In vitro and in silico analysis of an inhibitory mechanism of osteoclastogenesis by salubrinal and guanabenz.
Hamamura Kazunori,Chen Andy,Tanjung Nancy,Takigawa Shinya,Sudo Akihiro,Yokota Hiroki
Inactivating bone-resorbing osteoclasts is a prime therapeutic strategy for the prevention of bone loss in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis. Synthetic agents such as salubrinal and guanabenz, which attenuate stress to the endoplasmic reticulum, are reported to inhibit development of osteoclasts. However, the mechanism of their inhibitory action on osteoclasts is largely unknown. Using genome-wide expression profiles, we predicted key transcription factors that downregulated nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), a master transcription factor for osteoclastogenesis. Principal component analysis (PCA) predicted a list of transcription factors that were potentially responsible for reversing receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-driven stimulation of osteoclastogenesis. A partial silencing of NFATc1 allowed a selection of transcription factors that were likely to be located upstream of NFATc1. We validated the predicted transcription factors by focusing on two AP-1 transcription factors (c-Fos and JunB) using RAW264.7 pre-osteoclasts as well as primary bone marrow cells. As predicted, their mRNA and protein levels were elevated by RANKL, and the elevation was suppressed by salubrinal and guanabenz. A partial silencing of c-Fos or JunB by RNA interference decreased NFATc1 as well as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) mRNA. Collectively, a systems-biology approach allows the prediction of a RANKL-salubrinal/guanabenz-NFATc1 regulatory axis, and in vitro assays validate an involvement of AP-1 transcription factors in suppression of osteoclastogenesis.
Low bone mass and changes in the osteocyte network in mice lacking autophagy in the osteoblast lineage.
Piemontese Marilina,Onal Melda,Xiong Jinhu,Han Li,Thostenson Jeff D,Almeida Maria,O'Brien Charles A
Autophagy maintains cell function and homeostasis by recycling intracellular components. This process is also required for morphological changes associated with maturation of some cell types. Osteoblasts are bone forming cells some of which become embedded in bone and differentiate into osteocytes. This transformation includes development of long cellular projections and a reduction in endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. We examined the role of autophagy in osteoblasts by deleting Atg7 using an Osterix1-Cre transgene, which causes recombination in osteoblast progenitors and their descendants. Mice lacking Atg7 in the entire osteoblast lineage had low bone mass and fractures associated with reduced numbers of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Suppression of autophagy also reduced the amount of osteocyte cellular projections and led to retention of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in osteocytes. These results demonstrate that autophagy in osteoblasts contributes to skeletal homeostasis and to the morphological changes associated with osteocyte formation.
Melatonin Suppresses Autophagy Induced by Clinostat in Preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 Cells.
Yoo Yeong-Min,Han Tae-Young,Kim Han Sung
International journal of molecular sciences
Microgravity exposure can cause cardiovascular and immune disorders, muscle atrophy, osteoporosis, and loss of blood and plasma volume. A clinostat device is an effective ground-based tool for simulating microgravity. This study investigated how melatonin suppresses autophagy caused by simulated microgravity in preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells. In preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells, clinostat rotation induced a significant time-dependent increase in the levels of the autophagosomal marker microtubule-associated protein light chain (LC3), suggesting that autophagy is induced by clinostat rotation in these cells. Melatonin treatment (100, 200 nM) significantly attenuated the clinostat-induced increases in LC3 II protein, and immunofluorescence staining revealed decreased levels of both LC3 and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (Lamp2), indicating a decrease in autophagosomes. The levels of phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) (Ser2448), phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), and phosphorylation of serine-threonine protein kinase (p-Akt) (Ser473) were significantly reduced by clinostat rotation. However, their expression levels were significantly recovered by melatonin treatment. Also, expression of the Bcl-2, truncated Bid, Cu/Zn- superoxide dismutase (SOD), and Mn-SOD proteins were significantly increased by melatonin treatment, whereas levels of Bax and catalase were decreased. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker GRP78/BiP, IRE1α, and p-PERK proteins were significantly reduced by melatonin treatment. Treatment with the competitive melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole blocked melatonin-induced decreases in LC3 II levels. These results demonstrate that melatonin suppresses clinostat-induced autophagy through increasing the phosphorylation of the ERK/Akt/mTOR proteins. Consequently, melatonin appears to be a potential therapeutic agent for regulating microgravity-related bone loss or osteoporosis.
Effects of the bisphosphonate risedronate on osteopenia in OASIS-deficient mice.
Sekiya Hiroshi,Murakami Tomohiko,Saito Atsushi,Hino Shin-Ichiro,Tsumagari Kenji,Ochiai Kimiko,Imaizumi Kazunori
Journal of bone and mineral metabolism
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been reported to be linked to various diseases such as diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Old astrocyte specifically induced substance (OASIS), a novel type of ER stress transducer, is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor belonging to the CREB/ATF family and is markedly expressed in osteoblasts. Recently, we demonstrated that OASIS activates the transcription of the gene for type I collagen, Col1a1, and contributes to the secretion of bone matrix proteins in osteoblasts. OASIS-/- mice exhibit severe osteopenia involving a decrease in type I collagen in the bone matrix and a dysfunction of osteoblasts, which show abnormal expansion of the rough ER. These phenotypic features of osteopenia are similar to those observed in OI type I. In this study, we investigated whether administration of the third-generation bisphosphonate risedronate (RIS) is effective for treating osteopenia in OASIS-/- mice. Histological and histomorphometric analyses revealed that the trabecular bones increased dramatically in OASIS-/- mice treated with RIS, owing to the inhibition of bone resorption. Intriguingly, the abnormal expansion of the rough ER in OASIS-/- osteoblasts was improved by the treatment with RIS. Taken together, we conclude that OASIS-/- mice will be useful as new model mice for evaluating the medicinal effects of osteopenia treatments and developing new drugs for the osteopenia associated with diseases such as OI and osteoporosis.
A Review of the Pharmacological Properties of Psoralen.
Ren Yali,Song Xiaominting,Tan Lu,Guo Chuanjie,Wang Miao,Liu Hui,Cao Zhixing,Li Yuzhi,Peng Cheng
Frontiers in pharmacology
Psoralen is the principal bioactive component in the dried fruits of (L.) Medik (syn. L), termed "Buguzhi" in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Recent studies have demonstrated that psoralen displays multiple bioactive properties, beneficial for the treatment of osteoporosis, tumors, viruses, bacteria, and inflammation. The present review focuses on the research evidence relating to the properties of psoralen gathered over recent years. Firstly, multiple studies have demonstrated that psoralen exerts strong anti-osteoporotic effects regulation of osteoblast/osteoclast/chondrocyte differentiation or activation due to the participation in multiple molecular mechanisms of the wnt/β-catenin, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1)/apoptosis signaling kinase 1 (ASK1)/c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and the Protein Kinase B(AKT)/activator protein-1 (AP-1) axis, and the expression of miR-488, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In addition, the antitumor properties of psoralen are associated with the induction of ER stress-related cell death enhancement of PERK: Pancreatic Endoplasmic Reticulum Kinase (PERK)/activating transcription factor (ATF), 78kD glucose-regulated protein (GRP78)/C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and 94kD glucose-regulated protein (GRP94)/CHOP signaling, and inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or ATPase that overcomes multidrug resistance. Furthermore, multiple articles have shown that the antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of psoralen are a result of its interaction with viral polymerase (Pol), destroying the formation of biofilm, and regulating the activation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), interleukin 4/5/6/8/12/13 (IL-4/5/6/8/12/13), GATA-3, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Finally, the toxic effects and mechanisms of action of psoralen have also been reviewed.
Glucocorticoid Signaling and Bone Biology.
Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et metabolisme
Since glucocorticoids remain an effective therapeutic option for the treatment of many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is the most common form of secondary osteoporosis. Fractures may occur in as many as 30-50% of patients receiving chronic glucocorticoid therapy. Under physiological conditions, glucocorticoids are required for normal bone development due to their regulation of osteoblast differentiation, possibly via the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and TSC22D3. However, serum levels of endogenous corticosterone are elevated in aged mice and glucocorticoids exert negative effects on the survival of osteoblasts and osteocytes as well as angiogenesis. Glucocorticoid treatments impair bone formation and enhance bone resorption. Excess glucocorticoids induce osteoblast and osteocyte apoptosis by increasing pro-apoptotic molecules, reactive oxygen species, and endoplasmic reticulum stress and suppressing the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Autophagy protects osteocytes from glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis, but passed some threshold, the process of autophagy leads the cells to apoptosis. Excess glucocorticoids impair osteoblastogenesis by inducing Wnt antagonists, including Dkk1, Sost, and sFRP-1. However, the findings are controversial and the involvement of Wnt antagonists requires further study. Excess glucocorticoids reduce the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β, which enhances the degradation of β-catenin. Excess glucocorticoids have been shown to modulate the expression of miRNAs, including miR-29a, miR-34a-5p, and miR-199a-5p, which regulate the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast lineage cells. Excess glucocorticoids also enhance bone resorption by reducing OPG expression, increasing Rankl expression and reactive oxygen species, and prolonging the life span of osteoclasts; however, they also suppress the bone-degrading capacity of osteoclasts by disturbing the organization of the cytoskeleton.
β-aminoisobutyric acid accelerates the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells via moderate activation of ROS signaling.
Zhu Xiao-Wen,Ding Kai,Dai Xiao-Yu,Ling Wei-Qi
Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
BACKGROUD:Osteoporosis is one of the bone-metabolic diseases associated with decreased bone renewal and bone mineral density. β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA), a natural thymine catabolite, can reduce inflammation in skeletal muscle and alleviate hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress. However, the roles of BAIBA in osteoblast proliferation and differentiation remain largely unknown. METHODS:The cultured MC3T3-E1 cells received various treatments in this study, including BAIBA alone, HO alone, BAIBA plus N-acetyl-l-cysteine and BAIBA plus apocynin. Cell proliferation was determined by CCK-8 assay and H-Thymidine incorporation. Cell differentiation was evaluated by determining mRNA level of differentiation makers and ALP, and ALP activity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined by DHE staining while superoxide anion level and NAD(P)H oxidase activity were determined by the lucigenin-derived chemiluminescence method. The content of hydrogen peroxide (HO) was detected using a commercial kit. The level of NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4 was determined by Western-blot or qRT-PCR. RESULTS:We show that treatment of BAIBA stimulated the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoprogenitor cells and enhanced the gene expression of osteoblast differentiation markers. Incubation of MC3T3-E1 cells with BAIBA evoked increases in NAD(P)H oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS). Scavenging of reactive oxygen species (N-acetyl-l-cysteine) or inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase (apocynin) abolished the BAIBA-elicited proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. CONCLUSION:Our results provide the first evidence that BAIBA stimulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells via activation of NAD(P)H oxidase/ROS signaling.
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 regulates CCAAT-enhancer-binding homologous protein expression in osteoblasts through upregulation of microRNA-205.
Zhuang Jian,Gao Rufeng,Wu Haihui,Wu Xiao,Pan Fugen
Experimental and therapeutic medicine
The transcription factor, CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), is induced by endoplasmic reticulum-stress and mediates programmed cell death. In osteoblasts, CHOP overexpression increases the rate of apoptosis, leading to osteoblastic dysfunction. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying CHOP expression remain unclear. In the present study, western blot analysis was used to demonstrate that the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibited the levels of the CHOP protein, whereas small interfering RNA-mediated the knockdown of STAT3 upregulated CHOP expression. Furthermore, STAT3 was shown to increase the expression level of microRNA (miR)-205. A luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-205 was able to directly target the 3'-untranslated region of the CHOP gene to inhibit its protein expression. The miR-205 antisense largely abolished the inhibitory effect of STAT3 activation on the levels of CHOP protein. Therefore, the results demonstrated a previously unknown STAT3/miR-205/CHOP signaling pathway in osteoblasts, which may aid the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of associated diseases, including osteoporosis.
Elevation of the unfolded protein response increases RANKL expression.
Iyer Srividhya,Melendez-Suchi Christian,Han Li,Baldini Giulia,Almeida Maria,Jilka Robert L
Increased production of the osteoclastogenic cytokine RANKL is a common feature of pathologic bone loss, but the underlying cause of this increase is poorly understood. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in response to accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Failure to resolve misfolding results in excess UPR signaling that stimulates cytokine production and cell death. We therefore investigated whether RANKL is one of the cytokines stimulated in response to elevated UPR in bone cells. Pharmacologic induction of UPR with tunicamycin (Tm)-stimulated RANKL expression in cultures of primary osteoblastic cells and in osteoblast and osteocyte cell lines. Pharmacologic inhibition of the UPR blunted Tm-induced RANKL production. Silencing Edem1 or Sel1l, proteins that aid in degradation of misfolded proteins, also induced UPR and increased RANKL mRNA. Moreover, Tm or hypoxia increased RANKL and bone resorption in cultures of neonatal murine calvaria. Administration of Tm to adult mice caused dilation of ER in osteoblasts and osteocytes, elevated the UPR, and increased RANKL expression and osteoclast number. These findings support the hypothesis that excessive UPR signaling stimulates the expression of RANKL by osteoblasts and osteocytes, and thereby facilitates excessive bone resorption and bone loss in pathologic conditions.
Advanced oxidation protein products induce pre-osteoblast apoptosis through a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-dependent, mitogen-activated protein kinases-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway.
Zhu Si-Yuan,Zhuang Jing-Shen,Wu Qian,Liu Zhong-Yuan,Liao Cong-Rui,Luo Shi-Gan,Chen Jian-Ting,Zhong Zhao-Ming
Osteoblast apoptosis contributes to age-related bone loss. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) are recognized as the markers of oxidative stress and potent inducers of apoptosis. We have demonstrated that AOPP accumulation was correlated with age-related bone loss. However, the effect of AOPPs on the osteoblast apoptosis still remains unknown. Exposure of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells to AOPPs caused the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by activating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases. Increased ROS induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which subsequently triggered intrinsic apoptosis pathway by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and Ca overload and eventually leads to apoptosis. Chronic AOPP loading in aged Sprague-Dawley rats induced osteoblast apoptosis and activated NADPH oxidase signaling cascade, in combination with accelerated bone loss and deteriorated bone microstructure. Our study suggests that AOPPs induce osteoblast apoptosis by the NADPH oxidase-dependent, MAPK-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway.
Cadmium toxicity: A role in bone cell function and teeth development.
Ma Yonggang,Ran Di,Shi Xueni,Zhao Hongyan,Liu Zongping
The Science of the total environment
Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental contaminant that causes severe bone metabolism disease, such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and osteomalacia. The present review aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms of Cd-induced bone injury starting from bone cell function and teeth development. Cd inhibits the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into osteoblasts, and directly causes BMSC apoptosis. In the case of osteoporosis, Cd mainly affects the activation of osteoclasts and promotes bone resorption. Cd-induces osteoblast injury and oxidative stress, which causes DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and endoplasmic reticulum stress, resulting in apoptosis. In addition, the development of osteoarthritis (OA) might be related to Cd-induced chondrocyte damage. The high expression of metallothionein (MT) might reduce Cd toxicity toward osteocytes. The toxicity of Cd toward teeth mainly focuses on enamel development and dental caries. Understanding the effect of Cd on bone cell function and teeth development could contribute to revealing the mechanisms of Cd-induced bone damage. This review explores Cd-induced bone disease from cellular and molecular levels, and provides new directions for removing this heavy metal from the environment.
Oleate Abrogates Palmitate-Induced Lipotoxicity and Proinflammatory Response in Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Osteoblastic Cells.
Gillet C,Spruyt D,Rigutto S,Dalla Valle A,Berlier J,Louis C,Debier C,Gaspard N,Malaisse W J,Gangji V,Rasschaert J
Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease associated with unequilibrated bone remodeling resulting from decreased bone formation and/or increased bone resorption, leading to progressive bone loss. In osteoporotic patients, low bone mass is associated with an increase of bone marrow fat resulting from accumulation of adipocytes within the bone marrow. Marrow adipocytes are active secretory cells, releasing cytokines, adipokines and free fatty acids (FA) that influence the bone marrow microenvironment and alter the biology of neighboring cells. Therefore, we examined the effect of palmitate (Palm) and oleate (Ole), 2 highly prevalent FA in human organism and diet, on the function and survival of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and MSC-derived osteoblastic cells. The saturated FA Palm exerted a cytotoxic action via initiation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and activation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and ERK pathways. In addition, Palm induced a proinflammatory response, as determined by the up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 expression as well as the increase of IL-6 and IL-8 expression and secretion. Moreover, we showed that MSC-derived osteoblastic cells were more sensitive to lipotoxicity than undifferentiated MSC. The monounsaturated FA Ole fully neutralized Palm-induced lipotoxicity by impairing activation of the pathways triggered by the saturated FA. Moreover, Ole promoted Palm detoxification by fostering its esterification into triglycerides and storage in lipid droplets. Altogether, our data showed that physiological concentrations of Palm and Ole differently modulated cell death and function in bone cells. We therefore propose that FA could influence skeletal health.
Melatonin Inhibits Glucose-Induced Apoptosis in Osteoblastic Cell Line Through PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 Pathway.
Zhou Renyi,Ma Yue,Tao Zhengbo,Qiu Shui,Gong Zunlei,Tao Lin,Zhu Yue
Frontiers in pharmacology
Osteoporosis is a common disease resulting in deteriorated microarchitecture and decreased bone mass. In type 2 diabetes patients, the incidence of osteoporosis is significantly higher accompanied by increased apoptosis of osteoblasts. In this study, using the osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1, we show that high glucose reduces cell viability and induces apoptosis. Also, high glucose leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (ERS) via an increase in calcium flux and upregulation of the ER chaperone binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP). Moreover, it induces post-translational activation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) which functions downstream of PKR-like ER kinase (PERK). This subsequently leads to post-translational activation of the transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and upregulation of C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) which is an ER stress-induced regulator of apoptosis, as well as downstream effectors DNAJC3, HYOU1, and CALR. Interestingly, melatonin treatment significantly alleviates the high-glucose induced changes in cell growth, apoptosis, and calcium influx by inhibiting the PERK-eIF2α-ATF4-CHOP signaling pathway. Additionally, the MC3T3-E1 cells engineered to express a phosphodead eIF2α mutant did not show high glucose induced ER stress, confirming that melatonin protects osteoblasts against high-glucose induced changes by decreasing ER-stress induced apoptosis by impacting the PERK-eIF2α-ATF4-CHOP signaling pathway. The protective of melatonin against high glucose-induced ER stress and apoptosis was attenuated when the cells were pre-treated with a melatonin receptor antagonist, indicating that the effect of melatonin was mediated via the melatonin receptors in this context. These findings lay the provide mechanistic insights of melatonin's protective action on osteoblasts and will be potentially be useful in ongoing pre-clinical and clinical studies to evaluate melatonin as a therapeutic option for diabetic osteoporosis.
Regulation of ER molecular chaperone prevents bone loss in a murine model for osteoporosis.
Hino Shin-ichiro,Kondo Shinichi,Yoshinaga Kazuya,Saito Atsushi,Murakami Tomohiko,Kanemoto Soshi,Sekiya Hiroshi,Chihara Kazuyasu,Aikawa Yuji,Hara Hideaki,Kudo Takashi,Sekimoto Tomohisa,Funamoto Taro,Chosa Etsuo,Imaizumi Kazunori
Journal of bone and mineral metabolism
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is important for protein maturation in the ER. Some murine models for bone diseases have provided significant insight into the possibility that pathogenesis of osteoporosis is related to ER stress response of osteoblasts. We examined a possible correlation between osteoporosis and ER stress response. Bone specimens from 8 osteoporosis patients and 8 disease-controls were used for immunohistochemical analysis. We found that ER molecular chaperones, such as BiP (immunoglobulin heavy-chain binding protein) and PDI (protein-disulfide isomerase) are down-regulated in osteoblasts from osteoporosis patients. Based on this result, we hypothesized that up-regulation of ER molecular chaperones in osteoblasts could restore decreased bone formation in osteoporosis. Therefore, we investigated whether treatment of murine model for osteoporosis with BIX (BiP inducer X), selective inducer BiP, could prevent bone loss. We found that oral administration of BIX effectively improves decline in bone formation through the activation of folding and secretion of bone matrix proteins. Considering these results together, BIX may be a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of bone loss in osteoporosis patients.
Lycium barbarum polysaccharide arbitrates palmitate-induced apoptosis in MC3T3‑E1 cells through decreasing the activation of ERS‑mediated apoptosis pathway.
Jing Lei,Jia Xue-Wen
Molecular medicine reports
Palmitate (PA) has been identified to induce cell apoptosis in osteoblasts. The c‑Jun NH2‑teminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) were found to be important contributors. Therefore, natural or synthetic agents may antagonize PA‑induced apoptosis in osteoblasts, and demonstrate the potential application to reverse osteoporosis. The present study demonstrated that the Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) is as a major active ingredient of Lycium barbarum and that it can reduce the fatty acid toxicity of PA. Furthermore, this study attempted to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of LBP. Firstly, it was demonstrated via a Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay, that LBP could significantly increase the viability of MC3T3‑E1 cells in a dose‑dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that LBP inhibits PA‑induced apoptosis in osteoblastic cells. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting results showed that the expression levels of glucose‑regulated protein 78, C/EBP homologous protein and cysteinyl asparate specific proteinase‑3/‑9/‑12, were increased in MC3T3‑E1 cells following PA treatment. The treatment of the cells with PA resulted in an activation of the ERS and the JNK signaling pathway. These pathways were effectively suppressed by co‑incubation with LBP. Taken together, PA may cause ERS, in cell apoptosis, and it may further activate the JNK signaling pathway. LBP reversed PA‑induced apoptosis in MC3T3‑E1 cells through inhibition of the activation of the ERS‑mediated JNK signaling pathway.
Gastrodin alleviates glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis in rats via activating the Nrf2 signaling pathways.
Liu Shengye,Zhou Long,Yang Liyu,Mu Shuai,Fang Tao,Fu Qin
Background:Prolonged and over-dosed administration of glucocorticoids results in more bone remodeling, leading to glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, which is primarily due to dysfunction and apoptosis of osteoblasts. The present study investigated the therapeutic effect and molecular mechanism of gastrodin, a natural bioactive compound isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal agent Gastrodia elata, on osteoblastic cells and . Materials and Methods:The anti-dexamethasone (DEX) effects of gastrodin on primary osteoblasts were measured by cell viability, flow cytometry, and western blot analysis , and also extensively examined in a rat model . Results:The results show that gastrodin pretreatment significantly increased osteoblast viability and alkaline phosphatase activity when exposed to DEX. Alizarin Red staining indicated more calcium deposits formed in the gastrodin pretreatment against DEX group. Gastrodin alleviated DEX-induced reactive oxygen species at both the mitochondrial and cellular levels in osteoblasts. In addition, gastrodin protected primary osteoblasts from caspase3-related apoptosis by reducing the loss in the mitochondrial membrane potential and decreasing the release of DEX-induced cytochrome-C, bax, and apoptosis inducing factor. Gastrodin also antagonized upregulated endoplasmic reticulum stress signals induced by DEX, including the expression of GRP78, CHOP, and phosphorylated eIF2α. Furthermore, gastrodin protected osteoblasts by activating the nuclear factor erythroid derived 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) pathway. Furthermore, femoral micro-computed tomography scans and biomechanical tests revealed that gastrodin improved bone microstructure and mitigated DEX-induced deterioration in bone quality. Conclusions:These findings suggest that gastrodin alleviated glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in rats by protecting osteoblasts via the Nrf2 regulated mitochondrial and ER stress-related signaling pathways.
The PERK-EIF2α-ATF4 signaling branch regulates osteoblast differentiation and proliferation by PTH.
Zhang Kefan,Wang Miaomiao,Li Yingjiang,Li Chunping,Tang Shaidi,Qu Xiuxia,Feng Ninghan,Wu Yu
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and its related peptide (PTH-related peptide 1-34) are two of the Food and Drug Administration-approved bone-promoting drugs for age-related osteoporosis. Treatment with PTH stimulates bone formation. However, the molecular mechanisms of PTH-mediated osteoblast differentiation and cell proliferation are still not completely understood. In this study, we showed that PTH induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in osteoblasts through the PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)-eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (EIF2α)-activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4)-signaling pathway. After separately blocking PERK-EIF2α-ATF4 signaling with two different inhibitors [AMG'44 and integrated stress response inhibitor (ISRIB)] or specific small interfering RNA for PERK and ATF4, the following targets were all downregulated: expression of osteoblast differentiation markers [runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), alkaline phosphatase (Alp), type I collagen (Col1a1), and osteocalcin (Ocn)], cell proliferation markers (CyclinE, CyclinD, and CDC2), amino acid import (Glyt1), and metabolism-related genes (Asns). Additionally, Alp-positive staining cells, Alp activity, matrix mineralization, Ocn secretion, and cell proliferation indexes were inhibited. Interestingly, we found that salubrinal enhanced PTH-induced osteoblast differentiation and proliferation by maintenance of phosphorylation of EIF2α. Furthermore, we observed that PTH increased the association between heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and PERK and maintained PERK protein stabilization in the early stages of PTH-induced ER stress. Treatment of MC3T3-E1 cells with geldanamycin, an HSP90 inhibitor, decreased PERK protein expression and inhibited osteoblast differentiation and cell proliferation upon PTH treatment. Taken together, our data demonstrate that PTH regulates osteoblast differentiation and cell proliferation, partly by activating the HSP90-dependent PERK-EIF2α-ATF4 signaling pathway.
Porcine placenta hydrolysates enhance osteoblast differentiation through their antioxidant activity and effects on ER stress.
Lee Hwa-Young,Chae Han-Jung,Park Sun-Young,Kim Jong-Hyun
BMC complementary and alternative medicine
BACKGROUND:Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by decreased bone strength, decreased bone mass, and bone deterioration. Oxidative damage is an important contributor to functional changes in the development of osteoporosis. Here we found that porcine placenta hydrolysates (PPHs) protect MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage. METHODS:In vitro cell viability was determined using trypan blue dye exclusion. ER stress and apoptosis were evaluated using immunoblotting and a commercially available caspase kit. ALP, osteocalcin, Runx2, and osterix expression levels were evaluated by RT-PCR using isolated RNA. ROS, NADPH oxidase, and SOD activity levels were also measured. RESULTS:We investigated the mechanisms underlying PPH-mediated inhibition of H2O2-induced ER stress and ROS production. PPHs also regulated osteoblast differentiation via the upregulation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. Also, treatment with PPHs enhanced the transcription of osteocalcin, Runx2, and osterix. These effects were all associated with the antioxidant actions of PPHs. Moreover, PPHs reversed the decrease in SOD activity, decreased ROS release, and inhibited NADPH oxidase activity in H2O2-treated MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. CONCLUSIONS:PPHs protect cells against H2O2-induced cell damage when ER stress is involved. In addition, PPHs enhance osteoblast differentiation. This enhancement likely explains the regulatory effect of PPHs on bone metabolism disturbances, i.e. PPHs control ER stress and the related ROS production in osteoblasts.
Shuxuetong injection simultaneously ameliorates dexamethasone-driven vascular calcification and osteoporosis.
Xu Zhe,Liu Xiaoguang,Li Yanqing,Gao Hongliang,He Tao,Zhang Chunlei,Hao Wei,Teng Xu
Experimental and therapeutic medicine
Osteoporosis (OP) and vascular calcification (VC) share a number of common risk factors, pathophysiological mechanisms and etiology, which are known as bone-vascular axis. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Shuxuetong (SXT) injection on VC and osteoporosis. A rat model of VC and osteoporosis was induced by dexamethasone (DEX; 1 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, intramuscularly). Simultaneously, 0.6 ml/kg/day SXT was intraperitoneally injected. Compared with control rats, DEX induced significantly more VC and OP, as determined by increased calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity in the aorta, disturbed structure, decreased levels of cortical bone thickness and trabecular bone area, and increased apoptosis in the bone. SXT injection ameliorated DEX-induced VC and osteoporosis; furthermore, the osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells and the activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress in the DEX group was also prevented by SXT injection. Compared with control rats, protein expression levels of sclerostin, a crucial crosslink of the bone-vascular axis, were significantly increased in the aorta and bone of rats with DEX, which was also attenuated by SXT injection. Thus, the present study suggested that SXT injection could ameliorate both VC and OP, and may be mediated by the regulation of sclerostin. The present study may provide the basis a novel strategy for the prevention and treatment of VC and OP, which emerge as side-effects of glucocorticoids.
Epigenetic Regulation of Skeletal Tissue Integrity and Osteoporosis Development.
Chen Yu-Shan,Lian Wei-Shiung,Kuo Chung-Wen,Ke Huei-Jing,Wang Shao-Yu,Kuo Pei-Chen,Jahr Holger,Wang Feng-Sheng
International journal of molecular sciences
Bone turnover is sophisticatedly balanced by a dynamic coupling of bone formation and resorption at various rates. The orchestration of this continuous remodeling of the skeleton further affects other skeletal tissues through organ crosstalk. Chronic excessive bone resorption compromises bone mass and its porous microstructure as well as proper biomechanics. This accelerates the development of osteoporotic disorders, a leading cause of skeletal degeneration-associated disability and premature death. Bone-forming cells play important roles in maintaining bone deposit and osteoclastic resorption. A poor organelle machinery, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and defective autophagy, etc., dysregulates growth factor secretion, mineralization matrix production, or osteoclast-regulatory capacity in osteoblastic cells. A plethora of epigenetic pathways regulate bone formation, skeletal integrity, and the development of osteoporosis. MicroRNAs inhibit protein translation by binding the 3'-untranslated region of mRNAs or promote translation through post-transcriptional pathways. DNA methylation and post-translational modification of histones alter the chromatin structure, hindering histone enrichment in promoter regions. MicroRNA-processing enzymes and DNA as well as histone modification enzymes catalyze these modifying reactions. Gain and loss of these epigenetic modifiers in bone-forming cells affect their epigenetic landscapes, influencing bone homeostasis, microarchitectural integrity, and osteoporotic changes. This article conveys productive insights into biological roles of DNA methylation, microRNA, and histone modification and highlights their interactions during skeletal development and bone loss under physiological and pathological conditions.
Alendronate induces osteoclast precursor apoptosis via peroxisomal dysfunction mediated ER stress.
Ding Ning,Liu Chuan,Yao Li,Bai Yun,Cheng Peng,Li Zhilin,Luo Keyu,Mei Tieniu,Li Jianhua,Xing Junchao,Gao Xiaoliang,Ma Qinyu,Xu Jianzhong,Luo Fei,Dou Ce
Journal of cellular physiology
Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates including alendronate (ALN) are the current first line antiresorptive drug in treating osteoporosis. In our study, we found that ALN administration impaired the secretion of platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), the most important angiogenic cytokines produced by preosteoclast (POC), in both sham and ovariectomized (OVX) mice. To further understand this phenomenon, we induced bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) to POCs in vitro and detected the effects of ALN particularly in POCs. The proapoptotic effect of ALN in POCs was confirmed by flow cytometry. On the molecular level, we found that farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDPS) inhibition of ALN led to peroxisomal dysfunction and up regulation of cytoprotective protein glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78. Peroxisomal dysfunction further induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in POCs and finally resulted in cell apoptosis marked by reduced expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and increased expressions of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), Bcl2 associated X (Bax), and cleaved caspase-3. We concluded that ALN has no selectivity in inhibiting POC and mature osteoclast. For POCs, ALN inhibition of FDPS leads to peroxisomal dysfunction, which further mediates ER stress and finally causes cell apoptosis. Considering that decreased angiogenesis is also an important issue in treating osteoporosis, how to preserve pro-angiogenic POCs while depleting mature osteoclasts is a problem worthy to be solved.
Arsenic induces cell apoptosis in cultured osteoblasts through endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Tang Chih-Hsin,Chiu Yung-Cheng,Huang Chun-Fa,Chen Ya-Wen,Chen Po-Chun
Toxicology and applied pharmacology
Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass resulting from an imbalance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. Therefore, decreased bone formation by osteoblasts may lead to the development of osteoporosis, and rate of apoptosis is responsible for the regulation of bone formation. Arsenic (As) exists ubiquitously in our environment and increases the risk of neurotoxicity, liver injury, peripheral vascular disease and cancer. However, the effect of As on apoptosis of osteoblasts is mostly unknown. Here, we found that As induced cell apoptosis in osteoblastic cell lines (including hFOB, MC3T3-E1 and MG-63) and mouse bone marrow stromal cells (M2-10B4). As also induced upregulation of Bax and Bak, downregulation of Bcl-2 and dysfunction of mitochondria in osteoblasts. As also triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as indicated by changes in cytosolic-calcium levels. We found that As increased the expression and activities of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and calpain. Transfection of cells with GRP78 or calpain siRNA reduced As-mediated cell apoptosis in osteoblasts. Therefore, our results suggest that As increased cell apoptosis in cultured osteoblasts and increased the risk of osteoporosis.
Prevention of glucocorticoid induced-apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes by protecting against endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in vitro and in vivo in female mice.
Sato Amy Y,Tu Xiaolin,McAndrews Kevin A,Plotkin Lilian I,Bellido Teresita
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), results from accumulation of misfolded/unfolded proteins, and can trigger apoptosis. ER stress is alleviated by phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), which inhibits protein translation allowing the ER to recover, thus promoting cell viability. We investigated whether osteoblastic cell apoptosis induced by glucocorticoids (GCs) is due to induction of ROS/ER stress and whether inhibition of eIF2α dephosphorylation promotes survival opposing the deleterious effects of GC in vitro and in vivo. Apoptosis of osteocytic MLO-Y4 and osteoblastic OB-6 cells induced by dexamethasone was abolished by ROS inhibitors. Like GC, the ER stress inducing agents brefeldin A and tunicamycin induced osteoblastic cell apoptosis. Salubrinal or guanabenz, specific inhibitors of eIF2α dephosphorylation, blocked apoptosis induced by either GC or ER stress inducers. Moreover, GC markedly decreased mineralization in OB-6 cells or primary osteoblasts; and salubrinal or guanabenz increased mineralization and prevented the inhibitory effect of GC. Furthermore, salubrinal (1 mg/kg/day) abolished osteoblast and osteocyte apoptosis in cancellous and cortical bone and partially prevented the loss of BMD at all sites and the decreased vertebral cancellous bone formation induced by treatment with prednisolone for 28 days (1.4 mg/kg/day). We conclude that part of the pro-apoptotic actions of GC on osteoblastic cells is mediated through ER stress, and that inhibition of eIF2α dephosphorylation protects from GC-induced apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes in vitro and in vivo and from the deleterious effects of GC on the skeleton.
17β-Estradiol inhibits ER stress-induced apoptosis through promotion of TFII-I-dependent Grp78 induction in osteoblasts.
Guo Yun-Shan,Sun Zhen,Ma Jie,Cui Wei,Gao Bo,Zhang Hong-Yang,Han Yue-Hu,Hu Hui-Min,Wang Long,Fan Jing,Yang Liu,Tang Juan,Luo Zhuo-Jing
Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology
Although many studies have suggested that estrogen prevents postmenopausal bone loss partially due to its anti-apoptosis effects in osteoblasts, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we found that 17β-estradiol (17β-E₂), one of the primary estrogens, inhibited endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells and primary osteoblasts. Interestingly, 17β-E₂-promoted Grp78 induction, but not CHOP induction in response to ER stress. We further confirmed that Grp78-specific siRNA reversed the inhibition of 17β-E₂ on ER stress-induced apoptosis by activating caspase-12 and caspase-3. Moreover, we found that 17β-E₂ markedly increased the phosphorylated TFII-I levels and nuclear localization of TFII-I in ER stress conditions. 17β-E₂ stimulated Grp78 promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of TFII-I and enhanced the binding of TFII-I to the Grp78 promoter. In addition, 17β-E₂ notably increased phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels and Ras kinase activity in MC3T3-E1 cells. The ERK1/2 activity-specific inhibitor U0126 remarkably blocked 17β-E₂-induced TFII-I phosphorylation and Grp78 expression in response to ER stress. Together, 17β-E₂ protected MC3T3-E1 cells against ER stress-induced apoptosis by promoting Ras-ERK1/2-TFII-I signaling pathway-dependent Grp78 induction.
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Bound Transcription Factor CREBH Stimulates RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis.
Kim Jung Ha,Kim Kabsun,Kim Inyoung,Seong Semun,Nam Kwang-Il,Kim Kyung Keun,Kim Nacksung
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is triggered by various metabolic factors, such as cholesterol and proinflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have revealed that ER stress is closely related to skeletal disorders, such as osteoporosis. However, the precise mechanism by which ER stress regulates osteoclast differentiation has not been elucidated. In this study, we identified an ER-bound transcription factor, cAMP response element-binding protein H (CREBH), as a downstream effector of ER stress during RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. RANKL induced mild ER stress and the simultaneous accumulation of active nuclear CREBH (CREBH-N) in the nucleus during osteoclastogenesis. Overexpression of CREBH-N in osteoclast precursors enhanced RANKL-induced osteoclast formation through NFATc1 upregulation. Inhibiting ER stress using a specific inhibitor attenuated the expression of osteoclast-related genes and CREBH activation. In addition, inhibition of reactive oxygen species using -acetylcysteine attenuated ER stress, expression of osteoclast-specific marker genes, and RANKL-induced CREBH activation. Furthermore, inhibition of ER stress and CREBH signaling pathways using an ER stress-specific inhibitor or CREBH small interfering RNAs prevented RANKL-induced bone destruction in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that reactive oxygen species/ER stress signaling-dependent CREBH activation plays an important role in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Therefore, inactivation of ER stress and CREBH signaling pathways may represent a new treatment strategy for osteoporosis.
7-ketocholesterol induces apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells associated with reactive oxygen species generation, endoplasmic reticulum stress and caspase-3/7 dependent pathway.
Sato Yuta,Ishihara Noriko,Nagayama Daiji,Saiki Atsuhito,Tatsuno Ichiro
Molecular genetics and metabolism reports
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an increased risk of bone fractures without reduction of bone mineral density. The cholesterol oxide 7-ketocholesterol (7KCHO) has been implicated in numerous diseases such as atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cancer, age-related macular degeneration and T2DM. In the present study, 7KCHO decreased the viability of MC3T3-E1 cells, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptotic rate, and upregulated the caspase-3/7 pathway. Furthermore, these effects of 7KCHO were abolished by pre-incubation of the cells with -acetylcysteine (NAC), an ROS inhibitor. Also, 7KCHO enhanced the mRNA expression of two endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers; CHOP and GRP78, in MC3T3-E1 cells. Pre-incubation of the cells with NAC suppressed the 7KCHO-induced upregulation of CHOP, but not GRP78. In conclusion, we demonstrated that 7KCHO induced apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells associated with ROS generation, ER stress, and caspase-3/7 activity, and the effects of 7KCHO were abolished by the ROS inhibitor NAC. These findings may provide new insight into the relationship between oxysterol and pathophysiology of osteoporosis seen in T2DM.
Hyperglycemia induces endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent CHOP expression in osteoblasts.
Liu Wei,Zhu Xiaoqing,Wang Qian,Wang Linlin
Experimental and therapeutic medicine
Diabetic osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease responsible for global health problems. Hyperglycemia induces osteopenia, increases bone fragility and unbalances the coupling of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The mechanism is, however, unknown. For the purpose of this study, we hypothesized that hyperglycemia destroys endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis, activates C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) and induces osteoblast apoptosis under diabetic conditions. Diabetic rats were created by injecting streptozotocin (STZ) 65 mg/kg intraperitoneally and their osteoblasts were cultured under high-glucose medium . The bone mineral density (BMD) and pathological changes of the rats' femurs were observed. The expression of CHOP in osteoblasts was assayed using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Six weeks after diabetic model establishment, a significant decrease was found in the BMD of the diabetic rat femurs, and the numbers of osteoblasts under cortical bone were also reduced. The expression of the ER stress regulator CHOP in osteoblasts of diabetic rats or high-glucose medium was also elevated (P<0.01). The present results demonstrated that hyperglycemia elevated the expression of CHOP and finally led to osteoporosis. This suggested that elevating the expression of CHOP may play a role in diabetic osteoporosis.
Mechanical strain downregulates C/EBPβ in MSC and decreases endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Styner Maya,Meyer Mark B,Galior Kornelia,Case Natasha,Xie Zhihui,Sen Buer,Thompson William R,Pike John Wesley,Rubin Janet
Exercise prevents marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) adipogenesis, reversing trends that accompany aging and osteoporosis. Mechanical input, the in-vitro analogue to exercise, limits PPARγ expression and adipogenesis in MSC. We considered whether C/EBPβ might be mechanoresponsive as it is upstream to PPARγ, and also is known to upregulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. MSC (C3H10T1/2 pluripotent cells as well as mouse marrow-derived MSC) were cultured in adipogenic media and a daily mechanical strain regimen was applied. We demonstrate herein that mechanical strain represses C/EBPβ mRNA (0.6-fold ±0.07, p<0.05) and protein (0.4-fold ±0.1, p<0.01) in MSC. SiRNA silencing of β-catenin prevented mechanical repression of C/EBPβ. C/EBPβ overexpression did not override strain's inhibition of adipogenesis, which suggests that mechanical control of C/EBPβ is not the primary site at which adipogenesis is regulated. Mechanical inhibition of C/EBPβ, however, might be critical for further processes that regulate MSC health. Indeed, overexpression of C/EBPβ in MSC induced ER stress evidenced by a dose-dependent increase in the pro-apoptotic CHOP (protein 4-fold ±0.5, p<0.05) and a threshold reduction in the chaperone BiP (protein 0.6-fold ±0.1, p = 0.2; mRNA 0.3-fold ±0.1, p<0.01). ChIP-seq demonstrated a significant association between C/EBPβ and both CHOP and BiP genes. The strain regimen, in addition to decreasing C/EBPβ mRNA (0.5-fold ±0.09, p<0.05), expanded ER capacity as measured by an increase in BiP mRNA (2-fold ±0.2, p<0.05) and protein. Finally, ER stress induced by tunicamycin was ameliorated by mechanical strain as demonstrated by decreased C/EBPβ, increased BiP and decreased CHOP protein expression. Thus, C/EBPβ is a mechanically responsive transcription factor and its repression should counter increases in marrow fat as well as improve skeletal resistance to ER stress.
Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Unfolded Protein Responses in Health and Diseases.
Mahdi Abbas Ali,Rizvi Syed Husain Mustafa,Parveen Arshiya
Indian journal of clinical biochemistry : IJCB
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of protein synthesis, protein folding, maintainance of calcium homeostasis, synthesis of lipids and sterols. Genetic or environmental insults can alter its function generating ER stress. ER senses stress mainly by three stress sensor pathways, namely protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase-eukaryotic translation-initiation factor 2α, inositol-requiring enzyme 1α-X-box-binding protein 1 and activating transcription factor 6-CREBH, which induce unfolded protein responses (UPR) after the recognition of stress. Recent studies have demonstrated that ER stress and UPR signaling are involved in cancer, metabolic disorders, inflammatory diseases, osteoporosis and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the precise knowledge regarding involvement of ER stress in different disease processes is still debatable. Here we discuss the possible role of ER stress in various disorders on the basis of existing literature. An attempt has also been made to highlight the present knowledge of this field which may help to elucidate and conjure basic mechanisms and novel insights into disease processes which could assist in devising better future diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
Involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in homocysteine-induced apoptosis of osteoblastic cells.
Park Su-Jung,Kim Ki-Jo,Kim Wan-Uk,Oh Il-Hoan,Cho Chul-Soo
Journal of bone and mineral metabolism
Hyperhomocysteinemia has been shown to increase the incidence of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was recently shown to be associated with apoptosis in several types of cells. In this study, we determined the effect of homocysteine (Hcy) on the apoptosis of osteoblastic cells and investigated whether ER stress participates in Hcy-induced osteoblast apoptosis. Human osteoblastic cells were incubated with Hcy. Hcy dose-dependently decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis in osteoblastic cells. Osteoblastic cells are more susceptible to Hcy-mediated cell death than other cell types. Expression of cleaved caspase-3 was significantly increased by Hcy, and pretreatment with caspase-3 inhibitor rescued the cell viability by Hcy. Hcy treatment led to an increase in release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. It also triggered ER stress by increased expression of glucose-regulated protein 78, inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase and endonuclease 1α (IRE-1α), spliced X-box binding protein, activating transcription factor 4, and C/EBP homologous protein. Silencing IRE-1α expression by small interfering RNA effectively suppressed Hcy-induced apoptosis of osteoblastic cells. Our results suggest that hyperhomocysteinemia induces apoptotic cell death in osteoblasts via ER stress.
Intracellular Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End Products Induces Osteoblast Apoptosis Via Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.
Suzuki Ryusuke,Fujiwara Yukio,Saito Mitsuru,Arakawa Shoutaro,Shirakawa Jun-Ichi,Yamanaka Mikihiro,Komohara Yoshihiro,Marumo Keishi,Nagai Ryoji
Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Osteoporosis is an aging-associated disease that is attributed to excessive osteoblast apoptosis. It is known that the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in bone extracellular matrix deteriorates osteoblast functions. However, little is known about the interaction between intracellular AGE accumulation and the induction of osteoblast apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of intracellular AGE accumulation on osteoblast apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with glycolaldehyde (GA), an AGE precursor. GA-induced intracellular AGE accumulation progressed in time- and dose-dependent manners, followed by apoptosis induction. Intracellular AGE formation also activated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related proteins (such as glucose-regulated protein 78, inositol-requiring protein-1α (IRE1α), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase) and induced apoptosis. In agreement, treatment with the ER stress inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid and knocking down IRE1α expression ameliorated osteoblast apoptosis. Furthermore, the ratio between AGE- and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive osteoblasts in human vertebral bodies was significantly higher in an elderly group than in a younger group. A positive linear correlation between the ratio of AGE-positive and TUNEL-positive osteoblasts (r = 0.72) was also observed. Collectively, these results indicate that AGEs accumulated in osteoblasts with age and that intracellular AGE accumulation induces apoptosis via ER stress. These findings offer new insight into the mechanisms of osteoblast apoptosis and age-related osteoporosis. © 2020 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Increased RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis by interleukin-1β and endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Lee Eun-Gyeong,Sung Myung-Soon,Yoo Han-Gyul,Chae Han-Jung,Kim Hang-Rae,Yoo Wan-Hee
Joint bone spine
OBJECTIVE:The mechanism by which IL-1β and thapsigargin (TG)-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress modulate the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclastogenesis remains elusive. Thus, we investigated the osteoclast-specific and ER signals in osteoclastogenesis of bone marrow-derived cells. METHODS:Bone marrow cells (BMCs) were obtained from 5-week-old male ICR mice and cultured to be differentiated into osteoclasts with M-CSF and RANKL in the presence or absence of IL-1β, TG, or 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), an ER stress-reducing drug. The formation of osteoclasts was evaluated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and resorption pit assay with a dentine slice. The molecular mechanism of IL-1β and ER stress in osteoclastogenesis was investigated in BMCs transfected with siRNA for GRP78, PERK and IRE1 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting for osteoclast-specific and ER stress signaling molecules. RESULTS:IL-1β and ER stress induced by TG-augmented the formation of osteoclasts, which was significantly inhibited by PBA and was mediated with osteoclast-specific signals, including c-Fos, NFATc1, and ER stress- associated signaling pathways, such as PERK, IRE1, GRP78, and eIF2α. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ER stress signals inhibited the expression of NFATc1 and c-Fos, thus reducing IL-1β and/or TG-induced formation of osteoclasts. CONCLUSIONS:Osteoclastogenesis by IL-1β and/or ER stress is mainly associated with upregulation of eIF2α, GRP78, PERK and IRE1. These results suggest that the signaling pathway of ER stress-induced osteoclast formation might be a new therapeutic target to prevent inflammatory and destructive arthritic disease such as RA and diverse osteoporosis.
Dexamethasone-induced production of reactive oxygen species promotes apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in MC3T3-E1 cells.
Liu Wanlin,Zhao Zhenqun,Na Yuyan,Meng Chenyang,Wang Jianzhong,Bai Rui
International journal of molecular medicine
Apoptosis of osteoblasts, triggered by prolonged or excessive use of glucocorticoids (GCs), has been identified as a dominant contributor to the development of osteoporosis and osteonecrosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying GC‑induced apoptosis are multifaceted and remain to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to explore the correlation between dexamethasone (DEX)‑induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), autophagy and apoptosis in MC3T3‑E1 osteoblast‑like cells. Cell viability was assessed using a Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay, and flow cytometry was performed to assess cellular apoptosis, cell cycle and ROS production. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis were respectively used to detect autophagic vacuoles and the expression of proteins, including cyclin D kinase (CDK)2, poly[ADP ribose] polymerase, caspase‑3, activating transcription factor (ATF)4, CCAAT/enhancer‑binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), Beclin1, microtubule‑associated proteins 1A/1B light chain (LC)3B and P62. It was revealed that DEX not only reduced cell viability, but also promoted apoptosis via the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In addition, DEX induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase via inhibition of the expression of CDK2, and the production of ROS was activated. Of note, the DEX‑mediated changes in viability and apoptosis were attenuated in MC3T3‑E1 cells after treatment with 3‑methyladenine, which is an autophagy inhibitor. Treatment with the antioxidant N‑acetylcysteine abolished the effect of DEX on the proliferation, apoptosis, ER stress and autophagy of MC3T3‑E1 cells. In conclusion, the present results indicated that DEX promoted the production of ROS, which enhanced apoptosis through activation of autophagy and ER stress in MC3T3-E1 cells.
eIF2α signaling regulates autophagy of osteoblasts and the development of osteoclasts in OVX mice.
Li Jie,Li Xinle,Liu Daquan,Hamamura Kazunori,Wan Qiaoqiao,Na Sungsoo,Yokota Hiroki,Zhang Ping
Cell death & disease
Bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis is induced chiefly by an imbalance of bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Salubrinal is a synthetic compound that inhibits de-phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α). Phosphorylation of eIF2α alleviates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which may activate autophagy. We hypothesized that eIF2α signaling regulates bone homeostasis by promoting autophagy in osteoblasts and inhibiting osteoclast development. To test the hypothesis, we employed salubrinal to elevate the phosphorylation of eIF2α in an ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model and cell cultures. In the OVX model, salubrinal prevented abnormal expansion of rough ER and decreased the number of acidic vesiculars. It regulated ER stress-associated signaling molecules such as Bip, p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP, and promoted autophagy of osteoblasts via regulation of eIF2α, Atg7, LC3, and p62. Salubrinal markedly alleviated OVX-induced symptoms such as reduction of bone mineral density and bone volume fraction. In primary bone-marrow-derived cells, salubrinal increased the differentiation of osteoblasts, and decreased the formation of osteoclasts by inhibiting nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1). Live cell imaging and RNA interference demonstrated that suppression of osteoclastogenesis is in part mediated by Rac1 GTPase. Collectively, this study demonstrates that ER stress-autophagy axis plays an important role in OVX mice. Bone-forming osteoblasts are restored by maintaining phosphorylation of eIF2α, and bone-resorbing osteoclasts are regulated by inhibiting NFATc1 and Rac1 GTPase.
Defective autophagy in osteoblasts induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and causes remarkable bone loss.
Li Huixia,Li Danhui,Ma Zhengmin,Qian Zhuang,Kang Xiaomin,Jin Xinxin,Li Fang,Wang Xinluan,Chen Qian,Sun Hongzhi,Wu Shufang
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a highly regulated process involved in the turnover of cytosolic components, however its pivotal role in maintenance of bone homeostasis remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated the direct role of ATG7 (autophagy related 7) during developmental and remodeling stages in vivo using osteoblast-specific Atg7 conditional knockout (cKO) mice. Atg7 cKO mice exhibited a reduced bone mass at both developmental and adult age. The trabecular bone volume of Atg7 cKO mice was significantly lower than that of controls at 5 months of age. This phenotype was attributed to decreased osteoblast formation and matrix mineralization, accompanied with an increased osteoclast number and the extent of the bone surface covered by osteoclasts as well as an elevated secretion of TNFSF11/RANKL (tumor necrosis factor [ligand] superfamily, member 11), and a decrease in TNFRSF11B/OPG (tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 11b [osteoprotegerin]). Remarkably, Atg7 deficiency in osteoblasts triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, whereas attenuation of ER stress by administration of phenylbutyric acid in vivo abrogated Atg7 ablation-mediated effects on osteoblast differentiation, mineralization capacity and bone formation. Consistently, Atg7 deficiency impeded osteoblast mineralization and promoted apoptosis partially in DDIT3/CHOP (DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3)- and MAPK8/JNK1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 8)-SMAD1/5/8-dependent manner in vitro, while reconstitution of Atg7 could improve ER stress and restore skeletal balance. In conclusion, our findings provide direct evidences that autophagy plays crucial roles in regulation of bone homeostasis and suggest an innovative therapeutic strategy against skeletal diseases.
4-Phenyl butyric acid prevents glucocorticoid-induced osteoblast apoptosis by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Yang Jianhui,Wu Qiong,Lv Jianguo,Nie Huiyong
Journal of bone and mineral metabolism
Apoptosis of osteoblasts triggered by high-dose glucocorticoids (GCs) has been identified as a major cause of osteoporosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying GC-induced osteoporosis remain elusive. This study was conducted to make clear the mechanism of GC-induced osteoblast apoptosis and to examine whether reduction of ER stress by 4-PBA inhibited osteoblast apoptosis. After treatment with dexamethasone (Dex) or hydrocortisone, cell viability was assessed using an MTT assay. Flow cytometry was performed to assess the apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells. The expression levels of ER stress-related proteins (CHOP, GRP78, eIF2α, and phospho-eIF2α) and apoptosis-related proteins (cleaved Caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax) in MC3T3-E1 cells were measured by Western blot analysis. We found that both Dex and hydrocortisone reduced cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells. In addition, the protein expression levels of cleaved Caspase-3 and Bax increased and the protein expression level of Bcl-2 decreased in MC3T3-E1 cells exposed to Dex. In addition, the Dex exposure also resulted in a release of cytochrome c (Cyt C) from mitochondria. The cellular ATP content was decreased following prolonged treatment with Dex. 4-PBA attenuated ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by Dex in MC3T3-E1 cells. Dex-mediated apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells is aggravated by ER stress. Moreover, Dex-induced apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells was inhibited by 4-PBA, suggesting that ER stress involved in Dex-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, inhibition of ER stress by 4-PBA could reduce GC-induced apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells.
Curcumin and its analogues protect from endoplasmic reticulum stress: Mechanisms and pathways.
Shakeri Abolfazl,Zirak Mohammad Reza,Wallace Hayes A,Reiter Russel,Karimi Gholamreza
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a cellular organelle with multiple functions, plays an important role in several biological processes including protein folding, secretion, lipid biosynthesis, calcium homeostasis, and cellular stress. Accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the ER makes cells undergo a stress response known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR is initially protective. However, prolonged and severe ER stress can lead to autophagy and/or the induction of apoptosis in stressed cell. Many studies have demonstrated that ER stress and the UPR are involved in different diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes, and inflammatory diseases. Curcumin, a natural polyphenol, has well documented evidence supporting its numerous biological properties including antioxidant, anti-inﬂammatory, immune-modulatory, anti-microbial, anti-ischemic, anti-angiogenesis, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anti-atherogenic and anti-diabetic activities. In this review, the role of ER stress in several pathological condition and the potential protective effects of curcumin are discussed.
