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    Faecal calprotectin in suspected paediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Degraeuwe Pieter L J,Beld Monique P A,Ashorn Merja,Canani Roberto Berni,Day Andrew S,Diamanti Antonella,Fagerberg Ulrika L,Henderson Paul,Kolho Kaija-Leena,Van de Vijver Els,van Rheenen Patrick F,Wilson David C,Kessels Alfons G H Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition OBJECTIVES:The diagnostic accuracy of faecal calprotectin (FC) concentration for paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is well described at the population level, but not at the individual level. We reassessed the diagnostic accuracy of FC in children with suspected IBD and developed an individual risk prediction rule using individual patient data. METHODS:MEDLINE, EMBASE, DARE, and MEDION databases were searched to identify cohort studies evaluating the diagnostic performance of FC in paediatric patients suspected of having IBD. A standard study-level meta-analysis was performed. In an individual patient data meta-analysis, we reanalysed the diagnostic accuracy on a merged patient dataset. Using logistic regression analysis we investigated whether and how the FC value and patient characteristics influence the diagnostic precision. A prediction rule was derived for use in clinical practice and implemented in a spreadsheet calculator. RESULTS:According to the study-level meta-analysis (9 studies, describing 853 patients), FC has a high overall sensitivity of 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92-0.99) and a specificity of 0.70 (0.59-0.79) for diagnosing IBD. In the patient-level pooled analysis of 742 patients from 8 diagnostic accuracy studies, we calculated that at an FC cutoff level of 50 μg/g there would be 17% (95% CI 15-20) false-positive and 2% (1-3) false-negative results. The final logistic regression model was based on individual data of 545 patients and included both FC level and age. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of this derived prediction model was 0.92 (95% CI 0.89-0.94). CONCLUSIONS:In high-prevalence circumstances, FC can be used as a noninvasive biomarker of paediatric IBD with only a small risk of missing cases. To quantify the individual patients' risk, we developed a simple prediction model based on FC concentration and age. Although the derived prediction rule cannot substitute the clinical diagnostic process, it can help in selecting patients for endoscopic evaluation. 10.1097/MPG.0000000000000615
    Collecting New Peak and Intermediate Infliximab Levels to Predict Remission in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Liefferinckx Claire,Bottieau Jérémie,Toubeau Jean-François,Thomas Debby,Rahier Jean-François,Louis Edouard,Baert Filip,Dewint Pieter,Pouillon Lieven,Lambrecht Guy,Vallée François,Vermeire Severine,Bossuyt Peter,Franchimont Denis Inflammatory bowel diseases BACKGROUND:The loss of response to infliximab is a challenge for clinicians in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Mounting evidence suggests that therapeutic drug monitoring at induction may predict remission during maintenance. The aim of the study was to improve predictive models of remission by exploring new peak and intermediate infliximab measurements during induction. METHODS:This was a prospective multicenter study evaluating the pharmacokinetics of infliximab during induction in a pioneer cohort of 63 patients with IBD. Pharmacokinetics data including peak, intermediate, and trough levels were combined with clinical and biological parameters and were subsequently fed into tailored logistic regression and tree-based techniques to predict remission at week 30. RESULTS:Infliximab peak levels at week 2, intermediate levels at week 3, and trough levels at week 6 were correlated with remission at week 30. Predictive models exhibited an increased accuracy over the successive timepoints of the induction with key inputs such as albumin, C-reactive protein, eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, intermediate level at week 3, trough level at week 6, and age at diagnosis. Our predictive model of remission at week 30 was obtained with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.9 ± 0.12, a sensitivity of 89%, and a specificity of 75%. CONCLUSIONS:This study showed the clinical relevance of measuring new infliximab levels to predict remission in patients with IBD. These findings lay the foundation for a personalized medicine in which biotherapies could be monitored at an early stage, thereby improving patients' clinical management. 10.1093/ibd/izab042
