Argonaute-CLIP delineates versatile, functional RNAi networks in Aedes aegypti, a major vector of human viruses.
Rozen-Gagnon Kathryn,Gu Meigang,Luna Joseph M,Luo Ji-Dung,Yi Soon,Novack Sasha,Jacobson Eliana,Wang Wei,Paul Matthew R,Scheel Troels K H,Carroll Thomas,Rice Charles M
Cell host & microbe
Argonaute (AGO) proteins bind small RNAs to silence complementary RNA transcripts, and they are central to RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi is critical for regulation of gene expression and antiviral defense in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which transmit Zika, chikungunya, dengue, and yellow fever viruses. In mosquitoes, AGO1 mediates miRNA interactions, while AGO2 mediates siRNA interactions. We applied AGO-crosslinking immunoprecipitation (AGO-CLIP) for both AGO1 and AGO2, and we developed a universal software package for CLIP analysis (CLIPflexR), identifying 230 small RNAs and 5,447 small RNA targets that comprise a comprehensive RNAi network map in mosquitoes. RNAi network maps predicted expression levels of small RNA targets in specific tissues. Additionally, this resource identified unexpected, context-dependent AGO2 target preferences, including endogenous viral elements and 3'UTRs. Finally, contrary to current thinking, mosquito AGO2 repressed imperfect targets. These findings expand our understanding of small RNA networks and have broad implications for the study of antiviral RNAi.
Green-synthesized metal nanoparticles for mosquito control: A systematic review about their toxicity on non-target organisms.
Kojom Foko Loick P,Eya'ane Meva Francois,Eboumbou Moukoko Carole E,Ntoumba Agnes A,Ekoko Wolfgang E,Ebanda Kedi Belle Philippe,Ndjouondo Gildas P,Bunda Godlove W,Lehman Leopold G
Studies capturing the high efficiency of green-synthesized metal nanoparticles (NPs) in targeting mosquito vectors of the world's main infectious diseases suggest the NPs' possible utilization as bio-insecticides. However, it is necessary to confirm that these potential bio-insecticides are not harmful to non-target organisms that are often sympatric and natural enemies of the vectors of these diseases. In this systematic review, we comprehensively analyse the content of 56 publications focused on the potentially deleterious effects of NPs on these non-target organisms. Current research on biosynthesised NPs, characterization, and impact on mosquito vectors and non-target larvivorous organisms is reviewed and critically discussed. Finally, we pinpoint some major challenges that merit future investigation. Plants (87.5%) were mainly used for synthesizing NPs in the studies. NPs were found to be spherical or mainly spherical in shape with a large distribution size. In most of the included studies, NPs showed interesting mosquitocidal activity (LC < 50 ppm). Some plant families (e.g., Meliaceae, Poaceae, Lamiaceae) have produced NPs with a particularly high larvicidal and pupicidal activity (LC < 10 ppm). Regarding non-target organisms, most of the studies concluded that NPs were safe to them, with boosted predatory activity in NP-treated milieu. In contrast, some studies reported NP-elicited adverse effects (i.e., genotoxic, nuclear, and enzymatic effects) on these non-target organisms. This review outlines the promising mosquitocidal effects of biosynthesized NPs, recognizing that NPs' potential usage is currently limited by the harm NPs are thought pose to non-target organism. It is of utmost importance to investigate green NPs to determine whether laboratory findings have applications in the real world.
Glucose-mediated proliferation of a gut commensal bacterium promotes Plasmodium infection by increasing mosquito midgut pH.
Wang Mengfei,An Yanpeng,Gao Li,Dong Shengzhang,Zhou Xiaofeng,Feng Yuebiao,Wang Penghua,Dimopoulos George,Tang Huiru,Wang Jingwen
Plant-nectar-derived sugar is the major energy source for mosquitoes, but its influence on vector competence for malaria parasites remains unclear. Here, we show that Plasmodium berghei infection of Anopheles stephensi results in global metabolome changes, with the most significant impact on glucose metabolism. Feeding on glucose or trehalose (the main hemolymph sugars) renders the mosquito more susceptible to Plasmodium infection by alkalizing the mosquito midgut. The glucose/trehalose diets promote proliferation of a commensal bacterium, Asaia bogorensis, that remodels glucose metabolism in a way that increases midgut pH, thereby promoting Plasmodium gametogenesis. We also demonstrate that the sugar composition from different natural plant nectars influences A. bogorensis growth, resulting in a greater permissiveness to Plasmodium. Altogether, our results demonstrate that dietary glucose is an important determinant of mosquito vector competency for Plasmodium, further highlighting a key role for mosquito-microbiota interactions in regulating the development of the malaria parasite.
Dormont Laurent,Mulatier Margaux,Carrasco David,Cohuet Anna
Journal of chemical ecology
Vector control and personal protection against anthropophilic mosquitoes mainly rely on the use of insecticides and repellents. The search for mosquito-attractive semiochemicals has been the subject of intense studies for decades, and new compounds or odor blends are regularly proposed as lures for odor-baited traps. We present a comprehensive and up-to-date review of all the studies that have evaluated the attractiveness of volatiles to mosquitoes, including individual chemical compounds, synthetic blends of compounds, or natural host or plant odors. A total of 388 studies were analysed, and our survey highlights the existence of 105 attractants (77 volatile compounds, 17 organism odors, and 11 synthetic blends) that have been proved effective in attracting one or several mosquito species. The exhaustive list of these attractants is presented in various tables, while the most common mosquito attractants - for which effective attractiveness has been demonstrated in numerous studies - are discussed throughout the text. The increasing knowledge on compounds attractive to mosquitoes may now serve as the basis for complementary vector control strategies, such as those involving lure-and-kill traps, or the development of mass trapping. This review also points out the necessity of further improving the search for new volatile attractants, such as new compound blends in specific ratios, considering that mosquito attraction to odors may vary over the life of the mosquito or among species. Finally, the use of mosquito attractants will undoubtedly have an increasingly important role to play in future integrated vector management programs.
Performance of MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry to Determine the Sex of Mosquitoes and Identify Specific Colonies from French Polynesia.
Fall Fatou Kiné,Laroche Maureen,Bossin Hervé,Musso Didier,Parola Philippe
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
Mosquitoes are the main arthropod vectors of infectious diseases in humans. The current methods for mosquito identification include morphological and molecular methods. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), now routinely used for bacterial identification, has recently emerged in the field of entomology. The aim of this study was to use MALDI-TOF MS to identify mosquito colonies from French Polynesia. Five hundred specimens from French Polynesia belonging to three species, Aedes aegypti, Aedes polynesiensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, were included in the study. Testing the legs of these mosquitoes by MALDI-TOF MS revealed a 100% correct identification of all specimens at the species level. The MALDI-TOF MS profiles obtained allowed differentiation of male from female mosquitoes and the specific identification of female mosquito colonies of the same species but different geographic origin.
Climate and Urbanization Drive Mosquito Preference for Humans.
Rose Noah H,Sylla Massamba,Badolo Athanase,Lutomiah Joel,Ayala Diego,Aribodor Ogechukwu B,Ibe Nnenna,Akorli Jewelna,Otoo Sampson,Mutebi John-Paul,Kriete Alexis L,Ewing Eliza G,Sang Rosemary,Gloria-Soria Andrea,Powell Jeffrey R,Baker Rachel E,White Bradley J,Crawford Jacob E,McBride Carolyn S
Current biology : CB
The majority of mosquito-borne illness is spread by a few mosquito species that have evolved to specialize in biting humans, yet the precise causes of this behavioral shift are poorly understood. We address this gap in the arboviral vector Aedes aegypti. We first collect and characterize the behavior of mosquitoes from 27 sites scattered across the species' ancestral range in sub-Saharan Africa, revealing previously unrecognized variation in preference for human versus animal odor. We then use modeling to show that over 80% of this variation can be predicted by two ecological factors-dry season intensity and human population density. Finally, we integrate this information with whole-genome sequence data from 375 individual mosquitoes to identify a single underlying ancestry component linked to human preference. Genetic changes associated with human specialist ancestry were concentrated in a few chromosomal regions. Our findings suggest that human-biting in this important disease vector originally evolved as a by-product of breeding in human-stored water in areas where doing so provided the only means to survive the long, hot dry season. Our model also predicts that the rapid urbanization currently taking place in Africa will drive further mosquito evolution, causing a shift toward human-biting in many large cities by 2050.
Computational analysis revealed miRNAs produced by Chikungunya virus target genes associated with antiviral immune responses and cell cycle regulation.
Islam Md Sajedul,Khan Md Abdullah-Al-Kamran
Computational biology and chemistry
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) that causes chikungunya fever, is an alphavirus that belongs to the Togaviridae family containing a single-stranded RNA genome. Mosquitoes of the Aedes species act as the vectors for this virus and can be found in the blood, which can be passed from an infected person to a mosquito through mosquito bites. CHIKV has drawn much attention recently because of its potential of causing an epidemic. As the detailed mechanism of its pathogenesis inside the host system is still lacking, in this in silico research we have hypothesized that CHIKV might create miRNAs, which would target the genes associated with host cellular regulatory pathways, thereby providing the virus with prolonged refuge. Using bioinformatics approaches we found several putative miRNAs produced by CHIKV. Then we predicted the genes of the host targeted by these miRNAs. Functional enrichment analysis of these targeted genes shows the involvement of several biological pathways regulating antiviral immune stimulation, cellular proliferation, and cell cycle, thereby provide themselves with prolonged refuge and facilitate their pathogenesis, which in turn may lead to disease conditions. Finally, we analyzed a publicly available microarray dataset (GSE49985) to determine the altered expression levels of the targeted genes and found genes associated with pathways such as cell differentiation, phagocytosis, T-cell activation, response to cytokine, autophagy, Toll-like receptor signaling, RIG-I like receptor signaling and apoptosis. Our finding presents novel miRNAs and their targeted genes, which upon experimental validation could facilitate in developing new therapeutics to combat CHIKV infection and minimize CHIKV mediated diseases.
Whole inactivated dengue virus-loaded trimethyl chitosan nanoparticle-based vaccine: immunogenic properties in and models.
Jearanaiwitayakul Tuksin,Sunintaboon Panya,Chawengkittikul Runglawan,Limthongkul Jitra,Midoeng Panuwat,Chaisuwirat Preamrudee,Warit Saradee,Ubol Sukathida
Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics
Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne virus that poses an incomparable public health problem, particularly in tropical and subtropical areas. Vaccination remains the most rational measure for controlling DENV infection. In this study, an ultraviolet irradiation (UV)-inactivated DENV-2 carried by -trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles (UV-inactivated DENV2 TMC NPs) was investigated as a potential non-replicating dengue vaccine candidate. Using a human model, the human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs), we showed that TMC served as both a vaccine vehicle and a potent adjuvant. TMC NPs not only efficiently enhanced UV-inactivated DENV2 internalization into MoDCs but also greatly increased the breadth of UV-inactivated DENV2 immunogenicity to drive the maturation of MoDCs. Moreover, UV-inactivated DENV2 TMC NPs were highly immunogenic in mice, inducing greater levels of antibodies (total IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and neutralizing antibodies) and T cells (activated CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cells) against DENV-2 compared to soluble DENV-2 immunogens. Notably, the neutralizing activity of sera from mice immunized with UV-inactivated DENV2 TMC NPs was significantly augmented in the presence of complement activation, leading to the strong elimination of both DENV-2 particles and infected cells. We further showed that the immunogenicity of an inactivated dengue-based vaccine was significantly improved in a concentration-dependent manner. These positive results warrant further investigations of this platform of vaccine delivery for tetravalent vaccines or monovalent vaccines in sequential immunizations.
Novel insights from the Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite-specific proteome by probabilistic integration of 26 studies.
Meerstein-Kessel Lisette,Venhuizen Jeron,Garza Daniel,Proellochs Nicholas I,Vos Emma J,Obiero Joshua M,Felgner Philip L,Sauerwein Robert W,Peters Marynthe,Yang Annie S P,Huynen Martijn A
PLoS computational biology
Plasmodium species, the causative agent of malaria, have a complex life cycle involving two hosts. The sporozoite life stage is characterized by an extended phase in the mosquito salivary glands followed by free movement and rapid invasion of hepatocytes in the human host. This transmission stage has been the subject of many transcriptomics and proteomics studies and is also targeted by the most advanced malaria vaccine. We applied Bayesian data integration to determine which proteins are not only present in sporozoites but are also specific to that stage. Transcriptomic and proteomic Plasmodium data sets from 26 studies were weighted for how representative they are for sporozoites, based on a carefully assembled gold standard for Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) proteins known to be present or absent during the sporozoite life stage. Of 5418 Pf genes for which expression data were available at the RNA level or at the protein level, 975 were identified as enriched in sporozoites and 90 specific to them. We show that Pf sporozoites are enriched for proteins involved in type II fatty acid synthesis in the apicoplast and GPI anchor synthesis, but otherwise appear metabolically relatively inactive in the salivary glands of mosquitos. Newly annotated hypothetical sporozoite-specific and sporozoite-enriched proteins highlight sporozoite-specific functions. They include PF3D7_0104100 that we identified to be homologous to the prominin family, which in human has been related to a quiescent state of cancer cells. We document high levels of genetic variability for sporozoite proteins, specifically for sporozoite-specific proteins that elicit antibodies in the human host. Nevertheless, we can identify nine relatively well-conserved sporozoite proteins that elicit antibodies and that together can serve as markers for previous exposure. Our understanding of sporozoite biology benefits from identifying key pathways that are enriched during this life stage. This work can guide studies of molecular mechanisms underlying sporozoite biology and potential well-conserved targets for marker and drug development.
Enhancing malaria control using Lagenaria siceraria and its mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles against the vector Anopheles stephensi and its parasite Plasmodium falciparum.
Kalpana V N,Alarjani Khaloud Mohammed,Rajeswari V Devi
In many developing countries, there are certain health problems faced by the public, one among them is Malaria. This tropical disease is mainly caused by Plasmodium falciparum. It is categorized as a disaster to public health, which increases both mortality and morbidity. Numerous drugs are in practice to control this disease and their vectors. Eco-friendly control tools are required to battle against vector of this significant disease. Nanotechnology plays a major role in fighting against malaria. The present paper synthesized Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using zinc nitrate via simple green routes with the help of aqueous peel extract of Lagenaria siceraria (L. siceraria). The synthesized ZnO NPs were characterized by various biophysical methods. Moreover, the extract of L. siceraria and their mediated ZnO NPs was experimented against III instar larvae of An. stephensi. The impact of the treatment based on ZnO NPs concerning histology and morphology of mosquito larval was further observed. In the normal laboratory environment, the efficiency of predation of Poeciliareticulata (P. reticulata) against An. Stephensi larvae was found to be 44%, whereas in aqueous L. siceraria extract and its mediated ZnO NPs contaminated environment, P. reticulate showed predation efficiency of about 45.8% and 61.13% against An. Stephensi larva. L. siceraria synthesized ZnO NPs were examined against the Plasmodium falciparum CQ-sensitive strains. The L. siceraria extract and its mediated ZnO NPs showed the cytotoxic effects against HeLa cell lines with an IC value of 62.5 µg/mL. This study concludes that L. siceraria peel extract and L. siceraria synthesized ZnO NPs represent a valuable green option to fight against malarial vectors and parasites.
Development and application of SYBR Green Ⅰ real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR assay for detection of swine Getah virus.
Xia Yin-He,Shi Zi-Cong,Wang Xin-Wei,Li Yong-Tao,Wang Zeng,Chang Hong-Tao,Liu Hong-Ying,Chen Lu,Wang Chuan-Qing,Yang Xia
Molecular and cellular probes
Getah virus (GETV), a mosquito-borne virus belonging to the Alphavirus genus of family Togaviridae, has become increasingly problematic, which poses a huge threat to the safety of animals and public health. In order to detect GETV quickly and accurately, we have developed a SYBR Green I real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) assay for GETV with the detection limit of 66 copies/μL, excellent correlation coefficient (R) of 0.9975, and amplification efficiency (E) of 98.90%, the target selected was the non-structural protein 3 of GETV. The sensitivity of it was higher than that of ordinary RT-PCR by 1000 folds, and the inter-assay and intra-assay CV values were all less than 0.99%. The newly developed RT-qPCR assay exhibited good sensitivity and reproducibility, which will provide technical support for the reliable and specific rapid diagnosis, and quantitative analysis of GETV infection.
Emergence of the invasive Asian bush mosquito, Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus, in an urban area, Romania.
Horváth Cintia,Cazan Cristina Daniela,Mihalca Andrei Daniel
Parasites & vectors
BACKGROUND:A study conducted at the International Airport of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, with the aim of investigating the presence/absence of invasive Aedes mosquito species resulted in finding Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald 1901) eggs in one of the ovitraps placed on site. METHODS:The study was carried out between 30 June and 29 September 2020. On 24 August, 26 eggs were collected and later hatched at the University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca's insectary. On 15 October another adult female Ae. japonicus was caught entering a building in the center of the city, about 7 km from the first sampling spot. RESULTS:The mosquitoes were identified morphologically and confirmed by molecular analysis, based on the genetic analysis of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI). CONCLUSION:This is the first report of the species in Romania, highlighting the need for surveillance and implemented control methods. However, in Romania to our knowledge only Aedes albopictus has been established; further studies are required to learn about this new invasive species' status in Romania.
Determining vector competence of Aedes aegypti from Ghana in transmitting dengue virus serotypes 1 and 2.
Amoa-Bosompem Michael,Kobayashi Daisuke,Itokawa Kentaro,Murota Katsunori,Faizah Astri Nur,Azerigyik Faustus Akankperiwen,Hayashi Takaya,Ohashi Mitsuko,Bonney Joseph H Kofi,Dadzie Samuel,Tran Cuong Chi,Tran Phong Vu,Fujita Ryosuke,Maekawa Yoshihide,Kasai Shinji,Yamaoka Shoji,Ohta Nobuo,Sawabe Kyoko,Iwanaga Shiroh,Isawa Haruhiko
Parasites & vectors
BACKGROUND:Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, but is not endemic in all areas where this vector is found. For example, the relatively sparse distribution of cases in West Africa is generally attributed to the refractory nature of West African Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) to DENV infection, and particularly the forest-dwelling Ae. aegypti formosus. However, recent studies have shown these mosquitoes to be competent vectors within some West African countries that have suffered outbreaks in the past, such as Senegal. There is however little information on the vector competence of the Ae. aegypti in West African countries such as Ghana with no reported outbreaks. METHODS:This study examined the vector competence of 4 Ae. aegypti colonies from urban, semi-urban, and two rural locations in Ghana in transmitting DENV serotypes 1 and 2, using a single colony from Vietnam as control. Midgut infection and virus dissemination were determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), while the presence and concentration of DENV in the saliva of infectious mosquitoes was determined by the focus forming assay. RESULTS:There were significant differences in the colonies' susceptibility to virus infection, dissemination, and transmission. All examined Ghanaian mosquitoes were refractory to infection by DENV serotype 2, while some colonies exhibited potential to transmit DENV serotype 1. None of the tested colonies were as competent as the control group colony. CONCLUSIONS:These findings give insight into the possible risk of outbreaks, particularly in the urban areas in the south of Ghana, and highlight the need for continuous surveillance to determine the transmission status and outbreak risk. This study also highlights the need to prevent importation of different DENV strains and potential invasion of new highly vector-competent Ae. aegypti strains, particularly around the ports of entry.
Epididymal epithelium propels early sexual transmission of Zika virus in the absence of interferon signaling.
Pletnev Alexander G,Maximova Olga A,Liu Guangping,Kenney Heather,Nagata Bianca M,Zagorodnyaya Tatiana,Moore Ian,Chumakov Konstantin,Tsetsarkin Konstantin A
Recognition of Zika virus (ZIKV) sexual transmission (ST) among humans challenges our understanding of the maintenance of mosquito-borne viruses in nature. Here we dissected the relative contributions of the components of male reproductive system (MRS) during early male-to-female ZIKV transmission by utilizing mice with altered antiviral responses, in which ZIKV is provided an equal opportunity to be seeded in the MRS tissues. Using microRNA-targeted ZIKV clones engineered to abolish viral infectivity to different parts of the MRS or a library of ZIKV genomes with unique molecular identifiers, we pinpoint epithelial cells of the epididymis (rather than cells of the testis, vas deferens, prostate, or seminal vesicles) as a most likely source of the sexually transmitted ZIKV genomes during the early (most productive) phase of ZIKV shedding into the semen. Incorporation of this mechanistic knowledge into the development of a live-attenuated ZIKV vaccine restricts its ST potential.
Zinc oxide nanoparticles using plant Lawsonia inermis and their mosquitocidal, antimicrobial, anticancer applications showing moderate side effects.
Amuthavalli Pandiyan,Hwang Jiang-Shiou,Dahms Hans-Uwe,Wang Lan,Anitha Jagannathan,Vasanthakumaran Murugan,Gandhi Arumugam Dhanesh,Murugan Kadarkarai,Subramaniam Jayapal,Paulpandi Manickam,Chandramohan Balamurugan,Singh Shivangi
Microbes or parasites spread vector-borne diseases by mosquitoes without being affected themselves. Insecticides used in vector control produce a substantial problem for human health. This study synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using Lawsonia inermis L. and were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, SEM with EDX, and XRD analysis. Green synthesized ZnO NPs were highly toxic against Anopheles stephensi, whose lethal concentrations values ranged from 5.494 ppm (I instar), 6.801 ppm (II instar), 9.336 ppm (III instar), 10.736 ppm (IV instar), and 12.710 ppm (pupae) in contrast to L. inermis treatment. The predation efficiency of the teleost fish Gambusia affinis and the copepod Mesocyclops aspericornis against A. stephensi was not affected by exposure at sublethal doses of ZnO NPs. The predatory potency for G. affinis was 45 (I) and 25.83% (IV), copepod M. aspericornis was 40.66 (I) and 10.8% (IV) while in an ZnO NPs contaminated environment, the predation by the fish G. affinis was boosted to 71.33 and 34.25%, and predation of the copepod M. aspericornis was 60.35 and 16.75%, respectively. ZnO NPs inhibited the growth of several microbial pathogens including the bacteria (Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis) and the fungi (Alternaria alternate and Aspergillus flavus), respectively. ZnO NPs decreased the cell viability of Hep-G2 with IC value of 21.63 µg/mL (R = 0.942; P < 0.001) while the concentration increased from 1.88 to 30 µg/mL. These outcomes support the use of L. inermis mediated ZnO NPs for mosquito control and drug development.
Elucidation of larvicidal potential of metallic and environment friendly food-grade nanostructures against Aedes albopictus.
Ahmed Toqeer,Liaqat Irfan,Hyder Muhammad Zeeshan,Akhtar Shaheen,Bhatti Assad Hafeez,Butt Shahid Bilal,Imran Zahid,Yasmin Tayyaba,Abbas Shabbar
Environmental geochemistry and health
To combat health challenges associated with mosquito-borne diseases, the larvicidal activity of metallic nanoparticles, food-grade polymeric nano-capsules and insecticides was investigated against larvae of Aedes albopictus as an effective alternate control approach. The Ae. albopictus was identified using sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of COXI, CYTB and ITS2 genes. The characterization of synthesized nanostructures was performed through Zetasizer, UV-VIS spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The mosquito larvae were exposed to varying concentration of nanostructures and insecticides, and their percentage mortality was evaluated at different time intervals of 24 h and 48 h exposure. The highest efficacy was observed in zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) and polymeric nanocapsules FG-Cur E-III (LC50 = 0.24 mg/L, LC90 = 0.6 mg/L) and (LC50 = 3.8 mg/L, LC90 = 9.33 mg/L), respectively, after 24 h; while (LC50 = 0.18 mg/L, LC90 = 0.43 mg/L) and (LC50 = 1.95 mg/L, LC90 = 6.46 mg/L), respectively, after 48 h against fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus. Ag, CuO, NiTiO3 and CoTiO3 nanoparticles evaluated in this study also showed promising larvicidal activity. Although ZnO-NPs proved to be effective larvicides, their possible toxicity (producing ROS species) can limit their use. The curcumin nanostructures (FG-Cur E-III) stabilized by food-grade materials are thought to exert their larvicidal activity by binding to sterol carrier protein-2, and depriving the larvae from the essential dietary cholesterol, and bears effective larvicidal potential as safe alternative for chemical larvicides, due to their environment friendly, food-grade and easy biodegradability.