Facial motor and non-motor disabilities in patients with central facial paresis: a prospective cohort study.
Volk Gerd Fabian,Steinerstauch Anika,Lorenz Annegret,Modersohn Luise,Mothes Oliver,Denzler Joachim,Klingner Carsten M,Hamzei Farsin,Guntinas-Lichius Orlando
Journal of neurology
Although central facial paresis (CFP) is a major symptom of stroke, there is a lack of studies on the motor and non-motor disabilities in stroke patients. A prospective cohort study was performed at admission for inpatient rehabilitation and discharge of post-stroke phase of 112 patients (44% female, median age: 64 years, median Barthel index: 70) with CFP. Motor function was evaluated using House-Brackmann grading, Sunnybrook grading and Stennert Index. Automated action unit (AU) analysis was performed to analyze mimic function in detail. Non-motor function was assessed using the Facial Disability Index (FDI) and the Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE). Median interval from stroke to rehabilitation was 21 days. Rehabilitation lasted 20 days. House-Brackmann grading was ≥ grade III for 79% at admission. AU activation in the lower face was significantly lower in patients with right hemispheric infarction compared to left hemispheric infarction (all p < 0.05). Median total FDI and FaCE score were 46.5 and 69, respectively. Facial grading and FDI/FaCE scores improved during inpatient rehabilitation (all p < 0.05). There was a significant increase of the activation of AU12 (Zygomaticus major muscle), AU13 (Levator anguli oris muscle), and AU24 (Orbicularis oris muscle) during inpatient rehabilitation (all p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that activation of AU10 (Levator labii superioris), AU12, AU17 (Depressor labii), and AU 38 (Nasalis) were independent predictors for better quality of life. These results demonstrate that CFP has a significant impact on patient's quality of life. Therapy of CFP with focus on specific AUs should be part of post-stroke rehabilitation.
Literature study on clinical treatment of facial paralysis in the last 20 years using Web of Science: Comparison between rehabilitation, physiotherapy and acupuncture.
Zhang Xiaoge,Feng Ling,Du Liang,Zhang Anxiang,Tang Tian
Neural regeneration research
BACKGROUND:Facial paralysis is defined as severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. OBJECTIVE:The study was undertaken to explore a bibliometric approach to quantitatively assess the research on clinical treatment of facial paralysis using rehabilitation, physiotherapy and acupuncture using Web of Science from 1992 to 2011. DESIGN:Bibliometric approach. DATA RETRIEVAL:A bibliometric analysis based on the publications on Web of Science was performed using key words such as "facial paralysis", "rehabilitation", "physiotherapy" and "acupuncture". INCLUSIVE CRITERIA:(1) Research articles on the clinical treatment of facial paralysis using acupuncture or physiotherapy (e.g. exercise, electro-stimulation) and other rehabilitation methods; (2) researches on human and animal fundamentals, clinical trials and case reports; (3) Article types: article, review, proceedings paper, note, letter, editorial material, discussion, book chapter. (4) Publication year: 1992-2011 inclusive. EXCLUSION CRITERIA:(1) Articles on the causes and diagnosis on facial paralysis; (2) Type of articles: correction; (3) Articles from following databases: all databases related to social science and chemical databases in Web of Science. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:(1) Overall number of publications; (2) number of publications annually; (3) number of citations received annually; (4) top cited paper; (5) subject categories of publication; (6) the number of countries in which the article is published; (7) distribution of output in journals. RESULTS:Overall population stands at 3 543 research articles addressing the clinical treatment of facial paralysis in Web of Science during the study period. There is also a markedly increase in the number of publications on the subject "facial paralysis treatments using rehabilitation" during the first decade of the 21(st) century, except in 2004 and 2006 when there are perceptible drops in the number of articles published. The only other year during the study period saw such a drop is 1993. Specifically, there are 192 published articles on facial paralysis treated by rehabilitation in the past two decades, far more than the output of physiotherapy treatment. Physiotherapy treatment scored only 25 articles including acupuncture treatment, with over 80% of these written by Chinese researchers and clinicians. Ranked by regions, USA is by far the most productive country in terms of the number of publications on facial paralysis rehabilitation and physiotherapy research. Seeing from another angle, the journals that focus on otolaryngology published the most number of articles in rehabilitation and physiotherapy studies, whereas most acupuncture studies on facial paralysis were published in the alternative and complementary medicine journals. CONCLUSION:Study of facial paralysis remains an area of active investigation and innovation. Further clinical studies in humans addressing the use of growth factors or stem cells continue to successful facial nerve regeneration.
Facial Rehabilitation as Noninvasive Treatment for Chronic Facial Nerve Paralysis.
Karp Emily,Waselchuk Emily,Landis Cynthia,Fahnhorst Jill,Lindgren Bruce,Lyford-Pike Sofia
Otology & neurotology : official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology
OBJECTIVES:This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of facial rehabilitation (FR) in patients with chronic facial nerve paralysis (FNP) and describe factors that predict improved facial nerve function after FR in this patient population. STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective case review. SETTING:Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS:Around 241 patients were referred to a university hospital facial rehabilitation (FR) program for FNP between 1995 and 2016. Seventy-six patients met criteria, defined as diagnosis of FNP ≥12 months prior to initiation of FR. INTERVENTIONS:Each received at least two sessions of directed FR by a single therapist. Techniques employed: neuromuscular retraining, stretching/massage, and active exercise. MAIN OUTCOMES:Variables affecting outcomes were analyzed to determine association with success of FR as measured by improvement in Facial Grading System (FGS) scale. RESULTS:Onset of FNP to initiation of FR ranged 12 to 384 months (mean latency = 64.7 months). All patients, age 20 to 89, showed improvement in FGS after FR (mean, 16.54 points, SD 9.35). Positive predictors of FGS improvement after therapy (p-values < 0.05): increased the number of therapy sessions, right side of face being treated for FNP, lower starting FGS score. When controlling for these important variables, time from diagnosis to initiation of therapy was not significantly associated with improvement in FGS score. CONCLUSION:Facial rehabilitation was associated with improved FGS score regardless of patient age, gender, or latency to facial rehabilitation. As a noninvasive treatment option with positive outcomes, it should be offered to patients with facial nerve paralysis regardless of chronicity.
Impact of central facial palsy and dysarthria on quality of life in patients with stroke: The KOSCO study.
Chang Won Hyuk,Sohn Min Kyun,Lee Jongmin,Kim Deog Young,Lee Sam-Gyu,Shin Yong-Il,Oh Gyung-Jae,Lee Yang-Soo,Joo Min Cheol,Han Eun Young,Kim Yun-Hee
BACKGROUND:There are a few reports on the impact of central facial palsy and dysarthria on quality of life (QOL) in stroke patients. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the impact of central facial palsy on QOL compared with dysarthria during the chronic phase in patients with first-ever strokes. METHODS:This study represents an interim analysis of the Korean Stroke Cohort for Functioning and Rehabilitation study. We selected data from patients with functional independence of 0 or 1 by the modified Rankin Scale at 6 months after stroke onset, who showed an impairment only in National Institute of Health Stroke Scale items 4 (facial palsy) or 10 (dysarthria). Assessments included the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) and the Geriatric depression scale-short form (GDS-SF). RESULTS:Data from 149 patients were selected for this analysis from 3,929 patients who were followed up at 6 months. Thirty-nine and 110 patients were classified into the facial palsy and dysarthria groups, respectively. The groups did not differ significantly in baseline characteristics or functional assessments. EQ-5D was significantly lower in the facial palsy group than in the dysarthria group at 6 months after stroke (p = 0.036). GDS-SF was significantly higher in the facial palsy group than in the dysarthria group (p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS:The results of this study revealed that central facial palsy clearly has a more negative impact on QOL than dysarthria in chronic stroke patients with functional independence.
Comprehensive facial rehabilitation improves function in people with facial paralysis: a 5-year experience at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary.
Lindsay Robin W,Robinson Mara,Hadlock Tessa A
BACKGROUND:The Facial Grading Scale (FGS) is a quantitative instrument used to evaluate facial function after facial nerve injury. However, quantitative improvements in function after facial rehabilitation in people with chronic facial paralysis have not been shown. OBJECTIVE:The objectives of this study were to use the FGS in a large series of consecutive subjects with facial paralysis to quantitatively evaluate improvements in facial function after facial nerve rehabilitation and to describe the management of chronic facial paralysis. DESIGN:The study was a retrospective review. METHODS:A total of 303 individuals with facial paralysis were evaluated by 1 physical therapist at a tertiary care facial nerve center during a 5-year period. Facial rehabilitation included education, neuromuscular training, massage, meditation-relaxation, and an individualized home program. After 2 months of home exercises, the participants were re-evaluated, and the home program was tailored as necessary. All participants were evaluated with the FGS before the initiation of facial rehabilitation, and 160 participants were re-evaluated after receiving treatment. All participants underwent the initial evaluation at least 4 months after the onset of facial paralysis; for 49 participants, the evaluation took place more than 3 years after onset. RESULTS:Statistically significant increases in FGS scores were seen after treatment (P<.001, t test). The average initial score was 56 (SD=21, range=13-98), and the average score after treatment was 70 (SD=18, range=25-100). LIMITATIONS:A limitation of this study was that evaluations were performed by only 1 therapist. CONCLUSIONS:For 160 patients with facial paralysis, statistically significant improvements after facial rehabilitation were shown; the improvements appeared to be long lasting with continued treatment. The improvements in the FGS scores indicated that patients can successfully manage symptoms with rehabilitation and underscored the importance of specialized therapy in the management of facial paralysis.
Physical therapy for Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis).
Teixeira Lázaro J,Valbuza Juliana S,Prado Gilmar F
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
BACKGROUND:Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis) is commonly treated by various physical therapy strategies and devices, but there are many questions about their efficacy. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate physical therapies for Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial palsy). SEARCH METHODS:We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2011), MEDLINE (January 1966 to February 2011), EMBASE (January 1946 to February 2011), LILACS (January 1982 to February 2011), PEDro (from 1929 to February 2011), and CINAHL (January 1982 to February 2011). We included searches in clinical trials register databases until February 2011. SELECTION CRITERIA:We selected randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials involving any physical therapy. We included participants of any age with a diagnosis of Bell's palsy and all degrees of severity. The outcome measures were: incomplete recovery six months after randomisation, motor synkinesis, crocodile tears or facial spasm six months after onset, incomplete recovery after one year and adverse effects attributable to the intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Two authors independently scrutinised titles and abstracts identified from the search results. Two authors independently carried out risk of bias assessments, which , took into account secure methods of randomisation, allocation concealment, observer blinding, patient blinding, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other bias. Two authors independently extracted data using a specially constructed data extraction form. We undertook separate subgroup analyses of participants with more and less severe disability. MAIN RESULTS:For this update to the original review, the search identified 65 potentially relevant articles. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria (872 participants). Four trials studied the efficacy of electrical stimulation (313 participants), three trials studied exercises (199 participants), and five studies compared or combined some form of physical therapy with acupuncture (360 participants). For most outcomes we were unable to perform meta-analysis because the interventions and outcomes were not comparable.For the primary outcome of incomplete recovery after six months, electrostimulation produced no benefit over placebo (moderate quality evidence from one study with 86 participants). Low quality comparisons of electrostimulation with prednisolone (an active treatment)(149 participants), or the addition of electrostimulation to hot packs, massage and facial exercises (22 participants), reported no significant differences. Similarly a meta-analysis from two studies, one of three months and the other of six months duration, (142 participants) found no statistically significant difference in synkinesis, a complication of Bell's palsy, between participants receiving electrostimulation and controls. A single low quality study (56 participants), which reported at three months, found worse functional recovery with electrostimulation (mean difference (MD) 12.00 points (scale of 0 to 100) 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26 to 22.74).Two trials of facial exercises, both at high risk of bias, found no difference in incomplete recovery at six months when exercises were compared to waiting list controls or conventional therapy. There is evidence from a single small study (34 participants) of moderate quality that exercises are beneficial on measures of facial disability to people with chronic facial palsy when compared with controls (MD 20.40 points (scale of 0 to 100), 95% CI 8.76 to 32.04) and from another single low quality study with 145 people with acute cases treated for three months where significantly fewer participants developed facial motor synkinesis after exercise (risk ratio 0.24, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.69). The same study showed statistically significant reduction in time for complete recovery, mainly in more severe cases (47 participants, MD -2.10 weeks, 95% CI -3.15 to -1.05) but this was not a prespecified outcome in this meta analysis.Acupuncture studies did not provide useful data as all were short and at high risk of bias. None of the studies included adverse events as an outcome. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:There is no high quality evidence to support significant benefit or harm from any physical therapy for idiopathic facial paralysis. There is low quality evidence that tailored facial exercises can help to improve facial function, mainly for people with moderate paralysis and chronic cases. There is low quality evidence that facial exercise reduces sequelae in acute cases. The suggested effects of tailored facial exercises need to be confirmed with good quality randomised controlled trials.