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    Dietary inflammatory index and depression: a meta-analysis. Wang Jian,Zhou Yao,Chen Kang,Jing Yuntian,He Jiaan,Sun Hongxiao,Hu Xinhua Public health nutrition OBJECTIVE:The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between the inflammatory potential of diet, determined by the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) score, and depression. DESIGN:Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING:A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science and EMBASE databases up to August 2018. All observational studies that examined the association of the DII score with depression/depressive symptoms were included. SUBJECTS:Four prospective cohorts and two cross-sectional studies enrolling a total of 49 584 subjects. RESULTS:Overall, individuals in the highest DII v. the lowest DII category had a 23 % higher risk of depression (risk ratio (RR)=1·23; 95 % CI 1·12, 1·35). When stratified by study design, the pooled RR was 1·25 (95 % CI 1·12, 1·40) for the prospective cohort studies and 1·16 (95 % CI 0·96, 1·41) for the cross-sectional studies. Gender-specific analysis showed that this association was observed in women (RR=1·25; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·42) but was not statistically significant in men (RR=1·15; 95 % CI 0·83, 1·59). CONCLUSIONS:The meta-analysis suggests that pro-inflammatory diet estimated by a higher DII score is independently associated with an increased risk of depression, particularly in women. However, more well-designed studies are needed to evaluate whether an anti-inflammatory diet can reduce the risk of depression. 10.1017/S1368980018002628
    Long-Term Immunomodulatory Effects of a Mediterranean Diet in Adults at High Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) Randomized Controlled Trial. Casas Rosa,Sacanella Emilio,Urpí-Sardà Mireia,Corella Dolores,Castañer Olga,Lamuela-Raventos Rosa-María,Salas-Salvadó Jordi,Martínez-González Miguel-Angel,Ros Emilio,Estruch Ramon The Journal of nutrition BACKGROUND:The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has demonstrated short-term anti-inflammatory effects, but little is known about its long-term immunomodulatory properties. OBJECTIVE:Our goal was to assess the long-term effects of the MedDiet on inflammatory markers related to atherogenesis in adults at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the effects of a low-fat diet (LFD). METHODS:We randomly assigned 165 high-risk participants (one-half men; mean age: 66 y) without overt CVD to 1 of 3 diets: a MedDiet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, a MedDiet supplemented with nuts, or an LFD. Follow-up data were collected at 3 and 5 y. Repeated-measures ANOVA, adjusted for potential confounding variables, was used to evaluate changes in diet adherence, CVD risk factors, and inflammatory variables. RESULTS:The 2 MedDiet groups achieved a high degree of adherence to the intervention, and the LFD group had reduced energy intake from fat by 13% by 5 y. Compared with baseline, at 3 and 5 y, both MedDiet groups had significant reductions of ≥16% in plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (P ≤ 0.04), whereas there were no significant changes in the LFD group. The reductions in CD49d and CD40 expressions in T lymphocytes and monocytes at 3 y were ≥16% greater in both MedDiet groups than were the changes in the LFD group (P < 0.001) at 3 y. Compared with baseline, at 3 y, the MedDiet groups had increased HDL-cholesterol (≥8%) and decreased blood pressure (>4%) and total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride (≥8%) concentrations. At 5 y, concentrations of glucose (13%) and glycated hemoglobin (8%) had increased with the LFD. CONCLUSIONS:The MedDiet participants had lower cellular and plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers related to atherosclerosis at 3 and 5 y. This anti-inflammatory role of the MedDiet could explain in part the long-term cardioprotective effect of the MedDiet against CVD. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639. 10.3945/jn.115.229476
    Dietary Inflammatory Index and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease in the SUN Cohort. Ramallal Raúl,Toledo Estefanía,Martínez-González Miguel A,Hernández-Hernández Aitor,García-Arellano Ana,Shivappa Nitin,Hébert James R,Ruiz-Canela Miguel PloS one BACKGROUND:Diet is known to play a key role in atherogenesis and in the development of cardiovascular events. Dietary factors may mediate these processes acting as potential modulators of inflammation. Potential Links between inflammatory properties of diet and the occurrence of cardiovascular events have not been tested previously. OBJECTIVE:We aimed to assess the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII), a method to assess the inflammatory potential of the diet, and incident cardiovascular disease. METHODS:In the prospective, dynamic SUN cohort, 18,794 middle-aged, Spanish university graduates were followed up for 8.9 years (median). A validated 136-item food-frequency questionnaire was used to calculate the DII. The DII is based on scientific evidence about the relationship between diet and inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α). Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between the DII and incident cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death). RESULTS:The risk for cardiovascular events progressively increased with each increasing quartile of DII (ptrend = 0.017). The multivariable-adjusted HR for participants in the highest (most pro-inflammatory) vs. the lowest quartile of the DII was 2.03 (95% CI 1.06-3.88). CONCLUSIONS:A pro-inflammatory diet was associated with a significantly higher risk for developing cardiovascular events. 10.1371/journal.pone.0135221
