Diversity, compositional and functional differences between gut microbiota of children and adults.
Radjabzadeh Djawad,Boer Cindy G,Beth Sanne A,van der Wal Pelle,Kiefte-De Jong Jessica C,Jansen Michelle A E,Konstantinov Sergey R,Peppelenbosch Maikel P,Hays John P,Jaddoe Vincent W V,Ikram M Arfan,Rivadeneira Fernando,van Meurs Joyce B J,Uitterlinden André G,Medina-Gomez Carolina,Moll Henriette A,Kraaij Robert
The gut microbiota has been shown to play diverse roles in human health and disease although the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. Large cohort studies can provide further understanding into inter-individual differences, with more precise characterization of the pathways by which the gut microbiota influences human physiology and disease processes. Here, we aimed to profile the stool microbiome of children and adults from two population-based cohort studies, comprising 2,111 children in the age-range of 9 to 12 years (the Generation R Study) and 1,427 adult individuals in the range of 46 to 88 years of age (the Rotterdam Study). For the two cohorts, 16S rRNA gene profile datasets derived from the Dutch population were generated. The comparison of the two cohorts showed that children had significantly lower gut microbiome diversity. Furthermore, we observed higher relative abundances of genus Bacteroides in children and higher relative abundances of genus Blautia in adults. Predicted functional metagenome analysis showed an overrepresentation of the glycan degradation pathways, riboflavin (vitamin B2), pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and folate (vitamin B9) biosynthesis pathways in children. In contrast, the gut microbiome of adults showed higher abundances of carbohydrate metabolism pathways, beta-lactam resistance, thiamine (vitamin B1) and pantothenic (vitamin B5) biosynthesis pathways. A predominance of catabolic pathways in children (valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation) as compared to biosynthetic pathways in adults (valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis) suggests a functional microbiome switch to the latter in adult individuals. Overall, we identified compositional and functional differences in gut microbiome between children and adults in a population-based setting. These microbiome profiles can serve as reference for future studies on specific human disease susceptibility in childhood, adulthood and specific diseased populations.
Masticatory performance-related factors in preschool children: establishing a method to assess masticatory performance in preschool children using colour-changeable chewing gum.
Hama Y,Hosoda A,Komagamine Y,Gotoh S,Kubota C,Kanazawa M,Minakuchi S
Journal of oral rehabilitation
A knowledge gap regarding masticatory performance in preschool children exists, which in turn delays intervention for preventive care; therefore, a method to easily assess performance is needed. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of assessing masticatory performance using colour-changeable chewing gum and to investigate masticatory performance-related factors in preschool children. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in two childcare facilities and our laboratory. First, a one-third quantity of colour-changeable chewing gum was masticated by six adults to assess the nature and progression of colour changes in this quantity. Then, masticatory performance in 370 children 4-6 years of age was assessed using the same quantity of colour-changeable chewing gum (60 chew strokes). The maximum bite force, body height, weight, age and number of healthy teeth were recorded. A t-test was performed to determine whether gum-chewing experience or lack thereof produced a significant difference in masticatory performance. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was then determined for masticatory performance assessment values and other factors solely for children with gum-chewing experience. Measurements from 259 children were obtained. Children with gum-chewing experience demons trated significantly higher assessment values and were deemed to have been correctly assessed. A very weak but significant positive correlation was observed only between masticatory performance and the number of healthy teeth. The masticatory performance of preschool children was easily assessed using colour-changeable chewing gum. The assessment values demonstrated significant correlation with the number of healthy teeth, but not with maximum bite force, body height, weight or age.
Gastric emptying in children: what is the best acquisition method?
Drubach Laura A,Kourmouzi Vasiliki,Cao Xinhua,Zurakowski David,Fahey Frederic H
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
OBJECTIVES:The geometric mean is the recommended method for calculating gastric emptying in adults to correct for variable attenuation during the study. In children, it has been reported that a single posterior acquisition is sufficient. Our objective was to evaluate the relation between the values of gastric emptying in children obtained by posterior view only and by the geometric mean of conjugate anterior and posterior views. METHODS:The gastric residual of a standard meal was calculated in 81 children of different ages. The calculation of the gastric residual was performed with different methods, posterior only and geometric mean of anterior and posterior acquisitions. The variation between these 2 methods was evaluated in different age groups and different body weights. RESULTS:There was a high correlation (r = 0.942) between the values using posterior as compared with geometric mean for all of the patients. For children younger than 8 years and weighing <30 kg, there was no significant difference between the 2 methods for either liquid or solid meals (P = 0.89 and P = 0.11 for age; P = 0.95 and P = 0.80 for weight). For children older than 8 years and weighing >30 kg, there was no significant difference between the 2 methods for liquids (P = 0.57 for age; P = 0.69 for weight), but there was a significant difference with solids (P < 0.0001 for both age and weight). CONCLUSIONS:In children younger than 8 years and weighing <30 kg, acquisition of a single posterior image is sufficient for calculating gastric emptying at 1 hour postingestion for either liquid or solid meals. In children older than 8 years and weighing >30 kg, acquisition of both anterior and posterior images with geometric mean calculation is recommended when a solid meal is used. If a liquid meal is used in patients older than 8 years, the posterior only may be adequate.
Interactions of bile acids and the gut microbiota: learning from the differences in infection between children and adults.
Cheng Sijing,Zhu Lixin,Faden Howard S
Bile acids and microbiota differ significantly in the gut of children and adults. In the first 3 yr of life, intestinal bile consists mostly of two primary bile acids, cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA); however, in adults, primary bile acids are transformed into the secondary bile acids, deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid. This difference has a major impact on the gut microbiome, especially on anaerobic spore-forming bacteria. CA augments germination of spores in the terminal ileum. On the other hand, DCA curtails the number of germinated anaerobes entering the cecum from the terminal ileum. The control mechanism that exists in the adult cecum is absent in the young child and results in unrestrained proliferation of anaerobes, such as , in the cecum. A similar situation may develop during antibiotic therapy when an antibiotic eradicates the anaerobic population capable of converting primary bile acids into secondary bile acids.
Validation and feasibility of liver T1 mapping using free breathing MOLLI sequence in children and young adults.
Cho Yeon Jin,Kim Woo Sun,Choi Young Hun,Lee Seul Bi,Lee SeungHyun,Cheon Jung-Eun,Paek MunYoung,Woo SeungTae
We investigated the feasibility of free-breathing modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence for measuring hepatic T1 values in children and young adults. To investigate the accuracy and the reproducibility of the T1 maps, a phantom study was performed with 12 different gadoterate meglumine concentrations and the T1 relaxation times of phantoms measured with the MOLLI sequence were compared against those measured with three different sequences: spin-echo inversion recovery, variable flip angle (VFA), and VFA with B1 correction. To evaluate the feasibility of free-breathing MOLLI sequence, hepatic T1 relaxation times obtained by free-breathing and breath-hold technique in twenty patients were compared. The phantom study revealed the excellent accuracy and reproducibility of MOLLI. In twenty patients, the mean value of hepatic T1 values obtained by free-breathing (606.7 ± 64.5 ms) and breath-hold (609.8 ± 64.0 ms) techniques showed no significant difference (p > 0.05). The Bland-Altman plot between the free-breathing and breath-hold revealed that the mean difference of T1 values was - 3.0 ms (- 0.5%). Therefore, T1 relaxation times obtained by MOLLI were comparable to the values obtained using the standard inversion recovery method. The hepatic T1 relaxation times measured by MOLLI technique with free-breathing were comparable to those obtained with breath-hold in children and young adults.
Facial Expressions and the Ability to Recognize Emotions from the Eyes or Mouth: A Comparison Between Children and Adults.
Guarnera Maria,Hichy Zira,Cascio Maura,Carrubba Stefano,Buccheri Stefania L
The Journal of genetic psychology
The authors sought to contribute to the literature on the ability to recognize anger, happiness, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, and neutral emotions from facial information. They aimed to investigate if-regardless of age-this pattern changes. More specifically, the present study aimed to compare the difference between the performance of adults and 6- to 7-year-old children in detecting emotions from the whole face and a specific face region, namely the eyes and mouth. The findings seem to indicate that, for both groups, recognizing disgust, happiness, and surprise is facilitated when pictures represent the whole face. However, with regard to a specific region, a prevalence for children was not found between the eyes and mouth. Meanwhile, for adults, would seem to detect a greater role of the eye region. Finally, regarding the differences in the performance of emotions recognition, adults are better only in a few cases, whereas children are better in recognizing anger from the mouth.