CaMKⅡ mediates cadmium induced apoptosis in rat primary osteoblasts through MAPK activation and endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Liu Wei,Xu Chao,Ran Di,Wang Yi,Zhao Hongyan,Gu Jianhong,Liu Xuezhong,Bian Jianchun,Yuan Yan,Liu Zongping
Ca is an important ion in various intracellular metabolic pathways. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a major intracellular calcium store and ER calcium homeostasis plays a key part in the regulation of apoptosis. We have previously shown that Cadmium (Cd) induces apoptosis in osteoblasts (OBs), accompany by increased cytoplasmic calcium. As the role of calcium in OBs apoptosis induced by Cd has not been clarified we investigated the effects of Cd exposure in rat OBs on intracellular Ca, CaMKII phosphorylation, and the pathways implicated in inducing apoptosis. The results showed that cadmium(Cd) induced elevation of intracellular Ca ([Ca]) in OBs by the release of Ca from ER and the inflow of Ca from the extracellular matrix. Cd induced [Ca] elevation and phosphorylation of CaMKII which might be involved in activation of MAPKs and participated in Cd-induced mitochondrial apoptosis through the alteration of the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 expression. Meanwhile, CaMKII phosphorylation activated unfolded protein response (UPR) during cadmium treatment and could enable the ER apoptosis pathway through the activation of caspase-12. These results indicated that CaMKII plays an important role in Cd induced ER apoptosis and MAPK activation. Our data provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying apoptosis in OBs following Cd exposure. This provides a theoretical basis for future investigations into the clinical therapeutic application of CaMKⅡ inhibitors in osteoporosis induced by Cd exposure.
Are mTOR and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway Genes Associated with Oral and Bone Diseases?
Bezamat Mariana,Deeley Kathleen,Khaliq Shahryar,Letra Ariadne,Scariot Rafaela,Silva Renato M,Weber Megan L,Bussaneli Diego G,Trevilatto Paula C,Almarza Alejandro J,Ouyang Hongjiao,Vieira Alexandre R
The purpose of this cohort study was to identify associations between combined oral and bone disease phenotypes and genes present in cell regulatory pathways. The studied pathways play important roles in cellular growth, proliferation, differentiation, and homeostasis. DNA samples extracted from whole saliva of 3,912 individuals were genotyped and these data analyzed according to dental caries experience, periapical lesions, periodontitis, osteoporosis, or temporomandibular joint discomfort. Samples were obtained from the Dental Registry and DNA Repository project at the University of Pittsburgh. Twenty-seven polymorphisms in eight genes related to mTOR or endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways were selected for genotyping. Allele frequencies and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were calculated. Analyses were performed comparing genotypes between affected and unaffected individuals for each phenotype, as well as for the associated phenotypes combined. For all analyses, we used the software PLINK with an alpha of 0.002. Borderline associations with multiple variants of several genes were found, suggesting that both pathways may be involved in the susceptibility to multiple conditions affecting the oral cavity and bones. When combining patients that had concomitant dental caries, periodontitis, and periapical pathology, several markers in RHEB showed statistically significant association. Multiple conditions affecting bone and teeth (i.e., dental caries, periodontitis, periapical lesion formation, and osteoporosis) appear to share similar underlying genetic etiological factors, which allow us to hypothesize that instead of individually, they should be studied in conjunction in human populations.
Oxidative damage to osteoblasts can be alleviated by early autophagy through the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway--implications for the treatment of osteoporosis.
Yang Yue-Hua,Li Bo,Zheng Xin-Feng,Chen Jiang-Wei,Chen Ke,Jiang Sheng-Dan,Jiang Lei-Sheng
Free radical biology & medicine
Oxidative stress can damage various cellular components of osteoblasts, and is regarded as a pivotal pathogenic factor for bone loss. Increasing evidence indicates a significant role of cell autophagy in response to oxidative stress. However, the role of autophagy in the osteoblasts under oxidative stress remains to be clarified. In this study, we verified that hydrogen peroxide induced autophagy and apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner in osteoblastic Mc3T3-E1 cells. Both 3-methyladenine (the early steps of autophagy inhibitor) and bafilomycin A1 (the last steps of autophagy inhibitor) enhanced the cell apoptosis and reactive oxygen species level in the osteoblasts insulted by hydrogen peroxide. However, promotion of autophagy with either a pharmacologic inducer (rapamycin) or the Beclin-1 overexpressing technique rescued the cell apoptosis and reduced the reactive oxygen species level in the cells. Treatment with H2O2 significantly increased the levels of carbonylated proteins, malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis markers. The damaged mitochondria were cleared by autophagy. Furthermore, the molecular levels of the endoplasmic reticula stress signaling pathway changed in hydrogen peroxide-treated Mc3T3-E1 cells, and blocking this stress signaling pathway by RNA interference against candidates of glucose-regulated protein 78 and protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase decreased autophagy while increasing apoptosis in the cells. In conclusion, oxidative damage to osteoblasts could be alleviated by early autophagy through the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. Our findings suggested that modulation of osteoblast autophagy could have a potentially therapeutic value for osteoporosis.
TIMP-1 suppressed by miR-138 participates in endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced osteoblast apoptosis in osteoporosis.
Yan Ting-Bin,Li Ci,Jiao Guang-Jun,Wu Wen-Liang,Liu Hai-Chun
Free radical research
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of miR-138 in osteoporosis and its underlying mechanism. Hydrogen peroxide (HO) was used to induce osteoporotic injury of osteoblasts. The cell viability and apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells was assessed using MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The cell transfection was carried out to modulate the expression levels of miR-138 and TIMP-1 in MC3T3-E1 cells. Luciferase reporter gene assay was performed to determine the interaction between miR-138 and TIMP-1 3'UTR. In the present study, HO inhibited osteoblasts growth and induced intracellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress accompanied by high expression of miR-138. We also confirmed that miR-138 promoted osteoblasts apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. MiR-138 was further indicated to inhibit osteoblast survival via negative regulating TIMP-1 expression. Moreover, the downregulated TIMP-1 also mediated the ER stress-induced apoptosis of osteoblasts. We confirmed that miR-138 and ER stress were induced in osteoporosis and then promoted the apoptosis of osteoblasts, at least in part, through TIMP-1.
Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in disuse osteoporosis.
Li Jie,Yang Shuang,Li Xinle,Liu Daquan,Wang Zhaonan,Guo Jialu,Tan Nian,Gao Zhe,Zhao Xiaoyu,Zhang Jiuguo,Gou Fanglin,Yokota Hiroki,Zhang Ping
Osteoporosis is a major skeletal disease with low bone mineral density, which leads to an increased risk of bone fracture. Salubrinal is a synthetic chemical that inhibits dephosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. To understand possible linkage of osteoporosis to ER stress, we employed an unloading mouse model and examined the effects of salubrinal in the pathogenesis of disuse osteoporosis. The results presented several lines of evidence that osteoclastogenesis in the development of osteoporosis was associated with ER stress, and salubrinal suppressed unloading-induced bone loss. Compared to the age-matched control, unloaded mice reduced the trabecular bone area/total area (B.Ar/T.Ar) as well as the number of osteoblasts, and they increased the osteoclasts number on the trabecular bone surface in a time-dependent way. Unloading-induced disuse osteoporosis significantly increased the expression of Bip, p-eIF2α and ATF4 in short-term within 6h of tail suspension, but time-dependent decreased in HU2d to HU14d. Furthermore, a significant correlation of ER stress with the differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts was observed. Administration of salubrinal suppressed the unloading-induced decrease in bone mineral density, B.Ar/T.Ar and mature osteoclast formation. Salubrinal also increased the colony-forming unit-fibroblasts and colony-forming unit-osteoblasts. It reduced the formation of mature osteoclasts, suppressed their migration and adhesion, and increased the expression of Bip, p-eIF2α and ATF4. Electron microscopy showed that rough endoplasmic reticulum expansion and a decreased number of ribosomes on ER membrane were observed in osteoblast of unloading mice, and the abnormal ER expansion was significantly improved by salubrinal treatment. A TUNEL assay together with CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) expression indicated that ER stress-induced osteoblast apoptosis was rescued by salubrinal. Collectively, the results support the notion that ER stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of disuse osteoporosis, and salubrinal attenuates unloading-induced bone loss by altering proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts via eIF2α signaling.