Cerebellar Gray Matter Volume, Executive Function, and Insomnia: Gender Differences in Adolescents.
Jung Kyu-In,Park Min-Hyeon,Park Bumhee,Kim Shin-Young,Kim Yae On,Kim Bung-Nyun,Park Subin,Song Chan-Hee
The cerebellum is an important region responsible for adolescent cognitive function and sleep, and their correlation is expected to show different patterns depending on age and gender. We examined the regional cerebellar gray matter volume (GMV), executive function (EF) and insomnia symptoms to identify their correlation and gender differences in adolescents. Data for a total of 55 subjects' (M = 31, F = 24, 14.80 ± 1.39 years old) were analyzed. The correlations between cerebellar regional GMV and Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) subcategories showed that EF was better with larger GMV both in males and females. Far more overall correlations with cerebellar regions were observed in boys, with corresponding correlation strength being higher, and differences in localization were also observed in contrast to girls. Larger cerebellar GMV corresponded to better EF in adolescents. Insomnia did not influence the correlations between cerebellar regional GMV and EF, but more severe insomnia in boys correlated to smaller GMV in the right flocculonodular lobe. These results might implicate that the adolescent cerebellum is involved differently in EF dependent on gender.
Reduced dynamic functional connectivity between salience and executive brain networks in insomnia disorder.
Wei Yishul,Leerssen Jeanne,Wassing Rick,Stoffers Diederick,Perrier Joy,Van Someren Eus J W
Journal of sleep research
Research into insomnia disorder has pointed to large-scale brain network dysfunctions. Dynamic functional connectivity is instrumental to cognitive functions but has not been investigated in insomnia disorder. This study assessed between-network functional connectivity strength and variability in patients with insomnia disorder as compared with matched controls without sleep complaints. Twelve-minute resting-state functional magnetic resonance images and T1-weighed images were acquired in 65 people diagnosed with insomnia disorder (21-69 years, 48 female) and 65 matched controls without sleep complaints (22-70 years, 42 female). Pairwise correlations between the activity time series of 14 resting-state networks and temporal variability of the correlations were compared between cases and controls. After false discovery rate correction for multiple comparisons, people with insomnia disorder and controls did not differ significantly in terms of mean between-network functional connectivity strength; people with insomnia disorder did, however, show less functional connectivity variability between the anterior salience network and the left executive-control network. The finding suggests less flexible interactions between the networks during the resting state in people with insomnia disorder.
Effects of Presleep Cognitive Intrusions on Subjective Sleep and Next-Day Cognitive Performance in Insomnia.
Ballesio Andrea,Ghezzi Valerio,Vacca Mariacarolina,Ottaviani Cristina,Lombardo Caterina
Presleep cognitive intrusions about next-day activities, or proprioceptive and environmental stimuli, are thought to trigger insomnia in neurocognitive models. Recent research showed that intrusive cognitions at bedtime may interact with sleep in influencing next-day emotional functioning; their effects on cognitive functioning, however, is largely unknown. We tested the effects of presleep cognitive intrusions on subjective sleep and next-day cognitive performance in 80 participants, either with chronic insomnia or good sleepers. Presleep intrusions were inspected using a validated questionnaire and sleep was assessed with a sleep diary. Cognitive functioning the following morning was measured using a task-switching paradigm assessing executive functions. Structural equation modeling with manifest variables (i.e., path analysis) shows that presleep cognitive intrusions predicted increased sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset, and lowered sleep efficiency. Moreover, task-switching accuracy was independently predicted by presleep cognitive intrusions in the previous night in those with insomnia but not in controls, beyond the effects of trait anxiety, task-switching components, and previous night's sleep. Findings confirm detrimental effects of presleep intrusions on sleep continuity and suggest the presence of links between presleep conscious activity and next-day executive performance in patients with insomnia, with the need to better elucidate potential mediators.