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    Granule formation in NGF-cultured mast cells is associated with expressions of pyruvate kinase type M2 and annexin I proteins. Kim Ji Young,Kim Dae Yong,Ro Jai Youl International archives of allergy and immunology BACKGROUND:Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a potent mediator, which regulates characteristics of mast cells, but its biological function is not well characterized. This study aimed to screen proteins associated with the maturation of human mast cells-1 (HMC-1) or mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) cultured with NGF, and to examine the functions of proteins involved. METHODS:NGF (10 ng/ml) was added to cell culture medium every other day for 10 days for HMC-1 or twice a week for 5 weeks for BMMCs. Granule formation was determined by electron microscopy or May-Grunwald-Giemsa staining, TNF-alpha by ELISA, expressions of various proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), siRNA transfection by Lipofectamine 2000, and the expressions of pyruvate kinase and annexin I by immunoblotting. RESULTS:After NGF treatment, granule formation and total amounts of granular mediator, TNF-alpha increased in both mast cells. This TNF-alpha was released by calcium ionophore or by antigen/antibody reaction. Expressions of pyruvate kinase and annexin I obtained by 2-DE were confirmed by immunoblotting and siRNA-transfected HMC-1 cells. Expressions of proteins, granule formation and TNF-alpha content were blocked by both the TrkA inhibitor, K252a, and the ERK inhibitor, PD98059, but not by the PI3 kinase inhibitors, LY294002 and wortmannin. CONCLUSION:These data suggest that pyruvate kinase and annexin I expressed by NGF contribute to granule formation containing TNF-alpha as well as other mediators in mast cells, which play a major role in allergic diseases via a TrkA/ERK pathway. 10.1159/000121463
    Mast Cell Serotonin Immunoregulatory Effects Impacting on Neuronal Function: Implications for Neurodegenerative and Psychiatric Disorders. Conti P,Shaik-Dasthagirisaheb Y B Neurotoxicity research Mast cells (MCs) are derived from hemopoietic precursor cells, undergo their maturation in peripheral tissues, and play a significant role in both the innate and adaptive immune response. Cross-linking of the FcεRI on MCs initiates activation of several cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases which rapidly lead to phosphorylation and recruitment of adaptor molecules. These effects trigger the release of preformed mediators stored in the cytoplasmic granules, including histamine, serotonin and tryptase, as well as newly synthesized mediators, such as cytokines/chemokines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and growth factors. Serotonin (5-HT) is a bioactive monoamine, which has seven specific cell surface membrane bound receptors which are coupled to G-proteins, plays an important role in the central and peripheral nervous system, and is one of the key mediators in signaling between nervous and immune systems. Serotonin is not stored in all MC types but is implicated in MC adhesion, chemotaxis, tumorigenesis, and tissue regeneration through smooth muscle differentiation of stromal cells. Recent evidence indicates that serotonin has immunoregulatory actions that may be important in neuropsychiatric conditions. Chemokines, RANTES/CCL5, MCP-1/CCL2, and related molecules, constitute the C-C class of chemokine supergene family, play a role in regulating T helper-cell cytokine production and MC trafficking, and are involved in histamine and serotonin generation and MC functions. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1-β and tumor necrosis factor which mediate MC response, are capable of activating p38 MAPK, and might increase serotonin generation through p38 MAPK activation. Here, we review the relationship between MCs and serotonin and its role in inflammatory diseases and neuroimmune interactions. 10.1007/s12640-015-9533-0
    Secretory lysosomes of mouse mast cells store and exocytose active caspase-3 in a strictly granzyme B dependent manner. Zorn Carolin N,Pardo Julian,Martin Praxedis,Kuhny Marcel,Simon Markus M,Huber Michael European journal of immunology In this study, we report that cytoplasmic granules from in vivo and in vitro derived mouse mast cells (MCs) contain active granzyme B (gzmB) and caspase-3, which is consistent with recent findings. Studying WT and gzmB-deficient mice, we observed that BM-derived MCs (BMMCs) from both strains contain cytosolic pro-caspase-3, but only WT BMMCs expressed active caspase-3 limited to their secretory lysosomes. Confocal microscopy revealed colocalization of active caspase-3 and gzmB in these cytoplasmic granules. The combined data demonstrate that the generation and storage of active caspase-3 is gzmB-dependent. The finding that BMMCs secrete caspase-3 and gzmB after Ag stimulation suggests that both proteases contribute to extracellular MC-mediated proteolytic events. Although the extracellular function of MC-derived caspase-3 remains unclear, we show that BMMC-secreted caspase-3 cleaves IL-33, a cytokine that contributes to the development of asthma and arthritis. We also show that an in vitro propagated cytolytic T-lymphocyte line constitutively expresses gzmB together with active caspase-3, suggesting a novel interaction of these proteases in the execution of multiple innate and adaptive immune responses. 10.1002/eji.201343941
    Efficient sorting of TNF-alpha to rodent mast cell granules is dependent on N-linked glycosylation. Olszewski Maciej B,Trzaska Dominika,Knol Edward F,Adamczewska Violetta,Dastych Jaroslaw European journal of immunology Mast cells play an important role at the early stages of immunological response to bacterial infections and parasite infestations. One of the major mast cell proinflammatory mediators is TNF-alpha. Mast cells are considered the only cells capable of storing TNF-alpha in cytoplasmic granules and rapidly releasing it upon activation. To determine what pathway is utilized to direct TNF-alpha to cytoplasmic granules and what motifs are responsible for the sorting process, we constructed a fusion protein covering the full sequence of TNF-alpha, N-terminally fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). In rodent mast cells, such protein was sorted to secretory granules, and this process was inhibited by both brefeldin A and monensin. Considering the relationship between lysosomes and secretory granules and following TNF-alpha sequence analysis, it was determined whether TNF-alpha is sorted through the mannose-6-phosphate receptor (MPR)-dependent pathway. We observed that ammonium chloride and tunicamycin blocked TNF-alpha-EGFP fusion protein delivery to secretory granules. In situ mutagenesis experiments confirmed the necessity of N-linked glycosylation for efficient sorting of TNF-alpha into rodent mast cell granules. In this work we established that TNF-alpha travels from the ER to mast cell granules via a brefeldin A- and monensin-sensitive route, utilizing the MPR-dependent pathway, although this dependency does not seem to be absolute. 10.1002/eji.200535323
    TNF trafficking to human mast cell granules: mature chain-dependent endocytosis. Olszewski Maciej B,Groot Arjan J,Dastych Jaroslaw,Knol Edward F Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) Mast cells play a crucial role at the early stages of immune response against bacteria and parasites where their functionality is based on their capability of releasing highly bioactive compounds, among them TNF. Mast cells are considered the only cells storing preformed TNF, which allows for the immediate release of this cytokine upon contact with pathogens. We approached the question of mechanisms and amino acid motifs directing newly synthesized TNF for storage in cytoplasmic granules by analyzing the trafficking of a series of TNF-enhanced GFP fusion proteins in human mast cell lines HMC-1 and LAD2. Protein covering the full TNF sequence was successfully sorted into secretory granules in a process involving transient exposure on the outer membrane and re-endocytosis. In human cells, contrary to results previously obtained in a rodent model, TNF seems not to be glycosylated and, thus, trafficking is carbohydrate independent. In an effort to localize the amino acid motif responsible for granule targeting, we constructed additional fusion proteins and analyzed their trafficking, concluding that granule-targeting sequences are localized in the mature chain of TNF and that the cytoplasmic tail is expendable for endocytotic sorting of this cytokine, thus excluding direct interactions with intracellular adaptor proteins. 10.4049/jimmunol.178.9.5701
    Establishment and characterization of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell hybridomas. Kawahara Takeshi Experimental cell research Interleukin (IL)-3-dependent mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) are an important model for studying the function of mucosal-type mast cells. In the present study, BMMCs were successfully immortalized by cell fusion using a hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine medium-sensitive variant of P815 mouse mastocytoma (P815-6TgR) as a partner cell line. The established mouse mast cell hybridomas (MMCHs) expressed α, β, and γ subunits of high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor (FcεRI) and possessed cytoplasmic granules devoid of or partially filled with electron-dense material. Four independent MMCH clones continuously proliferated without supplemental exogenous IL-3 and showed a degranulation response on stimulation with IgE+antigen. Furthermore, histamine synthesis and release by degranulation were confirmed in MMCH-D5, a MMCH clone that showed the strongest degranulation response. MMCH-D5 exhibited elevated levels of IL-3, IL-4, IL-13, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and cyclooxygenase 2, and production of prostaglandin D(2) and leukotriene C(4) in response to IgE-induced stimulation. MMCH clones also expressed Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 1, 2, 4, and 6 and showed elevated levels of TNF-α expression in response to stimulation with TLR2 and TLR4 ligands. The MMCHs established using this method should be suitable for studies on FcεRI- and TLR-mediated effector functions of mast cells. 10.1016/j.yexcr.2012.07.010
    Mast cell proteoglycans. Rönnberg Elin,Melo Fabio R,Pejler Gunnar The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society Mast cells are versatile effector cells of the immune system, contributing to both innate and adaptive immunity toward pathogens but also having profound detrimental activities in the context of inflammatory disease. A hallmark morphological feature of mast cells is their large content of cytoplasmic secretory granules, filled with numerous secretory compounds, including highly negatively charged heparin or chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans of serglycin type. These anionic proteoglycans provide the basis for the strong metachromatic staining properties of mast cells seen when applying various cationic dyes. Functionally, the mast cell proteoglycans have been shown to have an essential role in promoting the storage of other granule-contained compounds, including bioactive monoamines and different mast cell-specific proteases. Moreover, granule proteoglycans have been shown to regulate the enzymatic activities of mast cell proteases and to promote apoptosis. Here, the current knowledge of mast cell proteoglycans is reviewed. 10.1369/0022155412458927
    Expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, Flk1 and Flt1, in rat skin mast cells during development. Koh Miki,Noguchi Syunya,Araki Mami,Otsuka Hirotada,Yokosuka Makoto,Soeta Satoshi The Journal of veterinary medical science Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is a principal regulator of hematopoiesis as well as angiogenesis. However, the functions of VEGF-A and its receptors (VEGFRs) in the differentiation of mast cells (MCs) in the skin remain unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the expression patterns of two VEGFRs (Flk1 and Flt1) in the skin MCs during development and maturation in rats. From the 17th days of embryonic development (E17) to 1 day after birth (Day 1), most of skin MCs were immature cells containing predominant alcian blue (AB) rather than safranin O (SO) granules (AB>SO MCs). AB>SO MC proportions gradually decreased, while mature AB<SO MC proportions increased from Day 7 to 28. Flk1 MC proportions increased from E20 and reached to approximately 90% from Day 1 to 21, thereafter decreased to about 10% at Day 60 and 90. Flk1 MC proportions changed almost in parallel with the numbers of MCs and Ki67 MC proportions from E17 to Day 90. The proportions of MCs with both nuclear and cytoplasmic Flt1-immunoreactivity were markedly increased at Day 28, when the proportions of nuclear Flk1, Ki67, and AB>SO MCs had significantly decreased, and AB<SO MC proportions significantly increased. Considering that the main function of Flt1 is suppression of Flk1 effects, our results indicated that cross-talk between Flk1 and Flt1 regulates the proliferation and maturation of the skin MCs during late embryonic and neonatal development in rats. 10.1292/jvms.20-0092
    Mast Cells as Key Players in Allergy and Inflammation. González-de-Olano D,Álvarez-Twose I Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology Mast cells (MCs) are a key structural and functional component of both the innate and the adaptive immune systems. They are involved in many different processes, but play a major role in the response to infections and in inflammatory reactions. In addition, MCs are the main effector cells in allergy. MC biology is far more complex than initially believed. Thus, MCs may act directly or indirectly against pathogens and show a wide variety of membrane receptors with the ability to activate cells in response to various stimuli. Depending on where MCs complete the final stages of maturation, the composition of their cytoplasmic granules may vary considerably, and the clinical symptoms associated with tissue MC activation and degranulation may be also different. MCs are activated by complex signalling pathways characterized by multimolecular activating and inhibitory interactions. This article provides a comprehensive overview of MC biology, focusing predominantly on mechanisms of MC activation and the role of MCs in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. 10.18176/jiaci.0327
    Mast cells: potential positive and negative roles in tumor biology. Marichal Thomas,Tsai Mindy,Galli Stephen J Cancer immunology research Mast cells are immune cells that reside in virtually all vascularized tissues. Upon activation by diverse mechanisms, mast cells can secrete a broad array of biologically active products that either are stored in the cytoplasmic granules of the cells (e.g., histamine, heparin, various proteases) or are produced de novo upon cell stimulation (e.g., prostaglandins, leukotrienes, cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors). Mast cells are best known for their effector functions during anaphylaxis and acute IgE-associated allergic reactions, but they also have been implicated in a wide variety of processes that maintain health or contribute to disease. There has been particular interest in the possible roles of mast cells in tumor biology. In vitro studies have shown that mast cells have the potential to influence many aspects of tumor biology, including tumor development, tumor-induced angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling, and the shaping of adaptive immune responses to tumors. Yet, the actual contributions of mast cells to tumor biology in vivo remain controversial. Here, we review some basic features of mast cell biology with a special emphasis on those relevant to their potential roles in tumors. We discuss how using in vivo tumor models in combination with models in which mast cell function can be modulated has implicated mast cells in the regulation of host responses to tumors. Finally, we summarize data from studies of human tumors that suggest either beneficial or detrimental roles for mast cells in tumors. 10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-13-0119
    FcεRI Signaling in the Modulation of Allergic Response: Role of Mast Cell-Derived Exosomes. Lecce Mario,Molfetta Rosa,Milito Nadia Domenica,Santoni Angela,Paolini Rossella International journal of molecular sciences Mast cells (MCs) are immune cells that act as environment resident sentinels playing a crucial role in Th2-mediated immune responses, including allergic reactions. Distinguishing features of MCs are the presence of numerous cytoplasmic granules that encapsulate a wide array of preformed bio-active molecules and the constitutive expression of the high affinity receptor of IgE (FcεRI). Upon FcεRI engagement by means of IgE and multivalent antigens, aggregated receptors trigger biochemical pathways that ultimately lead to the release of granule-stored and newly synthesized pro-inflammatory mediators. Additionally, MCs are also able to release exosomes either constitutively or upon stimulation. Exosomes are nanosized vesicles of endocytic origin endowed with important immunoregulatory properties, and represent an additional way of intercellular communication. Interestingly, exosomes generated upon FcεRI engagement contain co-stimulatory and adhesion molecules, lipid mediators, and MC-specific proteases, as well as receptor subunits together with IgE and antigens. These findings support the notion that FcεRI signaling plays an important role in influencing the composition and functions of exosomes derived by MCs depending on their activation status. 10.3390/ijms21155464
    Highly Selective Cleavage of TH2-Promoting Cytokines by the Human and the Mouse Mast Cell Tryptases, Indicating a Potent Negative Feedback Loop on TH2 Immunity. Fu Zhirong,Akula Srinivas,Thorpe Michael,Hellman Lars International journal of molecular sciences Mast cells (MC) are resident tissue cells found primarily at the interphase between tissues and the environment. These evolutionary old cells store large amounts of proteases within cytoplasmic granules, and one of the most abundant of these proteases is tryptase. To look deeper into the question of their in vivo targets, we have analyzed the activity of the human MC tryptase on 69 different human cytokines and chemokines, and the activity of the mouse tryptase (mMCP-6) on 56 mouse cytokines and chemokines. These enzymes were found to be remarkably restrictive in their cleavage of these potential targets. Only five were efficiently cleaved by the human tryptase: TSLP, IL-21, MCP3, MIP-3b, and eotaxin. This strict specificity indicates a regulatory function of these proteases and not primarily as unspecific degrading enzymes. We recently showed that the human MC chymase also had a relatively strict specificity, indicating that both of these proteases have regulatory functions. One of the most interesting regulatory functions may involve controlling excessive TH2-mediated inflammation by cleaving several of the most important TH2-promoting inflammatory cytokines, including IL-18, IL-33, TSLP, IL-15, and IL-21, indicating a potent negative feedback loop on TH2 immunity. 10.3390/ijms20205147
    Mast Cell Biology at Molecular Level: a Comprehensive Review. Elieh Ali Komi Daniel,Wöhrl Stefan,Bielory Leonard Clinical reviews in allergy & immunology Mast cells (MCs) are portions of the innate and adaptive immune system derived from bone marrow (BM) progenitors that are rich in cytoplasmic granules. MC maturation, phenotype, and function are determined by their microenvironment. MCs accumulate at inflammatory sites associated with atopy, wound healing, and malignancies. They interact with the external environment and are predominantly located in close proximity of blood vessels and sensory nerves. MCs are key initiators and modulators of allergic, anaphylactic, and other inflammatory reactions, by induction of vasodilation, promoting of vascular permeability, recruitment of inflammatory cells, facilitation of adaptive immune responses, and modulation of angiogenesis, and fibrosis. They express a wide range of receptors, e.g., for IgE (FcεRI), IgG (FcγR), stem cell factor (SCF) (KIT receptor or CD117), complement (including C5aR), and cytokines, that upon activation trigger various signaling pathways. The final consequence of such ligand receptor-based activation of MCs is the release of a broad array of mediators which are classified in three categories. While some mediators are preformed and remain stored in granules such as heparin, histamine, and enzymes mainly chymase and tryptase, others are de novo synthesized only after activation including LTB4, LTD4, PDG2, and PAF, and the cytokines IL-10, IL-8, IL-5, IL-3, IL-1, GM-CSF, TGF-β, VEGF, and TNF-α. Depending on the stimulus, MCs calibrate their pattern of mediator release, modulate the amplification of allergic inflammation, and are involved in the resolution of the immune responses. Here, we review recent findings and reports that help to understand the MC biology, pathology, and physiology of diseases with MC involvement. 10.1007/s12016-019-08769-2
    The Neurobeachin-like 2 Protein Regulates Mast Cell Homeostasis. Drube Sebastian,Grimlowski Randy,Deppermann Carsten,Fröbel Julia,Kraft Florian,Andreas Nico,Stegner David,Dudeck Jan,Weber Franziska,Rödiger Mandy,Göpfert Christiane,Drube Julia,Reich Daniela,Nieswandt Bernhard,Dudeck Anne,Kamradt Thomas Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) The neurobeachin-like 2 protein (Nbeal2) belongs to the family of beige and Chediak-Higashi (BEACH) domain proteins. Loss-of-function mutations in the human gene or Nbeal2 deficiency in mice cause gray platelet syndrome, a bleeding disorder characterized by macrothrombocytopenia, splenomegaly, and paucity of α-granules in megakaryocytes and platelets. We found that in mast cells, Nbeal2 regulates the activation of the Shp1-STAT5 signaling axis and the composition of the c-Kit/STAT signalosome. Furthermore, Nbeal2 mediates granule formation and restricts the expression of the transcription factors, IRF8, GATA2, and MITF as well as of the cell-cycle inhibitor p27, which are essential for mast cell differentiation, proliferation, and cytokine production. These data demonstrate the relevance of Nbeal2 in mast cells above and beyond granule biosynthesis. 10.4049/jimmunol.1700556
    Emerging concepts: mast cell involvement in allergic diseases. Modena Brian D,Dazy Kristen,White Andrew A Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine In a process known as overt degranulation, mast cells can release all at once a diverse array of products that are preformed and present within cytoplasmic granules. This occurs typically within seconds of stimulation by environmental factors and allergens. These potent, preformed mediators (ie, histamine, heparin, serotonin, and serine proteases) are responsible for the acute symptoms experienced in allergic conditions such as allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, allergy-induced asthma, urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Yet, there is reason to believe that the actions of mast cells are important when they are not degranulating. Mast cells release preformed mediators and inflammatory cytokines for periods after degranulation and even without degranulating at all. Mast cells are consistently seen at sites of chronic inflammation, including nonallergic inflammation, where they have the ability to temper inflammatory processes and shape tissue morphology. Mast cells can trigger actions and chemotaxis in other important immune cells (eg, eosinophils and the newly discovered type 2 innate lymphocytes) that then make their own contributions to inflammation and disease. In this review, we will discuss the many known and theorized contributions of mast cells to allergic diseases, focusing on several prototypical allergic respiratory and skin conditions: asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease, allergic conjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis, and some of the more common medication hypersensitivity reactions. We discuss traditionally accepted roles that mast cells play in the pathogenesis of each of these conditions, but we also delve into new areas of discovery and research that challenge traditionally accepted paradigms. 10.1016/j.trsl.2016.02.011
    Extended cleavage specificities of two mast cell chymase-related proteases and one granzyme B-like protease from the platypus, a monotreme. Fu Zhirong,Akula Srinivas,Thorpe Michael,Hellman Lars International journal of molecular sciences Mast cells (MCs) are inflammatory cells primarily found in tissues in close contact with the external environment, such as the skin and the intestinal mucosa. They store large amounts of active components in cytoplasmic granules, ready for rapid release. The major protein content of these granules is proteases, which can account for up to 35 % of the total cellular protein. Depending on their primary cleavage specificity, they can generally be subdivided into chymases and tryptases. Here we present the extended cleavage specificities of two such proteases from the platypus. Both of them show an extended chymotrypsin-like specificity almost identical to other mammalian MC chymases. This suggests that MC chymotryptic enzymes have been conserved, both in structure and extended cleavage specificity, for more than 200 million years, indicating major functions in MC-dependent physiological processes. We have also studied a third closely related protease, originating from the same chymase locus whose cleavage specificity is closely related to the apoptosis-inducing protease from cytotoxic T cells, granzyme B. The presence of both a chymase and granzyme B in all studied mammals indicates that these two proteases bordering the locus are the founding members of this locus. 10.3390/ijms21010319
    Histamine Release from Mast Cells and Basophils. Borriello Francesco,Iannone Raffaella,Marone Gianni Handbook of experimental pharmacology Mast cells and basophils represent the most relevant source of histamine in the immune system. Histamine is stored in cytoplasmic granules along with other amines (e.g., serotonin), proteases, proteoglycans, cytokines/chemokines, and angiogenic factors and rapidly released upon triggering with a variety of stimuli. Moreover, mast cell and basophil histamine release is regulated by several activating and inhibitory receptors. The engagement of different receptors can trigger different modalities of histamine release and degranulation. Histamine released from mast cells and basophils exerts its biological activities by activating four G protein-coupled receptors, namely H1R, H2R, H3R (expressed mainly in the brain), and the recently identified H4R. While H1R and H2R activation accounts mainly for some mast cell- and basophil-mediated allergic disorders, the selective expression of H4R on immune cells is uncovering new roles for histamine (possibly derived from mast cells and basophils) in allergic, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorders. Thus, the in-depth knowledge of mast cell and basophil histamine release and its biologic effects is poised to uncover new therapeutic avenues for a wide spectrum of disorders. 10.1007/164_2017_18
    Human Mast Cell Development from Hematopoietic Stem Cells in a Connective Tissue-Equivalent Model. Derakhshan Tahereh,Bhowmick Rudra,Meinkoth James H,Ritchey Jerry W,Gappa-Fahlenkamp Heather Tissue engineering. Part A Mast cells (MCs) play critical roles in the pathogenesis of IgE- and non-IgE-mediated immune responses, as well as host defense against parasites, bacteria, and viruses. Due to the effect of extracellular matrix components on tissue morphogenesis and cell behavior, utilizing a tissue model that mimics MC microenvironmental conditions has greater relevance for studies. For this work, MCs were developed within a connective tissue-equivalent model and cell function was examined in response to an allergen. MCs are located in proximity to fibroblasts and endothelial cells (ECs) that play a role in MC development and maturity. Accordingly, MC progenitors isolated from human peripheral blood were co-cultured with human primary fibroblasts in a 3D collagen matrix to represent the connective tissue. The matrix was coated with type IV collagen and fibronectin before seeding with primary human ECs, representing the capillary wall. The stem cell-derived cells demonstrated MC characteristics, including typical MC morphology, and the expression of cytoplasmic granules and phenotypic markers. Also, the generated cells released histamine in IgE-mediated reactions, showing typical MC functional phenotype in an immediate-type allergenic response. The created tissue model is applicable to a variety of research studies and allergy testing. Impact Statement Mast cells (MCs) are key effector and immunoregulatory cells in immune disorders; however, their role is not fully understood. Few studies have investigated human MCs in culture, due to the difficulties in isolating large numbers. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, the generation of cells exhibiting MC phenotypic and functional characteristics from hematopoietic stem cells within a connective tissue-equivalent model with ancillary cells. Utilizing the 3D matrix-embedded cells can advance our understanding of MC biological profile and immunoregulatory roles. The tissue model can also be used for studying the mechanism of allergic diseases and other inflammatory disorders. 10.1089/ten.TEA.2018.0347
    The effect of Rho drugs on mast cell activation and degranulation. Sheshachalam Avinash,Baier Alicia,Eitzen Gary Journal of leukocyte biology Mast cells are tissue-resident immune cells that produce potent proinflammatory mediators, which are stored in cytoplasmic granules. Stimulation triggers degranulation, a process that mobilizes granules to dock and fuse to the plasma membrane, releasing mediators. Mast cell degranulation has an important role in immunity but can also intensify inflammation and contribute to allergic disorders. Hence, it is important to understand signaling pathways that regulate mast cell degranulation. Here, we examined the role of Rho proteins in regulating mast cell activation leading to degranulation. RBL-2H3 cells and bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) were stimulated through aggregation of FcεRI receptors. Stimulated cells showed a large increase in the levels of activated Rac and, to a lesser extent, RhoA. Drugs were used to acutely inhibit the function of specific Rho proteins. The Rac inhibitor EHT-1864 and the RhoA inhibitor rhosin inhibited degranulation. Microscopic characterization showed that, upon stimulation, RBL-2H3 cells formed surface ridges that grew into large protrusions reminiscent of circular dorsal ruffles, which flattened into large lamellipodia. LysoTracker-labeled cells showed granules stream into peripheral protrusions. EHT-1864 reduced granule motility, whereas rhosin increased motility; both drugs affected the formation of peripheral protrusions. These results showed that, in response to stimuli, Rho proteins control discrete cytoskeletal remodeling processes that are needed for granule exocytosis. Rac is required to stimulate the remodeling of mast cells, triggering actin-mediated flattening of the cell periphery to create an active degranulation zone, whereas RhoA controls the streaming of highly motile granules into the active zone. 10.1189/jlb.2A0616-279RRR
    Granule maturation in mast cells: histamine in control. Hallgren Jenny,Gurish Michael F European journal of immunology Mast cells are derived from committed progenitors that originate in the BM. They mature into histochemically distinguishable, metachromatic mast cells containing numerous cytoplasmic secretory granules. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that mast cell granule maturation is very tightly regulated by many factors including different granule components such as proteoglycans. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Nakazawa et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2014. 44: 204-214] highlight a role for mast cell derived histamine as another factor critical for mast cell maturation. Using histidine decarboxylase (HDC) deficient mice that are unable to make histamine, they show poorly formed secretory granules and decreased secretory granule protease expression in peritoneal mast cells. Co-culturing BM-derived mast cells with fibroblasts normally drives granule maturation, but HDC-deficient BM-derived mast cells fail to do so. Exogenously provided histamine partly restores granule differentiation as evidenced by increased tryptase and chymase activity, and this is histamine receptor type H4 -dependent. However, H4 -deficient mice have intact granule formation in peritoneal mast cells, suggesting that when HDC is functional, the intrinsic histamine production is sufficient for most granule maturation processes and H4 is dispensable. This study highlights the role of histamine in the regulation of mast cell maturation, although the cytosolic target remains unknown. 10.1002/eji.201344262
    Gs-coupled adenosine receptors differentially limit antigen-induced mast cell activation. Hua Xiaoyang,Chason Kelly D,Jania Corey,Acosta Tatiana,Ledent Catherine,Tilley Stephen L The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics Mast cell activation results in the immediate release of proinflammatory mediators prestored in cytoplasmic granules, as well as initiation of lipid mediator production and cytokine synthesis by these resident tissue leukocytes. Allergen-induced mast cell activation is central to the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases. Presently, most pharmacological agents for the treatment of allergic disease target receptors for inflammatory mediators. Many of these mediators, such as histamine, are released by mast cells. Targeting pathways that limit antigen-induced mast cell activation may have greater therapeutic efficacy by inhibiting the synthesis and release of many proinflammatory mediators produced in the mast cell. In vitro studies using cultured human and mouse mast cells, and studies of mice lacking A(2B) receptors, suggest that adenosine receptors, specifically the G(s)-coupled A(2A) and A(2B) receptors, might provide such a target. Here, using a panel of mice lacking various combinations of adenosine receptors, and mast cells derived from these animals, we show that adenosine receptor agonists provide an effective means of inhibition of mast cell degranulation and induction of cytokine production both in vitro and in vivo. We identify A(2B) as the primary receptor limiting mast cell degranulation, whereas the combined activity of A(2A) and A(2B) is required for the inhibition of cytokine synthesis. 10.1124/jpet.112.198978
    The modulatory effect of TLR2 on LL-37-induced human mast cells activation. Zhang Yuan-Yuan,Yu Yang-Yang,Zhang Ya-Rui,Zhang Wei,Yu Bo Biochemical and biophysical research communications The sole and endogenous anti-microbial peptide LL-37 is a significant effector molecule in the innate host defense system. Apart from its broadly direct anti-microbial activity, the peptide also activates mast cell in respect of allergic diseases and inflammation. On the other hand, mast cell can be activated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which are at the center of innate immunity. It was the aim of the study to illustrate the modulatory effect of TLR2 ligands peptidoglycan (PGN) and tripalmitoyl-S-glycero-Cys-(Lys)4 (Pam3CSK4) on LL-37 induced LAD2 cells (a human mast cell line) activation. LL-37 induced LAD2 cells degranulation and the release of IL-8. TLR2 ligands didn't induce LAD2 cells degranulation, but triggered the release of IL-8. Incubation with PGN or Pam3CSK4 significantly suppressed LL-37-induced degranulation through inhibition of calcium mobilization from LAD2 cells. Similarly, the release of IL-8 was inhibited when LAD2 cells were co-stimulated with TLR2 ligands and LL-37. Studies with inhibitors of key enzymes involved in mast cell signaling indicated that the release of IL-8 induced by TLR2 ligands and LL-37 involved the activation of the PI3K, ERK, JNK and calcineurin signaling pathways. In contrast, p38 activation down-regulated the release of IL-8 induced by TLR2 ligands and LL-37. Taken together, these observations suggest that activation of human mast cells by LL-37 could be modified by TLR2 ligands and the function of human mast cells could be switched from allergic reactions to innate immune response. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.01.037
    Investigating mast cell secretory granules; from biosynthesis to exocytosis. Azouz Nurit P,Fukuda Mitsunori,Rothenberg Marc E,Sagi-Eisenberg Ronit Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE Mast Cells (MC) are secretory cells of the immune system that accomplish their physiological and pathological functions by releasing pre-formed and newly synthesized allergic, inflammatory and immunoregulatory mediators. MCs' mediators affect multiple tissues and organs culminating in allergic and immune responses. The synthesis, storage and release of the MC mediators are highly regulated. The pre-formed mediators are packed in cytoplasmic secretory granules (SG) that fuse with the plasma membrane and release their content by regulated exocytosis. We present a protocol, based on the co-expression of a gene of interest with a reporter gene that is targeted to the SGs and is released in a regulated fashion alongside the endogenous SG mediators. The protocol enables high resolution four dimensional confocal analyses of the MC SGs and monitoring their timeline from biogenesis to triggered exocytosis. Thus, using this protocol for screening genes of interest for their phenotypic and functional impact allows deciphering the molecular mechanisms that govern the biogenesis and exocytosis of the MC SGs and identifying the regulators involved. Thereby, further insights into the cellular mechanisms that account for MCs function in health and disease should be provided. 10.3791/52505
    Mast cell secretome: Soluble and vesicular components. Vukman Krisztina V,Försönits András,Oszvald Ádám,Tóth Eszter Á,Buzás Edit I Seminars in cell & developmental biology Mast cells are multifunctional master cells implicated in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Their role has been best characterized in allergy and anaphylaxis; however, emerging evidences support their contribution to a wide variety of human diseases. Mast cells, being capable of both degranulation and subsequent recovery, have recently attracted substantial attention as also being rich sources of secreted extracellular vesicles (including exosomes and microvesicles). Along with secreted de novo synthesized soluble molecules and secreted preformed granules, the membrane-enclosed extracellular vesicles represent a previously unexplored part of the mast cell secretome. In this review article we summarize available data regarding the different soluble molecules and membrane-enclosed structures secreted by mast cells. Furthermore, we provide an overview of the release mechanisms including degranulation, piecemeal degranulation, transgranulation, and secretion of different types of extracellular vesicles. Finally, we aim to give a summary of the known biological functions associated with the different mast cell-derived secretion products. The increasingly recognized complexity of mast cell secretome may provide important novel clues to processes by which mast cells contribute to the development of different pathologies and are capable of orchestrating immune responses both in health and disease. 10.1016/j.semcdb.2017.02.002
    Mast cell chymase: morphofunctional characteristics. Atiakshin Dmitri,Buchwalow Igor,Tiemann Markus Histochemistry and cell biology During degranulation, mast cells secrete a specific set of mediators defined as "secretome" including the preformed mediators that have already been synthesized by a cell and contained in the cytoplasmic granules. This group includes serine proteases, in particular, chymase and tryptase. Biological significance of chymase depends on the mechanisms of degranulation and is characterized by selective effects on the cellular and non-cellular components of the specific tissue microenvironment. Chymase is known to be closely involved in the mechanisms of inflammation and allergy, angiogenesis, and oncogenesis, remodeling of the extracellular matrix of the connective tissue and changes in organ histoarchitectonics. Number of chymase-positive mast cells in the intra-organ population, and the mechanisms of biogenesis and secretome degranulation appear to be the informative criteria for interpreting the state of the internal organs, characterizing not only the diagnostic efficacy but also the properties of targets of pharmacotherapy. In this review, we discussed the current state of knowledge about mast cell chymase as one of the mast cell secretome proteases. Main issues of the reviewed publications are highlighted with our microscopic images of mast cell chymase visualized using immunohistochemical staining. 10.1007/s00418-019-01803-6