    Prediction of clinical effects of infliximab administered for inflammatory bowel disease based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling. Kimura Koji,Yoshida Atsushi,Katagiri Fumihiko,Takayanagi Risa,Yamada Yasuhiko Biopharmaceutics & drug disposition Infliximab (IFX) is used as a therapeutic agent for ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Although the dosage regimen has been established through clinical trial experience, it has yet to be assessed with a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic model. The present study analysed sequential changes of clinical response in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease following repeated administrations of infliximab using the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model. In addition, the dosage regimen presently used for patients with ulcerative colitis was evaluated, as well as the potential efficacy gained by increasing the dose and/or reducing the interval of administration for patients with Crohn's disease. Furthermore, the possibility of evaluating the difference between both diseases with regard to the efficacy of infliximab was investigated. Sequential changes in the clinical response values obtained with our model were in good agreement with the observed values following administration of infliximab in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The results showed the importance of a loading dose for patients with ulcerative colitis, as well as the efficacy of increasing the dose and reducing the interval for patients with Crohn's disease. Also, the efficacy of infliximab for both diseases is suggested to be similar. In conclusion, our results show a possible modeling scenario that can accommodate the clinical response to infliximab administered for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Furthermore, it provides confirmation for the present dosage regimens given for these diseases. 10.1002/bdd.2198
    Comparison of a novel predictor of venous thromboembolic complications in inflammatory bowel disease with current predictors. Ohta Yuki,Arai Makoto,Nakagawa Tomoo,Akizue Naoki,Ishikawa Kentaro,Hamanaka Shinsaku,Koseki Hirotaka,Taida Takashi,Okimoto Kenichiro,Saito Keiko,Yoshihama Sayuri,Maruoka Daisuke,Matsumura Tomoaki,Katsuno Tatsuro,Kato Naoya Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology BACKGROUND AND AIM:Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of VTE in hospitalized patients with IBD. METHODS:Patients with IBD who were hospitalized from February 2015 to March 2016 at the Chiba University Hospital were included. VTE was detected using enhanced computed tomography, and VTE onset within 2 months after admission was assessed. Predictors of VTE onset were investigated with clinical factors during hospitalization. Availability of the Caprini risk assessment model and Padua prediction score at the time of admission was also assessed. RESULTS:Seventy-two patients with IBD were hospitalized, and central venous catheters were placed in 43 of the 72 patients. During the observation period, VTE occurred in six patients (8.3%); however, none died as a result of the condition. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis identified D-dimer values on admission as a risk factor that was highly associated with VTE onset (hazard ratio = 1.590; 95% confidence interval, 1.132-2.233; P = 0.007) and significantly predicted the occurrence of VTE using the receiver operating characteristic curve (P = 0.005, area under the curve = 0.893). However, Caprini risk assessment model and Padua prediction scores were not useful tools for predicting VTE onset in patients with IBD. CONCLUSION:In hospitalized patients with IBD, D-dimer values were highly associated with VTE onset. Therefore, measurement of D-dimer values on admission is critical for the management of thromboembolic complications in patients with IBD. 10.1111/jgh.14472
    Usefulness of population pharmacokinetics to optimize the dosage regimen of infliximab in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Gil Candel Mayte,Gascón Cánovas Juan José,Gómez Espín Rosa,Nicolás de Prado Isabel,Rentero Redondo Lorena,Urbieta Sanz Elena,Iniesta Navalón Carles Revista espanola de enfermedades digestivas : organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Patologia Digestiva INTRODUCTION:infliximab is used in inflammatory bowel disease, which has a great inter-individual pharmacokinetic variability. Thus, it is necessary to individualize the therapy in many cases. The main objective of our study was to compare two methods of a dose adjustment strategy using therapeutic drug monitoring: a) based on an algorithm and b) based on Bayesian prediction, to achieve an optimal infliximab trough level in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. The secondary objective was to evaluate the predictive performance of a population pharmacokinetic model of infliximab in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and therefore, its clinical utility. Furthermore, the factors associated with a suboptimal adjustment of the model were analyzed. METHODS:a retrospective observational cohort analysis was performed of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and available serum levels of infliximab. The relationship between trough concentration and dosing strategy was compared in both groups. The external validation of a previously published population pharmacokinetic model was performed using the NONMEM software. The mean prediction error and mean absolute prediction error were calculated to evaluate the predictive performance of the model. RESULTS:a total of 94 infliximab serum samples were obtained from 47 patients. After the adjustment, a total of 30 patients (63.8 %) achieved optimal infliximab trough levels. A dosing strategy based on Bayesian was associated with optimal infliximab trough levels that were higher than the strategy based on an algorithm (OR: 8.94 [95 % CI: 2.24 - 35.6], p = 0.001). For the individual predictions, the mean prediction error was 0.118 µg/ml (95 % CI: -0.149-0.384) and the mean absolute prediction error was 0.935 µg/ml (95 % CI: 0.569-1.075). CONCLUSIONS:the application of a population pharmacokinetic model based on Bayesian prediction is an important advance in the optimization of infliximab dosage in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. 10.17235/reed.2020.6857/2020
    Fecal microbiota transplantation results in bacterial strain displacement in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Zou Manli,Jie Zhuye,Cui Bota,Wang Honggang,Feng Qiang,Zou Yuanqiang,Zhang Xiuqing,Yang Huanming,Wang Jian,Zhang Faming,Jia Huijue FEBS open bio Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), which is thought to have the potential to correct dysbiosis of gut microbiota, has been used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) for almost a decade. Here, we report an interventional prospective cohort study performed to elucidate the extent of and processes underlying microbiota engraftment in IBD patients after FMT treatment. The cohort included two categories of patients: (a) patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease (CD) (Harvey-Bradshaw Index ≥ 7, n = 11) and (b) patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) (Montreal classification S2 and S3, n = 4). All patients were treated with a single FMT (via mid-gut, from healthy donors), and follow-up visits were performed at baseline, 3 days, 1 week, and 1 month after FMT (missing time points included). At each follow-up time point, fecal samples and clinical metadata were collected. For comparative analysis, 10 fecal samples from 10 healthy donors were included to represent the diversity level of normal gut microbiota. Additionally, the metagenomic data of 25 fecal samples from five individuals with metabolic syndrome who underwent autologous FMT treatment were downloaded from a previous published paper to represent fluctuations in microbiota induced during FMT. All fecal samples underwent shotgun metagenomic sequencing. We found that 3 days after FMT, 11 out of 15 recipients were in remission (three out of four UC recipients; 8 out of 11 CD recipients). Generally, bacterial colonization was observed to be lower in CD recipients than in UC recipients at both species and strain levels. Furthermore, across species, different strains displayed disease-specific displacement advantages under two-disease status. Finally, most post-FMT species (> 80%) could be properly predicted (area under the curve > 85%) using a random forest classification model, with the gut microbiota composition and clinical parameters of pre-FMT recipients acting as factors that contribute to prediction accuracy. 10.1002/2211-5463.12744
    Development of Clinical Prediction Models for Surgery and Complications in Crohn's Disease. Guizzetti Leonardo,Zou Guangyong,Khanna Reena,Dulai Parambir S,Sandborn William J,Jairath Vipul,Feagan Brian G Journal of Crohn's & colitis Background and Aims:Crohn's disease-related complications account for a substantial proportion of inflammatory bowel disease-associated health care expenditure. Identifying patients at risk for complications may allow for targeted use of early therapeutic interventions to offset this natural course. We aimed to develop risk prediction models for Crohn's disease-related surgery and complications. Methods:Using data from the Randomised Evaluation of an Algorithm for Crohn's Disease cluster-randomised clinical Trial [REACT], which involved 1898 patients from 40 community practices, separate prediction models were derived and internally validated for predicting Crohn's disease-related surgery and disease-related complications [defined as the first disease-related surgery, hospitalisation, or complication within 24 months]. Model performance was assessed in terms of discrimination and calibration, decision curves, and net benefit analyses. Results:There were 130 [6.8%] disease-related surgeries and 504 [26.6%] complications during the 24-month follow-up period. Selected baseline predictors of surgery included age, gender, disease location, Harvey-Bradshaw Index [HBI] score, stool frequency, antimetabolite or 5-aminosalicylate use, and the presence of a fistula, abscess, or abdominal mass. Selected predictors of complications included those same factors for surgery, plus corticosteroid or anti-tumour necrosis factor use, but excluded 5-aminosalicylate use. Discrimination ability, as measured by validated c-statistics, was 0.70 and 0.62 for the surgery and complication models, respectively. Score charts and nomograms were developed to facilitate future risk score calculation. Conclusions:Separate risk prediction models for Crohn's disease-related surgery and complications were developed using clinical trial data involving community gastroenterology practices. These models could be used to guide Crohn's disease management. External validation is warranted. 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjx130