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    Overcoming acquired resistance to PD-1 inhibitor with the addition of metformin in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Kim Yeseul,Vagia Elena,Viveiros Pedro,Kang Cyra Y,Lee Ju Young,Gim Gahyun,Cho Sukjoo,Choi Horyun,Kim Leeseul,Park Inae,Choi Jaeyoun,Chae Young Kwang Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII Metformin has been widely used as the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus for its anti-hyperglycemic effect. In recent years, it has also been extensively studied for its anti-cancer effect as it diminishes immune exhaustion of CD8 + tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). It decreases apoptosis of CD8 + TILs, thereby enhancing T cell-mediated immune response to tumor cells. Here, we present a unique case of a patient with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) who exhibited an overall partial response as per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1 (RECIST 1.1) since starting metformin in combination with nivolumab therapy. Our patient had been treated with nivolumab monotherapy for 2 years until she had progression of disease. After she was started on metformin along with nivolumab therapy, she has shown a significant durable response for over 6 months. Many patients develop resistance to immunotherapy such as antibodies against cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Tumor hypoxia is one of the resistance factors. Signals activated by hypoxic environments in tumors are associated with decreased sensitivity to the PD-1 blockade. Metformin inhibits oxygen consumption in tumor cells in vitro and in vivo, reducing intratumoral hypoxia. These data suggest that metformin can improve susceptibility to anti-PD-1 treatment. To the best of our knowledge, our case is the first reported example demonstrating a proof-of-concept that metformin can contribute to overcoming acquired resistance to PD-1 inhibitors. 10.1007/s00262-020-02703-8
    Host expression of PD-L1 determines efficacy of PD-L1 pathway blockade-mediated tumor regression. Lin Heng,Wei Shuang,Hurt Elaine M,Green Michael D,Zhao Lili,Vatan Linda,Szeliga Wojciech,Herbst Ronald,Harms Paul W,Fecher Leslie A,Vats Pankaj,Chinnaiyan Arul M,Lao Christopher D,Lawrence Theodore S,Wicha Max,Hamanishi Junzo,Mandai Masaki,Kryczek Ilona,Zou Weiping The Journal of clinical investigation Programmed death-1 receptor (PD-L1, B7-H1) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) pathway blockade is a promising therapy for treating cancer. However, the mechanistic contribution of host and tumor PD-L1 and PD-1 signaling to the therapeutic efficacy of PD-L1 and PD-1 blockade remains elusive. Here, we evaluated 3 tumor-bearing mouse models that differ in their sensitivity to PD-L1 blockade and demonstrated a loss of therapeutic efficacy of PD-L1 blockade in immunodeficient mice and in PD-L1- and PD-1-deficient mice. In contrast, neither knockout nor overexpression of PD-L1 in tumor cells had an effect on PD-L1 blockade efficacy. Human and murine studies showed high levels of functional PD-L1 expression in dendritic cells and macrophages in the tumor microenvironments and draining lymph nodes. Additionally, expression of PD-L1 on dendritic cells and macrophages in ovarian cancer and melanoma patients correlated with the efficacy of treatment with either anti-PD-1 alone or in combination with anti-CTLA-4. Thus, PD-L1-expressing dendritic cells and macrophages may mechanistically shape and therapeutically predict clinical efficacy of PD-L1/PD-1 blockade. 10.1172/JCI96113