpoint, as 12 of 20 (OS3, 0.60; 90% confidence interval, 0.39-0.78) patients were alive at 3 months after enrollment. Pembrolizumab is safe and feasible and displays promising activity in patients with LMD. Further investigations are needed to identify which patients with LMD can benefit from pembrolizumab.
Targeted treatment and immunotherapy in leptomeningeal metastases from melanoma.
Geukes Foppen M H,Brandsma D,Blank C U,van Thienen J V,Haanen J B,Boogerd W
Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
BACKGROUND:Historically leptomeningeal metastases (LM) from melanoma have a poor prognosis, with a median survival of only 2 months despite treatment. Targeted therapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors are promising new treatment options in advanced melanoma. We sought to determine the impact of targeted therapy and immunotherapy on the outcome of melanoma patients with LM and to evaluate the influence of prognostic factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We analyzed a series of 39 consecutive patients diagnosed with LM from melanoma between May 2010 and March 2015 treated at the Netherlands Cancer Institute. Thirty-four of these patients also had brain metastases (BM). Statistical analyses assessed the influence of clinical and biological characteristics on survival. RESULTS:Median overall survival of the entire cohort was 6.9 weeks (95% confidence interval 0.9-12.8). Due to a poor performance status or rapidly progressive disease, 14 patients received no treatment. Median overall survival of untreated patients after the diagnosis of LM was 2.9 versus 16.9 weeks for treated patients (P < 0.001). The median survival of 21 patients treated with systemic targeted therapy and/or immunotherapy, with or without RT was 21.7 weeks (range 2-235 weeks). Five patients had LM without BM. Three of these patients died within 3 weeks before any treatment was given, whereas 2 patients are in ongoing remission for 26 weeks (following dabrafenib) and 235 weeks (following WBRT and ipilimumab). Elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase and S100B at diagnosis of LM were associated with shorter survival. CONCLUSION:LM from melanoma still has an extremely poor prognosis. As observed in extracranial metastatic disease, new treatment modalities such as systemic targeted therapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors seem to increase overall survival in LM, and may result in long-term remission. These new treatment options should be considered in patients with LM.
[Use of Ommaya Reservoirs to Deliver Pemetrexed in Leptomeningeal Metastasis from Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: A Case Report and Review of the Literature].
Lin Yongjuan,Li Huiying,Huang Mingmin,Guo Aibin,Yin Zhenyu
Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer
Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is one of the most severe complications of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and its incidence is increasing gradually with the progress of targeted therapies. There are currently no standard guidelines for the therapy of LM. Intrathecal chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for NSCLC patients with LM, but the optimal drug, administration route and mode, and dosage remain unclear. We report a case of LM from NSCLC, who received the intrathecal chemotherapy with pemetrexed by Ommaya reservoir after prior targeted therapies. This local treatment improved the quality of life, and obtained the clearing of CSF cytology and stable lesions of LM without any notable side effects. After confirmation of LM, the patient has survived 17 months until now. Here we report the first case to demonstrate the potential effectiveness of intrathecal pemetrexed by Ommaya reservoir for the treatment of LM of NSCLC, summarize the safety and effectiveness of intrathecal chemotherapy in combination with related literatures, and provide a new strategy for local treatment of LM in clinical.
[Clinical Value of Cerebrospinal Fluid ctDNA in Patients
with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Meningeal Metastasis].
Zhang Kunyu,Dai Zhaoxia,Liu Siya,Li Dan,Yang Dafu,Cui Saiqiong
Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer
BACKGROUND:The mortality rate of lung cancer meningeal metastasis is extremely high. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has been confirmed to be contain the genomic alterations present in tumors and has been used to monitor tumor progression and response to treatments. Due to the presence of blood-brain barrier and other factors, peripheral blood ctDNA cannot reflect the information of brain lesions for patients with meningeal metastases. However, cerebrospinal fluid ctDNA as a test sample can better reflect the genetic status of intracranial tumors and guide clinical targeted treatment of intracranial lesions. This study explored the feasibility of cerebrospinal fluid ctNDA for evaluating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) meningeal metastasis and the potential clinical value of cerebrospinal fluid ctDNA detection in NSCLC meningeal metastasis. METHODS:A total of 21 patients with NSCLC meningeal metastasis were included. Tumor genomic variation was performed on the cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood samples of patients by second-generation gene sequencing technology. The situation was examined, and pathological evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid cytology and head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhanced examination were performed. RESULTS:ctDNA was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of 21 patients. The sensitivity of cerebrospinal fluid ctDNA detection was superior to cytology in the diagnosis of meningeal metastasis (P<0.001). The detection rate and gene mutation abundance of cerebrospinal fluid were higher than plasma (P<0.001). Cerebro-spinal fluid had a unique genetic profile. In 6 patients with dynamic detection, changes of ctDNA allele fraction occurred at the same time or earlier than clinical disease changes, which could timely monitor drug resistance mechanism and relapse trend. CONCLUSIONS:The detection rate of ctDNA in cerebrospinal fluid is higher than that in cytology and imaging. The detection of ctDNA in cerebrospinal fluid can reveal the specific mutation map of meningeal metastasis lesions. The dynamic monitoring of ctDNA in cerebrospinal fluid has hint significance for clinical response of lung cancer patients.
Experimental Treatments for Leptomeningeal Metastases From Solid Malignancies.
Sahebjam Solmaz,Forsyth Peter A,Smalley Keiran S,Tran Nam D
Cancer control : journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
BACKGROUND:Leptomeningeal metastasis is a consequence of advanced solid malignancies and has limited treatment options. It is possible that it is becoming more common as the leptomeninges act as a sanctuary site for recurrence from systemic cancer. METHODS:Potential targeted and immunotherapy agents for the most common types of solid-tumor leptomeningeal metastasis are reviewed, as are their dosing/delivery strategies and novel, immunological approaches. RESULTS:Historically, patients with leptomeningeal metastasis have been excluded from clinical trials, and data on the management of leptomeningeal metastasis come from single case reports and retrospective analyses. CONCLUSION:For the first time ever, published reports suggest the tide may be turning in this challenging disease.
New aspects of immunotherapy of leptomeningeal metastasis.
Herrlinger U,Weller M,Schabet M
Journal of neuro-oncology
Immunotherapeutic approaches to leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) include the intrathecal application of cytokines such as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), and lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK cells). Results in a rodent model of leptomeningeal gliomatosis with intrathecal IL-2 application are discouraging, but some clinical improvement and clearance of neoplastic cells from CSF have been seen in patients with LM from melanoma treated with intrathecal IL-2 alone, and in patients with LM from primary brain tumors and squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue treated with intrathecal LAK cells and IL-2. The neurotoxicity of this therapy, mainly increased intracranial pressure, has been considerable but generally manageable. However, IFN-alpha caused severe neurotoxicity in form of an only partly reversible progressive vegetative state in the majority of patients. Considering the small number of patients treated with IL-2 and LAK cells, its value for the treatment of LM could only be stated by further investigation. In future, the application of recently discovered cytokines such as Fas-ligand, the continuous paracrine cytokine release by genetically modified cells, or vaccination strategies using genetically modified tumor cells might offer new immunotherapeutic approaches in LM.
How we treat patients with leptomeningeal metastases.
Le Rhun Emilie,Preusser Matthias,van den Bent Martin,Andratschke Nicolaus,Weller Michael
The goal of treatment of leptomeningeal metastasis is to improve survival and to maintain quality of life by delaying neurological deterioration. Tumour-specific therapeutic options include intrathecal pharmacotherapy, systemic pharmacotherapy and focal radiotherapy. Recently, improvement of leptomeningeal disease-related progression-free survival by adding intrathecal liposomal cytarabine to systemic treatment versus systemic treatment alone has been observed in a randomised phase III trial for patients with breast cancer with newly diagnosed leptomeningeal metastasis. Safety and efficacy of intrathecal administration of new agents such as trastuzumab are under evaluation. Systemic therapy using targeted agents and immunotherapy has also improved outcome in patients with brain metastasis, and its emerging role in the management of leptomeningeal metastasis needs to better studied in prospective series. Focal radiotherapy is commonly indicated for the treatment of macroscopic disease such as meningeal nodules or clinically symptomatic central nervous system structures, for example, base of skull with cranial nerve involvement or cauda equine syndrome. The role of whole brain radiotherapy is decreasing. An individualised combination of different therapeutic options should be used considering the presentation of leptomeningeal metastasis, as well as the histological and molecular tumour characteristics, the presence of concomitant brain and systemic metastases, and prior cancer-directed treatments.
Leptomeningeal Disease and the Evolving Role of Molecular Targeted Therapy and Immunotherapy.
Thomas Katharine Hall,Ramirez Robert A
The Ochsner journal
Background:Leptomeningeal disease (LMD) is a complication that results from solid tumor metastasis. Prognosis is extremely poor. As therapeutic options for solid tumors improve, the rate of LMD continues to increase. Until recently, treatment has been limited to radiation therapy, intrathecal chemotherapy, and systemic chemotherapy, with an overall survival of 2-3 months. Targeted molecular therapy and immunotherapies are promising new options for increasing overall survival and clinical improvement; however, optimal clinical management remains unknown. Methods:In this review, we discuss targeted molecular therapy and immunotherapy treatment options for LMD resulting from primary lung, breast, and melanoma tumors. In addition, we summarize dosing strategies, overall survival, clinical outcomes, and novel approaches to treatment. Results:Our review indicates a deficiency in the current literature. Presently, intrathecal trastuzumab administration may be an effective option for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. BRAF inhibitors and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 targets have shown promising results in LMD resulting from melanoma. Finally, tyrosine kinase inhibitors may increase overall survival in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non-small cell lung cancer. Pulsatile drug administration or dual therapy may be beneficial for patients who progress to LMD while being treated with EGFR targets for their primary malignancy. Conclusion:Targeted molecular therapy and immunotherapy in LMD may provide favorable treatment options. Current literature is lacking in safety, efficacy, and overall response rates from the use of targeted therapy. Research is needed to draw significant conclusions about the most appropriate therapy for patients with LMD.
Leptomeningeal metastases in non-small-cell lung cancer.
Cheng Haiying,Perez-Soler Roman
The Lancet. Oncology
Leptomeningeal metastasis is a complication of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Diagnosis and monitoring of leptomeningeal metastasis are challenging, and are based on neurological, radiographic, and cerebrospinal fluid findings. Substantial progress has been made in several key aspects of management of leptomeningeal metastasis, including improved characterisation of the genetic profiles, generation of clinically relevant animal models, advances in cerebrospinal fluid liquid biopsy with improved cytology and genotyping analysis, and the development of therapeutic agents with greater CNS penetration. This Review discusses cumulative data on multiple treatment modalities with a particular focus on recent advances in molecularly targeted therapies in subtypes of patients with leptomeningeal metastasis from NSCLC. Future research is needed to further understand the biology of leptomeningeal metastasis and the mechanisms of resistance to treatment.