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    Mitochondrial Damage and Activation of the STING Pathway Lead to Renal Inflammation and Fibrosis. Chung Ki Wung,Dhillon Poonam,Huang Shizheng,Sheng Xin,Shrestha Rojesh,Qiu Chengxiang,Kaufman Brett A,Park Jihwan,Pei Liming,Baur Joseph,Palmer Matthew,Susztak Katalin Cell metabolism Fibrosis is the final common pathway leading to end-stage renal failure. By analyzing the kidneys of patients and animal models with fibrosis, we observed a significant mitochondrial defect, including the loss of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) in kidney tubule cells. Here, we generated mice with tubule-specific deletion of TFAM (Ksp-Cre/Tfam). While these mice developed severe mitochondrial loss and energetic deficit by 6 weeks of age, kidney fibrosis, immune cell infiltration, and progressive azotemia causing death were only observed around 12 weeks of age. In renal cells of TFAM KO (knockout) mice, aberrant packaging of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) resulted in its cytosolic translocation, activation of the cytosolic cGAS-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) DNA sensing pathway, and thus cytokine expression and immune cell recruitment. Ablation of STING ameliorated kidney fibrosis in mouse models of chronic kidney disease, demonstrating how TFAM sequesters mtDNA to limit the inflammation leading to fibrosis. 10.1016/j.cmet.2019.08.003
    LncRNA-UCA1 inhibits the astrocyte activation in the temporal lobe epilepsy via regulating the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. Wang Hongxin,Yao Guangyan,Li Lei,Ma Zhaoyin,Chen Jing,Chen Wen Journal of cellular biochemistry This article aimed to reveal the mechanism of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) urothelial cancer-associated 1 (UCA1) regulated astrocyte activation in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) rats via mediating the activation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. A model of TLE was established based on rats via kainic acid (KA) injection. All rats were divided into the Sham group (without any treatments), KA group, normal control (NC; injection with empty vector) + KA group, and UCA1 +  KA group. The Morris water maze was used to test the learning and memory ability of rats, and the expression of UCA1 in the hippocampus was determined by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Surviving neurons were counted by Nissl staining, and expression levels of glial cells glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), p-JAK1, and p-STAT3 and glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) were analyzed by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. A rat model of TLE was established by intraperitoneal injection of KA. qRT-PCR and fluorescence analyses showed that UCA1 inhibited astrocyte activation in the hippocampus of epileptic rats. Meanwhile, the Morris water maze analysis indicated that UCA1 improved the learning and memory in epilepsy rats. Moreover, the Nissl staining showed that UCA1 might have a protective effect on neuronal injury induced by KA injection. Furthermore, the immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis revealed that the overexpression of UCA1 inhibited KA-induced abnormal elevation of GLAST, astrocyte activation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway, as well as hippocampus of epilepsy rats. UCA1 inhibited hippocampal astrocyte activation and JAK/STAT/GLAST expression in TLE rats and improved the adverse reactions caused by epilepsy. 10.1002/jcb.29634
    Female mice lacking ERβ display excitatory/inhibitory synaptic imbalance to drive the pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy. Wang Zhongke,Xie Ruxin,Yang Xiaolin,Yin Huachun,Li Xin,Liu Tianyao,Ma Yuanyuan,Gao Junwei,Zang Zhenle,Ruan Ruotong,Li Yang,Huang Kaixuan,Chen Qingbo,Shen Kaifeng,Lv Shengqing,Zhang Chunqing,Yang Hui,Warner Maragret,Gustafsson Jan-Ake,Liu Shiyong,Fan Xiaotang Theranostics Epilepsy is a highly prevalent and drug-refractory neurological disorder characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures. Estrogen is identified to be proconvulsant and lowers the seizure threshold of female epilepsy. Estrogen receptor β (ERβ) has been proposed to mediate neuroprotection in epilepsy, although the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of ERβ in the epileptogenesis of female temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, western blots, Golgi staining, H MRS and whole-cell patch-clamp were used to evaluate ERβ expression, pathological changes, and synaptic excitation /inhibition (E/I) balance in female TLE patients and ovariectomized (OVX) chronic epileptic mice. Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings were recorded to evaluate the epileptic susceptibility in OVX WT and ERβ mice. And high-throughput RNA-sequence was performed to identify differential expression genes (DEGs) which can elucidate the potential mechanism of ERβ regulating the seizure susceptibility. ERβ expression was decreased in the brains of female TLE patients and OVX chronic epileptic mice. ERβ deletion enhanced seizure susceptibility and exacerbated the imbalance of synaptic E/I in hippocampal CA1 area of OVX epileptic mice. In line with these observations, RNA-sequence data further identified glutamine ligase (GLUL) as the target of ERβ involved in regulating synaptic E/I in CA1. Furthermore, ERβ agonist WAY-200070 markedly suppressed epileptic phenotypes and normalized GLUL expression in CA1 region of kainic acid (KA) induced OVX chronic epileptic model. Our data provide novel insight into the pathogenesis of female TLE, and indicate ERβ provides a new therapeutic strategy for female TLE patients. 10.7150/thno.56331
    Bmf upregulation through the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway may protect the brain from seizure-induced cell death. Moran C,Sanz-Rodriguez A,Jimenez-Pacheco A,Martinez-Villareal J,McKiernan R C,Jimenez-Mateos E M,Mooney C,Woods I,Prehn J H M,Henshall D C,Engel T Cell death & disease Prolonged seizures (status epilepticus, SE) can cause neuronal death within brain regions such as the hippocampus. This may contribute to impairments in cognitive functioning and trigger or exacerbate epilepsy. Seizure-induced neuronal death is mediated, at least in part, by apoptosis-associated signaling pathways. Indeed, mice lacking certain members of the potently proapoptotic BH3-only subfamily of Bcl-2 proteins are protected against hippocampal damage caused by status epilepticus. The recently identified BH3-only protein Bcl-2-modifying factor (Bmf) normally interacts with the cytoskeleton, but upon certain cellular stresses, such as loss of extracellular matrix adhesion or energy crisis, Bmf relocalizes to mitochondria, where it can promote Bax activation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although Bmf has been widely reported in the hematopoietic system to exert a proapoptotic effect, no studies have been undertaken in models of neurological disorders. To examine whether Bmf is important for seizure-induced neuronal death, we studied Bmf induction after prolonged seizures induced by intra-amygdala kainic acid (KA) in mice, and examined the effect of Bmf-deficiency on seizures and damage caused by SE. Seizures triggered an early (1-8 h) transcriptional activation and accumulation of Bax in the cell death-susceptible hippocampal CA3 subfield. Bmf mRNA was biphasically upregulated beginning at 1 h after SE and returning to normal by 8 h, while again being found elevated in the hippocampus of epileptic mice. Bmf upregulation was prevented by Compound C, an inhibitor of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, indicating Bmf expression may be induced in response to bioenergetic stress. Bmf-deficient mice showed normal sensitivity to the convulsant effects of KA, but, surprisingly, displayed significantly more neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subfields after SE. These are the first studies investigating Bmf in a model of neurologic injury, and suggest that Bmf may protect neurons against seizure-induced neuronal death in vivo. 10.1038/cddis.2013.136
    Inhibition of human microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 reduces seizure-induced increases of P-glycoprotein expression and activity at the blood-brain barrier. Soldner Emma L B,Hartz Anika M S,Akanuma Shin-Ichi,Pekcec Anton,Doods Henri,Kryscio Richard J,Hosoya Ken-Ichi,Bauer Björn FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology The cause of antiseizure drug (ASD) resistance in epilepsy is poorly understood. Here, we focus on the transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) that is partly responsible for limited ASD brain uptake, which is thought to contribute to ASD resistance. We previously demonstrated that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the prostaglandin E receptor, prostanoid E receptor subtype 1, are involved in seizure-mediated P-gp up-regulation. Thus, we hypothesized that inhibiting microsomal prostaglandin E (PGE2) synthase-1 (mPGES-1), the enzyme generating PGE2, prevents blood-brain barrier P-gp up-regulation after status epilepticus (SE). To test our hypothesis, we exposed isolated brain capillaries to glutamate and used a combined - approach by isolating brain capillaries from humanized mPGES-1 mice to study P-gp levels. We demonstrate that glutamate signaling through the NMDA receptor, cytosolic phospholipase A2, COX-2, and mPGES-1 increases P-gp protein expression and transport activity levels. We show that mPGES-1 is expressed in human, rat, and mouse brain capillaries. We show that BI1029539, an mPGES-1 inhibitor, prevented up-regulation of P-gp expression and transport activity in capillaries exposed to glutamate and in capillaries from humanized mPGES-1 mice after SE. Our data provide key signaling steps underlying seizure-induced P-gp up-regulation and suggest that mPGES-1 inhibitors could potentially prevent P-gp up-regulation in epilepsy.-Soldner, E. L. B., Hartz, A. M. S., Akanuma, S.-I., Pekcec, A., Doods, H., Kryscio, R. J., Hosoya, K.-I., Bauer, B. Inhibition of human microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 reduces seizure-induced increases of P-glycoprotein expression and activity at the blood-brain barrier. 10.1096/fj.201901460RR
    Direct Septum-Hippocampus Cholinergic Circuit Attenuates Seizure Through Driving Somatostatin Inhibition. Wang Ying,Wang Yi,Xu Cenglin,Wang Shuang,Tan Na,Chen Cong,Chen Liying,Wu Xiaohua,Fei Fan,Cheng Heming,Lin Wenkai,Qi Yingbei,Chen Bin,Liang Jiao,Zhao Junli,Xu Zhenghao,Guo Yi,Zhang Shihong,Li Xiaoming,Zhou Yudong,Duan Shumin,Chen Zhong Biological psychiatry BACKGROUND:Previous studies indicated the involvement of cholinergic neurons in seizure; however, the specific role of the medial septum (MS)-hippocampus cholinergic circuit in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has not yet been completely elucidated. METHODS:In the current study, we used magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging to characterize the pathological change of the MS-hippocampus circuit in 42 patients with TLE compared with 22 healthy volunteers. Using optogenetics and chemogenetics, combined with in vivo or in vitro electrophysiology and retrograde rabies virus tracing, we revealed a direct MS-hippocampus cholinergic circuit that potently attenuates seizure through driving somatostatin inhibition in animal TLE models. RESULTS:We found that patients with TLE with hippocampal sclerosis showed a decrease of neuronal fiber connectivity of the MS-hippocampus compared with healthy people. In the mouse TLE model, MS cholinergic neurons ceased firing during hippocampal seizures. Optogenetic and chemogenetic activation of MS cholinergic neurons (but not glutamatergic or GABAergic [gamma-aminobutyric acidergic] neurons) significantly attenuated hippocampal seizures, while specific inhibition promoted hippocampal seizures. Electrophysiology combined with modified rabies virus tracing studies showed that direct (but not indirect) MS-hippocampal cholinergic projections mediated the antiseizure effect by preferentially targeting hippocampal GABAergic neurons. Furthermore, chemogenetic inhibition of hippocampal somatostatin-positive (rather than parvalbumin-positive) subtype of GABAergic neurons reversed the antiseizure effect of the MS-hippocampus cholinergic circuit, which was mimicked by activating somatostatin-positive neurons. CONCLUSIONS:These findings underscore the notable antiseizure role of the direct cholinergic MS-hippocampus circuit in TLE through driving the downstream somatostatin effector. This may provide a better understanding of the changes of the seizure circuit and the precise spatiotemporal control of epilepsy. 10.1016/j.biopsych.2019.11.014
    Filamin A inhibition reduces seizure activity in a mouse model of focal cortical malformations. Zhang Longbo,Huang Tianxiang,Teaw Shannon,Nguyen Lena H,Hsieh Lawrence S,Gong Xuan,Burns Lindsay H,Bordey Angélique Science translational medicine Epilepsy treatments for patients with mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) disorders, such as tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) or focal cortical dysplasia type II (FCDII), are urgently needed. In these patients, the presence of focal cortical malformations is associated with the occurrence of lifelong epilepsy, leading to severe neurological comorbidities. Here, we show that the expression of the actin cross-linking protein filamin A (FLNA) is increased in resected cortical tissue that is responsible for seizures in patients with FCDII and in mice modeling TSC and FCDII with mutations in phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) pathway genes. Normalizing FLNA expression in these mice through genetic knockdown limited cell misplacement and neuronal dysmorphogenesis, two hallmarks of focal cortical malformations. In addition, knockdown reduced seizure frequency independently of mTOR signaling. Treating mice with a small molecule targeting FLNA, PTI-125, before the onset of seizures alleviated neuronal abnormalities and reduced seizure frequency compared to vehicle-treated mice. In addition, the treatment was also effective when injected after seizure onset in juvenile and adult mice. These data suggest that targeting FLNA with either short hairpin RNAs or the small molecule PTI-125 might be effective in reducing seizures in patients with TSC and FCDII bearing mutations in PI3K-Rheb pathway genes. 10.1126/scitranslmed.aay0289
    Dysregulation of REV-ERBα impairs GABAergic function and promotes epileptic seizures in preclinical models. Zhang Tianpeng,Yu Fangjun,Xu Haiman,Chen Min,Chen Xun,Guo Lianxia,Zhou Cui,Xu Yuting,Wang Fei,Yu Jiandong,Wu Baojian Nature communications To design potentially more effective therapies, we need to further understand the mechanisms underlying epilepsy. Here, we uncover the role of Rev-erbα in circadian regulation of epileptic seizures. We first show up-regulation of REV-ERBα/Rev-erbα in brain tissues from patients with epilepsy and a mouse model. Ablation or pharmacological modulation of Rev-erbα in mice decreases the susceptibility to acute and chronic seizures, and abolishes diurnal rhythmicity in seizure severity, whereas activation of Rev-erbα increases the animal susceptibility. Rev-erbα ablation or antagonism also leads to prolonged spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents and elevated frequency in the mouse hippocampus, indicating enhanced GABAergic signaling. We also identify the transporters Slc6a1 and Slc6a11 as regulators of Rev-erbα-mediated clearance of GABA. Mechanistically, Rev-erbα promotes the expressions of Slc6a1 and Slc6a11 through transcriptional repression of E4bp4. Our findings propose Rev-erbα as a regulator of synaptic function at the crosstalk between pathways regulating the circadian clock and epilepsy. 10.1038/s41467-021-21477-w
    Neuroligin 2 regulates absence seizures and behavioral arrests through GABAergic transmission within the thalamocortical circuitry. Cao Feng,Liu Jackie J,Zhou Susan,Cortez Miguel A,Snead O Carter,Han Jing,Jia Zhengping Nature communications Epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are two distinct brain disorders but have a high rate of co-occurrence, suggesting shared pathogenic mechanisms. Neuroligins are cell adhesion molecules important in synaptic function and ASD, but their role in epilepsy remains unknown. In this study, we show that Neuroligin 2 (NLG2) knockout mice exhibit abnormal spike and wave discharges (SWDs) and behavioral arrests characteristic of absence seizures. The anti-absence seizure drug ethosuximide blocks SWDs and rescues behavioral arrests and social memory impairment in the knockout mice. Restoring GABAergic transmission either by optogenetic activation of the thalamic reticular nucleus (nRT) presynaptic terminals or postsynaptic NLG2 expression in the thalamic neurons reduces the SWDs and behavioral arrests in the knockout mice. These results indicate that NLG2-mediated GABAergic transmission at the nRT-thalamic circuit represents a common mechanism underlying both epileptic seizures and ASD. 10.1038/s41467-020-17560-3