    Dietary inflammatory index or Mediterranean diet score as risk factors for total and cardiovascular mortality. Hodge A M,Bassett J K,Dugué P-A,Shivappa N,Hébert J R,Milne R L,English D R,Giles G G Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Dietary patterns are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to examine associations of the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) with total, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study; and compare the strengths of the associations. METHODS AND RESULTS:In our prospective cohort study of 41,513 men and women aged 40-69 years, a food frequency questionnaire was completed at baseline and mortality data were obtained via linkage with local and national registries over an average of 19 years follow up. At baseline, questionnaires were completed and physical measures and blood samples taken. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, sex, region of origin, personal history of CVD or diabetes and family history of CVD, were used to assess associations between dietary scores and mortality. More Mediterranean or less inflammatory diets were associated with lower total, CVD and CHD mortality. The hazard ratio for total mortality comparing the highest and lowest quintiles was 1.16 (95%CI: 1.08-1.24) for DII; and 0.86 (95%CI: 0.80-0.93) comparing the highest and lowest three categories of MDS. Using the Bayesian information criterion, there was no evidence that the DII score was more strongly associated with total and CVD mortality than was the MDS. CONCLUSIONS:The MDI and the DII show similar associations with total and cardiovascular mortality, consistent with the consensus that plant-based diets are beneficial for health. 10.1016/j.numecd.2018.01.010
    Cardiovascular diseases, NLRP3 inflammasome, and western dietary patterns. Pavillard Luis E,Marín-Aguilar Fabiola,Bullon Pedro,Cordero Mario D Pharmacological research Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death worldwide, with high prevalence in industrialized countries. Cardiovascular risk factors are mainly influenced by diet, which like other lifestyle factors can be modified to either reduce or increase cardiovascular risk. Other metabolic diseases such as metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes mellitus, and obesity are associated to CVD and highly influenced by the diet. Inflammation has demonstrated to be a key factor in the biological progress of these diseases. Interestingly, IL-1β which is associated to several steps in the development of atherosclerosis, heart disease, and the association of obesity and type II diabetes with CVD, is activated by the inflammasome complex, a multiprotein complex composed of an intracellular sensor, typically a Nod-like receptor (NLR), the precursor procaspase-1, and the adaptor ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD. In the last years, inflammasome complex has been studied in depth and has been associated with the effect of unhealthy diets both from a clinical and experimental view point. We have reviewed the evidences supporting the role of the inflammasome complex in the development of cardiovascular pathology by unhealthy diets and the therapeutic perspectives. 10.1016/j.phrs.2018.03.018
    A healthy diet is associated with less endothelial dysfunction and less low-grade inflammation over a 7-year period in adults at risk of cardiovascular disease. van Bussel Bas C T,Henry Ronald M A,Ferreira Isabel,van Greevenbroek Marleen M J,van der Kallen Carla J H,Twisk Jos W R,Feskens Edith J M,Schalkwijk Casper G,Stehouwer Coen D A The Journal of nutrition BACKGROUND:A healthy diet rich in fish, fruit, and vegetables, but moderate in alcohol and low in dairy products and meat, has been associated with a lower rate of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). The underlying mechanisms, however, remain unclear. Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation play important roles in CVD. A healthy diet might modify these phenomena. OBJECTIVE:We investigated the associations between the above food groups and overall biomarker scores of endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation in a 7-y longitudinal study. METHODS:Using longitudinal data from 557 participants at increased CVD risk from the CODAM (Cohort on Diabetes and Atherosclerosis Maastricht) Study, we assessed diet intake by food-frequency questionnaire and measured plasma biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction [von Willebrand factor, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, soluble endothelial selectin, soluble thrombomodulin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1)] and low-grade inflammation [C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor α, and sICAM-1]. At baseline, participants were aged 59.6 ± 6.9 y. Measurements were performed then and after 7 y. Biomarkers were combined into overall scores (sum of z scores; higher scores indicating worse function). Longitudinal data were analyzed with generalized estimating equations and adjusted for sex, age, glucose metabolism, energy intake, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking. RESULTS:Higher consumption of fish (per 100 g/wk), but not total consumption of vegetables, fruit, alcohol-containing beverages, dairy products, or meat, was associated with a lower overall endothelial dysfunction score over 7 y (β: -0.027; 95% CI: -0.051, -0.004). No associations were observed with the overall low-grade inflammation score. Further food component analyses indicated that consumption of more lean fish (per 100 g/wk) and raw vegetables (per 100 g/d), and fewer high-fat dairy products (per 100 g/d) was associated with less endothelial dysfunction [(β: -0.038; 95% CI: -0.072, -0.005), (β: -0.095; 95% CI: -0.191, 0.000), and (β: -0.070; 95% CI: -0.131, -0.009), respectively]. Consumption of more fresh fruit (per 100 g/d), wine (per 100 mL/wk), and poultry (per 100 g/d), and fewer high-fat dairy products (per 100 g/d) was associated with less low-grade inflammation [(β: -0.074; 95% CI: -0.133, -0.015), (β:-0.006; 95% CI: -0.013, 0.001), (β:-0.247; 95% CI: -0.479, -0.014), and (β:-0.100; 95% CI: -0.182, -0.019), respectively]. CONCLUSION:These data suggest that the dietary modification of endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation, processes that are important in atherothrombosis, is possible. 10.3945/jn.114.201236
    Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular health: Teachings of the PREDIMED study. Ros Emilio,Martínez-González Miguel A,Estruch Ramon,Salas-Salvadó Jordi,Fitó Montserrat,Martínez José A,Corella Dolores Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.) The PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study was designed to assess the long-term effects of the Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) without any energy restriction on incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) as a multicenter, randomized, primary prevention trial in individuals at high risk. Participants were randomly assigned to 3 diet groups: 1) MeDiet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO); 2) MeDiet supplemented with nuts; and 3) control diet (advice on a low-fat diet). After 4.8 y, 288 major CVD events occurred in 7447 participants; crude hazard ratios were 0.70 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.91) for the MeDiet + EVOO and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.94) for the MeDiet + nuts compared with the control group. Respective hazard ratios for incident diabetes (273 cases) among 3541 participants without diabetes were 0.60 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.85) and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.10) compared with the control group. After 1-y follow-up, participants in the MeDiet + nuts group showed a significant 13.7% reduction in prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared with reductions of 6.7% and 2.0% in the MeDiet + EVOO and control groups, respectively. Analyses of intermediate markers of cardiovascular risk demonstrated beneficial effects of the MeDiets on blood pressure, lipid profiles, lipoprotein particles, inflammation, oxidative stress, and carotid atherosclerosis, as well as on the expression of proatherogenic genes involved in vascular events and thrombosis. Nutritional genomics studies demonstrated interactions between a MeDiet and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), apolipoprotein A2 (APOA2), cholesteryl ester transfer protein plasma (CETP), and transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene polymorphisms. The PREDIMED study results demonstrate that a high-unsaturated fat and antioxidant-rich dietary pattern such as the MeDiet is a useful tool in the prevention of CVD. 10.3945/an.113.005389
    Dietary Inflammatory Index Score and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Markers in Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Pocovi-Gerardino Gabriela,Correa-Rodríguez María,Callejas-Rubio Jose-Luis,Ríos-Fernández Raquel,Martín-Amada María,Cruz-Caparros Maria-Gracia,Rueda-Medina Blanca,Ortego-Centeno Norberto Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics BACKGROUND:Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease, have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Environmental factors like diet and nutrition are known to play a key role in modulating inflammation and the prognosis of cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the relationship between Dietary Inflammatory Index score and cardiovascular disease risk markers in a population of women with SLE. DESIGN:A cross-sectional study was conducted in women with SLE recruited from 2016 through 2017. PARTICIPANTS/SETTINGS:Clinically stable women with SLE were enrolled from three public hospitals in the Andalusian region of Spain. Participants with chronic renal failure, active infections, recent trauma, pregnancy, and/or other autoimmune diseases were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:A 24-hour diet recall was used to estimate Dietary Inflammatory Index score and physical activity was assessed through the International Physical Activity Questionnaires. Cardiovascular disease risk markers included blood lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and homocysteine levels, along with diagnosis of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and ankle-brachial index measurement. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:Comparisons of cardiovascular disease risk markers across Dietary Inflammatory Index score tertiles were analyzed through a one-way analysis of variance and linear regressions adjusting for age, physical activity level, and medical treatment. RESULTS:A total of 105 women (aged 45.4±12.8 years) were included. Linear regression analysis revealed that Dietary Inflammatory Index score was significantly associated with total cholesterol levels (β=.26, 95% CI 1.66 to 14.28; P=0.014) after adjusting for age, physical activity, and the use of medical treatment. No significant associations were observed between Dietary Inflammatory Index score and the other cardiovascular markers considered. CONCLUSIONS:Higher inflammatory potential of the diet was positively associated with higher total cholesterol levels in women with SLE. These findings suggest that the inflammatory potential of a person's diet may play a role in lipid profiles in this population. Future intervention studies are needed to build on these results and explore the effect of anti-inflammatory diets on health outcomes in individuals with SLE. 10.1016/j.jand.2019.06.007
    Dietary Inflammatory Index and Non-Communicable Disease Risk: A Narrative Review. Phillips Catherine M,Chen Ling-Wei,Heude Barbara,Bernard Jonathan Y,Harvey Nicholas C,Duijts Liesbeth,Mensink-Bout Sara M,Polanska Kinga,Mancano Giulia,Suderman Matthew,Shivappa Nitin,Hébert James R Nutrients There are over 1,000,000 publications on diet and health and over 480,000 references on inflammation in the National Library of Medicine database. In addition, there have now been over 30,000 peer-reviewed articles published on the relationship between diet, inflammation, and health outcomes. Based on this voluminous literature, it is now recognized that low-grade, chronic systemic inflammation is associated with most non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, cancers, respiratory and musculoskeletal disorders, as well as impaired neurodevelopment and adverse mental health outcomes. Dietary components modulate inflammatory status. In recent years, the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), a literature-derived dietary index, was developed to characterize the inflammatory potential of habitual diet. Subsequently, a large and rapidly growing body of research investigating associations between dietary inflammatory potential, determined by the DII, and risk of a wide range of NCDs has emerged. In this narrative review, we examine the current state of the science regarding relationships between the DII and cancer, cardiometabolic, respiratory and musculoskeletal diseases, neurodevelopment, and adverse mental health outcomes. We synthesize the findings from recent studies, discuss potential underlying mechanisms, and look to the future regarding novel applications of the adult and children's DII (C-DII) scores and new avenues of investigation in this field of nutritional research. 10.3390/nu11081873
    Higher dietary inflammation is associated with increased odds of depression independent of Framingham Risk Score in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Jorgensen Dana,White Gretchen E,Sekikawa Akira,Gianaros Peter Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.) Cardiovascular disease (CVD) may increase depression risk. Risk for future CVD, which can be estimated by the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), and depression risk are both linked to systemic inflammation. Dietary consumption of proinflammatory food can be measured using the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) score. We examined the potential impact of DII on depression and whether this effect is independent of FRS. We hypothesized that (1) both FRS and DII would be associated with depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 ≥ 10) and (2) associations between DII and depressive symptoms (continuous) would be mediated by FRS. Data were included from adults without CVD who were participants of the 2007-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 11 624). Using logistic regression, we tested cross-sectional associations of FRS, DII (adjusting for FRS), and joint effects of FRS and DII with depression. Finally, using the Sobel method, we tested whether FRS mediates the relationship between DII and depressive symptoms. Individuals with FRS or DII scores in the top 2 quartiles had higher odds of depressive symptoms than those in the bottom quartile. The association of DII with depressive symptoms remained after FRS adjustment. The joint effects of elevated DII and FRS were additive. There was no evidence for mediation by FRS between DII and depressive symptoms. Thus, higher DII remained associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms net CVD risk. Collectively, the joint effects of CVD risk and DII indicate that a proinflammatory diet could add to risk for depressive symptoms even in those with a high FRS. 10.1016/j.nutres.2018.03.004
    Inflammatory properties of diet mediate the effect of depressive symptoms on Framingham risk score in men and women: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2014). Kang JungHee,Moser Debra K,Biddle Martha J,Lennie Terry A,Smyth Susan S,Vsevolozhskaya Olga A Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.) Depression is common in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated with inflammation. Inflammation contributes to the development of CVD and can be modulated by diet. However, the role of inflammatory properties of diet in the relationship between depressive symptoms and CVD risk is not well understood. We hypothesized that the inflammatory properties of diet mediate the relationship between depressive symptoms and CVD risk in men and women. Cross-sectional data collected by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2014) were used for the study. Depressive symptoms scores, inflammatory properties of diet, and CVD risk were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), and the Framingham risk score (FRS), respectively. Generalized linear models were used for the mediation analysis. There were significant differences in the proportions of men and women in the depressed group (PHQ-9 ≥ 10; 5.24 ± 0.65% vs 9.36 ± 0.87%, P < .001) and high CVD risk group (FRS >20%; 16.47 ± 0.79% vs 6.03 ± 0.32%, P < .001). The DII partially mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms and CVD risk in men (indirect effect: 0.06, P = .010) but fully mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms and CVD risk in women (indirect effect: 0.10, P < .001). These findings confirmed our hypothesis that inflammatory properties of diet at least partially mediate the relationship between depressive symptoms and CVD risk in men and women. Our findings suggest that interventions designed to reduce depressive symptoms should contain strategies to reduce pro-inflammatory and increase anti-inflammatory properties of diet to decrease CVD risk. 10.1016/j.nutres.2019.11.008
    Nutrition and Cardiovascular Health. Casas Rosa,Castro-Barquero Sara,Estruch Ramon,Sacanella Emilio International journal of molecular sciences Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Western countries, representing almost 30% of all deaths worldwide. Evidence shows the effectiveness of healthy dietary patterns and lifestyles for the prevention of CVD. Furthermore, the rising incidence of CVD over the last 25 years has become a public health priority, especially the prevention of CVD (or cardiovascular events) through lifestyle interventions. Current scientific evidence shows that Western dietary patterns compared to healthier dietary patterns, such as the 'Mediterranean diet' (MeDiet), leads to an excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines associated with a reduced synthesis of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In fact, dietary intervention allows better combination of multiple foods and nutrients. Therefore, a healthy dietary pattern shows a greater magnitude of beneficial effects than the potential effects of a single nutrient supplementation. This review aims to identify potential targets (food patterns, single foods, or individual nutrients) for preventing CVD and quantifies the magnitude of the beneficial effects observed. On the other hand, we analyze the possible mechanisms implicated in this cardioprotective effect. 10.3390/ijms19123988
    Dietary inflammatory index and cardiovascular risk factors in Spanish children and adolescents. Correa-Rodríguez María,González-Jiménez Emilio,Rueda-Medina Blanca,Tovar-Gálvez María I,Ramírez-Vélez Robinson,Correa-Bautista Jorge E,Schmidt-RioValle Jacqueline Research in nursing & health Dietary inflammatory potential is an established risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events. In this study we analyzed the relation between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and cardiovascular risk factors, based on anthropometric, body composition, blood pressure, and heart rate parameters in children and adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 428 Spanish schoolchildren (mean age 12.32 ± 1.84), whose DII was calculated, based on a 24-hr diet recall over 3 days. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and body composition analyzed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Blood pressure and heart rate parameters were assessed with an automatic monitor. Pubertal stage was assessed based on Tanner criteria. We analyzed the DII both as a continuous variable and as a category variable based on quartiles. Linear regression analysis revealed that the DII was significantly associated with waist to height ratio (WHtR) (p = .026; B = 0.128, 95% CI [.001-.016]) after adjusting for age, sex, total energy intake, and Tanner stage. All macro- and micronutrient intakes were found to be higher in the DII Q1 (anti-inflammatory diet) except for caffeine. This study provides preliminary evidence of a significant association between the DII and WHtR, an index of cardiovascular risk. The results obtained indicate that the inflammatory potential of the diet may play a role in children and adolescents becoming overweight or developing obesity. Future studies in young people should be conducted to validate and further explore these relationships. 10.1002/nur.21904
    Dietary inflammatory index: a potent association with cardiovascular risk factors among patients candidate for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Farhangi Mahdieh Abbasalizad,Najafi Mahdi Nutrition journal BACKGROUND:Recently, the clinical importance of dietary inflammatory index (DII) in predicting the inflammatory potential of diet and its role in pathogenesis of several chronic disease including some types of cancers, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease and renal disease has been proposed. However, its association with the disease severity and progression and cardio-metabolic risk factors among patients candidate for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) has not been evaluated yet. In the current study, the association of DII with cardiovascular risk factors among patients candidate for CABG has been investigated. METHODS:In the current cross-sectional study, 454 patients aged 35-80 years as candidates of CABG and hospitalized in Tehran Heart Center were enrolled. Anthropometric and demographic characteristics were obtained from all of the participants. Dietary intakes were evaluated with a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and DII was calculated. Biochemical parameters including hemoglobin (Hb) AC, serum lipids, albumin, creatinine and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), lipoprotein (a), creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin and hematocrit (HCT) were also assessed by commercial laboratory methods. Left ventricular ejection- fraction, number of diseased vessels, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class and the European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation (EuroSCORE) were estimated for clinical assessment. One way analysis of variance and chi square tests were used for comparison of demographic parameters between groups. Beta estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between DII and clinical parameters were estimated using linear regression adjusted for the confounders. RESULTS:According to our findings, high DII scores were associated with higher age, lower body mass index (BMI), higher prevalence of diabetes and myocardial infarction (MI) and lower educational attainment (P < 0.05). Male patients in 4th and 3rd quartile of DII had significantly higher total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), albumin, creatinine, BUN and hs-CRP concentrations and lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) concentrations compared with male patients in lower quartiles (P < 0.05). While in female patients, only lipoprotein (a) concentrations and hematocrit (HCT) percentage in the 4th and 2nd quartile were significantly higher than lower quartiles. EuroSCORE was also significantly higher in top quartiles of DII (P = 0.006). CONCLUSION:As shown in our results, DII was in a positive association with several cardiovascular risk factors. The higher inflammatory potential of diet denoted higher values of serum lipids, CRP and kidney function tests and higher EuroSCORE as a predictor of post-operative mortality. Therefore, DII can be demonstrated as a target of nutritional interventions for ameliorating the CVD risk factors among patients candidate for CABG especially in male patients. 10.1186/s12937-018-0325-2
    Dietary Magnesium and Cardiovascular Disease: A Review with Emphasis in Epidemiological Studies. Rosique-Esteban Nuria,Guasch-Ferré Marta,Hernández-Alonso Pablo,Salas-Salvadó Jordi Nutrients Magnesium (Mg) is an essential dietary element for humans involved in key biological processes. A growing body of evidence from epidemiological studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses have indicated inverse associations between Mg intake and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The present review aims to summarize recent scientific evidence on the topic, with a focus on data from epidemiological studies assessing the associations between Mg intake and major cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and CVD. We also aimed to review current literature on circulating Mg and CVD, as well as potential biological processes underlying these observations. We concluded that high Mg intake is associated with lower risk of major CV risk factors (mainly metabolic syndrome, diabetes and hypertension), stroke and total CVD. Higher levels of circulating Mg are associated with lower risk of CVD, mainly ischemic heart disease and coronary heart disease. Further, RCTs and prospective studies would help to clarify whether Mg intake and Mg circulating levels may also protect against other CVDs and CVD death. 10.3390/nu10020168
    Dietary Inflammatory Index and Cardiovascular Risk and Mortality-A Meta-Analysis. Shivappa Nitin,Godos Justyna,Hébert James R,Wirth Michael D,Piuri Gabriele,Speciani Attilio F,Grosso Giuseppe Nutrients Diet and chronic inflammation have been suggested to be risk factors in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related mortality. The possible link between the inflammatory potential of diet measured through the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and CVD has been investigated in several populations across the world. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis on studies exploring this association. Data from 14 studies were eligible, of which two were case-control, eleven were cohort, and one was cross-sectional. Results from the random-effects meta-analysis showed a positive association between increasing DII, indicating a pro-inflammatory diet, and CVD. Individuals in the highest versus the lowest (reference) DII category showed a 36% increased risk of CVD incidence and mortality, with moderate evidence of heterogeneity (relative risk (RR) = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19, 1.57; heterogeneity index ² = 69%, < 0.001). When analyzed as a continuous variable, results showed an increased risk of CVD risk and mortality of 8% for each one-point increase in the DII score. Results remained unchanged when analyses were restricted to the prospective studies. Results of our meta-analysis support the importance of adopting a healthier anti-inflammatory diet for preventing CVD incidence and related mortality. In conclusion, a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with increased risk of CVD and CVD mortality. These results further substantiate the utility of DII as tool to characterize the inflammatory potential of diet and to predict CVD incidence and mortality. 10.3390/nu10020200
