10 cases of umbilical cord thrombosis in the third trimester.
Zhu Ying,Beejadhursing Rajluxmee,Liu Yanyan
Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
BACKGROUND:Thrombosis of umbilical vessels is a rare occurrence that is difficult to detect during routine antenatal examinations but can lead to poor perinatal outcomes. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study is to examine the association between meaningful clinical manifestations and features associated with thrombosis of umbilical vessels, and to evaluate optimal management options. METHODS:A retrospective study of umbilical cord thrombi cases enrolled between 2015-2019 was carried out. Data were analyzed from the medical archives where the diagnosis of all cases was established by histopathology. RESULTS:Gross examination reported additional cord abnormalities (7/10), including the irregular length of the umbilical cord, narrowed cord with hyper-coiling, swollen cord with deficiency of Wharton's jelly, placenta velamentous and umbilical infarction. Pathological examination accounted for 10 cases of umbilical cord thrombosis including umbilical artery embolism (3/10), umbilical vein thrombi (5/10) and funisitis (2/10). Clinical findings depicted that the chief complaint was decreased fetal movement companied by nonreactive NST tests (5/10). With the exception of two stillbirths, the remaining pregnancies (8/10) were terminated by cesarean section. All neonates are alive, including one VLBW and three LBW cases. CONCLUSION:We have observed that umbilical structural dysplasia, maternal coagulation disorder, vascular endothelial injury and elevated blood glucose may lead to the formation of thrombosis. Focus on specific signs during a prenatal ultrasound, EFM monitoring and counting fetal movements can help in early identification of umbilical cord thrombi. Our results support the more effective approach of emergency cesarean section during the third trimester.