Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review.
Rinella Mary E
IMPORTANCE:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its subtype nonalcoholic steatohepatitis affect approximately 30% and 5%, respectively, of the US population. In patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, half of deaths are due to cardiovascular disease and malignancy, yet awareness of this remains low. Cirrhosis, the third leading cause of death in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, is predicted to become the most common indication for liver transplantation. OBJECTIVES:To illustrate how to identify patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at greatest risk of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis; to discuss the role and limitations of current diagnostics and liver biopsy to diagnose nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; and to provide an outline for the management of patients across the spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. EVIDENCE REVIEW:PubMed was queried for published articles through February 28, 2015, using the search terms NAFLD and cirrhosis, mortality, biomarkers, and treatment. A total of 88 references were selected, including 16 randomized clinical trials, 44 cohort or case-control studies, 6 population-based studies, and 7 meta-analyses. FINDINGS:Sixty-six percent of patients older than 50 years with diabetes or obesity are thought to have nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with advanced fibrosis. Even though the ability to identify the nonalcoholic steatohepatitis subtype within those with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease still requires liver biopsy, biomarkers to detect advanced fibrosis are increasingly reliable. Lifestyle modification is the foundation of treatment for patients with nonalcoholic steatosis. Available treatments with proven benefit include vitamin E, pioglitazone, and obeticholic acid; however, the effect size is modest (<50%) and none is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. The association between nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cardiovascular disease is clear, though causality remains to be proven in well-controlled prospective studies. The incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease-related hepatocellular carcinoma is increasing and up to 50% of cases may occur in the absence of cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:Between 75 million and 100 million individuals in the United States are estimated to have nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its potential morbidity extends beyond the liver. It is important that primary care physicians, endocrinologists, and other specialists be aware of the scope and long-term effects of the disease. Early identification of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis may help improve patient outcomes through treatment intervention, including transplantation for those with decompensated cirrhosis.
GS-0976 Reduces Hepatic Steatosis and Fibrosis Markers in Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.
Loomba Rohit,Kayali Zeid,Noureddin Mazen,Ruane Peter,Lawitz Eric J,Bennett Michael,Wang Lulu,Harting Eliza,Tarrant Jacqueline M,McColgan Bryan J,Chung Chuhan,Ray Adrian S,Subramanian G Mani,Myers Robert P,Middleton Michael S,Lai Michelle,Charlton Michael,Harrison Stephen A
BACKGROUND & AIMS:De novo lipogenesis is increased in livers of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Acetyl-coenzyme carboxylase catalyzes the rate-limiting step in this process. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of GS-0976, an inhibitor of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase in liver, in a phase 2 randomized placebo-controlled trial of patients with NASH. METHODS:We analyzed data from 126 patients with hepatic steatosis of at least 8%, based on the magnetic resonance imaging-estimated proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF), and liver stiffness of at least 2.5 kPa, based on magnetic resonance elastography measurement or historical biopsy result consistent with NASH and F1-F3 fibrosis. Patients were randomly assigned (2:2:1) to groups given GS-0976 20 mg, GS-0976 5 mg, or placebo daily for 12 weeks, from August 8, 2016 through July 18, 2017. Measures of hepatic steatosis, stiffness, serum markers of fibrosis, and plasma metabolomics were evaluated. The primary aims were to confirm previous findings and evaluate the relation between dose and efficacy. RESULTS:A relative decrease of at least 30% from baseline in MRI-PDFF (PDFF response) occurred in 48% of patients given GS-0976 20 mg (P = .004 vs placebo), 23% given GS-0976 5 mg (P = .43 vs placebo), and 15% given placebo. Median relative decreases in MRI-PDFF were greater in patients given GS-0976 20 mg (decrease of 29%) than those given placebo (decrease of 8%; P = .002). Changes in magnetic resonance elastography-measured stiffness did not differ among groups, but a dose-dependent decrease in the fibrosis marker tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 was observed in patients given GS-0976 20 mg. Plasma levels of acylcarnitine species also decreased in patients with a PDFF response given GS-0976 20 mg. GS-0976 was safe, but median relative increases of 11% and 13% in serum levels of triglycerides were observed in patients given GS-0976. CONCLUSIONS:In a randomized placebo-controlled trial of patients with NASH, we found 12-week administration of GS-0976 20 mg decreased hepatic steatosis, selected markers of fibrosis, and liver biochemistry. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT02856555.
Effect of Empagliflozin on Liver Fat in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial (E-LIFT Trial).
Kuchay Mohammad Shafi,Krishan Sonal,Mishra Sunil Kumar,Farooqui Khalid Jamal,Singh Manish Kumar,Wasir Jasjeet Singh,Bansal Beena,Kaur Parjeet,Jevalikar Ganesh,Gill Harmendeep Kaur,Choudhary Narendra Singh,Mithal Ambrish
OBJECTIVE:Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors have been shown to reduce liver fat in rodent models. Data regarding the effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors on human liver fat are scarce. This study examined the effect of empagliflozin (an SGLT-2 inhibitor) on liver fat in patients with type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by using MRI-derived proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Fifty patients with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD were randomly assigned to either the empagliflozin group (standard treatment for type 2 diabetes plus empagliflozin 10 mg daily) or the control group (standard treatment without empagliflozin) for 20 weeks. Change in liver fat was measured by MRI-PDFF. Secondary outcome measures were change in alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels. RESULTS:When included in the standard treatment for type 2 diabetes, empagliflozin was significantly better at reducing liver fat (mean MRI-PDFF difference between the empagliflozin and control groups -4.0%; < 0.0001). Compared with baseline, significant reduction was found in the end-of-treatment MRI-PDFF for the empagliflozin group (16.2% to 11.3%; < 0.0001) and a nonsignificant change was found in the control group (16.4% to 15.5%; = 0.057). The two groups showed a significant difference for change in serum ALT level ( = 0.005) and nonsignificant differences for AST ( = 0.212) and GGT ( = 0.057) levels. CONCLUSIONS:When included in the standard treatment for type 2 diabetes, empagliflozin reduces liver fat and improves ALT levels in patients with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD.