Interaction between genetic predisposition to obesity and dietary calcium in relation to subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference. Larsen Sofus C,Ängquist Lars,Ahluwalia Tarunveer Singh,Skaaby Tea,Roswall Nina,Tjønneland Anne,Halkjær Jytte,Overvad Kim,Pedersen Oluf,Hansen Torben,Linneberg Allan,Husemoen Lise Lotte N,Toft Ulla,Heitmann Berit L,Sørensen Thorkild Ia The American journal of clinical nutrition BACKGROUND:Studies indicate an effect of dietary calcium on change in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC), but the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, a relation could depend on genetic predisposition to obesity. OBJECTIVE:The objective was to examine whether genetic predisposition to higher body mass index (BMI), WC, or waist-hip ratio (WHR) interacts with dietary calcium in relation to subsequent annual change in BW (ΔBW) and WC (ΔWC). DESIGN:The study was based on 7569 individuals from the MONItoring trends and determinants of CArdiovascular disease Study, a sample from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study and the INTER99 study, with information on diet; 54 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMI, WC, or WHR adjusted for BMI; and potential confounders. The SNPs were combined in 4 scores as indicators of genetic predisposition; all SNPs in a general score and a score for each of 3 phenotypes: BMI, WC, and WHR. Linear regression was used to examine the association between calcium intake and ΔBW or ΔWC adjusted for concurrent ΔBW. SNP score × calcium interactions were examined by adding product terms to the models. RESULTS:We found a significant ΔBW of -0.076 kg (P = 0.021; 95% CI: -0.140, -0.012) per 1000 mg Ca. No significant association was observed between dietary calcium and ΔWC. In the analyses with ΔBW as outcome, we found no significant interactions between the developed predisposition scores and calcium. However, we found a significant interaction between a score of 6 WC-associated SNPs and calcium in relation to ΔWC. Each risk allele was associated with a ΔWC of -0.043 cm (P = 0.038; 95% CI: -0.083, -0.002) per 1000 mg Ca. CONCLUSIONS:Our study suggests that dietary calcium relates weakly to BW loss. We found no evidence of a general association between calcium and ΔWC, but calcium may reduce WC among people genetically predisposed to a high WC. However, further replication of this finding is needed. 10.3945/ajcn.113.076596
    Association of body mass index with serum calcium and phosphate levels. Jafari-Giv Zahra,Avan Amir,Hamidi Farshid,Tayefi Maryam,Ghazizadeh Hamideh,Ghasemi Faeze,Javandoost Ali,Farjami Zahra,Mouhebati Mohsen,Safarian Mohammad,Parizadeh Seyyed Mohammad Reza,Saberi-Karimian Maryam,Ferns Gordon A,Ghayour-Mobarhan Majid Diabetes & metabolic syndrome OBJECTIVE:It has been shown that several environmental and physiological factors can affect on the serum levels of calcium and phosphate. The objective of the present study was explored the relationship between serum calcium and phosphate levels with anthropometric and hematological markers. METHODS:908 subjects were recruited from the Mashhad stroke and heart atherosclerosis disorder (MASHHAD) program. Anthropometric parameters, liver/kidney function tests (e.g., Urea nitrogen, creatinine, urea and uric acid, creatinine, AST, ALT) were determined in all participants. Serum concentrations of calcium and phosphate were measured using Autoanalyzer BT3000P (Pars Azmoon kit, Tehran, Iran). SPSS software was used for statistical analyses. RESULTS:We observed that obese subjects had a lower level of serum calcium (p˂0.05). Moreover, a relationship was detected between serum phosphate level and different menopausal status (p˂0.05). Serum calcium and phosphate did not change by increasing age in the population. Additionally, there was a correlation between lymphocyte count with serum phosphate level (p˂0.05). No statistically different were detected for the levels of calcium/phosphate with respect to smoking status, physical activity, lipid profile, liver and renal function markers. CONCLUSION:We found an association between serum calcium and BMI as well as with serum phosphate and menopausal status. 10.1016/j.dsx.2018.12.017
    The Association between Excess Body Mass and Disturbances in Somatic Mineral Levels. Banach Weronika,Nitschke Karolina,Krajewska Natalia,Mongiałło Wojciech,Matuszak Oskar,Muszyński Józef,Skrypnik Damian International journal of molecular sciences BACKGROUND:Obesity and excess body weight are significant epidemiological issues, not only because they are costly to treat, but also because they are among the leading causes of death worldwide. In 2016, an estimated 40% of the global population was overweight, reflecting the importance of the issue. Obesity is linked to metabolism malfunction and concomitantly with altered mineral levels in the body. In this paper, we review alterations in somatic levels of iron, calcium, magnesium, copper, iodine, chromium, selenium, and zinc in relation to excess body mass. METHODOLOGY:An electronic literature search was performed using PubMed. Our search covered original English research articles published over the past five years, culminating in 63 papers included for study. RESULTS:The reviewed papers presented correlation between obesity and hypomagnesemia and hypozincemia. They also indicated that patients with excess body mass present increased body copper levels. Studies have similarly indicated that obesity appears to be associated with lower selenium levels in both blood and urine, which may be correlated with the decline and weakening of defenses against oxidative stress. It has been found that decreased level of chromium is connected with metabolic syndrome. Chromium supplementation influences body mass, but the effect of the supplementation depends on the chemical form of the chromium. It is hypothesized that obesity poses a risk of iodine deficiency and iodine absorption may be disrupted by increased fat intake in obese women. A range of studies have suggested that obesity is correlated with iron deficiency. On the other hand, some reports have indicated that excess body mass may coexist with iron excess. The relation between obesity and body iron level requires further investigation. Calcium signaling seems to be disturbed in obesity, due to the increased production of reactive oxygen species and low level of fast troponin isoform responsible for mediating calcium sensitivity of muscle relaxation. Correlation between excess body mass and calcium levels needs further research. CONCLUSIONS:Excess body mass is associated with alterations in mineral levels in the body, in particular hypomagnesemia and decreased selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) levels. Chromium (Cr) deficiency is associated with metabolic syndrome. Obese patients are at risk of iodine deficiency. Excess body mass is associated with elevated levels of copper (Cu). Data on the association between obesity and iron (Fe) levels are contradictory. Obesity coexists with disturbed calcium (Ca) signaling pathways. The association between obesity and body Ca levels has not been investigated in detail. 10.3390/ijms21197306
    [Calcium intake, serum vitamin D and obesity in children: is there an association?]. Cunha Kelly Aparecida da,Magalhães Elma Izze da Silva,Loureiro Laís Monteiro Rodrigues,Sant'Ana Luciana Ferreira da Rocha,Ribeiro Andréia Queiroz,Novaes Juliana Farias de Revista paulista de pediatria : orgao oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de Sao Paulo OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the association between calcium intake and serum vitamin D levels and childhood obesity by an integrative review. DATA SOURCE:The research was conducted in the databases PubMed/medLine, Science Direct and SciELO with 2001 to 2014 publications. We used the combined terms in English: "children" and "calcium" or "children" and "vitamin D" associated with the descriptors: "obesity", "adiposity" or "body fat" for all bases. Cross-sectional and cohort studies, as well as clinical trials, were included. Review articles or those that that have not addressed the association of interest were excluded. DATA SYNTHESIS:Eight articles were part of this review, five of which were related to calcium and three to vitamin D. Most studies had a longitudinal design. The analyzed studies found an association between calcium intake and obesity, especially when age and sex were considered. Inverse relationship between serum vitamin D and measures of adiposity in children has been observed and this association was influenced by the sex of the patient and by the seasons of the year. CONCLUSIONS:The studies reviewed showed an association between calcium and vitamin D with childhood obesity. Considering the possible protective effect of these micronutrients in relation to childhood obesity, preventive public health actions should be designed, with emphasis on nutritional education. 10.1016/j.rpped.2015.03.001
    Calcium as a chemopreventive agent against colorectal neoplasm: does obesity play a role? Keum NaNa,Kim Hanseul,Giovannucci Edward L Cancer causes & control : CCC BACKGROUND:Concerning the chemopreventive potential of calcium against colorectal neoplasms, strong evidence from initial randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of colorectal adenoma has not been confirmed from the most recent large RCT. To explain the conflicting results, a new hypothesis was proposed that the benefit of calcium may be confined to lean individuals. METHODS:To test this hypothesis, we examined heterogeneity of the associations of calcium intake with adenoma and CRC, using data from the most recent meta-analyses of observational studies and conducting subgroup analysis by average body mass index (BMI) of study population. RESULTS:An inverse association of calcium intake with adenoma and CRC did not vary by population average BMI. By anatomical subsites of CRC, while there was no significant evidence of heterogeneity by population average BMI (P  > 0.05), the benefit of calcium was confined to studies with population average BMI of ≥25 kg/m for both colon cancer and rectal cancer, contradicting the hypothesis. CONCLUSIONS:In our study-level meta-analysis, we found no evidence to support that the chemopreventive potential of calcium, if real, may be stronger in leaner individuals. 10.1007/s10552-017-0922-y
    Anti-Obesity Effects of Dietary Calcium: The Evidence and Possible Mechanisms. Zhang Fenglin,Ye Jingjing,Zhu Xiaotong,Wang Lina,Gao Ping,Shu Gang,Jiang Qingyan,Wang Songbo International journal of molecular sciences Obesity is a serious health challenge worldwide and is associated with various comorbidities, including dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Developing effective strategies to prevent obesity is therefore of paramount importance. One potential strategy to reduce obesity is to consume calcium, which has been implicated to be involved in reducing body weight/fat. In this review, we compile the evidence for the anti-obesity roles of calcium in cells, animals, and humans. In addition, we summarize the possible anti-obesity mechanisms of calcium, including regulation of (a) adipogenesis, (b) fat metabolism, (c) adipocyte (precursor) proliferation and apoptosis, (d) thermogenesis, (e) fat absorption and excretion, and (f) gut microbiota. Although the exact anti-obesity roles of calcium in different subjects and how calcium induces the proposed anti-obesity mechanisms need to be further investigated, the current evidence demonstrates the anti-obesity effects of calcium and suggests the potential application of dietary calcium for prevention of obesity. 10.3390/ijms20123072
    Calcium, obesity, and the role of the calcium-sensing receptor. Villarroel Pia,Villalobos Elisa,Reyes Marcela,Cifuentes Mariana Nutrition reviews The elevated prevalence of obesity worldwide is a challenging public health problem. Dietary calcium intake is frequently below recommendations, and evidence gathered for more than a decade suggests that inadequate calcium intake may be related to increased body weight and/or body fat, although a consensus has yet to be reached. Whole-body energy balance and the cellular mechanisms involved have been proposed to explain this relationship, and increasing evidence from epidemiological, clinical, and basic research lends support to the hypothesis that calcium is linked to the regulation of body weight. This review provides a critical appraisal of evidence from studies that examined several different aspects of this issue. Different mechanisms are highlighted and, based on recent work, new perspectives are offered, which incorporate the concept of obesity-associated inflammation and the possible role of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor. 10.1111/nure.12135
    Dietary calcium but not elemental calcium from supplements is associated with body composition and obesity in Chinese women. Huang Lina,Xue Jingyi,He Ying,Wang Jian,Sun Changhao,Feng Rennan,Teng Jianhua,He Yonghan,Li Ying PloS one OBJECTIVE:We assessed whether dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements associated with body composition and obesity in a Chinese population. METHODS:A cross-sectional survey was performed in a population of 8940, aged 20 to 74 y. 8127 participants responded (90.9%). Height, weight, fat mass (FM), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference were measured. Obesity definition: body mass index (BMI) ≥28 kg/m(2) (overall obesity); WC ≥85 cm for men or ≥80 cm for women (abdominal obesity І) and waist hip ratio (WHR) ≥0.90 for men or ≥0.85 for women (abdominal obesity П). The data on dietary calcium and calcium supplements were collected using food-frequency questionnaire and self-report questionnaire. Multivariate linear and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements and body composition and obesity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:The average dietary calcium intake of all subjects was 430 mg/d. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, among women only, negative associations were observed between habitual dietary calcium intake and four measures of body composition (β, -0.086, P<0.001 for BMI; β, -0.072, P<0.001 for WC; β, -0.044, P<0.05 for WHR; and β, -0.058, P<0.01 for FM, respectively) and both measures of abdominal obesity (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.86, 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.80-0.93; P<0.001, for abdominal obesity I; OR = 0.92, 95% CI, 0.86-0.99; P = 0.026, for abdominal obesity II). These associations were not observed among men (P>0.05). Similarly, among both men and women, we did not observe significant associations between calcium supplements and any measures of body composition or abdominal obesity (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Dietary calcium from food rather than elemental calcium from calcium supplements has beneficial effects on the maintenance of body composition and preventing abdominal obesity in Chinese women. 10.1371/journal.pone.0027703
    Association of calcium and dairy product consumption with childhood obesity and the presence of a Brain Derived Neurotropic Factor-Antisense (BDNF-AS) polymorphism. Marcos-Pasero Helena,Aguilar-Aguilar Elena,de la Iglesia Rocío,Espinosa-Salinas Isabel,Gómez-Patiño Mónica,Colmenarejo Gonzalo,de Molina Ana Ramírez,Reglero Guillermo,Loria-Kohen Viviana Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) BACKGROUND & AIMS:Calcium and dairy products have multiple health benefits. The objective of this work was to evaluate the association between calcium/dairy intake, blood pressure, the BDNF-AS rs925946 polymorphism and nutritional status in a group of schoolchildren. METHODS:As part of the GENYAL study to childhood obesity prevention, 221 children belonging to different areas of the Community of Madrid were enrolled. Anthropometric and dietary data were collected, and children were genotyped according to the rs925946 polymorphism. Adjusted logistic and linear models were used to describe the data. RESULTS:A significantly lower consumption of calcium in overweight versus normal weight children was observed (811.0 ± 174.1; 859.0 ± 195.9; 954.0 ± 223.1 mg; for obesity, overweight and normal weight, respectively, p = 0.010). Moreover, an inverse association between blood pressures and calcium intake was detected (β = -0.006 (-0.011, -3e)), p = 0.040. The number of dairy servings/day showed a protective effect against overweight (OR = 0.48 (0.29, 0.75), p = 0.001). Finally, common homozygous children (GG) showed an inverse association between the calcium intake and the BMI (β = -0.003 (-0.006, -0.001), p = 0.004), which was not observed in children carrying the T allele (β = -1.3e (-0.0022, 0.0024), p = 0.93). CONCLUSION:Calcium and dairy were strongly associated with the nutritional status and blood pressure. The identification of differential effects of calcium/dairy consumption on the nutritional status according to genetics may contribute to the personalization of future nutritional advice. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.govNCT03419520. 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.11.005
    [Relationship of ionized calcium and 25-(OH) D in serum with obesity]. Yang Jianjun,Wang Pan,Liu Can,He Xiaoli,Zhang Yuhong,Tao Xiujuan,Zhao Yi,Wang Ling Wei sheng yan jiu = Journal of hygiene research OBJECTIVE:To investigate the relationship of ionized calcium and 25-(OH) D level in serum with obesity in order to provide theoretical basis for preventing obesity-related diseases. METHODS:Base on a cross-sectional study, 169 overweight/obese subjects (92 men: age (37.76 +/- 17.56) years, 77 women: age (38.79 +/- 17.40) years) and 169 normal weight control subjects (92 men: age (36.24 +/- 17.28) years, 77 women: age (32.32 +/- 13.07) years) were selected in a 1:1 case-control matches. 25-(OH) D was assessed by ELISA. Serum ionized calcium was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The relationship of ionized calcium and 25-(OH) D level in serum with obesity was analyzed by using a Logistic regression model. RESULTS:The average serum ionized calcium in overweight or obese subjects was(46.9 +/- 20.7) mg/L and that in normal control subjects was (63.2 +/- 19.5) mg/L (P < 0.001). Serum 25-(OH) D of overweight or obese was lower than normal control subjects ((48.3 +/- 16.7) nmmol/L vs. (63.8 +/- 35.4) nmmol/L, P < 0.001). Serum ionized calcium and 25-(OH) D was independently associated with body mass index in a logistic regression model [OR = 0.959, 95% CI 0.945-0.973; OR = 0.435, 95% CI 0.329-0.575]. CONCLUSION:Serum 25-(OH) D levels in obesity group was lower than that in control group. The results suggest that vitamin D might play an important role in the risk of developing obesity.
    [Association between dietary calcium/dairy intakes and overweight/obesity]. Chen Yanrong,Liu Yan,Xue Hongmei,Bao Yuxin,Luo Jiao,Tian Guo,Cheng Guo Wei sheng yan jiu = Journal of hygiene research OBJECTIVE:To investigate the intakes of dietary calcium/dairy and the current prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents aged 7-15 in Longquanyi District, Chengdu, and to explore the association of dietary calcium and dairy intake with overweight/obesity. METHODS:1738 children and adolescents were recruited in the cross-sectional study using cluster random sampling method. Information on dietary calcium and dairy intakes was collected using 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Height, weight and waist circumference were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI)/waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index standard deviation (BMI SDS). Overweight/obesity was defined based on the criteria of Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC). Participants were grouped into 3 categories indicating lower, moderate and higher intakes of dietary calcium and dairy, respectively. The association of dietary calcium and dairy consumption with (BMI SDS) /WHtR and the prevalence of overweight/obesity was analyzed after being stratified by gender and age. RESULTS:The prevalence of overweight/obesity in boys and girls were 11.92%/7.04% and 8.04%/6.30%, respectively. The intake of dietary calcium and dairy in girls were much higher than that in boys (P < 0.0001). Among boys aged 7-9 years, those with higher consumption of dairy had the higher BMI SDS (P = 0.01). Among boys aged 10-12 years, those with higher consumption of dietary calcium had the lowest prevalence of overweight (P = 0.03). However, similar results were not observed among girls. CONCLUSIONS:Dietary calcium and dairy intakes seemed to be related to overweight/ obesity in boys, however the associations were inconsistent among different age groups. Associations between consumption of calcium, dairy and overweight/obesity were not found among girls.
    Calcium Homeostasis and Organelle Function in the Pathogenesis of Obesity and Diabetes. Arruda Ana Paula,Hotamisligil Gökhan S Cell metabolism A number of chronic metabolic pathologies, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and cancer, cluster together to present the greatest threat to human health. As research in this field has advanced, it has become clear that unresolved metabolic inflammation, organelle dysfunction, and other cellular and metabolic stresses underlie the development of these chronic metabolic diseases. However, the relationship between these systems and pathological mechanisms is poorly understood. Here we discuss the role of cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis as a critical mechanism integrating the myriad of cellular and subcellular dysfunctional networks found in metabolic tissues such as liver and adipose tissue in the context of metabolic disease, particularly in obesity and diabetes. 10.1016/j.cmet.2015.06.010
    Dairy-Related Dietary Patterns, Dietary Calcium, Body Weight and Composition: A Study of Obesity in Polish Mothers and Daughters, the MODAF Project. Wadolowska Lidia,Ulewicz Natalia,Sobas Kamila,Wuenstel Justyna W,Slowinska Malgorzata A,Niedzwiedzka Ewa,Czlapka-Matyasik Magdalena Nutrients The role of the family environment in regards to dairy products and dietary calcium in the context of obesity is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the association among dairy-related dietary patterns (DDPs), dietary calcium, body weight and composition in mothers and daughters. Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey within the MODAF Project. A total sample of 712 pairs of mothers (<60 years) and daughters (12-21 years) was studied. This study included 691 pairs. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (ADOS-Ca) was used to collect dietary data. Waist circumference (WC), body fat, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index (BMI) were determined. Previously derived DDPs were used-three in mothers and three in daughters. In mothers, two of the DDPs were characterized by higher consumption of various dairy products with suboptimal calcium content (means: 703 or 796 mg/day) which decreased the chance of: -WC > 1 standard deviation (SD), WC > 80 cm, body fat > 32%, WHtR > 0.5, BMI = 25-29.9 kg/m² or BMI ≥ 30 kg/m² by 44-67% when compared to low-dairy low-calcium DDP (288 mg/day). In mothers per 100 mg/day of dietary calcium, the chance of -WC > 1SD, WC > 80 cm, -WHtR > 1SD, WHtR > 0.5 cm, BMI = 25 to 29.9 kg/m² or BMI ≥ 30 kg/m² decreased by 5-9%. In correspondence analysis, a clear association was found between mothers' and daughters' low-dairy low-calcium DDPs and upper categories of -WC (>1 SDs). This study reinforces evidence of the similarity between mothers and daughters in dairy-related dietary patterns and provides a new insight on the adverse relation between low-dairy low-calcium dietary patterns and obesity. It was found that diets containing various dairy products with suboptimal dietary calcium content may be recommended in obesity prevention. 10.3390/nu10010090
    [Role of vitamin D and calcium in obesity and type 2 diabetes]. Kuroda Masashi,Sakaue Hiroshi Clinical calcium Obesity, induced by unhealthy lifestyle choices, could be involved in the development of chronic diseases like type 2 diabete. Obesity is largely due to the imbalance of energy intake and expenditure, therefore we have put more emphasis on the amount of macronutrients including carbohydrates, fats and proteins as dietary therapy for obesity and related-conditions. On the other hand, several studies revealed obese or diabetic patients were more likely to have micronutrient deficiencies such as vitamins and minerals. Besides the effects on bone metabolism, vitamin D and calcium might contribute to metabolic disorder accompanied by obesity. However, it has not been concluded supplementation of these two nutrients has a benefit in obese or diabetic individuals. Further studies are needed. CliCa1603349354
    Calcium-Sensing Receptor in Adipose Tissue: Possible Association with Obesity-Related Elevated Autophagy. Mattar Pamela,Sanhueza Sofía,Yuri Gabriela,Briones Lautaro,Perez-Leighton Claudio,Rudich Assaf,Lavandero Sergio,Cifuentes Mariana International journal of molecular sciences Autophagy is upregulated in adipose tissue (AT) from people with obesity. We showed that activation of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) elevates proinflammatory cytokines through autophagy in preadipocytes. Our aim is to understand the role of CaSR on autophagy in AT from humans with obesity. We determined mRNA and protein levels of CaSR and markers of autophagy by qPCR and western blot in human visceral AT explants or isolated primary preadipocytes (60 donors: 72% female, 23-56% body fat). We also investigated their association with donors' anthropometric variables. Donors' % body fat and CaSR mRNA expression in AT were correlated (r = 0.44, < 0.01). CaSR expression was associated with mRNA levels of the autophagy markers (r = 0.37, < 0.01), (r = 0.29, < 0.05) and (r = 0.40, < 0.01). CaSR activation increased and mRNA expression in AT. CaSR activation also upregulated LC3II by ~50%, an effect abolished by the CaSR inhibitor. Spermine (CaSR agonist) regulates LC3II through the ERK1/2 pathway. Structural equation model analysis suggests a link between donors' AT CaSR expression, AT autophagy and expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha TNF-α. CaSR expression in visceral AT is directly associated with % body fat, and CaSR activation may contribute to obesity-related disruption in AT autophagy. 10.3390/ijms21207617
    Could the beneficial effects of dietary calcium on obesity and diabetes control be mediated by changes in intestinal microbiota and integrity? Gomes J M G,Costa J A,Alfenas R C The British journal of nutrition Evidence from animal and human studies has associated gut microbiota, increased translocation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and reduced intestinal integrity (II) with the inflammatory state that occurs in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Consumption of Ca may favour body weight reduction and glycaemic control, but its influence on II and gut microbiota is not well understood. Considering the impact of metabolic diseases on public health and the role of Ca on the pathophysiology of these diseases, this review critically discusses possible mechanisms by which high-Ca diets could affect gut microbiota and II. Published studies from 1993 to 2015 about this topic were searched and selected from Medline/PubMed, Scielo and Lilacs databases. High-Ca diets seem to favour the growth of lactobacilli, maintain II (especially in the colon), reduce translocation of LPS and regulate tight-junction gene expression. We conclude that dietary Ca might interfere with gut microbiota and II modulations and it can partly explain the effect of Ca on obesity and T2DM control. However, further research is required to define the supplementation period, the dose and the type of Ca supplement (milk or salt) required for more effective results. As Ca interacts with other components of the diet, these interactions must also be considered in future studies. We believe that more complex mechanisms involving extraintestinal disorders (hormones, cytokines and other biomarkers) also need to be studied. 10.1017/S0007114515003608
    Overweight and obesity associated with increased total serum calcium level: comparison of cross-sectional data in the health screening for teaching faculty. Ren Xiao-Hua,Yao Ying-Shui,He Lian-Ping,Jin Yue-Long,Chang Wei-Wei,Li Jie,Chen Yan,Song Xiu-Li,Tang Hui,Ding Ling-Ling,Guo Dao-Xia,Li Chao-Ping Biological trace element research Obesity is a risk of cardiovascular diseases. Our previous studies revealed that serum calcium level may have influence in the blood pressure to older male subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total serum calcium level and overweight and obesity subjects. In our study, overweight and obesity status and total serum calcium level were measured among 2,503 subjects, at age range of 22-94 years, who were recruited for the routine health screening in 2006. The estimated mean for age (p < 0.001), white blood cell count (p = 0.037), hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001), red blood cell count (p < 0.001), total serum calcium level (p < 0.001), total cholesterol weight (p < 0.001), HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.001), LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.001), and triglyceride (p < 0.001) of overweight and obesity subjects were significantly higher than those of non-overweight subjects. The prevalence of overweight/obesity in subjects according to the log-transformed total serum calcium level quartiles was 16.3-30.5 %. The prevalence of overweight/obesity subjects showed trends that were significant according to the total serum calcium level quartiles (p < 0.001). The odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for overweight/obesity of the second, third, and fourth quartiles compared to the lowest quartile were 1.407 (1.050-1.883), 1.543 (1.136-2.095), and 1.360 (0.995-1.859), respectively, after adjusting for sex and age (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that a higher prevalence of adult overweight/obesity is weakly associated with higher total serum calcium level in the Chinese population. 10.1007/s12011-013-9856-8
    Calcium Signaling Pathways: Key Pathways in the Regulation of Obesity. Song Ziguo,Wang Yu,Zhang Fei,Yao Fangyao,Sun Chao International journal of molecular sciences Nowadays, high epidemic obesity-triggered hypertension and diabetes seriously damage social public health. There is now a general consensus that the body's fat content exceeding a certain threshold can lead to obesity. Calcium ion is one of the most abundant ions in the human body. A large number of studies have shown that calcium signaling could play a major role in increasing energy consumption by enhancing the metabolism and the differentiation of adipocytes and reducing food intake through regulating neuronal excitability, thereby effectively decreasing the occurrence of obesity. In this paper, we review multiple calcium signaling pathways, including the IP3 (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate)-Ca (calcium ion) pathway, the p38-MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway, and the calmodulin binding pathway, which are involved in biological clock, intestinal microbial activity, and nerve excitability to regulate food intake, metabolism, and differentiation of adipocytes in mammals, resulting in the improvement of obesity. 10.3390/ijms20112768
    Association between dairy consumption, dietary calcium intake and general and abdominal obesity among Iranian adults. Sadeghi Omid,Keshteli Ammar Hassanzadeh,Doostan Farideh,Esmaillzadeh Ahmad,Adibi Peyman Diabetes & metabolic syndrome AIM:To assess the association of dairy consumption and dietary calcium intake with general and abdominal obesity in a large sample of Iranian adults. METHODS:In this cross-sectional study, dairy consumption and dietary calcium intake were assessed using a validated dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire in 6582 Iranian adults aged 18-55 years living in Isfahan. A self-administered validated questionnaire was used to collect data on anthropometric measures. Overweight or obesity was considered as body mass index ≥25 kg/m, and abdominal obesity as waist circumference ≥88 cm for women and ≥102 cm for men. RESULTS:Mean age of study participants was 36.8 ± 8.1 years. Compared with the lowest quartile, men in the highest quartile of dietary calcium intake had greater odds for general obesity (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.03-1.60). This relationship was significant even after adjustment for age and energy intake (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.03-1.60). However, such relationship was not seen in women. No other significant associations were observed between dairy and dietary calcium intake with general or abdominal obesity. CONCLUSION:Dietary calcium intake was positively associated with general obesity in men, but not in women. No significant association was seen between dairy consumption and general or central adiposity. 10.1016/j.dsx.2018.04.040
    Intakes of dairy products and calcium and obesity in Korean adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007-2009. Lee Hae-Jeung,Cho Jang-ik,Lee Hye-Seung H,Kim Cho-il,Cho Eunyoung PloS one BACKGROUND:The possible effects of dairy product intake against obesity have been suggested in animal studies; however, the association is still not well established in epidemiological studies. Few studies in Asian countries with relatively low intake of dairy products exist. OBJECTIVE:We investigated the association between dairy products and calcium intake and obesity in Korean population with relatively low intake of dairy products. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:Our study population consisted of adults (n = 7173) aged 19-64 among participants of the 2007, 2008 and 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had not made any attempt of intentional weight loss. Dietary intake data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall were used. Dairy products included milk and yogurt in the FFQ. Obesity was defined as BMI≥25 kg/m². RESULTS:Higher frequency of dairy product intake was associated with a reduced prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.45-0.89 for ≥2 times/day vs. ≤1 time/month; p for trend = 0.003) using the intake data from FFQ. Similarly, high frequency of milk or yogurt intake had an inverse association with obesity. The association between milk and yogurt intake and obesity was similar when the intake from 24-hour recall was examined. Higher calcium intake from dairy products as well as total dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.71-0.98 for highest vs. lowest quintile of dairy calcium intake; p for trend = 0.02, OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.64-0.94 for highest vs. lowest quintile of total calcium intake; p for trend = 0.04). The associations appeared to be stronger in women than in men. CONCLUSION:These results suggest that high consumption of dairy products is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and that calcium in dairy products may be one of the components contributing to the association. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to replicate our findings. 10.1371/journal.pone.0099085
    Calcium and Vitamin D in Obesity and Related Chronic Disease. Pannu Poonam K,Calton Emily K,Soares Mario J Advances in food and nutrition research There is a pandemic of lifestyle-related diseases. In both developed and lesser developed countries of the world, an inadequacy of calcium intake and low vitamin D status is common. In this chapter, we explore a mechanistic framework that links calcium and vitamin D status to chronic conditions including obesity, systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We also update the available clinical evidence, mainly from randomized controlled trials, to provide a synthesis of evidence in favor or against these hypotheses. There is consistent data to support calcium increasing whole body fat oxidation and increasing fecal fat excretion, while there is good cellular evidence for vitamin D reducing inflammation. Clinical trials support a marginal reduction in circulating lipids and some meta-analysis support an increase in insulin sensitivity following vitamin D. However, these mechanistic pathways and intermediate biomarkers of disease do not consistently transcribe into measurable health outcomes. Cementing the benefits of calcium and vitamin D for extraskeletal health needs a reexamination of the target 25(OH)D level to be achieved and the minimum duration of future trials. 10.1016/bs.afnr.2015.11.001
    Effect of increasing dietary calcium through supplements and dairy food on body weight and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Booth Alison O,Huggins Catherine E,Wattanapenpaiboon Naiyana,Nowson Caryl A The British journal of nutrition This meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials assessed the effect of Ca on body weight and body composition through supplementation or increasing dairy food intake. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria (including fifty-one trial arms; thirty-one with dairy foods (n 2091), twenty with Ca supplements (n 2711). Ca intake was approximately 900 mg/d higher in the supplement groups compared with control. In the dairy group, Ca intake was approximately 1300 mg/d. Ca supplementation did not significantly affect body weight (mean change ( - 0·17, 95% CI - 0·70, 0·37) kg) or body fat (mean change ( - 0·19, 95% CI - 0·51, 0·13) kg) compared to control. Similarly, increased dairy food intake did not affect body weight ( - 0·06, 95% CI - 0·54, 0·43) kg or body fat change ( - 0·36, 95% CI - 0·80, 0·09) kg compared to control. Sub-analyses revealed that dairy supplementation resulted in no change in body weight (nineteen studies, n 1010) ( - 0·32, 95% CI - 0·93, 0·30 kg, P= 0·31), but a greater reduction in body fat (thirteen studies, n 564) ( - 0·96, 95% CI - 1·46, - 0·46 kg, P < 0·001) in the presence of energy restriction over a mean of 4 months compared to control. Increasing dietary Ca intake by 900 mg/d as supplements or increasing dairy intake to approximately 3 servings daily (approximately 1300 mg of Ca/d) is not an effective weight reduction strategy in adults. There is, however, an indication that approximately 3 servings of dairy may facilitate fat loss on weight reduction diets in the short term. 10.1017/S0007114515001518