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    Distinction between SGA and FGR by means of fetal umbilical vein flow and maternal hemodynamics. Farsetti Daniele,Pometti Francesca,Tiralongo Grazia Maria,Lo Presti Damiano,Pisani Ilaria,Gagliardi Giulia,Vasapollo Barbara,Novelli Gian Paolo,Valensise Herbert The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians OBJECTIVES:To improve identification of fetal growth restriction (FGR) by means of umbilical venous flow (QUV) and maternal hemodynamics, including systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and cardiac output (CO), in order to distinguish between FGR and SGA. METHODS:We enrolled 68 pregnancies (36 SGA, 8 early FGR and 24 late FGR) who underwent a complete fetal hemodynamic examination including QUV and a noninvasive maternal hemodynamics assessment by means of USCOM. RESULTS:In comparison with SGA, QUV and corrected for estimated fetal weight QUV (cQUV) were significantly lower in early and late-FGR. In addition, maternal CO was lower in early and late-FGR, while SVR was lower only in early-onset FGR. According to ROC analysis, cQUV centile (AUC 0.92, 0.72) was the best parameter for the prediction of SGA before and after 32 weeks, followed by SVR and CO. For all parameters, the prediction was always better in the case of early-onset FGR <32 weeks. CONCLUSIONS:UV flow and maternal hemodynamics examination are useful tools to accurately discern between SGA and FGR. 10.1080/14767058.2021.1918091
    Impact of chronic hypoxemia on blood flow to the brain, heart, and adrenal gland in the late-gestation IUGR sheep fetus. Poudel Rajan,McMillen I Caroline,Dunn Stacey L,Zhang Song,Morrison Janna L American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology In the fetus, there is a redistribution of cardiac output in response to acute hypoxemia, to maintain perfusion of key organs, including the brain, heart, and adrenal glands. There may be a similar redistribution of cardiac output in the chronically hypoxemic, intrauterine growth-restricted fetus. Surgical removal of uterine caruncles in nonpregnant ewe results in the restriction of placental growth (PR) and intrauterine growth. Vascular catheters were implanted in seven control and six PR fetal sheep, and blood flow to organs was determined using microspheres. Placental and fetal weight was significantly reduced in the PR group. Despite an increase in the relative brain weight in the PR group, there was no difference in blood flow to the brain between the groups, although PR fetuses had higher blood flow to the temporal lobe. Adrenal blood flow was significantly higher in PR fetuses, and there was a direct relationship between mean gestational PaO2 and blood flow to the adrenal gland. There was no change in blood flow, but a decrease in oxygen and glucose delivery to the heart in the PR fetuses. In another group, there was a decrease in femoral artery blood flow in the PR compared with the Control group, and this may support blood flow changes to the adrenal and temporal lobe. In contrast to the response to acute hypoxemia, these data show that there is a redistribution of blood flow to the adrenals and temporal lobe, but not the heart or whole brain, in chronically hypoxemic PR fetuses in late gestation. 10.1152/ajpregu.00036.2014
    Inferior Adrenal Artery PI in Fetuses with IUGR: Value Indicating Early Blood Redistribution and Steroidogenic Response. Xu Ran,Zhu Ziling,Tang Wenjuan,Zhou Qichang,Zeng Shi The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism OBJECTIVE:To characterize the inferior adrenal artery (IAA) pulsatility index (PI) in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetuses without brain sparing. METHODS:Twenty-three IUGR fetuses with a normal Doppler cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) and 23 normal controls were included in this prospective cross-sectional study. The PI of the IAA was recorded using routine transabdominal Doppler ultrasound. The differences in Doppler characteristics, perinatal outcomes, and steroidogenesis in the umbilical vein at birth (adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] and cortisol [F] levels) were compared between the 2 groups. The correlations between IAA-PI and steroidogenesis were assessed in the IUGR group. RESULTS:IAA-PI was significantly lower in IUGR fetuses than in normal controls (0.85 vs 1.18 at first scan, 0.78 vs 0.92 at last scan; both P < 0.001). The plasma F and ACTH levels in IUGR cases were significantly higher than those of the normal controls (18.2 vs 12.4 µg/dL and 280.5 vs 125.6 pg/mL for F and ACTH, respectively; both P < 0.001). There were negative correlations between IAA-PI and plasma F values and between IAA-PI and ACTH values in the IUGR group (r = -0.774 and -0.82 at first scan, r = -0.525 and -0.45 at last scan, respectively; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION:Increased adrenal gland blood flow with concomitant increases in ACTH and F levels were observed in IUGR fetuses. IAA-PI is useful to assess early blood redistribution and may be beneficial for evaluating the steroidogenic response in high-risk pregnancies. 10.1210/clinem/dgaa610
    Early sonographic evaluation of the placenta in cases with IUGR: a pilot study. Walter Adeline,Böckenhoff Paul,Geipel Annegret,Gembruch Ulrich,Engels Alexander C Archives of gynecology and obstetrics PURPOSE:The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and value of measuring early placental echogenicity to predict fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). METHODS:This is a single center, retrospective cohort study. Early ultrasound examination (6 + o to 8 + 6 weeks of gestation in singleton pregnancies) was used to measure placental dimensions and placental echogenicity. A ratio between placental echogenicity and myometrial echogenicity (PE/ME-ratio) was calculated for each patient. Study population was assigned to either the IUGR group or the control group based on clinical data. RESULTS:184 eligible pregnancies were analysed. 49 patients were included in our study. Of those, 9 (18.37%) cases were affected by IUGR and 40 (81.63%) were controls. Measuring the placental echogenicity was feasible in all cases. IUGR neonates had a significant lower placental echogenicity (1.20 (± 0.24) vs. 1.64 (± 0.60), p = 0.033), but no significant differences in the other placental outcomes were observed. CONCLUSION:Our results showed that measuring placental echogenicity is feasible in the early first trimester and demonstrated a significantly lower placental echogenicity in fetuses with subsequent IUGR. Further prospective studies are needed to validate those results. 10.1007/s00404-020-05601-7
    MicroRNA-206 predicts raised fetal growth retardation risk through the interaction with vascular endothelial growth factor in pregnancies. Li Ying,Liu Jiaqiang Medicine This study aimed to investigate the correlation of microRNA (miR)-206, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and miR-206/VEGF axis at different gestational ages with fetal growth retardation (FGR) risk in pregnancies.Eight hundred twenty pregnancies were consecutively recruited and their plasma samples were collected at early pregnancy (gestational age ≤ 13 weeks), middle pregnancy (gestational age: 14-27 weeks) and late pregnancy (gestational age ≥ 28 weeks), respectively. miR-206 expression and VEGF level in plasma were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay respectively. FGR was diagnosed based on the actual birth weight of fetus.miR-206 expression was negatively correlated with VEGF expression at early pregnancy, middle pregnancy and late pregnancy. Besides, miR-206 expression and miR-206/VEGF axis were elevated, but VEGF expression was decreased along with the increased gestational age. There were 74 FGR pregnancies and 746 non-FGR pregnancies. And both miR-206 expression and miR-206/VEGF axis were increased, but VEGF expression was reduced in FGR group compared to non-FGR group at early pregnancy, middle pregnancy and late pregnancy. Additionally, miR-206, VEGF and miR-206/VEGF axis at middle pregnancy and late pregnancy all showed good predictive values for FGR risk, and these indexes at late pregnancy exhibited the numerically highest predictive value for FGR risk. Furthermore, compared to miR-206 or VEGF alone, miR-206/VEGF axis presented with numerically higher predictive value for FGR risk.miR-206 predicts raised FGR risk through the interaction with VEGF in pregnancies, and it may serve as a novel biomarker for FGR prevention. 10.1097/MD.0000000000018897