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    Resveratrol and Metformin Recover Prefrontal Cortex AMPK Activation in Diet-Induced Obese Mice but Reduce BDNF and Synaptophysin Protein Content. Yang Alex J T,Frendo-Cumbo Scott,MacPherson Rebecca E K Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD BACKGROUND:Obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes are established risk factors for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Given this connection, two drugs, metformin (MET) and resveratrol (RESV), are considered for the clearance of amyloid-β peptides through AMPK-mediated activation of autophagy. However, overactivation of AMPK observed in late-stage AD brains and relationships between AMPK and neurogenesis (through mTORC1 inhibition), questions treatment with these drugs. OBJECTIVE:To examine if MET and/or RESV supplementation activates brain AMPK, regulates markers of autophagy, and affects markers of neuronal health/neurogenesis. METHODS:8-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low (N = 12; 10% kcal fat; LFD) or high fat diet (N = 40; 60% kcal fat; HFD) for 9 weeks to induce insulin resistance and obesity. HFD mice were then treated with/without MET (250 mg/kg/day), RESV (100 mg/kg/day), or COMBO (MET: 250 mg/kg/day, RESV: 100 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. Hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were extracted for western blotting analysis. RESULTS:Cortex AMPK (T172) and raptor (S792, the regulatory subunit of mTORC1) phosphorylation were upregulated following RESV, COMBO treatments. mTOR (S2448) and ULK1 (S555) activation was seen following MET, COMBO and RESV, COMBO treatments, respectively, in the cortex and hippocampus. p62 content was decreased following RESV, COMBO, with LC3 content being increased following RESV treatment in the cortex. Brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) was significantly decreased following RESV, COMBO, and synaptophysin following all treatment in the cortex. CONCLUSION:These results demonstrate that while treatments upregulated markers of autophagy in the prefrontal cortex, reductions in neuronal health markers question the efficacy of AMPK as a therapy for AD. 10.3233/JAD-190123
    Metformin restores hippocampal neurogenesis and learning and memory via regulating gut microbiota in the obese mouse model. Ma Xiaoyi,Xiao Wenchang,Li Hao,Pang Pei,Xue Feixiao,Wan Lu,Pei Lei,Yan Huanhuan Brain, behavior, and immunity Numerous studies have shown that over-nutritional obesity may lead to pre-diabetes, type 2 diabetes and cognitive decline. As the degree of metabolic disorders increases, the cognitive decline is getting worse. However, the cellular events that cause this cognitive dysfunction is yet to be clarified. We used a high-fat diet (HFD) consumption-induced obesity mouse model to test the effects of metformin on the hippocampal neurogenesis and learning and memory abilities of obese mice. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labelling and retrovirus labeling were applied to detect hippocampal newborn neurons. Behavioral experiments were used to detect learning and memory abilities of mice. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed to detect the composition of gut microbiota. The positron emission tomography (PET) was conducted to detect the energy metabolism activity of different mouse brain regions. Our results reveal that metformin restores the impairment of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and finally prevents the cognitive decline of the obese mice. Moreover, the therapeutic effects of metformin are achieved by regulating the composition of gut microbiota of mice, which may inhibit microglia activation and neuroinflammation in the brain of obese mice. This study suggests that metformin may be taken as a promising candidate for the intervention of cognitive decline related to imbalance of gut microbiota caused by obesity. 10.1016/j.bbi.2021.02.011
    Age- and sex-dependent effects of metformin on neural precursor cells and cognitive recovery in a model of neonatal stroke. Ruddy Rebecca M,Adams Kelsey V,Morshead Cindi M Science advances Resident neural stem and progenitor cells, collectively termed neural precursor cells (NPCs), reside in a well-defined neurogenic niche in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and contribute to ongoing postnatal neurogenesis. It is well established that the NPC niche can alter the behavior of NPCs. NPC activation is a promising therapeutic strategy for brain repair. The drug metformin has been shown to activate neural stem cells, promote differentiation, and lead to functional motor recovery in a neonatal stroke model. We demonstrate that metformin-induced NPC expansion and functional recovery is sex hormone dependent. Metformin increases the size of the NPC pool in adult females, but not males, and promotes cognitive recovery in a model of brain injury in females, but not males. Our data demonstrate that metformin has age- and sex-dependent effects on NPCs that correlate with functional recovery, which has important implications for neural repair. 10.1126/sciadv.aax1912
    Dysregulated expression of monoacylglycerol lipase is a marker for anti-diabetic drug metformin-targeted therapy to correct impaired neurogenesis and spatial memory in Alzheimer's disease. Syal Charvi,Kosaraju Jayasankar,Hamilton Laura,Aumont Anne,Chu Alphonse,Sarma Sailendra Nath,Thomas Jacob,Seegobin Matthew,Dilworth F Jeffrey,He Ling,Wondisford Fredric E,Zimmermann Robert,Parent Martin,Fernandes Karl,Wang Jing Theranostics Monoacylglycerol lipase (Mgll), a hydrolase that breaks down the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) to produce arachidonic acid (ARA), is a potential target for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing evidence shows that impairment of adult neurogenesis by perturbed lipid metabolism predisposes patients to AD. However, it remains unknown what causes aberrant expression of Mgll in AD and how Mgll-regulated lipid metabolism impacts adult neurogenesis, thus predisposing to AD during aging. Here, we identify Mgll as an aging-induced factor that impairs adult neurogenesis and spatial memory in AD, and show that metformin, an FDA-approved anti-diabetic drug, can reduce the expression of Mgll to reverse impaired adult neurogenesis, prevent spatial memory decline and reduce β-amyloid accumulation. Mgll expression was assessed in both human AD patient post-mortem hippocampal tissues and 3xTg-AD mouse model. In addition, we used both the 3xTg-AD animal model and the S436A genetic knock-in mouse model to identify that elevated Mgll expression is caused by the attenuation of the aPKC-CBP pathway, involving atypical protein kinase C (aPKC)-stimulated Ser436 phosphorylation of histone acetyltransferase CBP through biochemical methods. Furthermore, we performed adult neurogenesis assay with BrdU/EdU labelling and Morris water maze task in both animal models following pharmacological treatments to show the key role of Mgll in metformin-corrected neurogenesis and spatial memory deficits of AD through reactivating the aPKC-CBP pathway. Finally, we performed adult neurosphere assays using both animal models to study the role of the aPKC-CBP mediated Mgll repression in determining adult neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC) fate. Here, we demonstrate that aging-dependent induction of Mgll is observed in the 3xTg-AD model and human AD patient post-mortem hippocampal tissues. Importantly, we discover that elevated Mgll expression is caused by the attenuation of the aPKC-CBP pathway. The accumulation of Mgll in the 3xTg-AD mice reduces the genesis of newborn neurons and perturbs spatial memory. However, we find that metformin-stimulated aPKC-CBP pathway decreases Mgll expression to recover these deficits in 3xTg-AD. In addition, we reveal that elevated Mgll levels in cultured adult NPCs from both 3xTg-AD and S436A animal models are responsible for their NPC neuronal differentiation deficits. Our findings set the stage for development of a clinical protocol where Mgll would serve as a biomarker in early stages of AD to identify potential metformin-responsive AD patients to restore their neurogenesis and spatial memory. 10.7150/thno.44962