Evidence for anti-inflammatory effects of exercise in CKD.
Viana João L,Kosmadakis George C,Watson Emma L,Bevington Alan,Feehally John,Bishop Nicolette C,Smith Alice C
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN
CKD is associated with a complex state of immune dysfunction characterized by immune depression, predisposing patients to infections, and immune activation, resulting in inflammation that associates with higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Physical exercise may enhance immune function and exert anti-inflammatory effects, but such effects are unclear in CKD. We investigated the separate effects of acute and regular moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on neutrophil degranulation (elastase release), activation of T lymphocytes (CD69 expression) and monocytes (CD86 and HLA-DR expression), and plasma inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-10, soluble TNF-receptors, and C-reactive protein) in patients with predialysis CKD. A single 30-minute (acute) bout of walking induced a normal pattern of leukocyte mobilization and had no effect on T-lymphocyte and monocyte activation but improved neutrophil responsiveness to a bacterial challenge in the postexercise period. Furthermore, acute exercise induced a systemic anti-inflammatory environment, evidenced by a marked increase in plasma IL-10 levels (peaked at 1 hour postexercise), that was most likely mediated by increased plasma IL-6 levels (peaked immediately postexercise). Six months of regular walking exercise (30 min/d for 5 times/wk) exerted anti-inflammatory effects (reduction in the ratio of plasma IL-6 to IL-10 levels) and a downregulation of T-lymphocyte and monocyte activation, but it had no effect on circulating immune cell numbers or neutrophil degranulation responses. Renal function, proteinuria, and BP were also unaffected. These findings provide compelling evidence that walking exercise is safe with regard to immune and inflammatory responses and has the potential to be an effective anti-inflammatory therapy in predialysis CKD.
Resolution of inflammation-induced depression requires T lymphocytes and endogenous brain interleukin-10 signaling.
Laumet Geoffroy,Edralin Jules Daniel,Chiang Angie Chi-An,Dantzer Robert,Heijnen Cobi J,Kavelaars Annemieke
Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
In humans, depression is often associated with low-grade inflammation, activation of the tryptophan/kynurenine pathway, and mild lymphopenia. Preclinical research confirms that inflammation induces depression-like behavior through activation of the tryptophan/kynurenine pathway. However, the mechanisms governing recovery from depression are unknown. Understanding the pathways leading to resolution of depression will likely lead to identification of novel targets for treatment. We investigated the contribution of T lymphocytes to the resolution of lipopolysaccharide-induced depression-like behavior. Duration of depression-like behavior was markedly prolonged in mice without mature T or B lymphocytes (Rag1 mice). This prolonged depression-like behavior was associated with persistent upregulation of the tryptophan-metabolizing enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (Ido)1 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Reconstitution of Rag1 mice with T lymphocytes normalized resolution of depression-like behavior and expression of Ido1 in the PFC. During resolution of inflammation-induced depression-like behavior, T lymphocytes accumulated in the meninges and were required for induction of interleukin (IL)-10 in the meninges and the PFC. Inhibition of IL-10 signaling by nasal administration of neutralizing anti-IL-10 antibody to WT mice led to persistent upregulation of Ido1 in the PFC and prolonged depression-like behavior. Conversely, nasal administration of recombinant IL-10 in Rag1 mice normalized Ido1 expression and resolution of depression-like behavior. In conclusion, the present data show for the first time that resolution of inflammation-induced depression is an active process requiring T lymphocytes acting via an IL-10-dependent pathway to decrease Ido1 expression in the brain. We propose that targeting the T lymphocyte/IL-10 resolution pathway could represent a novel approach to promote recovery from major depressive disorder.
IL-10 Family Cytokines IL-10 and IL-22: from Basic Science to Clinical Translation.
Ouyang Wenjun,O'Garra Anne
Cytokines are among the most important effector and messenger molecules in the immune system. They profoundly participate in immune responses during infection and inflammation, protecting against or contributing to diseases such as allergy, autoimmunity, and cancer. Manipulating cytokine pathways, therefore, is one of the most effective strategies to treat various diseases. IL-10 family cytokines exert essential functions to maintain tissue homeostasis during infection and inflammation through restriction of excessive inflammatory responses, upregulation of innate immunity, and promotion of tissue repairing mechanisms. Their important functions in diseases are supported by data from many preclinical models, human genetic studies, and clinical interventions. Despite significant efforts, however, there is still no clinically approved therapy through manipulating IL-10 family cytokines. Here, we summarize the recent progress in understanding the biology of this family of cytokines, suggesting more specific strategies to maneuver these cytokines for the effective treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancers.