Dietary Prebiotics and Bioactive Milk Fractions Improve NREM Sleep, Enhance REM Sleep Rebound and Attenuate the Stress-Induced Decrease in Diurnal Temperature and Gut Microbial Alpha Diversity.
Thompson Robert S,Roller Rachel,Mika Agnieszka,Greenwood Benjamin N,Knight Rob,Chichlowski Maciej,Berg Brian M,Fleshner Monika
Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience
Severe, repeated or chronic stress produces negative health outcomes including disruptions of the sleep/wake cycle and gut microbial dysbiosis. Diets rich in prebiotics and glycoproteins impact the gut microbiota and may increase gut microbial species that reduce the impact of stress. This experiment tested the hypothesis that consumption of dietary prebiotics, lactoferrin (Lf) and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) will reduce the negative physiological impacts of stress. Male F344 rats, postnatal day (PND) 24, received a diet with prebiotics, Lf and MFGM (test) or a calorically matched control diet. Fecal samples were collected on PND 35/70/91 for 16S rRNA sequencing to examine microbial composition and, in a subset of rats; was measured using selective culture. On PND 59, biotelemetry devices were implanted to record sleep/wake electroencephalographic (EEG). Rats were exposed to an acute stressor (100, 1.5 mA, tail shocks) on PND 87 and recordings continued until PND 94. Test diet, compared to control diet, increased fecal colony forming units (CFU), facilitated non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep consolidation (PND 71/72) and enhanced rapid eye movement (REM) sleep rebound after stressor exposure (PND 87). Rats fed control diet had stress-induced reductions in alpha diversity and diurnal amplitude of temperature, which were attenuated by the test diet (PND 91). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed a significant linear relationship between early-life (PND 35) and longer NREM sleep episodes (PND 71/72). A diet containing prebiotics, Lf and MFGM enhanced sleep quality, which was related to changes in gut bacteria and modulated the impact of stress on sleep, diurnal rhythms and the gut microbiota.
The effect of Lactobacillus helveticus fermented milk on sleep and health perception in elderly subjects.
Yamamura S,Morishima H,Kumano-go T,Suganuma N,Matsumoto H,Adachi H,Sigedo Y,Mikami A,Kai T,Masuyama A,Takano T,Sugita Y,Takeda M
European journal of clinical nutrition
OBJECTIVE:To study the effect of Lactobacillus helveticus fermented milk on sleep and health perception in elderly healthy subjects. SUBJECTS:The study included 29 healthy elderly subjects aged 60-81 years. METHODS:Prospective, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled, with a crossover design. The study included two intervention periods of 3 weeks each, separated by a 3-week washout period. Subjects took 100 g of fermented milk drink or a placebo drink (artificially acidified milk) daily in the first supplementary period and the other drink in the second supplementary period. For each period, we measured sleep quality by means of actigraphy and a sleep questionnaire, and assessed the quality of life (QOL) by SF-36 health survey. RESULTS:There was a significant improvement in sleep efficiency (P=0.03) and number of wakening episodes (P=0.007) in actigraph data after intake of fermented milk, whereas no significant changes were observed for the placebo. Fermented milk did not improve the SF-36 scores significantly from the baseline period. In the GH domain (general health perception) of the SF-36, however, there was marginal improvement as compared to the baseline period. Although the difference between fermented milk and placebo was not statistically significant for any of the sleep or QOL parameters, fermented milk produced slightly greater mean values for many parameters. CONCLUSION:This short-term (3-week) intervention study indicates that Lactobacillus helveticus fermented milk may have a more favorable effect on improving sleep in healthy elderly people as compared with placebo.
Effect of melatonin-rich night-time milk on sleep and activity in elderly institutionalized subjects.
Valtonen Maija,Niskanen Leo,Kangas Antti-Pekka,Koskinen Teuvo
Nordic journal of psychiatry
Melatonin production decreases with advancing age, leading to insomnia and changes in circadian rhythmicity. Administration of melatonin in variable doses resulting in supraphysiological or physiological night-time blood levels of melatonin has been shown to improve sleep quality in the elderly. To study the effect of low doses of melatonin, which do not affect daytime blood melatonin concentrations, night-time milk containing 10-40 ng/l melatonin was used as a drink with meals. The effect of about 0.5 l night-time milk daily on sleep quality and circadian activity was studied in elderly institutionalized subjects in two long-term double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies. Night-time milk was given for 8 weeks and normal day-time milk for 8 weeks with a 1-week washout period in between. In the first study, which was performed during spring with sleep quality evaluated subjectively by specially trained nurses, 70 demented patients showed only a seasonal effect on their sleep quality. In the second study performed around the winter solstice, 81 fairly healthy subjects living in rest-homes were divided into three groups, two for the crossover study as in the first investigation with a third group consuming only normal daytime milk as a control group to evaluate the effect of season. Caregivers graded the sleep quality and activity that was monitored separately for the morning before noon and for the evening after noon. In the second study, the effect of season was recognizable in the scores for sleep quality, which increased in all groups after the winter solstice. However, there were no changes in activity in the control group or in the group that consumed night-time milk during the first period of the crossover study, whereas both morning and evening activity increased significantly in the group that consumed night-time milk during the later period. Even ultra-low doses of melatonin may benefit the elderly by increasing their daytime activity.
Night milking adds value to cow's milk.
Milagres Maria P,Minim Valeria P R,Minim Luis A,Simiqueli Andrea A,Moraes Liliane E S,Martino Hércia S D
Journal of the science of food and agriculture
BACKGROUND:Melatonin is synthesized in greater concentration at night, and it plays an important role in sleep regulation. This study aimed to evaluate the melatonin concentration in milk collected by milking during the night and evaluates its effect, with or without tryptophan supplementation, in the sleep quality of adult Wistar rats. RESULTS:A difference (P < 0.05) was observed between the milking times, where the milk obtained at 02:00 presented a higher melatonin concentration (39.43 pg mL(-1) ) than that acquired at 15:00 (4.03 pg mL(-1) ). A biological assay was also performed on 32 male adult Wistar rats distributed among four groups (n = 8): those receiving an AIN-93M diet (control group) and three test groups [diets containing milk from milking at 02:00 (M2h ), milking at 15:00 (M15h ), and milking at 02:00 plus tryptophan supplementation (M2h T)] for 28 days. It was observed that the control group did not differ (P > 0.05) from the M15h group in terms of the levels of blood melatonin and urinary sulfatoxymelatonin, but differed from groups M2h and M2h T, whereas group M2h T presented higher blood melatonin and urinary sulfatoxymelatonin concentrations. CONCLUSION:Combining the techniques of night milking with tryptophan supplementation resulted in production of milk that improves sleep quality in rats.
Effects of Diet on Sleep Quality.
St-Onge Marie-Pierre,Mikic Anja,Pietrolungo Cara E
Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.)
There is much emerging information surrounding the impact of sleep duration and quality on food choice and consumption in both children and adults. However, less attention has been paid to the effects of dietary patterns and specific foods on nighttime sleep. Early studies have shown that certain dietary patterns may affect not only daytime alertness but also nighttime sleep. In this review, we surveyed the literature to describe the role of food consumption on sleep. Research has focused on the effects of mixed meal patterns, such as high-carbohydrate plus low-fat or low-carbohydrate diets, over the short term on sleep. Such studies highlight a potential effect of macronutrient intakes on sleep variables, particularly alterations in slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep with changes in carbohydrate and fat intakes. Other studies instead examined the intake of specific foods, consumed at a fixed time relative to sleep, on sleep architecture and quality. Those foods, specifically milk, fatty fish, tart cherry juice, and kiwifruit, are reviewed here. Studies provide some evidence for a role of certain dietary patterns and foods in the promotion of high-quality sleep, but more studies are necessary to confirm those preliminary findings.
A pilot study to determine the short-term effects of milk with differing glycaemic properties on sleep among toddlers: a randomised controlled trial.
Misra Snigdha,Khor Geok L,Mitchell Peter,Haque Samsul,Benton David
BACKGROUND:Sleep is important for children as it directly impacts their mental and physical development. Sleep is not only influenced by the timing but also the macronutrient (carbohydrate and protein) content of meals. Glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) describe the quality of carbohydrates in a food and the burden of these foods on the body's blood glucose response. Diets with a high GI/GL may increase the risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The present study is piloted to evaluate the short-term impact of milk products with differing glycaemic properties on the sleep patterns of toddlers. METHODS:Toddlers were recruited from various day care centres. Informed consent was obtained from both the mothers and the centres. A double-blind randomised controlled trial with a between-subjects design was adopted. The toddlers were randomised to either one of two types of milk with a differing GI ("Low" = 23 and "High = 65") for a period of 3.5 days. There were no other dietary restrictions imposed except that the enrolled child did not consume any other milk during the study period. The sleep patterns were recorded using a Phillips Actiwatch-2, which was worn on the wrist for 24 h over 4 days. The parameters used to measure the sleep pattern were sleep-onset latency (SOL), total sleep time (TST), wake after sleep onset (WASO) and sleep efficiency (SE). RESULTS:A total of 56 toddlers completed the study. The toddlers had a mean age of 19.9 ± 4.3 months. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the two GI groups for SOL, TST, WASO and SE at the end of the feeding period. CONCLUSIONS:Sleep patterns of toddlers on low-GI milk did not differ from those with high-GI milk consumed over a short period. Future studies should consider the glycaemic effects of other foods, along with milk with differing GI, consumed for a longer feeding duration. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01589003.
Beneficial effect of GABA-rich fermented milk on insomnia involving regulation of gut microbiota.
Yu Leilei,Han Xiao,Cen Shi,Duan Hui,Feng Saisai,Xue Yuzheng,Tian Fengwei,Zhao Jianxin,Zhang Hao,Zhai Qixiao,Chen Wei
Insomnia is a common health problem in modern societies. GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, can promote relaxation and reduce anxiety. In this study, milk was fermented with Lactobacillus brevis DL1-11, a strain with high GABA-producing capacity. The potential beneficial effects of this fermented milk on anxiety and sleep quality were evaluated in animal experiments. Sixty mice were divided into control, non-GABA fermented milk (NGFM), low-dose GABA fermented milk (LGFM, 8.83 mg/kg.bw), medium-dose GABA fermented milk (MGFM, 16.67 mg/kg.bw), high-dose GABA fermented milk (HGFM, 33.33 mg/kg.bw) and diazepam groups. The results of open field test and elevated plus-maze test indicated decreases in anxiety behavior after oral HGFM administration. Moreover, mice in the HGFM group exhibited a significantly prolonged sleep time after an intraperitoneal injection of sodium pentobarbital and a shortened sleep latency after an intraperitoneal injection of sodium barbital. These results indicate a beneficial effect of HGFM on sleep. Additionally, significant increases in the relative abundances of Ruminococcus, Adlercreutzia and Allobaculum and the levels of some short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyric acid, were observed in the HGFM group. The results suggest that GABA-fermented milk may improve sleep and the protective pathways may involve in regulation of gut microbiota and increase of SCFAs level.
Effect of milk-honey mixture on the sleep quality of coronary patients: A clinical trial study.
Fakhr-Movahedi Ali,Mirmohammadkhani Majid,Ramezani Hossein
Clinical nutrition ESPEN
BACKGROUND:Admission of patients in coronary care units can lead to sleep disorders due to advanced monitoring and interventions. Inappropriate sleep quality in cardiac patients may be influenced by their health status. So, this study was performed to detect the effect of Milk-honey mixture on sleep status of acute coronary syndrome patients in the coronary care unit. METHODS:A clinical trial study (registered under IRCT.ir with identifier no. IRCT201309285134N7) was conducted with 68 hospitalized patients with the acute coronary syndrome in the coronary care unit of a referral hospital in Semnan, Iran. After hospitalization of patients and selected eligible patients, sleep status of them was measured by Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire in range of 0 to 100 score. Then patients were divided into the intervention and control groups randomly. Patients in the intervention group were received milk-honey mixture twice a day for three days. The control group patients were received routine care. In the third day, sleep quality of patients in the two groups was measured again. Finally, the data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS:The mean and standard deviation of patients' age was 63.12 ± 32.63. There was no significant difference in sleep scores on the first day of admission between the two groups (P = 0.914). But, on the third day of admission, there was a significant difference in sleep scores between the intervention and the control groups (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION:The mixture of milk and honey improves the sleep status of patients. So, it can be considered as an effective and affordable intervention to enhance the sleep quality of patients with the acute coronary syndrome in coronary care units.
Efficacy of low-fat milk and yogurt fortified with encapsulated vitamin D on improvement in symptoms of insomnia and quality of life: Evidence from the SUVINA trial.
Sharifan Payam,Khoshakhlagh Mahdieh,Khorasanchi Zahra,Darroudi Susan,Rezaie Mitra,Safarian Mohammad,Vatanparast Hassan,Afshari Asma,Ferns Gordon,Ghazizadeh Hamideh,Ghayour Mobarhan Majid
Food science & nutrition
Introduction:Sleep disorders are a common condition globally. Vitamin D receptors are present on cells in several regions of the brain. It is possible that vitamin D status may affect brain function, including sleep patterns. We aimed to evaluate the 1,500 IU of Nano-encapsulated vitamin D fortified in dairy products on the symptoms of insomnia and associated improvement of quality of life. Methods:A case series was undertaken as part of the project. Subjects enrolled among adults with abdominal obesity. Twenty-nine subjects with insomnia were selected according to the results of Insomnia Severity Index questionnaire and quality of life using a Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. Subjects were allocated to four groups: low-fat milk fortified by 1,500 IU vitamin D ( = 8), simple milk ( = 8), low-fat yogurt fortified by 1,500 IU vitamin D ( = 7), and simple yogurt ( = 6) and were treated for 10 weeks. Results:The insomnia score improved after the intervention in the group receiving vitamin D fortified milk compared to group receiving unfortified milk ( < .001). There were no significant differences between the two groups taking yogurt (fortified vs. unfortified). Comparison of quality of life scores between baseline and after intervention indicated significant improvements in both fortified and simple milk groups ( = .002 and = .03, respectively); but no differences were found in the groups taking yogurt. Conclusion:Fortified low-fat milk containing 1,500 IU vitamin D can improve insomnia symptoms and subsequently quality of life.Trial registration number: IRCT20101130005280N27, www.IRCT.ir.
Association between difficulty initiating sleep in older adults and the combination of leisure-time physical activity and consumption of milk and milk products: a cross-sectional study.
Kitano Naruki,Tsunoda Kenji,Tsuji Taishi,Osuka Yosuke,Jindo Takashi,Tanaka Kiyoji,Okura Tomohiro
BACKGROUND:Research has shown that engaging in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and consuming dairy foods can lead to better sleep. Combining these two non-invasive prescriptions may be more effective for helping people fall asleep. This study investigates whether participating in LTPA in conjunction with consuming milk and milk products has a beneficial association with difficulty initiating sleep (DIS) among older adults. METHODS:The present study looked at 421 community-dwelling older people aged 65 years and older living in Ibaraki prefecture, Japan (mean age 74.9 ± 5.5 years, male 43.7%). We measured LTPA and sleep latency with the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, respectively. Participants who needed 30 minutes or more to fall asleep were defined as having DIS. We assessed dairy consumption as participants' habitual intake of milk, yogurt and cheese. RESULTS:After adjusting for covariates, participants who engaged in sufficient levels of LTPA as well as consumed milk (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.10-0.73) or cheese (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.14-0.85) were less likely to complain of DIS compared with people who neither engaged in LTPA nor ingested milk or cheese. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that the combination of engaging in LTPA and consuming milk or cheese is necessary as a prescription to improve falling asleep for older adults suffering from DIS. Additionally, engaging in LTPA along with dairy consumption may effectively improve a problem with falling asleep.
Association of Frequency of Milk or Dairy Product Consumption with Subjective Sleep Quality during Training Periods in Japanese Elite Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Study.
Yasuda Jun,Yoshizaki Takahiro,Yamamoto Kaori,Yoshino Masae,Ota Masako,Kawahara Takashi,Kamei Akiko
Journal of nutritional science and vitaminology
The purpose of the study was to examine the association of the frequencies of milk and dairy product consumption with subjective sleep quality during the training period in Japanese elite athletes. In this cross-sectional study, 682 Japanese elite athletes who were candidates for the 2016 Rio Olympic Games underwent medical evaluations at the medical center of The Japan Institute of Sports Sciences. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect information on demographics and lifestyle (age, height, weight, sports, presence of milk allergy, smoking and drinking habits), subjective sleep quality (good, normal, or poor), bedtime, waking time, sleep duration, and frequencies of milk and dairy product consumption. Data from 679 athletes (379 men, 300 women) without milk allergy, were analyzed. Based on the frequencies of both milk and dairy product consumption, the athletes were divided into three groups: low (0-2 d/wk), middle (3-5 d/wk), and high (6-7 d/wk). Multiple logistic regression models showed that in comparison with the low milk consumption group, the middle [OR (95% CI): 0.48 (0.26-0.91)] and high groups [0.38 (0.21-0.71)] were significantly associated with a lower risk of decrease in subjective sleep quality (0: good, 1: normal or poor) only in women, after adjusting for possible confounders, such as smoking, drinking habits, and sleep duration. Accordingly, the present study elucidated that a greater frequency of milk consumption was significantly associated with a lower risk of decrease in subjective sleep quality, during training periods in women.
The Effects of Milk and Dairy Products on Sleep: A Systematic Review.
Komada Yoko,Okajima Isa,Kuwata Tamotsu
International journal of environmental research and public health
Several studies have assessed the effects of milk and dairy product intake on sleep quality and duration. Such investigations have varied in terms of their geographic locations, amounts of milk and dairy products, study participants (age, sex, race), and study designs. The present study aimed to summarize this literature and provide a unified view on whether the intake of milk and dairy products affects sleep quality. This systematic review was conducted according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The following keywords were chosen as electronic database search items from MeSH (medical subject headings) terms and descriptors in health sciences (DeHS) lists: milk, yogurt, dairy product, cheese, sleep, human, observational study, and interventional study. As a result, a total of 14 studies published between 1972 and 2019 were included in this review, including eight randomized controlled trials, two experimental studies with cross-over designs, one longitudinal study, and three cross-sectional studies. Four studies targeted older adults, three included toddlers, two targeted children, and six enrolled adults inclusive of university students. Overall, these studies indicated that a well-balanced diet that includes milk and dairy products is effective in improving sleep quality, despite mixed results across studies attributable to differences in study populations and methods.