Early prediction of placenta accreta spectrum in women with prior cesarean delivery using transvaginal ultrasound at 11 to 14 weeks.
Doulaveris Georgios,Ryken Katherine,Papathomas Daphne,Estrada Trejo Fatima,Fazzari Melissa J,Rotenberg Ohad,Stone Joanne,Roman Ashley S,Dar Pe'er
American journal of obstetrics & gynecology MFM
BACKGROUND:There is a growing body of evidence that sonographic signs of placenta accreta spectrum can be observed in the first trimester of pregnancy. The most significant marker is placental location next to or in the scar niche in women with a prior cesarean delivery. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to assess the performance of transvaginal ultrasound in the early prediction of placenta accreta spectrum in women with a prior cesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN:This was a retrospective cohort of women with a history of cesarean delivery who had transvaginal ultrasound at 11 to 14 weeks' gestation between September 2016 and May 2018. Ultrasound reports were reviewed and graded for suspicion of placenta accreta spectrum as follows: Grade 0 (no suspicion) if the placenta is not next to the scar; Grade 1 (intermediate suspicion) if the placenta is next or on the scar; Grade 2 (high suspicion) if the placenta was inside the scar niche. In addition, all images were reviewed and graded by trained specialists blinded to the outcome. The primary outcome was a histologic diagnosis of placenta accreta spectrum. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of first-trimester transvaginal ultrasound to detect placenta accreta spectrum were assessed. RESULTS:In this study, 467 patients were included, and 8 (1.7%) had placenta accreta spectrum at delivery. Using the original report, 442 patients (94.6%) were Grade 0, 20 (4.3%) Grade 1, and 5 (1.1%) Grade 2. The revised grading had 456 patients (97.6%) with Grade 0, 5 (1.1%) with Grade 1, and 6 (1.3%) with Grade 2. Patients with Grade 2 yielded a sensitivity of 62.5% (95% confidence interval, 24.5-91.5), specificity of 100% (95% confidence interval, 99.2-100.0), positive predictive value of 100% (95% confidence interval, 97.0-100.0), and negative predictive value of 99.4% (95% confidence interval, 98.4-99.7). Any sonographic suspicion of placenta accreta spectrum (Grade 1 or Grade 2) had a sensitivity of 75% (95% confidence interval, 34.9-96.8), specificity of 95.9% (95% confidence interval, 93.6-97.5), positive predictive value of 24% (95% confidence interval, 14.8-36.4), and negative predictive value of 99.6% (95% confidence interval, 98.5-99.9). The blinded image review yielded a better specificity (99.1% vs 95.9%; P=.001) and a positive predictive value (63.6% vs 24%; P=.02) with similar sensitivity (87.5% vs 75%; P=.52) and negative predictive value (99.8% vs 99.6%; P=.55). CONCLUSION:Transvaginal ultrasound between 11 and 14 weeks' gestation in women a with prior cesarean delivery can identify at least 3 of 4 cases of placenta accreta spectrum. A finding of placental implantation within the scar niche has high positive predictive value for placenta accreta spectrum. Prospective studies are needed to assess routine screening for placenta accreta spectrum at 11 to 14 weeks' gestation in women with a prior cesarean delivery.
First-trimester abortion complicated with placenta accreta: A systematic review.
Wang Yeou-Lih,Weng Shih-Shien,Huang Wen-Chu
Taiwanese journal of obstetrics & gynecology
Placenta accreta is a potentially life-threatening condition that may complicate a first-trimester abortion in rare occasions, and it can be difficult to recognize. We reviewed the literature in PubMed-indexed English journals through August 2018 for first-trimester postabortal placenta accreta, after which 19 articles and 23 case reports were included. The risk factors for the development of abnormal placentation are previous cesarean section (87%), previous history of uterine curettage (43.5%), and previous history of surgical evacuation of a retained placenta (4.3%). Ten patients (43.5%) had an advanced age (≧35 years). Most patients clinically presented with vaginal bleeding, ranging from intermittent or irregular bleeding, persistent bleeding, and profuse or massive bleeding. The onset of symptoms might be during the intra- or immediate postoperative period. Some patients had delayed symptoms 1 week to 2 years postoperatively. Conservative management may be attempted as the primary rescue, including uterine artery embolization (UAE), transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) with dactinomycin, and laparoscopic hysterotomy with placental tissue removal. However, most reports in the literature suggested either abdominal or laparoscopic hysterectomy as the definitive treatment for first-trimester postabortal placenta accreta. High index of clinical suspicion with anticipation of placenta accreta in early pregnancy is highly essential for timely diagnosis, providing the physician better opportunities to promptly manage this emergent condition and improve outcomes.
Special Report of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine Placenta Accreta Spectrum Ultrasound Marker Task Force: Consensus on definition of markers and approach to the ultrasound examination in pregnancies at risk for placenta accreta spectrum.
Shainker Scott A,Coleman Beverly,Timor-Tritsch Ilan E,Bhide Amarnath,Bromley Bryann,Cahill Alison G,Gandhi Manisha,Hecht Jonathan L,Johnson Katherine M,Levine Deborah,Mastrobattista Joan,Philips Jennifer,Platt Lawrence D,Shamshirsaz Alireza A,Shipp Thomas D,Silver Robert M,Simpson Lynn L,Copel Joshua A,Abuhamad Alfred,
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
Placenta accreta spectrum includes the full range of abnormal placental attachment to the uterus or other structures, encompassing placenta accreta, placenta increta, placenta percreta, morbidly adherent placenta, and invasive placentation. The incidence of placenta accreta spectrum has increased in recent years, largely driven by increasing rates of cesarean delivery. Prenatal detection of placenta accreta spectrum is primarily made by ultrasound and is important to reduce maternal morbidity associated with the condition. Despite a large body of research on various placenta accreta spectrum ultrasound markers and their screening performance, inconsistencies in the literature persist. In response to the need for standardizing the definitions of placenta accreta spectrum markers and the approach to the ultrasound examination, the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine convened a task force with representatives from the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the American College of Radiology, the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, the Society for Radiologists in Ultrasound, the American Registry for Diagnostic Medical Sonography, and the Gottesfeld-Hohler Memorial Ultrasound Foundation. The goals of the task force were to assess placenta accreta spectrum sonographic markers on the basis of available data and expert consensus, provide a standardized approach to the prenatal ultrasound evaluation of the uterus and placenta in pregnancies at risk of placenta accreta spectrum, and identify research gaps in the field. This manuscript provides information on the Placenta Accreta Spectrum Task Force process and findings.
Influence factors and pregnancy outcomes for pernicious placenta previa with placenta accreta.
Hou Yiping,Zhou Xihong,Shi Lihong,Peng Jinli,Wang Sai
Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences
OBJECTIVES:To explore the influence factors for pernicious placenta previa (PPP) with placenta accreta and pregnancy outcomes of different types of PPP. METHODS:A case-control study was conducted to collect 410 PPP patients admitted to a general hospital in Changsha from December 2013 to February 2018. Two hundred and fifty cases of PPP with placenta accreta were treated as a case group, and 160 cases of PPP without placenta accreta were treated as a control group. The relationship between clinical data and placenta accreta was analyzed, and the pregnancy outcomes of PPP was observed according to different types of placenta previa. RESULTS:Logistic regression showed that delivery times were more than 2 (OR=3.221), cesarean section times were more than 2 (OR=3.048), central placenta previa (OR=3.607), placental attachment site (anterior wall) (OR=4.592) were independent risk factors for PPP with placenta accrete (<0.05). Living in cities (OR=0.614), systematic prenatal examination (OR=0.590) were protective factors (<0.05). Average intraoperative blood loss, postpartum bleeding rate, hysterectomy rate in the central group were all higher than those in the marginal and low-set group. The incidence rates of ICU transfer, complications, and hospital stay were higher or longer than those in the marginal group (<0.008). There was no significant difference in stillbirth rate among the 4 groups (>0.05). Preterm delivery rate was higher than that of the marginal and low-set group, and the birth weight was lower than that of the low-set group. Apgar score at 1 min and asphyxia rate were lower and higher than those of the other 3 groups, respectively (<0.008). CONCLUSIONS:Delivery times (>2), cesarean section times (≥2), central placenta previa, placenta attachment site (anterior wall) are independent risk factors for PPP with placenta accreta. Living in cities, systematic prenatal examination were protective factors. The central PPP is more likely to lead to postpartum hemorrhage, hysterectomy, and increases in the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight as well as asphyxia of fetus, which seriously threatens maternal and fetal life.
First trimester serum PAPP-A is associated with placenta accreta: a retrospective study.
Wang Fengge,Chen Shuxiong,Wang Jishui,Wang Yangping,Ruan Fang,Shu Hua,Zhu Liangxi,Man Dongmei
Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
PURPOSE:Our objective of this study was to investigate whether first trimester serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) differed amongst pregnancies with placenta previa-accreta and non-adherent placenta previa and healthy pregnancies by a retrospective cohort analysis. METHODS:A total of 177 pregnant females were included in the study, as follows: 35 cases of placenta previa-accreta, 30 cases of non-adherent placenta previa, and 112 cases of BMI and age matched, healthy pregnant controls. PAPP-A multiples of the median (MoM) were acquired from laboratory data files in 1 January 2017-30 September 2019. The probable maternal serum biochemical predictor of placenta accreta was analyzed by using multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS:PAPP-A MoM of placenta previa-accreta group was significantly higher than those of the non-adherent placenta previa group and control group (p = 0.009 < 0.05, p < 0.001). Serum PAPP-A was found to be significantly positively associated with placenta accreta after adjusted gestational week at time of blood sampling, BMI, age, smoking, and previous cesarean section history (OR: 3.51; 95% CI: 1.77-6.94; p = 0.0003 < 0.05). In addition, smoking (OR: 9.17; 95% CI: 1.69-49.62; p = 0.010 < 0.05) and previous cesarean section history (OR: 2.75; 95% CI: 1.23-6.17; p = 0.014 < 0.05) were also significantly associated with placenta accreta. CONCLUSION:Increased first trimester serum PAPP-A was significantly positively associated with placenta accreta, suggesting that the potential role of PAPP-A in identifying pregnancies at high risk for placenta accreta. Smoking and previous cesarean section history may be the risk factors for accreta in placenta previa patients.
Placenta accreta spectrum: biomarker discovery using plasma proteomics.
Shainker Scott A,Silver Robert M,Modest Anna M,Hacker Michele R,Hecht Jonathan L,Salahuddin Saira,Dillon Simon T,Ciampa Erin J,D'Alton Mary E,Otu Hasan H,Abuhamad Alfred Z,Einerson Brett D,Branch D Ware,Wylie Blair J,Libermann Towia A,Karumanchi S Ananth
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
BACKGROUND:Many cases of placenta accreta spectrum are not diagnosed antenatally, despite identified risk factors and improved imaging methods. Identification of plasma protein biomarkers could further improve the antenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta spectrum . OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to determine if women with placenta accreta spectrum have a distinct plasma protein profile compared with control subjects. STUDY DESIGN:We obtained plasma samples before delivery from 16 participants with placenta accreta spectrum and 10 control subjects with similar gestational ages (35.1 vs 35.5 weeks gestation, respectively). We analyzed plasma samples with an aptamer-based proteomics platform for alterations in 1305 unique proteins. Heat maps of the most differentially expressed proteins (T test, P<.01) were generated with matrix visualization and analysis software. Principal component analysis was performed with the use of all 1305 proteins and the top 21 dysregulated proteins. We then confirmed dysregulated proteins using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and report significant differences between placenta accreta spectrum and control cases (Wilcoxon-rank sum test, P<.05). RESULTS:Many of the top 50 proteins that significantly dysregulated in participants with placenta accreta spectrum were inflammatory cytokines, factors that regulate vascular remodeling, and extracellular matrix proteins that regulate invasion. Placenta accreta spectrum, with the use of the top 21 proteins, distinctly separated the placenta accreta spectrum cases from control cases (P<.01). Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we confirmed 4 proteins that were dysregulated in placenta accreta spectrum compared with control cases: median antithrombin III concentrations (240.4 vs 150.3 mg/mL; P=.002), median plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 concentrations (4.1 vs 7.1 ng/mL; P<.001), soluble Tie2 (13.5 vs 10.4 ng/mL; P=.02), soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (9.0 vs 5.9 ng/mL; P=.003). CONCLUSION:Participants with placenta accreta spectrum had a unique and distinct plasma protein signature.