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    Genome-wide linkage analyses of non-Hispanic white families identify novel loci for familial late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Kunkle Brian W,Jaworski James,Barral Sandra,Vardarajan Badri,Beecham Gary W,Martin Eden R,Cantwell Laura S,Partch Amanda,Bird Thomas D,Raskind Wendy H,DeStefano Anita L,Carney Regina M,Cuccaro Michael,Vance Jeffrey M,Farrer Lindsay A,Goate Alison M,Foroud Tatiana,Mayeux Richard P,Schellenberg Gerard D,Haines Jonathan L,Pericak-Vance Margaret A Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association INTRODUCTION:Few high penetrance variants that explain risk in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) families have been found. METHODS:We performed genome-wide linkage and identity-by-descent (IBD) analyses on 41 non-Hispanic white families exhibiting likely dominant inheritance of LOAD, and having no mutations at known familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) loci, and a low burden of APOE ε4 alleles. RESULTS:Two-point parametric linkage analysis identified 14 significantly linked regions, including three novel linkage regions for LOAD (5q32, 11q12.2-11q14.1, and 14q13.3), one of which replicates a genome-wide association LOAD locus, the MS4A6A-MS4A4E gene cluster at 11q12.2. Five of the 14 regions (3q25.31, 4q34.1, 8q22.3, 11q12.2-14.1, and 19q13.41) are supported by strong multipoint results (logarithm of odds [LOD*] ≥1.5). Nonparametric multipoint analyses produced an additional significant locus at 14q32.2 (LOD* = 4.18). The 1-LOD confidence interval for this region contains one gene, C14orf177, and the microRNA Mir_320, whereas IBD analyses implicates an additional gene BCL11B, a regulator of brain-derived neurotrophic signaling, a pathway associated with pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. DISCUSSION:Examination of these regions after whole-genome sequencing may identify highly penetrant variants for familial LOAD. 10.1016/j.jalz.2015.05.020
    MicroRNA abundance is altered in synaptoneurosomes during prion disease. Boese Amrit S,Saba Reuben,Campbell Kristyn,Majer Anna,Medina Sarah,Burton Lynn,Booth Timothy F,Chong Patrick,Westmacott Garrett,Dutta Sucharita M,Saba Julian A,Booth Stephanie A Molecular and cellular neurosciences Discrepancy in synaptic structural plasticity is one of the earliest manifestations of the neurodegenerative state. In prion diseases, a reduction in synapses and dendritic spine densities is observed during preclinical disease in neurons of the cortex and hippocampus. The underlying molecular mechanisms of these alterations have not been identified but microRNAs (miRNAs), many of which are enriched at the synapse, likely regulate local protein synthesis in rapid response to stressors such as replicating prions. MiRNAs are therefore candidate regulators of these early neurodegenerative changes and may provide clues as to the molecular pathways involved. We therefore determined changes in mature miRNA abundance within synaptoneurosomes isolated from prion-infected, as compared to mock-infected animals, at asymptomatic and symptomatic stages of disease. During preclinical disease, miRNAs that are enriched in neurons including miR-124a-3p, miR-136-5p and miR-376a-3p were elevated. At later stages of disease we found increases in miRNAs that have previously been identified as deregulated in brain tissues of prion infected mice, as well as in Alzheimer's disease (AD) models. These include miR-146a-5p, miR-142-3p, miR-143-3p, miR-145a-5p, miR-451a, miR-let-7b, miR-320 and miR-150-5p. A number of miRNAs also decreased in abundance during clinical disease. These included almost all members of the related miR-200 family (miR-200a-3p, miR-200b-3p, miR-200c-3p, miR-141-3p, and miR-429-3p) and the 182 cluster (miR-182-5p and miR-183-5p). 10.1016/j.mcn.2015.12.001
    MicroRNA in Situ Hybridization in the Human Entorhinal and Transentorhinal Cortex. Nelson Peter T,Dimayuga James,Wilfred Bernard R Frontiers in human neuroscience MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in gene expression regulation in both healthy and disease brains. To better understand those roles, it is necessary to characterize the miRNAs that are expressed in particular cell types under a range of conditions. In situ hybridization (ISH) can demonstrate cell- and lamina-specific patterns of miRNA expression that would be lost in tissue-level expression profiling. In the present study, ISH was performed with special focus on the human entorhinal cortex (EC) and transentorhinal cortex (TEC). The TEC is the area of the cerebral cortex that first develops neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the reason for TEC's special vulnerability to AD-type pathology is unknown. MiRNA ISH was performed on three human brains with well-characterized clinical and pathological parameters. Locked nucleic acid ISH probes were used referent to miR-107, miR-124, miR-125b, and miR-320. In order to correlate the ISH data with AD pathology, the ISH staining was compared with near-adjacent slides processed using Thioflavine stains. Not all neurons or cortical lamina stain with equal intensity for individual miRNAs. As with other areas of brain, the TEC and EC have characteristic miRNA expression patterns. MiRNA ISH is among the first methods to show special staining characteristics of cells and laminae of the human TEC. 10.3389/neuro.09.007.2010
    Long-term proteasomal inhibition in transgenic mice by UBB(+1) expression results in dysfunction of central respiration control reminiscent of brainstem neuropathology in Alzheimer patients. Irmler Martin,Gentier Romina J G,Dennissen Frank J A,Schulz Holger,Bolle Ines,Hölter Sabine M,Kallnik Magdalena,Cheng Jing Jun,Klingenspor Martin,Rozman Jan,Ehrhardt Nicole,Hermes Denise J H P,Gailus-Durner Valérie,Fuchs Helmut,Hrabě de Angelis Martin,Meyer Helmut E,Hopkins David A,Van Leeuwen Fred W,Beckers Johannes Acta neuropathologica Aging and neurodegeneration are often accompanied by a functionally impaired ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). In tauopathies and polyglutamine diseases, a mutant form of ubiquitin B (UBB(+1)) accumulates in disease-specific aggregates. UBB(+1) mRNA is generated at low levels in vivo during transcription from the ubiquitin B locus by molecular misreading. The resulting mutant protein has been shown to inhibit proteasome function. To elucidate causative effects and neuropathological consequences of UBB(+1) accumulation, we used a UBB(+1) expressing transgenic mouse line that models UPS inhibition in neurons and exhibits behavioral phenotypes reminiscent of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to reveal affected organs and functions, young and aged UBB(+1) transgenic mice were comprehensively phenotyped for more than 240 parameters. This revealed unexpected changes in spontaneous breathing patterns and an altered response to hypoxic conditions. Our findings point to a central dysfunction of respiratory regulation in transgenic mice in comparison to wild-type littermate mice. Accordingly, UBB(+1) was strongly expressed in brainstem regions of transgenic mice controlling respiration. These regions included, e.g., the medial part of the nucleus of the tractus solitarius and the lateral subdivisions of the parabrachial nucleus. In addition, UBB(+1) was also strongly expressed in these anatomical structures of AD patients (Braak stage #6) and was not expressed in non-demented controls. We conclude that long-term UPS inhibition due to UBB(+1) expression causes central breathing dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model of AD. The UBB(+1) expression pattern in humans is consistent with the contribution of bronchopneumonia as a cause of death in AD patients. 10.1007/s00401-012-1003-7
    The Molecular Misreading of APP and UBB Induces a Humoral Immune Response in Alzheimer's Disease Patients with Diagnostic Ability. Montero-Calle Ana,San Segundo-Acosta Pablo,Garranzo-Asensio María,Rábano Alberto,Barderas Rodrigo Molecular neurobiology Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia worldwide with 10-30% prevalence in aging population and a high socioeconomic impact. Because AD definitive diagnostic requires post-mortem verification, new approaches to study the disease are necessary. Here, we analyze the humoral immune response in AD to survey whether APP or UBB frameshift proteins, produced as a consequence of the "molecular misreading" alteration in AD occurring in the APP (amyloid precursor protein) and UBB (ubiquitin-B protein) proteins' mRNA, elicit the production of autoantibodies specific of AD. To this end, APP and UBB peptides were expressed in bacteria as 6xHisHalo fusion proteins and after purification to homogeneity their seroreactivity was analyzed using 81 individual sera from AD patients and 43 individual sera from healthy individuals by luminescence beads immunoassay. We found that as a result of the molecular misreading, APP and UBB frameshift peptides produced a humoral immune response in AD patients, whose autoantibody levels are significantly higher in comparison with healthy controls. Their combination with a previously reported panel of four autoantigens specific of AD (ANTXR1, OR8J1, PYGB, and NUPR1) increased their diagnostic ability assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves up to an area under the curve (AUC) of 73.5%. Collectively, our results demonstrate that APP and UBB frameshift proteins, non-previously described as AD-specific autoantigens, elicit the production of autoantibodies which might be useful as blood-based biomarkers to aid in the detection of the disease. 10.1007/s12035-019-01809-0
    Modifications of autophagy influenced the Alzheimer-like changes in SH-SY5Y cells promoted by ultrafine black carbon. Shang Yu,Liu Mingyuan,Wang Tiantian,Wang Lu,He Huixin,Zhong Yufang,Qian Guangren,An Jing,Zhu Tong,Qiu Xinghua,Shang Jing,Chen Yingjun Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) Ambient ultrafine black carbon (uBC) can potentially cross blood-brain barrier, however, very little is currently known about the effects they may have on central nervous system. This study aimed to explore the roles of autophagy in Alzheimer-like pathogenic changes promoted by uBC in SH-SY5Y cells. We firstly found uBC could cause cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells. Additionally we found uBC initiated progressive development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) associated features, mainly including neuro-inflammation and phosphorylation of tau protein (p-Tau) accumulation. Meanwhile, autophagy process was activated by uBC probably through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway. RNA interference and autophagosome-lysosome fusion inhibitor were applied to block autophagy process at different stages. Autophagy dysfunction at the initial membrane expansion stage could aggravate p-Tau accumulation and other Alzheimer-like changes in SH-SY5Y cells promoted by uBC. However, autophagy inhibition at the final stage could alleviate p-Tau accumulation caused by uBC. This suggested that inhibition of the infusion of autophagosome and lysosome could possibly activate ubiquitination degradation pathway to regulate p-Tau equilibrium in SH-SY5Y cells. Our findings further raise the concerns about the effects of uBC on the risk of AD and indicate potential roles of autophagy in early Alzheimer-like pathogenic changes caused by ambient uBC. 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.12.080
    The Predicted Key Molecules, Functions, and Pathways That Bridge Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Tao Ye,Han Yu,Yu Lujiao,Wang Qi,Leng Sean X,Zhang Haiyan Frontiers in neurology To elucidate the key molecules, functions, and pathways that bridge mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), we investigated open gene expression data sets. Differential gene expression profiles were analyzed and combined with potential MCI- and AD-related gene expression profiles in public databases. Then, weighted gene co-expression network analysis was performed to identify the gene co-expression modules. One module was significantly negatively associated with MCI samples, in which gene ontology function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis showed that these genes were related to cytosolic ribosome, ribosomal structure, oxidative phosphorylation, AD, and metabolic pathway. The other two modules correlated significantly with AD samples, in which functional and pathway enrichment analysis revealed strong relationships of these genes with cytoplasmic ribosome, protein binding, AD, cancer, and apoptosis. In addition, we regarded the core genes in the module network closely related to MCI and AD as bridge genes and submitted them to protein interaction network analysis to screen for major pathogenic genes according to the connectivity information. Among them, small nuclear ribonucleoprotein D2 polypeptide (, ribosomal protein S3a (, S100 calcium binding protein A8 (, small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide G (, U6 snRNA-associated Sm-like protein LSm3 (, ribosomal protein S27a (, and ATP synthase F1 subunit gamma ( were not only major pathogenic genes of MCI, but also bridge genes. In addition, , thioredoxin (, proteasome 20S subunit alpha 4 (, annexin A1 (, DnaJ heat shock protein family member A1 (, and prefoldin subunit 5 ( were not only major pathogenic genes of AD, but also bridge genes. Next, we screened for differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) to predict the miRNAs and transcription factors related the MCI and AD modules, respectively. The significance score of miRNAs in each module was calculated using a hypergeometric test to obtain the miRNApivot-Module interaction pair. Thirty-four bridge regulators were analyzed, among which hsa-miR-519d-3p was recognized as the bridge regulator between MCI and AD. Our study contributed to a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of MCI and AD, and might lead to the development of a new strategy for clinical diagnosis and treatment. 10.3389/fneur.2020.00233