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    Characteristics and predictors of chronic critical illness in the intensive care unit. Aguiar Fernanda Perito,Westphal Glauco Adrieno,Dadam Michelli Marcela,Mota Elisa Cristina Correia,Pfutzenreuter Felipe,França Paulo Henrique Condeixa Revista Brasileira de terapia intensiva OBJECTIVE:To characterize patients with chronic critical illness and identify predictors of development of chronic critical illness. METHODS:Prospective data was collected for 1 year in the intensive care unit of a general hospital in Southern Brazil. Three logistic regression models were constructed to identify factors associated with chronic critical illness. RESULTS:Among the 574 subjects admitted to the intensive care unit, 200 were submitted to mechanical ventilation. Of these patients, 85 (43.5%) developed chronic critical illness, composing 14.8% of all the patients admitted to the intensive care unit. The regression model that evaluated the association of chronic critical illness with conditions present prior to intensive care unit admission identified chronic renal failure in patients undergoing hemodialysis (OR 3.57; p = 0.04) and a neurological diagnosis at hospital admission (OR 2.25; p = 0.008) as independent factors. In the model that evaluated the association of chronic critical illness with situations that occurred during intensive care unit stay, muscle weakness (OR 2.86; p = 0.01) and pressure ulcers (OR 9.54; p < 0.001) had the strongest associations. In the global multivariate analysis (that assessed previous factors and situations that occurred in the intensive care unit), hospital admission due to neurological diseases (OR 2.61; p = 0.03) and the development of pressure ulcers (OR 9.08; p < 0.001) had the strongest associations. CONCLUSION:The incidence of chronic critical illness in this study was similar to that observed in other studies and had a strong association with the diagnosis of neurological diseases at hospital admission and chronic renal failure in patients undergoing hemodialysis, as well as complications developed during hospitalization, such as pressure ulcers and muscle weakness. 10.5935/0103-507X.20190088
    [Prevalence and influencing factors of chronic wounds among clients of home care services in Germany]. Raeder Kathrin,Strube-Lahmann Sandra,Müller-Werdan Ursula,Kottner Jan,Lahmann Nils A,Suhr Ralf Zeitschrift fur Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualitat im Gesundheitswesen INTRODUCTION:Chronic or non-healing wounds are a serious problem for both the parties involved and the healthcare system. Currently, there are hardly any reliable data on the prevalence of chronic wounds in outpatient care, although this setting is becoming increasingly important. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and the factors associated with chronic wounds in clients cared for by home care services. METHOD:As part of a cross-sectional study throughout Germany in 2012, a survey was conducted among care recipients provided by home care services. The sample was drawn in a two-step procedure. First, a random sample of home care services was drawn for each federal state, followed by random selection of clients to be interviewed for each service. The aim of the study was to describe the prevalence of chronic wounds and influencing factors such as BMI, age, housing situation, activity and diabetes mellitus. Data collection through questionnaire was carried out by trained nurses. RESULTS:A total of 144 home care services with 1,296 clients had agreed to participate. With 880 care recipients from 100 home care services finally taking part in the survey, the response rate was 68 %. Of all care recipients examined, 101 had at least one chronic wound; the highest prevalence rates were observed for pressure ulcers (4.6 %) and leg ulcers (4.0 %). Care recipients with diabetes mellitus were more frequently affected by chronic wounds (16.4 %) than non-diabetic recipients (9.5 %). Community-living care recipients (14.1 % chronic wounds; 6.0 % pressure ulcers) and care recipients under the age of 65 (20 % chronic wounds; 9.5 % pressure ulcers) were affected more frequently than care recipients living alone (9.1 % chronic wounds; 3.0 % pressure ulcers) or care recipients older than 65 years (10.5 % chronic wounds; 4.0 % pressure ulcers). In the multivariate calculation, the BMI proved to be the strongest predictor. The prevalence of chronic wounds in the group of obese (BMI>35.3kg/m) care recipients and those with activity restriction is 44.8 %. CONCLUSION:In view of the fact that one out of nine care recipients receiving assistance from home care services is affected by at least one non-healing wound, special attention should be paid to the prevention, detection and treatment of chronic wounds. Furthermore, it seems particularly necessary to identify the relevant risk groups in order to be able to initiate adequate and preventive measures at an early stage. 10.1016/j.zefq.2019.01.001
    Development and evaluation of a new methodology for the fast generation of patient-specific Finite Element models of the buttock for sitting-acquired deep tissue injury prevention. Macron Aurélien,Pillet Hélène,Doridam Jennifer,Verney Alexandre,Rohan Pierre-Yves Journal of biomechanics The occurrence and management of Pressure Ulcers remain a major issue for patients with reduced mobility and neurosensory loss despite significant improvement in the prevention methods. These injuries are caused by biological cascades leading from a given mechanical loading state in tissues to irreversible tissue damage. Estimating the internal mechanical conditions within loaded soft tissues has the potential of improving the management and prevention of PU. Several Finite Element models of the buttock have therefore been proposed based on either MRI or CT-Scan data. However, because of the limited availability of MRI or CT-Scan systems and of the long segmentation time, all studies in the literature include the data of only one individual. Yet the inter-individual variability can't be overlooked when dealing with patient specific estimation of internal tissue loading. As an alternative, this contribution focuses on the combined use of low-dose biplanar X-ray images, B-mode ultrasound images and optical scanner acquisitions in a non-weight-bearing sitting posture for the fast generation of patient-specific FE models of the buttock. Model calibration was performed based on Ischial Tuberosity sagging. Model evaluation was performed by comparing the simulated contact pressure with experimental observations on a population of 6 healthy subjects. Analysis of the models confirmed the high inter-individual variability of soft tissue response (maximum Green Lagrange shear strains of 213 ± 101% in the muscle). This methodology opens the way for investigating inter-individual factors influencing the soft tissue response during sitting and for providing tools to assess PU risk. 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2018.08.001
    [Complications of stillness and decubitus]. Lecardonnel Clémence,Gilbert Thomas,Bonnefoy Marc La Revue du praticien
    Clinical parameters of wound healing in patients with advanced illness. Lai Theresa Tze-Kwan,Yip Oi-Mei,Sham Michael M K Annals of palliative medicine BACKGROUND:Pressure injury is a common clinical parameter of patient care outcome. Various risk factors increase the risk of palliative care patients to pressure injuries and difficult wound healing. Healthcare professionals are aware that wound healing is difficult, but they still focus on this process instead of providing the needs of patients with unhealed wounds. METHODS:This study aims to identify the clinical parameters of pressure injuries in relation to patients with advanced illness. A retrospective analysis of the records of patients with pressure injuries admitted over 18 months was performed. Descriptive analysis and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used. RESULTS:A total of 127 clinical records were reviewed. The study revealed that patients of old age, high creatinine level, advanced wound age, reduced palliative performance scale (PPS) and low Norton scores are prone to suffer from unhealed wounds. CONCLUSIONS:Pressure injuries are prone to non-healing in patients with old age, high creatinine level, advanced wound stage, low PPS and low Norton scores. Further studies involving patients in earlier stage can be considered. 10.21037/apm.2019.01.05
    Individualized Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pressure Injury Management: Development of an Integrated Multi-Modal Biomedical Information Resource. Bogie Kath M,Zhang Guo-Qiang,Roggenkamp Steven K,Zeng Ningzhou,Seton Jacinta,Tao Shiqiang,Bloostein Arielle L,Sun Jiayang JMIR research protocols BACKGROUND:Pressure ulcers (PU) and deep tissue injuries (DTI), collectively known as pressure injuries are serious complications causing staggering costs and human suffering with over 200 reported risk factors from many domains. Primary pressure injury prevention seeks to prevent the first incidence, while secondary PU/DTI prevention aims to decrease chronic recurrence. Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) combine evidence-based practice and expert opinion to aid clinicians in the goal of achieving best practices for primary and secondary prevention. The correction of all risk factors can be both overwhelming and impractical to implement in clinical practice. There is a need to develop practical clinical tools to prioritize the multiple recommendations of CPG, but there is limited guidance on how to prioritize based on individual cases. Bioinformatics platforms enable data management to support clinical decision support and user-interface development for complex clinical challenges such as pressure injury prevention care planning. OBJECTIVE:The central hypothesis of the study is that the individual's risk factor profile can provide the basis for adaptive, personalized care planning for PU prevention based on CPG prioritization. The study objective is to develop the Spinal Cord Injury Pressure Ulcer and Deep Tissue Injury (SCIPUD+) Resource to support personalized care planning for primary and secondary PU/DTI prevention. METHODS:The study is employing a retrospective electronic health record (EHR) chart review of over 75 factors known to be relevant for pressure injury risk in individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) and routinely recorded in the EHR. We also perform tissue health assessments of a selected sub-group. A systems approach is being used to develop and validate the SCIPUD+ Resource incorporating the many risk factor domains associated with PU/DTI primary and secondary prevention, ranging from the individual's environment to local tissue health. Our multiscale approach will leverage the strength of bioinformatics applied to an established national EHR system. A comprehensive model is being used to relate the primary outcome of interest (PU/DTI development) with over 75 PU/DTI risk factors using a retrospective chart review of 5000 individuals selected from the study cohort of more than 36,000 persons with SCI. A Spinal Cord Injury Pressure Ulcer and Deep Tissue Injury Ontology (SCIPUDO) is being developed to enable robust text-mining for data extraction from free-form notes. RESULTS:The results from this study are pending. CONCLUSIONS:PU/DTI remains a highly significant source of morbidity for individuals with SCI. Personalized interactive care plans may decrease both initial PU formation and readmission rates for high-risk individuals. The project is using established EHR data to build a comprehensive, structured model of environmental, social and clinical pressure injury risk factors. The comprehensive SCIPUD+ health care tool will be used to relate the primary outcome of interest (pressure injury development) with covariates including environmental, social, clinical, personal and tissue health profiles as well as possible interactions among some of these covariates. The study will result in a validated tool for personalized implementation of CPG recommendations and has great potential to change the standard of care for PrI clinical practice by enabling clinicians to provide personalized application of CPG priorities tailored to the needs of each at-risk individual with SCI. REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER:RR1-10.2196/10871. 10.2196/10871
    A quality control circle process to improve implementation effect of prevention measures for high-risk patients. Feng Haixia,Li Guohong,Xu Cuirong,Ju Changping,Suo Peiheng International wound journal The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of prevention measures on pressure injuries for high-risk patients and to establish the most appropriate methods of implementation. Nurses assessed patients using a checklist and factors influencing the prevention of a pressure injury determined by brain storming. A specific series of measures was drawn up and an estimate of risk of pressure injury determined using the Braden Scale, analysis of nursing documents, implementation of prevention measures for pressure sores and awareness of the system both before and after carrying out a quality control circle (QCC) process. The overall scores of implementation of prevention measures ranged from 74.86 ± 14.24 to 87.06 ± 17.04, a result that was statistically significant (P < 0.0025). The Braden Scale scores ranged from 8.53 ± 3.21 to 13.48 ± 3.57. The nursing document scores ranged from 7.67 ± 3.98 to 10.12 ± 1.63; prevention measure scores ranged from 11.48 ± 4.18 to 13.96 ± 3.92. Differences in all of the above results are statistically significant (P < 0.05). Implementation of a QCC can standardise and improve the prevention measures for patients who are vulnerable to pressure sores and is of practical importance to their prevention and control. 10.1111/iwj.12764
    Pressure ulcers prevention efficacy of an alternating pressure air mattress in elderly patients: E²MAO a randomised study. Sauvage P,Touflet M,Pradere C,Portalier F,Michel J-M,Charru P,Passadori Y,Fevrier R,Hallet-Lezy A-M,Beauchêne F,Scherrer B Journal of wound care OBJECTIVE:Our aim was to compare Axtair One, an alternating pressure air mattress (APAM), with a viscoelastic foam mattress (VFM) in elderly patients at moderate to high risk of developing pressure ulcers (PUs). METHOD:A randomised, controlled, superiority, parallel-group, open-label, multicentre study, was conducted, between February 2012 and March 2015, in nine French, medium- and long-term stay facilities. Eligible patients were aged 70 and over, had no PUs on enrolment, were bedridden for at least 15 hours per day, had reduced mobility, an absent or minimal positioning capability, a Braden score <14, a nutritional status score >12 and a Karnofsky score <40%. The primary endpoint was the appearance of PUs over a 30-day monitoring period. The primary objective was to demonstrate a 50% reduction in instantaneous risk of PUs in the APAM versus the VFM group. Secondary objectives were to determine if preventive care was less frequent in the APAM group, the instantaneous relative risk of PUs (hazard ratio) was constant over time and the comfort experienced was higher in the APAM group and to verify the uniformity of the preventive benefit of an APAM, regardless of the level of exposure to major risk factors for PUs. RESULTS:We randomised 76 patients (39 in the APAM group and 37 in the VFM group). The groups were comparable on enrolment and throughout the study. The cumulative risk of PUs was estimated at 6.46% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.64; 23.66] in the APAM group and at 38.91% [95% CI: 24.66; 57.59] in the VFM group, p=0.001 (log-rank test). The adjusted hazard ratio according to the Cox model with four prognostic factors for the appearance of PUs was 7.57 [95% CI: 1.67; 34.38, p=0.009]. Preventive care proved to be equivalent in both groups. The only risk factor significantly associated with an increased risk of PUs was the type of mattress (VFM). The comfort and tolerance perceived by the patients were both high and similar in the two groups. The constancy over time of the preventive benefit of an APAM could not be verified because of the lack of a sufficient number of events (appearance of PUs) in the APAM group. CONCLUSION:The APAM was superior to a VFM for preventing PUs in elderly patients, bedridden for more than 15 hours per day, severely dependent, at moderate-to high-risk of PUs, with an instantaneous risk for the appearance of PUs 7.57 times greater in the VFM group than in the APAM group. This study provides descriptive information and evidence for practice. 10.12968/jowc.2017.26.6.304
    Effect of a Patient-Repositioning Device in an Intensive Care Unit On Hospital-Acquired Pressure Injury Occurences and Cost: A Before-After Study. Edger Melinda Journal of wound, ostomy, and continence nursing : official publication of The Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society PURPOSE:The principal aim of this study was to determine the hospital-acquired pressure injury (HAPI) rate before and after introduction of a repositioning device, measure staff-perceived level of exertion with device use, and assess return on investment. DESIGN:1 group, before-and-after study. SUBJECTS AND SETTING:The sample comprised 717 patients cared for in a 17-bed intensive care unit. The study setting was the neonatal intensive care unit at Bon Secours Maryview Medical Center located in the mid-Atlantic United States (Portsmouth, Virginia). METHODS:A safe patient-handling intervention was implemented as part of a quality improvement initiative. The effect of this system was measured using several outcome measures: (1) HAPI occurrences on the sacral area and buttocks, (2) perceived effort of use by staff, and (3) cost analysis. We used the validated Borg Scale to measure perceived exertion that was ranked on a scale from 6 to 20, where higher scores indicate greater exertion. Cost comparisons were completed before and after introduction of the patient-repositioning system. Cost analysis was determined using internal dollar amounts calculated for each stage of pressure injury. The return on investment was calculated by comparing the cost of HAPIs and the product after the intervention with the costs of HAPIs before the intervention. RESULTS:Analysis revealed a statistically significant reduction in HAPI occurrence from 1.3% to 0% (P = .004) when baseline manual repositioning (standard of care) was compared with use of the repositioning system. Caregivers reported significantly less exertion when using the repositioning device as compared with standard of care repositioning (P < .001). The return on investment was estimated to be $16,911. CONCLUSION:Use of a repositioning device resulted in significantly reduced HAPIs. Perceived exertion for repositioning the patient with a repositioning device was significantly less than repositioning with standard of care. A cost analysis estimated a return on investment as a result of the intervention on HAPI prevention. 10.1097/WON.0000000000000328
    Pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from cervical spine immobilization with extrication collars and headblocks: An observational study. Ham Wietske H W,Schoonhoven Lisette,Schuurmans Marieke J,Leenen Luke P H Injury OBJECTIVES:To describe the occurrence and severity of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from the extrication collar combined with headblocks. Furthermore, the influence of time, injury severity and patient characteristics on the development of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain was explored. DESIGN:Observational. STUDY SETTING:Level one trauma centre in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS:Adult trauma patients admitted to the Emergency Department in an extrication collar combined with headblocks. METHODS:Between January and December 2013, 342 patients were included. Study outcomes were incidence and severity of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain. The following dependent variables were collected: time in the cervical collar and headblocks, Glasgow Coma Scale, Mean Arterial Pressure, haemoglobin, Injury Severity Score, gender, age, and Body Mass Index. RESULTS:75.4% of the patients developed a category 1 and 2.9% a category 2 pressure ulcer. Indentation marks were observed in 221 (64.6%) patients; 96 (28.1%) had severe indentation marks. Pressure ulcers and indentation marks were observed most frequently at the back, shoulders and chest. 63.2% experienced pain, of which, 38.5% experienced severe pain. Pain was mainly located at the occiput. Female patients experienced significantly more pain (NRS>3) compared to male patients (OR=2.14, 95% CI 1.21-3.80) None of the investigated variables significantly increased the probability of developing PUs or indentation marks. CONCLUSIONS:The high incidence of category 1 pressure ulcers and severe indentation marks indicate an increased risk for pressure ulcer development and may well lead to more severe PU lesions. Pain due to the application of the extrication collar and headblocks may lead to undesirable movement (in order to relieve the pressure) or to bias clinical examination of the cervical spine. It is necessary to revise the current practice of cervical spine immobilization. 10.1016/j.injury.2016.03.032
    Pressure induced skin and soft tissue injury in the emergency department. Gamston Julia Emergency medicine journal : EMJ The incidence of pressure ulcers or injuries is a global healthcare issue and in the top six most common adverse events in healthcare. Pressure injuries also are symptomatic of wider system failure and poor care. Recognition of these injuries and prevention strategies must start in the emergency department. This article will detail best practice in relation to both assessment of these injuries and their prevention in the emergency department. 10.1136/emermed-2018-207807
    Pressure ulcers in cardiac surgery: Few clinical studies, difficult risk assessment, and profound clinical implications. Chello Camilla,Lusini Mario,Schilirò Davide,Greco Salvatore Matteo,Barbato Raffaele,Nenna Antonio International wound journal Pressure ulcers (PUs) are a common complication after cardiac surgery, with almost one third of patients suffering from PUs during hospitalisation. Because of the burden that PUs exert on both the patients and the health care system, prevention is of utmost importance. The first step in successful prevention, however, includes the identification of the main features that render patients prone to PU development. Cardiac surgery population is not adequately addressed in current clinical trials and studies. Few studies focused specifically on cardiac surgery patients, but the majority included cardiac surgery patients within a heterogeneous population of acute or critical care patients. Therefore, additional research is warranted to understand the unique risk profile of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Intraoperative risk factors that affect tissue tolerance have not been thoroughly investigated but are likely to play an important role, which might explain the epidemiology of a PU. Further research is also needed to better comprehend the risk of PUs among cardiac surgery patients and to design effective and tailored preventative measures with the help of newer tools for risk assessment. 10.1111/iwj.12994
    Eliminating Medical Device-Related Pressure Injury From Blood Pressure Cuffs During Continuous Monitoring in the Perioperative Setting: A Novel Approach. Owens Lisa,Stamps Hillary Journal of perianesthesia nursing : official journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses Hospital-acquired pressure injuries have a significant impact on quality of life. Health care organizations continually strive to improve care and patient satisfaction, for the well-being of the patient and the fiscal health of the organization. A commitment to protecting skin and reducing risk for pressure injury in the perioperative setting is gaining momentum. 10.1016/j.jopan.2016.12.007
    Hypotension at emergency department admission and hospital-acquired pressure ulcers in older patients: prospective study. Gong Xiang,Chen Hong-Lin,Shen Jun-Hua,Zhu Bao-Feng Journal of wound care OBJECTIVE:To investigate the relationship between admission hypotension and hospital acquired pressure ulcers (PU) among older patients in an emergency department. METHODS:The study was a prospective cohort conducted between March and May 2017 in the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital in Eastern China. Data on PUs and possible PU risk factors were collected using a pre-designed form. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (OR). RESULTS:A total of 157 older patients were included in the study. PU incidence was 8.3%, with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 4.5 to 13.7%. The majority (76.9%) of PUs developed in the first three days of admission. On admission, 28 patients were found to be hypotensive, and 129 non-hypotensive. In the hypotensive group, PU incidence was 21.4% (6/28), and 5.4% (7/129) in the non-hypotensive group, respectively. The crude OR was 4.753 (95%CI: 1.183 to 18.086). After adjustment by patients' age, admission to emergency intensive care unit and if requiring assistance to move, the adjusted OR of hypotension on admission for PU risk was 1.755 (95%CI: 1.356 to 3.224). CONCLUSION:Our study showed that admission hypotension was an independent risk factor of PU among elderly patients in emergency department. However, this conclusion should be confirmed by further studies with large sample size. 10.12968/jowc.2019.28.8.527
    The pressures of obesity: The relationship between obesity, malnutrition and pressure injuries in hospital inpatients. Ness Samantha J,Hickling Donna F,Bell Jack J,Collins Peter F Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) BACKGROUND:Pressure injuries (PI) are a significant clinical problem across all healthcare facilities, associated with poor patient outcomes, increased length of stay and healthcare costs. Whilst it is known that underweight (Body Mass Index (BMI) < 18.5 kg/m) and malnourished individuals have an increased risk of developing PI, few studies have investigated the effects of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m) and morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m) on PI prevalence. This study aimed to determine whether PI prevalence was associated with levels of obesity; the complex association between morbid obesity, malnutrition and PI prevalence in hospital inpatients was also explored. METHODS:Data collected from annual Queensland Patient Safety Bedside Audits conducted between 2010 and 2015 was used to examine the outcomes of interest (n = 2479). Bivariate tests were used to explore relationships between age, gender, BMI, malnutrition and PI prevalence. Regression analysis explored associations between BMI, malnutrition and PI, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS:Overall PI prevalence was 6.9% and was significantly higher in the underweight and morbidly obese groups (underweight 12.7%, healthy weight 7.8%, overweight 5.7%, obese 4.8%, morbidly obese 12%; p = 0.001). In addition to BMI, malnutrition and age were significantly associated with PI prevalence. After adjusting for confounders, morbidly obese inpatients had over three times the odds of developing a PI compared to healthy weight inpatients (OR = 3.478, 95% CI 1.657-7.303; p = 0.001). Morbidly obese inpatients who were also malnourished had eleven-fold greater odds of developing a PI compared to the morbidly obese well-nourished in logistic regression analysis (OR = 11.143, 95% CI 2.279-54.481, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS:Morbid obesity is a significant and independent risk factor for PI development. However, the clustering of nutritional risk factors (morbid obesity and malnutrition) substantially increases this risk. Therefore, routine and formal assessment of both BMI and malnutrition status are important to enable the identification of patients at high risk of PI. 10.1016/j.clnu.2017.08.014
    Pressure RElieving Support SUrfaces: a Randomised Evaluation 2 (PRESSURE 2) photographic validation sub-study: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. McGinnis Elizabeth,Brown Sarah,Collier Howard,Faulks Phil,Gilberts Rachael,Greenwood Clare,Henderson Valerie,Muir Delia,Nelson Andrea,Nixon Jane,Smith Isabelle,Stubbs Nikki,Walker Kay,Wilson Lyn,Coleman Susanne Trials BACKGROUND:PRESSURE 2 is a randomised evaluation of the clinical and cost effectiveness of two types of pressure relieving mattress for the prevention of pressure ulcers. The primary endpoint is the time to development of a Category ≥2 pressure ulcer. The current 'gold standard' for the identification of a Category ≥2 pressure ulcer is expert clinical assessment. Due to the appearance of the bed, it is not possible to achieve blinding of the endpoint. This therefore poses a risk to the internal validity of the study. A possible approach is to use photographs of skin sites, with central blinded review. However, there are practical and scientific concerns including whether patients would agree to photographs; the burden of data collection; the quality of photographs; the completeness of data; and how the use of photographs compares with the current 'gold standard'. This validation sub-study aims to assess and quantify potential bias in the reporting of the trial endpoint. METHODS/DESIGN:Patients will be specifically asked to consent to photographs being taken of their skin sites. Photographs will be taken at first observation or when patients develop a new Category ≥2 pressure ulcer (to assess over-reporting). A 10% random sample of patients will be identified for additional photographs of two skin sites (one torso and one limb) with and without a pressure ulcer (if present) by an independent assessor (to assess the potential for under-reporting). Staff will be trained to take photographs using a standardised camera and photographic technique. A 'grey scale' will be included in the photo to correct white balance. Photographs will be securely transferred for central review. Photographs will have white balance corrected, and the computer monitor will be calibrated prior to review. Analysis will include assessment of under- and over-reporting, acceptability of photography to patients, secure transfer of data, quality of and confidence in blinded photograph review and sensitivity analysis using photograph assessment of primary outcome. DISCUSSION:This study will use photographs to contribute to the primary outcome of the trial. It will inform our understanding of the acceptability of photography for prevention trials and the possibility of other uses of photographic data in clinical work and research. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ISRCTN, ISRCTN01151335 . Registered on 14 May 2013. 10.1186/s13063-017-1851-5
    Use of Hydrocolloid Dressings in Preventing Pressure Ulcers in High-risk Patients: a Retrospective Cohort. Cortés Olga Lucía,Salazar-Beltrán Luz Dary,Rojas-Castañeda Yudi Andrea,Alvarado-Muriel Andrea,Serna-Restrepo Aracelly,Grinspun Doris Investigacion y educacion en enfermeria OBJECTIVES:This work sought to evaluate the association between using preventive hydrocolloid dressings and the onset of pressure ulcers in hospitalized patients. METHODS:Retrospective cohort study that included adult patients with high risk of pressure ulcers (PU) evaluated according to the Braden scale and who had been admitted with preventive purposes to a skin care program. The preventive care prescribed by the nursing staff included using hydrocolloid dressing plus conventional care (HD+CC) or only conventional care (CC), in a tier IV hospital in Bogotá, Colombia. Information was obtained from the clinical records of the demographic variables, health, and complications during hospitalization. RESULTS:One-hundred seventy subjects were included in the study (23 in HD+CC and 147 in CC). In all, 30.4% of the patients in the HD+CC group and 17% in the CC group had PU during follow up (p=0.15). The ratio between the type of preventive treatment received and the development of PU obtained a raw Hazzard ratio (HR) of 1.35 (CI95%: 0.58-3.14; p=0.48) and HR adjusted for confounding variables of 1.06 (CI95%: 0.29-3.84 p=0.92). CONCLUSIONS:Our results showed no superiority of HD+CC against CC in preventing PU in adult patients with high risk according to the Braden scale. The cohort study did not reveal significant differences between both interventions. It is necessary to promote and develop clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of using dressings and other conventional care in high-risk patients for this type of event. 10.17533/udea.iee.v36n1e11
    Exploring repositioning movements in sitting with 'at risk' groups using accelerometry and interface pressure mapping technologies. Stinson May,Ferguson Rachel,Porter-Armstrong Alison Journal of tissue viability BACKGROUND:Despite high quality guidelines underpinning pressure ulcer care (NPUAP/EPUAP/PPPIA, 2014), pressure ulceration still poses a significant financial impact on health care services in treatment and staff costs as well as having a profound effect on the health and quality of life of individuals experiencing them. Repositioning is a key preventative technique recommended by occupational therapists and other health care professionals. The frequency and quality of repositioning movements performed by individuals, however, can be difficult to determine. This paper explores the use of technology in monitoring repositioning movements in sitting. OBJECTIVE:To explore the outputs of technologies such as interface pressure mapping systems and accelerometers in enabling the therapist to accurately monitor seated behaviour and enhance practice through targeted interventions to prevent sitting acquired pressure ulceration. METHOD:Reviewing the findings of two recent research studies with 'at risk' cohorts (spinal cord injury; elderly orthopaedic), using accelerometry and seated interface pressures, this paper will highlight how useful this technology is in clinical practice to monitor weight shifts and repositioning behaviours. RESULT:Both studies illustrated that the majority of individuals did not adhere to the frequency or magnitude of movements currently recommended to redistribute seating interface pressures. When repositioning was performed it was ineffective in reducing seated pressures. CONCLUSION:In an era of personalised medicine, technology has an important role to play in providing the service user, caregivers and healthcare staff with important biofeedback information about seated behaviours, particularly those that minimise the risk of developing sitting acquired pressure ulcers. This information can augment occupational therapists' clinical decision-making in maximising active pressure ulcer prevention. 10.1016/j.jtv.2017.11.001
    Cost comparison of pressure ulcer preventive dressings: hydrocolloid dressing versus transparent polyurethane film. Dutra R A A,Salomé G M,Leal L M F,Alves M G,Moura J P,Silva A T,Pereira V O S,de Brito M J A,Ferreira L M Journal of wound care OBJECTIVE:To evaluate and compare the costs of using a transparent polyurethane film (PF) and hydrocolloid dressing (HD) in the prevention of pressure ulcers (PUs). METHOD:This descriptive, observational, longitudinal, comparative study was conducted in the intensive care units, coronary care unit and medical clinic of a charity hospital in Brazil. Data were collected during a 30-day study period, consisting of physical examination, assessment of risk factors for PU development and application of the Braden scale, which were performed at inclusion in the study and once daily during hospitalisation. Either PF or HD was applied bilaterally in the sacral and trochanteric regions for prevention of PUs in patients at a moderate to high risk of PUs according to the Braden scale, and costs of using PU preventive dressings were estimated. RESULTS:The mean total costs per dressing change per patient when using the HD and PF to prevent PUs were 413.60 BRL and 74.04 BRL, respectively. There were significant between-group differences in mean costs for all variables, except for saline solution and nurse-technician services. CONCLUSION:Results showed that the mean cost per dressing change per patient was lower when using the transparent PF than when using the HD. 10.12968/jowc.2016.25.11.635
    Pressure ulcer is associated with malnutrition as assessed by Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS 2002) in a mixed hospital population. Alhaug Johanne,Gay Caryl L,Henriksen Christine,Lerdal Anners Food & nutrition research : Pressure ulcers (PUs) and malnutrition represent a significant health problem for hospital inpatients. Satisfactory nutritional status is crucial for proper wound healing. Risk of malnutrition can be identified using standardized screening tools, such as the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) 2002. : The objective of this study was to examine whether nutritional status based on the NRS 2002 is associated with PU in hospital inpatients. : The data for this cross-sectional analysis were based on 10 screening days between September 2012 and May 2014. All adult inpatients admitted to a medical or surgical ward on the screening days were evaluated for eligibility. Nursing students and ward nurses conducted the NRS 2002 initial screening and skin examinations for PU classification (Stages I-IV). A registered clinical dietician conducted all NRS 2002 final screenings. : The sample consisted of 651 patients, with mean age 62.9 years. Skin examinations indicated an 8% PU prevalence. Factors associated with PUs included age ≥ 70 years, low body mass index (BMI) and hospitalization in the medical department. Based on the initial screening, 48% were at 'Low risk' for malnutrition and 52% were at 'Possible risk'. After final screening, 34% of the sample was identified as 'At risk' for malnutrition. Patients identified at 'Possible risk' by the initial screening or 'At risk' by the final screening were more likely than patients at 'Low risk' to have a PU (OR = 2.58 and 2.55, respectively). Each of the three initial screening items was significantly associated PU, with 'Is BMI<20?' and 'Ate less past week?' having the strongest associations. : Nutritional risk using the NRS 2002 is associated with the presence of PU in a mixed hospital population. The final screening had a slightly stronger association with PU compared to the initial screening. 10.1080/16546628.2017.1324230
    Predictive models for pressure ulcers from intensive care unit electronic health records using Bayesian networks. Kaewprag Pacharmon,Newton Cheryl,Vermillion Brenda,Hyun Sookyung,Huang Kun,Machiraju Raghu BMC medical informatics and decision making BACKGROUND:We develop predictive models enabling clinicians to better understand and explore patient clinical data along with risk factors for pressure ulcers in intensive care unit patients from electronic health record data. Identifying accurate risk factors of pressure ulcers is essential to determining appropriate prevention strategies; in this work we examine medication, diagnosis, and traditional Braden pressure ulcer assessment scale measurements as patient features. In order to predict pressure ulcer incidence and better understand the structure of related risk factors, we construct Bayesian networks from patient features. Bayesian network nodes (features) and edges (conditional dependencies) are simplified with statistical network techniques. Upon reviewing a network visualization of our model, our clinician collaborators were able to identify strong relationships between risk factors widely recognized as associated with pressure ulcers. METHODS:We present a three-stage framework for predictive analysis of patient clinical data: 1) Developing electronic health record feature extraction functions with assistance of clinicians, 2) simplifying features, and 3) building Bayesian network predictive models. We evaluate all combinations of Bayesian network models from different search algorithms, scoring functions, prior structure initializations, and sets of features. RESULTS:From the EHRs of 7,717 ICU patients, we construct Bayesian network predictive models from 86 medication, diagnosis, and Braden scale features. Our model not only identifies known and suspected high PU risk factors, but also substantially increases sensitivity of the prediction - nearly three times higher comparing to logistical regression models - without sacrificing the overall accuracy. We visualize a representative model with which our clinician collaborators identify strong relationships between risk factors widely recognized as associated with pressure ulcers. CONCLUSIONS:Given the strong adverse effect of pressure ulcers on patients and the high cost for treating pressure ulcers, our Bayesian network based model provides a novel framework for significantly improving the sensitivity of the prediction model. Thus, when the model is deployed in a clinical setting, the caregivers can suitably respond to conditions likely associated with pressure ulcer incidence. 10.1186/s12911-017-0471-z
    Exploration of pressure ulcer and related skin problems across the spectrum of health care settings in Ontario using administrative data. Woo Kevin Y,Sears Kim,Almost Joan,Wilson Rosemary,Whitehead Marlo,VanDenKerkhof Elizabeth G International wound journal This is a prospective cohort study using population-level administrative data to describe the scope of pressure ulcers in terms of its prevalence, incidence risk, associating factors and the extent to which best practices were applied across a spectrum of health care settings. The data for this study includes the information of Ontario residents who were admitted to acute care, home care, long term care or continuing care and whose health care data is contained in the resident assessment instrument-minimum data set (RAI-MDS) and the health outcomes for better information and care (HOBIC) database from 2010 to 2013. The analysis included 203 035 unique patients. The overall prevalence of pressure ulcers was approximately 13% and highest in the complex continuing care setting. Over 25% of pressure ulcers in long-term care developed one week after discharge from acute care hospitalisation. Individuals with cardiovascular disease, dementia, bed mobility problems, bowel incontinence, end-stage diseases, daily pain, weight loss and shortness of breath were more likely to develop pressure ulcers. While there were a number of evidence-based interventions implemented to treat pressure ulcers, only half of the patients received nutritional interventions. 10.1111/iwj.12535
    Predicting Pressure Ulcer Development in Clinical Practice: Evaluation of Braden Scale Scores and Nutrition Parameters. Miller Natasha,Frankenfield David,Lehman Erik,Maguire Melissa,Schirm Victoria Journal of wound, ostomy, and continence nursing : official publication of The Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society PURPOSE:Accurate patient assessment and screening for pressure ulcer (PU) is difficult in the clinical setting, and evaluation of nutritional status is especially problematic. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the extent to which Braden Scale scores and other nutrition screening parameters (body mass index, poor intake, and weight loss) predict PU development in general and heel and sacral ulcers specifically. METHODS:Records of 230 hospitalized patients who developed PU were compared to a matched control group without PU. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of total Braden scores, Braden nutrition subscale scores, and nutrition factors with PU development at any time, within week 1, or within week 2 of hospitalization; and development of sacral and heel ulcers at these same periods. RESULTS:Braden Scale scores on hospital admission were predictive of hospital-acquired pressure ulcer development at some point during the hospital stay; and more specifically Braden scores on day 7 were predictive of PU development within week 2 of hospitalization. Among nutrition screening factors and PU development, a low body mass index showed a statistically significant relationship with sacral ulcer development. CONCLUSIONS:Findings indicate that the overall Braden score is a valid predictor of PU development. Implications for clinical practice to decrease the risk for PU development include appropriate use of reliable and valid scales by nurses along with careful evaluation of nutrition parameters. 10.1097/WON.0000000000000184
    Standard laboratory tests are recommended as supplements to the Braden scale for pressure ulcer risk. Zha Man-Li,Chen Hong-Lin Journal of clinical nursing 10.1111/jocn.13938
    Time-to-treatment is a risk factor for the development of pressure ulcers in elderly patients with fractures of the pelvis and acetabulum. Fritz Annemarie,Gericke Laura,Höch Andreas,Josten Christoph,Osterhoff Georg Injury INTRODUCTION:Fractures of the pelvis and acetabulum are associated with pain and immobilization and, hence, pose the risk of developing a pressure ulcer - especially in elderly patients. In the literature, information on risk factors for the occurrence of pressure ulcers related to geriatric pelvic or acetabulum fractures is missing. METHODS:Consecutive in-hospital patients aged 55 years or older treated for closed pelvis and/or acetabulum fractures between 2013 and 2017 were retrospectively identified from an institutional prospective database. Epidemiologic characteristics and patient specifics with special focus on the time from admission to treatment, duration of hospitalization and comorbidities were retrospectively assessed by chart review. RESULTS:During the evaluated interval, 407 patients with isolated fractures of the pelvis or acetabulum (mean age 78 years, range 55 to 101 years, 69,3% female) were treated. A new pressure ulcer that developed during the hospitalization was observed in 46/407 patients (11.3%). This included pressure ulcers of stage 1 in 18/46 cases (39%), stage 2 in 24/46 cases (52%), and stage 3 in 4/46 cases (9%). No stage 4 ulcers were seen in this cohort. The mean duration of hospitalization was longer in patients with a pressure ulcer (25 days, SD 17) than in patients with no ulcers (12 days, SD 9; p < .001). Patients who developed a pressure ulcer, had waited significantly longer for treatment of their pelvis/acetabulum fracture when compared to patients without an ulcer (5 days, SD 5 vs. 3 days SD 4, p = =.001). A logistic regression analysis confirmed "time to treatment" as an independent risk factor for the occurrence of a pressure ulcer during hospitalization. In an analysis adjusted for the confounders age, male gender, diabetes and malignancy, the odds ratio to develop a pressure ulcer remained 1.10 (CI 1.03 to 1.19; c-value = 0.774, p = .008) for each day of waiting treatment. CONCLUSION:"Time to treatment" is an independent risk factor for the occurrence of a pressure ulcer during hospitalization after a pelvis/acetabulum fracture in elderly patients. Each day of waiting treatment increases the risk of developing a pressure ulcer by 10%. 10.1016/j.injury.2019.12.007
    Predictive Value of Braden Risk Factors in Pressure Ulcers of Outpatients With Spinal Cord Injury. Sadeghi Fazel Fariba,Derakhshanrad Nazi,Yekaninejad Mir Saeed,Vosoughi Fardis,Derakhshanrad Asal,Saberi Hooshang Acta medica Iranica Pressure Ulcers (PUs) remain among the most common complications after traumatic spinal cord Injuries (SCIs). The main goal of risk factor assessment with different tools has been to provisionally estimate the chance of developing pressure ulcers in patients with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). Braden tool has been of good predictive value and most commonly employed in hospital communities for risk assessment of pressure sore development. The objective of this study was to determine the Braden risk factors as well as the prevalence of pressure injuries in SCI patients. This cross-sectional study was performed from June 2013 to December 2015 on 163 consecutive referred outpatients with chronic traumatic SCI in our tertiary SCI rehabilitation clinic. We assessed pressure induced skin injuries as well as their Braden risk factors and analyzed their association with stage and location of Pressure Ulcer (PU) and calculated prevalence of PU. One hundred and sixty-three patients out of 580 were found to have active pressure sores, with a prevalence of 28.1%. In the multiple models, only the Braden scale had significant association with the presence of active pressure sore. Patients with severe and moderate Braden scores were 2.36 and 1.82 times, more at risk of pressure sore development, as compared with those having mild scores (P≤0.01). It may be deduced that in various stages of SCI rehabilitation, the Braden scale may be calculated, and patients with moderate and severe risks (according to Braden sale) may need more attention and/or inpatient care for PU prevention.
    Developing risk-adjusted quality indicators for pressure ulcers in long-term care hospitals in the Republic of Korea. Lee Yun J,Kim Jung Y,Dong Cha B,Park Ok K International wound journal Pressure ulcers result in financial losses, including the cost of unnecessary medical expenses because of extended hospital stays, treatment, and examination. This was a retrospective, observational, methodological study to develop quality indicators related to pressure ulcer development and validate risk adjustment factors for pressure ulcer development. We performed a literature review to develop risk adjustment factors, and an expert group performed a content validity test. To validate risk adjustment factors for pressure ulcer development using electronic medical records, 127 patients admitted to a long-term care hospital in South Korea from June to September 2015 were enrolled in the study. Pressure ulcer risk factors were peripheral vascular disease, end-stage disease, past pressure ulcer history, high risk group for pressure ulcer development, fever, haemoglobin, and albumin (all P < 0.05); only albumin (odds ratio: 0.210, P < 0.001) was significantly associated with pressure ulcer development as an independent risk factor. Further research with a large sample size is needed for the validation of risk adjustment factors. Risk-adjusted quality indicators for pressure ulcer development can be used to evaluate the quality of nursing care and compare outcomes after preventive pressure ulcer care activities or between long-term care hospitals. 10.1111/iwj.13024
    Calibration power of the Braden scale in predicting pressure ulcer development. Chen Hong-Lin,Cao Ying-Juan,Wang Jing,Huai Bao-Sha Journal of wound care OBJECTIVE:Calibration is the degree of correspondence between the estimated probability produced by a model and the actual observed probability. The aim of this study was to investigate the calibration power of the Braden scale in predicting pressure ulcer development (PU). METHOD:A retrospective analysis was performed among consecutive patients in 2013. The patients were separated into training a group and a validation group. The predicted incidence was calculated using a logistic regression model in the training group and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test was used for assessing the goodness of fit. In the validation cohort, the observed and the predicted incidence were compared by the Chi-square (χ) goodness of fit test for calibration power. RESULTS:We included 2585 patients in the study, of these 78 patients (3.0%) developed a PU. Between the training and validation groups the patient characteristics were non-significant (p>0.05). In the training group, the logistic regression model for predicting pressure ulcer was Logit(P) = -0.433*Braden score+2.616. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed no goodness fit (χ=13.472; p=0.019). In the validation group, the predicted pressure ulcer incidence also did not fit well with the observed incidence (χ=42.154, p=0.000 by Braden scores; and χ=17.223, p=0.001 by Braden scale risk classification). CONCLUSION:The Braden scale has low calibration power in predicting PU formation. 10.12968/jowc.2016.25.11.655
    Nutritional blood parameters and nutritional risk screening in patients with spinal cord injury and deep pressure ulcer-a retrospective chart analysis. Lussi Cristina,Frotzler Angela,Jenny Andreas,Schaefer Dirk J,Kressig Reto W,Scheel-Sailer Anke Spinal cord STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective chart review. OBJECTIVES:To describe (i) the nutritional blood parameters (NBP) and the nutritional risk screening (NRS) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and pressure ulcers (PU) III and IV according to the EPUAP classification, and (ii) the relationship between both NBP and NRS. SETTING:SCI acute care and rehabilitation clinic in Switzerland. METHODS:The NBPs were measured upon the admission of patients treated for PU III and IV between 11/2011 and 12/2014. Descriptive analyses and group comparisons were done. RESULTS:A total of 170 patients, including 42 (25%) women, 19 (12%) people with paraplegia and 104 (61%) people with traumatic SCI, were admitted and analyzed. Pathologic blood values and NBP were found for c-reactive protein (83%), vitamin D (73%), protein (41%), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (41%), albumin (34%), hemoglobin (34%), zinc (29%), folic acid (22%), transferrin (15.3%), and copper (1.2%). Overall, the NRS was >3 in 39% of the patients, wherefrom 28% in patients with PU III and 44% with PU IV (p=0.07). No statistical significant differences were found between patients with PU III and IV in terms of NBP and NRS. CONCLUSIONS:We found abnormal values in NBP and in NRS in a significant number of patients with SCI and PU of both III and IV. Both laboratory examinations and nutritional assessments at admission can help to detect and correct the nutritional deficits in patients at risk. Neither the grade of the PUs, nor the NBP or the NRS can replace one another. 10.1038/s41393-017-0016-4
    The Belgian pressure ulcer risk assessment project: Is assessing mobility and skin status a more accurate, reliable, and feasible approach to assess pressure ulcer risk in hospitalised patients? Smet Steven,de Graaf Annelies,Bernaerts Kris,Casaer Michael P,Beeckman Dimitri International wound journal 10.1111/iwj.13240
    Heel pressure ulcer, prevention and predictors during the care delivery chain - when and where to take action? A descriptive and explorative study. Muntlin Athlin Åsa,Engström Maria,Gunningberg Lena,Bååth Carina Scandinavian journal of trauma, resuscitation and emergency medicine BACKGROUND:Hazardous healthcare settings, for example acute care, need to focus more on preventing adverse events and preventive actions across the care delivery chain (i.e pre-hospital and emergency care, and further at the hospital ward) should be more studied. Pressure ulcer prevalence is still at unreasonably high levels, causing increased healthcare costs and suffering for patients. Recent biomedical research reveals that the first signs of cell damage could arise within minutes. However, few studies have investigated optimal pressure ulcer prevention in the initial stage of the care process, e.g. in the ambulance care or at the emergency department. The aim of the study was to describe heel pressure ulcer prevalence and nursing actions in relation to pressure ulcer prevention during the care delivery chain, for older patients with neurological symptoms or reduced general condition. Another aim was to investigate early predictors for the development of heel pressure ulcer during the care delivery chain. METHODS:Existing data collected from a multi-centre randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of using a heel prevention boot to reduce the incidence of heel pressure ulcer across the care delivery chain was used. Totally 183 patients participated. The settings for the study were five ambulance stations, two emergency departments and 16 wards at two hospitals in Sweden. RESULTS:A total of 39 individual patients (21 %) developed heel pressure ulcer at different stages across the care delivery chain. Findings revealed that 47-64 % of the patients were assessed as being at risk for developing heel pressure ulcer. Preventive action was taken. However, all patients who developed pressure ulcer during the care delivery chain did not receive adequate pressure ulcer prevention actions during their hospital stay. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:In the ambulance and at the emergency department, skin inspection seems to be appropriate for preventing pressure ulcer. However, carrying out risk assessment with a validated instrument is of significant importance at the ward level. This would also be an appropriate level of resource use. Context-specific actions for pressure ulcer prevention should be incorporated into the care of the patient from the very beginning of the care delivery chain. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ISRCTN85296908 . 10.1186/s13049-016-0326-0
    A new pressure ulcer conceptual framework. Coleman Susanne,Nixon Jane,Keen Justin,Wilson Lyn,McGinnis Elizabeth,Dealey Carol,Stubbs Nikki,Farrin Amanda,Dowding Dawn,Schols Jos M G A,Cuddigan Janet,Berlowitz Dan,Jude Edward,Vowden Peter,Schoonhoven Lisette,Bader Dan L,Gefen Amit,Oomens Cees W J,Nelson E Andrea Journal of advanced nursing AIM:This paper discusses the critical determinants of pressure ulcer development and proposes a new pressure ulcer conceptual framework. BACKGROUND:Recent work to develop and validate a new evidence-based pressure ulcer risk assessment framework was undertaken. This formed part of a Pressure UlceR Programme Of reSEarch (RP-PG-0407-10056), funded by the National Institute for Health Research. The foundation for the risk assessment component incorporated a systematic review and a consensus study that highlighted the need to propose a new conceptual framework. DESIGN:Discussion Paper. DATA SOURCES:The new conceptual framework links evidence from biomechanical, physiological and epidemiological evidence, through use of data from a systematic review (search conducted March 2010), a consensus study (conducted December 2010-2011) and an international expert group meeting (conducted December 2011). IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING:A new pressure ulcer conceptual framework incorporating key physiological and biomechanical components and their impact on internal strains, stresses and damage thresholds is proposed. Direct and key indirect causal factors suggested in a theoretical causal pathway are mapped to the physiological and biomechanical components of the framework. The new proposed conceptual framework provides the basis for understanding the critical determinants of pressure ulcer development and has the potential to influence risk assessment guidance and practice. It could also be used to underpin future research to explore the role of individual risk factors conceptually and operationally. CONCLUSION:By integrating existing knowledge from epidemiological, physiological and biomechanical evidence, a theoretical causal pathway and new conceptual framework are proposed with potential implications for practice and research. 10.1111/jan.12405
    Nurses' knowledge and practice of pressure ulcer prevention and treatment: An observational study. Saleh Mohammad Y N,Papanikolaou Panos,Nassar Omayyah S,Shahin Abeer,Anthony Denis Journal of tissue viability AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:To assess nurses' knowledge on pressure ulcer (PU) prevention and treatment in Jordan, and the frequency of and factors influencing nurses' implementation of PU prevention and treatment interventions. BACKGROUND:Highly educated and experienced nurses can provide effective PU care; however, previous studies highlighted poor knowledge and implementation of PU care. DESIGN:A correlational study examining nurses' knowledge of PU prevention and frequency of PU preventive actions in Jordanian hospitals. METHODS:Participants were 377 nurses and 318 patients from 11 hospitals. Data were collected to quantify the frequency of nurses' implementation of pressure ulcer prevention and treatment interventions for patients suffering from PUs and/or at risk of PU development using a self-reported cross-sectional survey and prospective 8-h observation. RESULTS:For observed PU prevention while type of hospital and number of beds in units were significant it is not known without further work if this is replicable. For observed PU treatment, linear regression analysis revealed significant negative beta values for more than 50 beds in clinical unit (β = -2.49). CONCLUSION:The study addressed new factors, facilitating the provision of prevention and treatment strategies to PU development, including type of clinical institution and number of beds in clinical unit. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE:There is a need to develop training programmes to improve insufficient nurses' knowledge and, thus, clinical practices on PU prevention and treatment. These programmes would assist both junior and senior nurses and other key stakeholders (e.g. hospital managers, policy-makers, and educators) to improve the performance of PU services, thus, minimising patient suffering. 10.1016/j.jtv.2019.10.005
    Early Detection of Pressure Ulcer Development Following Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Using Inflammatory Mediators. Krishnan Shilpa,Karg Patricia E,Boninger Michael L,Vodovotz Yoram,Constantine Greg,Sowa Gwendolyn A,Brienza David M Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation OBJECTIVE:To identify changes in concentrations of inflammatory mediators in plasma and urine after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and before the occurrence of a first pressure ulcer. DESIGN:Retrospective; secondary analysis of existing data. SETTING:Acute hospitalization and inpatient rehabilitation sites at a university medical center. PARTICIPANTS:Individuals with a pressure ulcer and plasma samples (n=17) and individuals with a pressure ulcer and urine samples (n=15) were matched by age and plasma/urine sample days to individuals with SCI and no pressure ulcer (N=35). INTERVENTIONS:Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Plasma and urine samples were assayed in patients with SCI, capturing samples within 4 days after the SCI to a week before the formation of the first pressure ulcer. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to identify changes in the inflammatory mediators between the 2 time points. RESULTS:An increase in concentration of the chemokine interferon-γ-induced protein of 10kd/CXCL10 in plasma (P<.01) and a decrease in concentration of the cytokine interferon-α in urine (P=.01) were observed before occurrence of a first pressure ulcer (∼4d) compared with matched controls. CONCLUSIONS:Altered levels of inflammatory mediators in plasma and urine may be associated with pressure ulcer development after traumatic SCI. These inflammatory mediators should be explored as possible biomarkers for identifying individuals at risk for pressure ulcer formation. 10.1016/j.apmr.2016.01.003
    Pressure Ulcer in Intensive Care Units: a case-control study. Pachá Heloisa Helena Ponchio,Faria Josimerci Ittavo Lamana,Oliveira Kleber Aparecido de,Beccaria Lúcia Marinilza Revista brasileira de enfermagem OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the relationship between presence/absence of Pressure Ulcer, socio-demographic factors and hospitalization. METHOD:Case-control study, performed through multiple logistic regression based on information from the adverse event reporting system and the hospital information system, between September/2014 and August/2015. RESULTS:Among the risk factors, after adjustment, age greater than or equal to 60 years, hospitalization due to infectious, parasitic and neoplastic diseases, periods of hospitalization longer than seven days and being hospitalized in ICU other than ICU covenant were highlighted. Most of ulcers were reported with mild damage degree and Stage II classification. CONCLUSION:Age and days of hospitalization presented a dose-response effect, the longer the age or the number of days of hospitalization, the greater the chances of Pressure Ulcer. There was a significant association among higher occurrences of death in patients with ulcer. 10.1590/0034-7167-2017-0950
    Pressure ulcer as a reservoir of multiresistant Gram-negative bacilli: risk factors for colonization and development of bacteremia. Braga Iolanda A,Brito Cristiane S,Filho Augusto Diogo,Filho Paulo P Gontijo,Ribas Rosineide M The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases : an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors that predispose patients who are hospitalized with pressure ulcers (PUs) colonized by Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) to develop bacteremia. In addition, we also detected main phenotypes of resistance in infected and uninfected PUs. A prospective cohort study was conducted at the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Uberlândia including patients with Stage II or greater PUs, colonized or not with GNB, from August 2009 to July 2010. Infected ulcers were defined based on clinical signs and on positive evaluation of smears of wound material translated by a ratio of polymorphonuclear cells to epithelial cells ≥2:1, after Giemsa staining. A total of 60 patients with Stage II PUs were included. Of these 83.3% had PUs colonized and/or infected. The frequency of polymicrobial colonization was 74%. Enterobacteriaceae and GNB non-fermenting bacteria were the most frequent isolates of PUs with 44.0% of multiresistant isolates. Among patients who had infected PUs, six developed bacteremia by the same microorganism with a 100% mortality rate. In addition, PUs in hospitalized patients were major reservoir of multiresistant GNB, also a high-risk population for the development of bacteremia with high mortality rates. 10.1016/j.bjid.2016.11.007
    A prediction tool for hospital-acquired pressure ulcers among surgical patients: Surgical pressure ulcer risk score. Aloweni Fazila,Ang Shin Yuh,Fook-Chong Stephanie,Agus Nurliyana,Yong Patricia,Goh Meh Meh,Tucker-Kellogg Lisa,Soh Rick Chai International wound journal Surgical patients are prone to developing hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPU). Therefore, a better prediction tool is needed to predict risk using preoperative data. This study aimed to determine, from previously published HAPU risk factors, which factors are significant among our surgical population and to develop a prediction tool that identifies pressure ulcer risk before the operation. A literature review was first performed to elicit all the published HAPU risk factors before conducting a retrospective case-control study using medical records. The known HAPU risks were compared between patients with HAPU and without HAPU who underwent operations during the same period (July 2015-December 2016). A total of 80 HAPU cases and 189 controls were analysed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified eight significant risk factors: age ≥ 75 years, female gender, American Society of Anaesthesiologists ≥ 3, body mass index < 23, preoperative Braden score ≤ 14, anaemia, respiratory disease, and hypertension. The model had bootstrap-corrected c-statistic 0.78 indicating good discrimination. A cut-off score of ≥6 is strongly predictive, with a positive predictive value of 73.2% (confidence interval [CI]: 59.7%-84.2%) and a negative predictive value of 80.7% (CI: 74.3%-86.1%). SPURS contributes to the preoperative identification of pressure ulcer risk that could help nurses implement preventive measures earlier. 10.1111/iwj.13007
    Factors for postoperative complications following pressure ulcer operation: stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis. Han Hyun Ho,Ko Jun Gul,Rhie Jong Won International wound journal Patients with pressure ulcers are generally older, have a long hospital stay and often have a variety of comorbidities. The decision to perform surgery for pressure ulcer management can be difficult because of concerns about the risk of postoperative complications. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between comorbid conditions and surgical outcomes in order to guide patient selection for pressure ulcer surgery. In 57 patients, data on age, defect size, operating time, hospital stay, body mass index, surgical site, mobility state, cardiac ischaemic history, diabetes, renal failure, ventilator dependency, tracheostomy state, use of haemodilution therapy and cancer were evaluated using stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis to determine the relationships between variables. There were no postoperative cardiac ischaemic events. Wound complications occurred in 8 patients (14%), pneumonia in 12 patients (21·1%) and mortality in 1 patient (1·7%). The risk of postoperative pneumonia increased 1·069-fold in elderly patients (odds ratio = 1·069, P < 0·05) and increased 44·17-fold in preoperative ventilator users (odds ratio = 44·17, P < 0·05). The risk of wound complication increased 1·012-fold with the presence of a larger defect site (odds ratio = 1·012, P < 0·05) and increased 7·474-fold in patients who received haemodilution therapy (odds ratio = 7·474, P < 0·05). Our results indicate that most comorbid conditions did not significantly affect postoperative cardiopulmonary or wound complications. However, the risk of postoperative pneumonia increased in patients with ventilator use or old age, and the risk of wound complication increased in patients with a large defect size and in those who used haemodilution therapy. 10.1111/iwj.12754
    Sacral Skin Temperature and Pressure Ulcer Development: A Descriptive Study. Yilmaz İlkin,Günes Ülkü Yapucu Wound management & prevention Existing evidence is inadequate to assume increased skin temperature is a risk factor for the development of pressure ulcers (PUs). PURPOSE:The purpose of this prospective, descriptive study was to examine the relationship between sacral skin temperature and PU development. METHODS:Using convenience sampling methods, patients who were hospitalized in the tertiary intensive care unit (ICU) of the internal medicine department of a university hospital in İzmir, Turkey, between April and December 2015 were eligible to participate if they were ⟩18 years of age, had an expected hospital stay of at least 5 days, a Braden score ≤12, and were admitted without a PU. Demographic and clinical data collected included age, gender, body mass index, diagnosis, mattress type, length of follow-up (days), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body temperature, hemoglobin level, sacral skin temperatures in the supine and lateral positions, room temperature, PU stage and duration, and Braden score. Temperature was measured the day of hospitalization as a baseline measurement (day 1) and once every day thereafter up to 22 days, until the patient did or did not develop a PU, died, was no longer undergoing position change, or was discharged. Sacral skin temperature was taken immediately after the patient was moved to a lateral position following 120 minutes of supine position (referred to as sacral skin temperature measurement) and after 30 minutes in lateral position (referred to as sacral skin temperature measurement). Data were collected using paper-and-pencil questionnaires and entered into a software program for analysis. Descriptive statistics, Student's test, one-way analysis of variance test, Pearson product-moment correlation analysis, and Spearman's rank-order correlation analysis were used for data analysis. RESULTS:Of the 37 patients who met the inclusion criteria and were monitored for at least 5 days, 21 (56.8%) developed PUs. No statistically significant difference in supine position sacral skin temperature on day 1 or day 5 was found between patients who did and did not develop a PU (36.90° C ± 0.29° C and 37.15° C ± 0.53° C, respectively, on day 1; = -1.656, = .112; and 37.37° C ± 0.53° C and 37.30° C ± 0.79° C, respectively, on day 5; = 0.259, = .798). Day 5 lateral position skin temperatures also did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (37.44° C ± 0.44° C and 37.31° C ± 0.75° C, respectively; = 1.306, = .621). A statistically significant difference was noted between mean sacral skin temperature in the supine position among patients ages 75 to 90 years compared with patients 38 to 64 years and 65 to 74 years (36.93° C ± 0.39° C; F = 13.221, = .000) and with use of a viscoelastic mattress compared with an alternating pressure air mattress and continuous lateral rotation alternating pressure air mattress (37.85° C ± 0.54° C; F = 14.039, = .000). No statistically significant differences in sacral skin temperatures were found for any of the of the other variables assessed. CONCLUSION:Sacral skin temperatures were not statistically different between ICU patients who did and did not develop a PU. Additional research may help increase understanding of the relationship between skin temperature and PU development.
    Use of 2 Types of Air-cell Mattresses for Pressure Ulcer Prevention and Comfort Among Patients With Advanced-stage Cancer Receiving Palliative Care: An Interventional Study. Marutani Akiko,Okuwa Mayumi,Sugama Junko Wound management & prevention Patients with advanced- or terminal-stage cancer and persons receiving palliative care are at high risk for pressure ulcers (PUs). PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to examine the rate of PU development and levels of comfort of a dual-fit, air-cell mattress compared with an alternating, 2-layer overlay air-cell mattress in patients with advanced- or terminal-stage cancer receiving palliative care. METHODS:From January 2011 to December 2013, hospitalized patients with advanced- or terminal-stage cancer who were referred to a palliative care team, at least 20 years of age, able to communicate, experiencing pain, and did not have a PU were recruited to participate. Patients who consented were alternately placed on the intervention (dual-fit, air-cell) or control (2-layer air) mattress until hospital discharge or death. Demographic and clinical data, pain scores, performance status, Palliative Performance Scale scores, Braden Scale scores, tissue interface pressure, and comfort were assessed via interview using closed-end questions. If a PU developed, clinical characteristics were assessed using DESIGN-R. Descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney U, chi-squared, and Fisher's exact tests were used to analyze the data. RESULTS:Of the 123 eligible patients, 73 were randomized and 52 completed the study (23 intervention patients, median age 63 [range 27-80] years; and 29 control group patients, median age 61.0 [range 27-82] years). Mattresses were used a median of 17 (range 4-113) days in the intervention group and a median of 32 (range 3-270) days in the control group. The incidence of PUs did not significantly differ between the 2 groups (13% in the intervention and 17.2% in the control group). Interface pressures were significantly higher in the intervention group (27.0 mm Hg vs. 24.3 mm Hg). Comfort scores at rest were significantly better in the intervention than in the control group (sinking into bed [3 vs. 14, respectively]; slipping on bed [o vs. 16, respectively]; and feel pressure of air cell [2 vs. 14, respectively]), as were scores with movement (instability during movement [4 vs. 18, respectively] and feeling of floating of the buttocks [6 vs. 21, respectively]) (P <.05). CONCLUSION:Dual-fit, air-cell mattresses may help prevent PUs and improve comfort at rest and during activity among patients with end-stage cancer receiving palliative care. Further research regarding mattress selection protocols for this patient population is warranted.
    Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) to Predict Pressure Ulcer Risk in Intensive Care Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Ahtiala Maarit,Soppi Esa,Saari Teijo Ostomy/wound management Pressure ulcer (PU) risk assessment practices in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients remain varied. PURPOSE:The authors assessed the performance of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scale and its subcategories in predicting the development of PUs. METHODS:A retrospective cohort study was conducted of all adult patients admitted to the mixed medical-surgical ICU of a Finnish tertiary referral hospital between January 2010 and December 2012. Data (diagnoses, demographics, clinical information, treatments, and instrument scores) were retrieved from the ICU database. Wilcoxon and chi-squared tests were used to examine patient subgroup (medical or surgical ICU and intensive care or high-dependency care patients), length of ICU stay (LOS), modified Jackson/Cubbin (mJ/C) scores and SOFA subcategory variables, and first-day SOFA scores. PU association was determined by logistical regression. RESULTS:Among the 4899 patients in the study population, the overall PU incidence of acquired PUs was 8.1%. Medical patients had significantly more PUs (145/1281; 11.3%) than surgical patients (212/3468; 6.1%) (P <.0001). In all subgroups, significantly more patients with PUs had higher SOFA scores (mean 8.24) than patients without PUs (mean 6.74) (P =.001). The difference persisted when patients with LOS ≥3 days in the ICU were considered. Among the SOFA subcategories, the Glasgow Coma score, renal and respiratory disorders, and hypotension were significantly (P <.0001) linked to PU development. First-day total SOFA score and its cardiovascular and respiratory subcategory scores were the most important predictors of PUs. CONCLUSION:The total SOFA score provides an additional tool to assess PU risk in ICUs and should be used together with the Braden or the mJ/C Scale.
    Effectiveness of Topical Sucralfate in the Management of Pressure Ulcer in Hospitalized Patients: A Prospective, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Ala Shahram,Saeedi Majid,Gholipour Afshin,Ahmadi Motahareh,Asoodeh Ali,Shiva Afshin American journal of therapeutics BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of topical sucralfate in the management of pressure ulcer (PU) in hospitalized patients. METHODS:Forty hospitalized patients with stage II PU were included in this prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial and were randomly divided into 2 groups receiving either sucralfate gel or placebo, on a daily basis. The patients were visited every day for 14 days, the ulcer was evaluated using the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH) and changes to the measured scores over time were used as an indicator of wound healing. RESULTS:There were no statistically significant differences in any of the demographic characteristics between both groups. Both of the interventions reduced the average PUSH score, and at the end of the trial, all but 2 patients were healed. One in each group discontinued the trial because of exacerbation of the ulcer. No significant between-group difference in the average PUSH score reduction was observed (6.36 ± 2.11 vs. 5.89 ± 1.41, P = 0.42). Although the average healing time was less in the sucralfate group (6.05 ± 2.17 vs. 7.78 ± 3.42), the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS:Sucralfate gel does not improve healing of PU compared with placebo. 10.1097/MJT.0000000000000531
    [Expression and significance of tumor necrosis factor alpha, matrix metalloproteinase 2 and collagen in skin tissue of pressure ulcer of rats]. Wang X H,Mao T T,Pan Y Y,Xie H H,Zhang H Y,Xiao J,Jiang L P Zhonghua shao shang za zhi = Zhonghua shaoshang zazhi = Chinese journal of burns OBJECTIVE:To observe the expressions of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and collagen in local skin tissue of pressure ulcer of rats, and to explore the possible mechanism of the pathogenesis of pressure ulcer. METHODS:Forty male SD rats were divided into normal control group, 3 d compression group, 5 d compression group, 7 d compression group, and 9 d compression group according to the random number table, with 8 rats in each group. The rats in normal control group did not receive any treatment, whereas the rats in the latter 4 groups were established the deep tissue injury model (3 d compression group) and pressure ulcer model (the other 3 groups) on the gracilis muscle on both hind limbs using a way of cycle compression of ischemia-reperfusion magnet. The rats in 3 d compression group received only three cycles of compression, while the compressed skin of the rats in 5 d compression group, 7 d compression group, and 9 d compression group were cut through and received pressure to 5, 7 and 9 cycles after three cycles of compression, respectively. The rats in 3 d compression group were sacrificed immediately after receiving compression for 3 d (the rats in normal control group were sacrificed at the same time), and the rats in the other 3 groups were respectively sacrificed after receiving compression for 5, 7, and 9 d, and the skin tissue on the central part of gracilis muscle on both hind limbs were harvested. The morphology of the skin tissue was observed with HE staining. The expression of collagen fiber was observed with Masson staining. The expressions of collagen type Ⅳ and MMP-2 were detected by immunohistochemical method. The expressions of TNF-α and phosphorylated NF kappa B (NF-κB) were determined by Western blotting. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance and LSD test. RESULTS:(1) In normal control group, the skin tissue of rats was stratified squamous epithelium, with the clear skin structure, and there was no obvious infiltration of inflammatory cells. In 3 d compression group, the skin layers of rats were clear, with quite a few fibroblasts, and the inflammatory cells began to infiltrate. In 5 d compression group, 7 d compression group, and 9 d compression group, the epidermis of rats thickened, with the number of fibroblasts reduced, and the infiltration of inflammatory cells enhanced with the compressed time prolonging. (2) In normal control group, the collagen fibers in skin tissue of rats were arranged in order, with rich content. In 3 d compression group, the collagen fibers in skin tissue of rats were arranged orderly, with high expression level, which was similar to that in normal control group (P>0.05). In 5 d compression group and 7 d compression group, the collagen fibers in skin tissue of rats were arranged in disorder, with the expression level gradually reduced, which were significantly lower than that in normal control group (with P values below 0.01). In 9 d compression group, the expression of collagen fiber in skin tissue of rats was a little higher than that in 7 d compression group, but it was still significantly lower than that in normal control group (P<0.01). (3) The expressions of collagen type Ⅳ in skin tissue of rats in normal control group, 3 d compression group, 5 d compression group, 7 d compression group, and 9 d compression group were respectively 11.0±2.8, 9.0±1.7, 8.3±2.8, 5.1±1.8, and 5.4±1.2. The expression of collagen type Ⅳ in skin tissue of rats in 3 d compression group was similar to that in normal control group (P>0.05). The expressions of collagen type Ⅳ in skin tissue of rats in 5 d compression group, 7 d compression group, and 9 d compression group were significantly lower than that in normal control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The expression of MMP-2 in skin tissue of rats in 3 d compression group was similar to that in normal control group (P>0.05). The expressions of MMP-2 in skin tissue of rats in 5 d compression group, 7 d compression group, and 9 d compression group were significantly higher than that in normal control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). (4) The expression of TNF-α in skin tissue of rats in normal control group was 0.48±0.11, and the expressions of TNF-α in skin tissue of rats in 3 d compression group, 5 d compression group, 7 d compression group, and 9 d compression group were respectively 0.84±0.08, 1.13±0.19, 1.34±0.16, and 1.52±0.23, which were all significantly higher than that in normal control group (with P values below 0.01). The expressions of phosphorylated NF-κB in skin tissue of rats in 3 d compression group and 9 d compression group were similar to that in normal control group (with P values above 0.05), and the expressions of phosphorylated NF-κB in skin tissue of rats in 5 d compression group and 7 d compression group were significantly higher than that in normal control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS:The high expression of MMP-2 and reduction of collagen induced by inflammatory reaction mediated by the high expression of TNF-α in local skin tissue of pressure ulcer of rats may be one of the important reasons for the formation of pressure ulcer. 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1009-2587.2016.03.008
    Which endotracheal tube location minimises the device-related pressure ulcer risk: The centre or a corner of the mouth? Amrani Golan,Gefen Amit International wound journal The use of an endotracheal tube (ETT), which is required for any mechanical ventilation procedure, involves an inherent risk for facial skin, lip, and mucosal pressure ulcers. The ETT is one of the most common devices associated with medical device-related pressure ulcers (MDRPUs) among surgical and intensive care unit patients. In the present work, we investigated, for the first time in the literature, the biomechanical effects of the presence and positioning of an ETT in the mouth on lip, mucosal and surrounding facial skin loads. Using two anatomically realistic finite element model variants, two ETT locations were simulated and compared, at the centre versus the corner of the mouth. Our study shows that a central location of the ETT inflicted greater lip and mucosal stress values, but a corner location caused a more widespread and diffused lip, mucosal and facial skin stress exposure. Accordingly, we cannot recommend a "safer" location for ETTs in the mouth; additional preventative measures such as dedicated dressing materials or special cushioning pads applied prophylactically, should be developed to protect from MDRPUs associated with ETT usage. The present modelling framework can be used to study the biomechanical efficacy of such protective technologies, and can therefore aid in the prevention of ETT-caused MDRPUs. 10.1111/iwj.13267
    The relationship among pressure ulcer risk factors, incidence and nursing documentation in hospital-acquired pressure ulcer patients in intensive care units. Li Dan Journal of clinical nursing AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:To explore the quality/comprehensiveness of nursing documentation of pressure ulcers and to investigate the relationship between the nursing documentation and the incidence of pressure ulcers in four intensive care units. BACKGROUND:Pressure ulcer prevention requires consistent assessments and documentation to decrease pressure ulcer incidence. Currently, most research is focused on devices to prevent pressure ulcers. Studies have rarely considered the relationship among pressure ulcer risk factors, incidence and nursing documentation. Thus, a study to investigate this relationship is needed to fill this information gap. DESIGN:A retrospective, comparative, descriptive, correlational study. METHOD:A convenience sample of 196 intensive care units patients at the selected medical centre comprised the study sample. All medical records of patients admitted to intensive care units between the time periods of September 1, 2011 through September 30, 2012 were audited. Data used in the analysis included 98 pressure ulcer patients and 98 non-pressure ulcer patients. The quality and comprehensiveness of pressure ulcer documentation were measured by the modified European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Pressure Ulcers Assessment Instrument and the Comprehensiveness in Nursing Documentation instrument. RESULT:The correlations between quality/comprehensiveness of pressure ulcer documentation and incidence of pressure ulcers were not statistically significant. Patients with pressure ulcers had longer length of stay than patients without pressure ulcers stay. There were no statistically significant differences in quality/comprehensiveness scores of pressure ulcer documentation between dayshift and nightshift. CONCLUSION:This study revealed a lack of quality/comprehensiveness in nursing documentation of pressure ulcers. This study demonstrates that staff nurses often perform poorly on documenting pressure ulcer appearance, staging and treatment. Moreover, nursing documentation of pressure ulcers does not provide a complete picture of patients' care needs that require nursing interventions. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE:The implication of this study involves pressure ulcer prevention and litigable risk of nursing documentation. 10.1111/jocn.13363
    Knowledge of nurses and nursing assistants about pressure ulcer prevention: A survey in 16 Belgian hospitals using the PUKAT 2.0 tool. De Meyer Dorien,Verhaeghe Sofie,Van Hecke Ann,Beeckman Dimitri Journal of tissue viability BACKGROUND:Pressure ulcers have a high impact on patients and their families. Profound and up-to-date knowledge among nurses is important given the effect on attitudes and preventative behaviour. To gain insight into educational needs and priorities, regular knowledge assessments are needed. OBJECTIVE:To gain insight into the knowledge of nurses and nursing assistants about pressure ulcer prevention. DESIGN:Cross-sectional multicentre study. METHODS:474 nurses and nursing assistants recruited at 29 wards in 16 hospitals completed individually the PUKAT 2.0, a valid and reliable questionnaire to measure nurses knowledge about pressure ulcer prevention. Data were collected between February 2016 and December 2017. Independent sample t-tests, one-way analyses of variance and Kruskal-wallis tests were performed to analyse the results. RESULTS:The mean total score was 50.7%. The lowest scores were found in the themes knowledge about prevention (42.7%), aetiology (45.6%) and prevention for specific patient groups (46.6%). Higher educational level (H = 40.43, p < 0.001) and attending additional training about pressure ulcers or wound care in general (t = 2.93, p = 0.004) resulted in significant higher total knowledge scores. CONCLUSION:The results of this study highlight an important knowledge deficit about pressure ulcer prevention. The PUKAT 2.0 knowledge assessment tool made it possible to differentiate between a variety of cognitive process levels. This allowed to identify knowledge gaps and focus areas for continuing professional education. Education curricula for nurses and associated healthcare professionals are to be screened thoroughly and the identified knowledge gaps should be covered. Besides, multifaceted strategies are needed to improve clinical practice. 10.1016/j.jtv.2019.03.002
    Clinical evaluation of a new pressure ulcer risk assessment instrument, the Pressure Ulcer Risk Primary or Secondary Evaluation Tool (PURPOSE T). Coleman Susanne,Smith Isabelle L,McGinnis Elizabeth,Keen Justin,Muir Delia,Wilson Lyn,Stubbs Nikki,Dealey Carol,Brown Sarah,Nelson E Andrea,Nixon Jane Journal of advanced nursing AIM:To test the psychometric properties and clinical usability of a new Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment Instrument including inter-rater and test-retest reliability, convergent validity and data completeness. BACKGROUND:Methodological and practical limitations associated with traditional Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment Instruments, prompted a programme to work to develop a new instrument, as part of the National Institute for Health Research funded, Pressure UlceR Programme Of reSEarch (RP-PG-0407-10056). DESIGN:Observational field test. METHOD:For this clinical evaluation 230 patients were purposefully sampled across four broad levels of pressure ulcer risk with representation from four secondary care and four community NHS Trusts in England. Blinded and simultaneous paired (ward/community nurse and expert nurse) PURPOSE-T assessments were undertaken. Follow-up retest was undertaken by the expert nurse. Field notes of PURPOSE-T use were collected. Data were collected October 2012-January 2013. RESULTS:The clinical evaluation demonstrated "very good" (kappa) inter-rater and test-retest agreement for PURPOSE-T assessment decision overall. The percentage agreement for "problem/no problem" was over 75% for the main risk factors. Convergent validity demonstrated moderate to high associations with other measures of similar constructs. CONCLUSION:The PURPOSE-T evaluation facilitated the initial validation and clinical usability of the instrument and demonstrated that PURPOSE-T is suitable of use in clinical practice. Further study is needed to evaluate the impact of using the instrument on care processes and outcomes. 10.1111/jan.13444
    Hydrogen gas inhalation protects against cutaneous ischaemia/reperfusion injury in a mouse model of pressure ulcer. Fang Wei,Wang Guizhen,Tang Luyan,Su Huilin,Chen Huyan,Liao Wanqing,Xu Jinhua Journal of cellular and molecular medicine Pressure ulcer formation depends on various factors among which repetitive ischaemia/reperfusion(I/R) injury plays a vital role. Molecular hydrogen (H ) was reported to have protective effects on I/R injuries of various internal organs. In this study, we investigated the effects of H inhalation on pressure ulcer and the underlying mechanisms. H inhalation significantly reduced wound area, 8-oxo-dG level (oxidative DNA damage) and cell apoptosis rates in skin lesions. H remarkably decreased ROS accumulation and enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities by up-regulating expression of Nrf2 and its downstream components in wound tissue and/or H O -treated endothelia. Meanwhile, H inhibited the overexpression of MCP-1, E-selectin, P-selectin and ICAM-1 in oxidant-induced endothelia and reduced inflammatory cells infiltration and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8) production in the wound. Furthermore, H promoted the expression of pro-healing factors (IL-22, TGF-β, VEGF and IGF1) and inhibited the production of MMP9 in wound tissue in parallel with acceleration of cutaneous collagen synthesis. Taken together, these data indicated that H inhalation suppressed the formation of pressure ulcer in a mouse model. Molecular hydrogen has potentials as a novel and alternative therapy for severe pressure ulcer. The therapeutic effects of molecular hydrogen might be related to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, pro-healing actions. 10.1111/jcmm.13704
    An investigation into the use of serum albumin in pressure sore prediction. Anthony D,Reynolds T,Russell L Journal of advanced nursing OBJECTIVES:To ascertain the relevance of serum albumin and serum sodium as predictors of pressure sores in addition to the Waterlow score. DESIGN:Observational study of patients at risk of developing decubitus ulcers. SETTING:Staffordshire, in the midlands of the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS:773 elderly hospital in-patients of a district general hospital. MEASUREMENTS:Waterlow scores and serum albumin and sodium. Development of a pressure sore. RESULTS:Logistic regression analysis of serum albumin, serum sodium and the Waterlow score showed the Waterlow score and serum albumin were significant predictors of pressure sores. CONCLUSIONS:Serum albumin may, in this patient group (in-patients over 64 years of age), be a useful predictor of pressure sore occurrence, though further work is needed to establish whether this is the case. Risk assessment of pressure sores can possibly be improved by adding serum albumin to one of the pre-existing tools such as the Waterlow score.
    Using Machine Learning Technologies in Pressure Injury Management: Systematic Review. Jiang Mengyao,Ma Yuxia,Guo Siyi,Jin Liuqi,Lv Lin,Han Lin,An Ning JMIR medical informatics BACKGROUND:Pressure injury (PI) is a common and preventable problem, yet it is a challenge for at least two reasons. First, the nurse shortage is a worldwide phenomenon. Second, the majority of nurses have insufficient PI-related knowledge. Machine learning (ML) technologies can contribute to lessening the burden on medical staff by improving the prognosis and diagnostic accuracy of PI. To the best of our knowledge, there is no existing systematic review that evaluates how the current ML technologies are being used in PI management. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this review was to synthesize and evaluate the literature regarding the use of ML technologies in PI management, and identify their strengths and weaknesses, as well as to identify improvement opportunities for future research and practice. METHODS:We conducted an extensive search on PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), the Wanfang database, the VIP database, and the China Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) to identify relevant articles. Searches were performed in June 2020. Two independent investigators conducted study selection, data extraction, and quality appraisal. Risk of bias was assessed using the Prediction model Risk Of Bias ASsessment Tool (PROBAST). RESULTS:A total of 32 articles met the inclusion criteria. Twelve of those articles (38%) reported using ML technologies to develop predictive models to identify risk factors, 11 (34%) reported using them in posture detection and recognition, and 9 (28%) reported using them in image analysis for tissue classification and measurement of PI wounds. These articles presented various algorithms and measured outcomes. The overall risk of bias was judged as high. CONCLUSIONS:There is an array of emerging ML technologies being used in PI management, and their results in the laboratory show great promise. Future research should apply these technologies on a large scale with clinical data to further verify and improve their effectiveness, as well as to improve the methodological quality. 10.2196/25704
    Risk prediction models for the development of oral-mucosal pressure injuries in intubated patients in intensive care units: A prospective observational study. Choi Byung Kwan,Kim Myoung Soo,Kim Soo Hyun Journal of tissue viability PURPOSE:Oral-mucosal pressure injury (PI) is the most commonly encountered medical device-related PIs. This study was performed to identify risk factors and construct a risk prediction model for oral-mucosal PI development in intubated patients in the intensive care unit. METHODS:The study design was prospective, observational with medical record review. The inclusion criteria stipulated that 1) participants should be > 18 years of age, 2) there should be ETT use with holding methods including adhesive tape, gauze tying, and commercial devices. Data of 194 patient-days were analysed. The identification and validation of risk model development was performed using SPSS and the SciKit learn platform. RESULTS:The risk prediction logistic models were composed of three factors (bite-block/airway, commercial ETT holder, and corticosteroid use) for lower oral-mucosal PI development and four factors (commercial ETT holder, vasopressor use, haematocrit, and serum albumin level) for upper oral-mucosal PI development among 10 significant input variables. The sensitivity and specificity for lower oral-mucosal PI development were 85.2% and 76.0%, respectively, and those for upper oral-mucosal PI development were 60.0% and 89.1%, respectively. Based on the results of the machine learning, the upper oral-mucosal PI development model had an accuracy of 79%, F1 score of 88%, precision of 86%, and recall of 91%. CONCLUSIONS:The development of lower oral-mucosal PIs is affected by immobility-related factors and corticosteroid use, and that of upper oral-mucosal PIs by undernutrition-related factors and ETT holder use. The high sensitivities of the two logit models comprise important minimum data for positively predicting oral-mucosal PIs. 10.1016/j.jtv.2020.06.002