    Dietary Inflammatory Index Is Associated with Risk of All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality but Not with Cancer Mortality in Middle-Aged and Older Japanese Adults. Okada Emiko,Shirakawa Toru,Shivappa Nitin,Wakai Kenji,Suzuki Koji,Date Chigusa,Iso Hiroyasu,Hébert James R,Tamakoshi Akiko The Journal of nutrition BACKGROUND:The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) is a comprehensive, literature-derived index for assessing the effect of dietary constituents on inflammatory biomarkers. Several studies have shown an association between DII score and mortality, but there are limited prospective studies in Asian populations. OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to investigate the association between DII score and risk of all-cause, total cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD), total cancer, digestive cancer, and noncancer/non-CVD mortality in the Japanese population. METHODS:A total of 58,782 Japanese participants aged 40-79 y who were enrolled in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study during 1988-1990 were included in the analysis. DII scores were calculated based on a food-frequency questionnaire. HRs and 95% CIs for mortality according to DII quintiles were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS:During the median follow-up period of 19.3 y, a total of 11,693 participants died. The multivariable HR for all-cause mortality for the highest compared with the lowest DII quintiles was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.21). For CVD mortality, the highest multivariable HRs were 1.30 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.49), 1.29 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.59), and 1.30 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.76) for total CVD, stroke, and CHD, respectively. No significant associations were observed between DII and risk of total cancer, digestive cancer, and noncancer/non-CVD mortality. CONCLUSION:Our findings suggest that a higher DII was associated with an increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality among Japanese adults. 10.1093/jn/nxz085
    Prospective Association Between the Dietary Inflammatory Index and Cardiovascular Diseases in the SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants (SU.VI.MAX) Cohort. Neufcourt Lola,Assmann Karen E,Fezeu Léopold K,Touvier Mathilde,Graffouillère Laurie,Shivappa Nitin,Hébert James R,Wirth Michael D,Hercberg Serge,Galan Pilar,Julia Chantal,Kesse-Guyot Emmanuelle Journal of the American Heart Association BACKGROUND:Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in the world, and diet plays a major role in CVD incidence, especially through lipid oxidation mechanisms. This, in turn, leads to tissue inflammation and formation of atheromatous plaques. METHODS AND RESULTS:Our objective was to evaluate the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and the incidence of overall CVD or its subclasses. We included 7743 participants from the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants (SU.VI.MAX) cohort. All cardiovascular events were recorded using self-reported information or clinical visits, and were validated. The dietary inflammatory index (DII) was computed using repeated 24-hour dietary records (mean=9.5±3.4 records/subject). Hazard ratio and 95% CI for outcomes (CVD and subclasses) were estimated across sex-specific quartiles of the DII using Cox proportional hazard models. A total of 292 cardiovascular events were recorded and validated during an average of 11.4 years of follow-up: 93 myocardial infarctions, 58 strokes, 128 angina pectoris and revascularization interventions, and 13 sudden deaths. When considering CVD subclasses, a diet with pro-inflammatory properties, as expressed by higher DII scores, was significantly associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction (hazard ratioQuartile 4 versus Quartile 1=2.24, 95% CI: 1.08-4.67). No significant association was observed between the DII score and stroke or both angina pectoris and revascularization intervention. CONCLUSIONS:A pro-inflammatory diet, as measured by a higher DII score, was prospectively associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction. Promotion of a diet exhibiting anti-inflammatory properties may help prevent myocardial infarctions. 10.1161/JAHA.115.002735
    Dietary Inflammatory Index and its Association with the Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases, Metabolic Syndrome, and Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Namazi Nazli,Larijani Bagher,Azadbakht Leila Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et metabolisme Findings from previous studies on the association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and the risk of chronic diseases and mortality have been inconsistent. We aimed to summarize studies on the association of the DII and the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic syndrome (MetS), and mortality in a systematic review and meta-analysis. We performed a systematic search in PubMed/Medline, Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases for relevant studies written in English and published until 31 December 2017. Studies that reported the relative risk (RR), odd ratio (OR) or hazard ratio (HR) for the most pro-inflammatory versus the most anti-inflammatory diets were included. Finally, 17 studies [CVD (n=6), MetS (n=5), mortality (n=6)] were included for systematic review and meta-analysis. Findings indicated a trend toward a positive relationship between the DII and the risk for CVD (pooled RR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.60; I: 28.6%, p=0.21), all-cause mortality (pooled HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.35; I: 72.6%, p=0.003), CVD mortality (pooled HR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.57; I: 74.0%, p=0.009) and cancer mortality (pooled HR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.53; I: 62.5%, p=0.03). However, no significant association was found between the DII and the risk for MetS (pooled RR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.82, 1.24; I: 32.6%, p=0.20). Although in the current meta-analysis the most pro-inflammatory diet versus the most anti-inflammatory diet was not associated with the risk of MetS, we observed a substantial association between the DII and the risk for CVD and all types of mortality. However, further cohort studies in different populations are needed to clarify this association. 10.1055/a-0596-8204
    Dietary inflammatory potential is linked to cardiovascular disease risk burden in the US adult population. Tyrovolas Stefanos,Koyanagi Ai,Kotsakis Georgios A,Panagiotakos Demosthenes,Shivappa Nitin,Wirth Michael D,Hébert James R,Haro Josep Maria International journal of cardiology BACKGROUND:Dietary guidelines are a key tool in the public health quiver. Single nutrients have been linked to cardiovascular diseases, but existing metrics do not capture the overall effect of diet on inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the association between dietary inflammatory potential and cardiovascular diseases risk factors (CVD-RFs) in a nationally-representative sample of non-institutionalized US adults using data from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2007-2012). METHODS AND RESULTS:A sample of 7880 non-institutionalized US adults aged ≥20years provided data on dietary habits and CVD-RFs (obesity; diabetes mellitus; hypertension; hypercholesterolemia). The total number of CVD-RFs was summed for each individual to create a CVD-RF morbidity index (range 0-4) as the outcome variable, used both as ordinal and dichotomous (no CVD-RFs versus at least one CVD-RF) variables. The association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and at least one CVD-RF was dose-dependent, with participants in the 3rd and 4th quartile of DII (i.e., more pro-inflammatory dietary habits) being 1.37 (95%CI=1.11-1.68) and 1.50 (95%CI=1.19-1.90) times more likely, respectively, to have at least one CVD-RF, as compared to participants in the 1st quartile of DII scores. Similar results were obtained for the ordinal logistic regression using the CVD-RF morbidity index as the outcome. CONCLUSIONS:Among US adults aged ≥20years, pro-inflammatory dietary patterns, as assessed by the DII, were associated with increased odds for CVD-RFs. Dietary guidelines aimed at lowering the DII may reduce the CVD-RF burden in US adults. 10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.04.104
    The Dietary Inflammatory Index and All-Cause, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer Mortality in the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Park Song-Yi,Kang Minji,Wilkens Lynne R,Shvetsov Yurii B,Harmon Brook E,Shivappa Nitin,Wirth Michael D,Hébert James R,Haiman Christopher A,Le Marchand Loïc,Boushey Carol J Nutrients Diet quality based on inflammatory potential, assessed by the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), has been related to mortality, but studies from racially/ethnically diverse populations are scarce. Using data from the Multiethnic Cohort Study in Hawaii and California, we investigated the association of the DII with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality, both overall and by race/ethnicity. The analysis included 150,405 African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and Whites aged 45⁻75 years, with 47,436 deaths during an average follow-up of 18.2 ± 4.9 years. In multivariable-adjusted Cox models, the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the highest vs. lowest quintile of the DII in men and women were 1.15 (1.09⁻1.21) and 1.22 (1.14⁻1.28) for all-cause, 1.13 (1.03⁻1.23) and 1.29 (1.17⁻1.42) for CVD, and 1.10 (1.00⁻1.21) and 1.13 (1.02⁻1.26) for cancer mortality. In men, an increased risk of all-cause mortality with higher DII scores was found in all racial/ethnic groups except for Native Hawaiians ( for heterogeneity < 0.001). Similarly, in women, an increased risk of CVD mortality was found in the four racial/ethnic groups, but not in Native Hawaiians. These findings support the association of a pro-inflammatory diet with a higher risk of mortality and suggest the association may vary by race/ethnicity. 10.3390/nu10121844