Patterns of Nutrient Intake in Relation to Sarcopenia and Its Components. Bagheri Amir,Hashemi Rezvan,Heshmat Ramin,Motlagh Ahmadreza Dorosty,Esmaillzadeh Ahmad Frontiers in nutrition Despite the associations between individual nutrients and sarcopenia, we are aware of no information about the link between patterns of nutrient intake and odds of sarcopenia and its components. The present study aimed to examine the association between nutrient-based dietary patterns and sarcopenia and its components among the Iranian adult population. In this population-based, cross-sectional study, we enrolled 300 elderly adults (150 men and 150 women) aged ≥55 years by using a cluster random sampling method. Dietary intakes of the study population were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Principal component analysis was conducted to derive nutrient patterns based on a daily intake of 33 nutrients. Muscle mass, muscle strength, and gait speed were measured according to standard methods. Sarcopenia and its components were defined based on the European Working Group on Sarcopenia. Three major nutrient-based dietary patterns were identified: (1) the "pro-vit pattern" that was high in pantothenic (B5), cobalamin (B12), calcium, protein, phosphor, riboflavin (B2), zinc, cholesterol, saturated fat, folate, niacin (B3), selenium, vitamin D, vitamin K, and vitamin A; (2) the "anti-inflammatory" pattern, which was rich in polyunsaturated fat, monounsaturated fat, copper, vitamin E, omega-3, magnesium, iron, pyridoxine (B6), sodium, and caffeine; and (3) the "carbo-vit" patternm which is characterized by high intake of fructose, glucose, dietary fiber, biotin, potassium, thiamin (B1), vitamin C, and chromium. After adjusting for confounders, subjects in the top tertile of the anti-inflammatory pattern had lower odds of sarcopenia (OR 0.25; 95% CI 0.10-0.63) and low muscle strength (OR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.22-0.96) than those in the bottom tertile. Greater adherence to the carbo-vit pattern was inversely associated with the odds of low gait speed (OR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.235-0.93). Major nutrient-based dietary patterns were significantly associated with sarcopenia and its components. Further studies are required to confirm our findings. 10.3389/fnut.2021.645072
    The anti-osteoporosis effects of Vitamin K in postmenopausal women. Liu Yuan,He Yuan,He Baorong,Kong Lingbo Current stem cell research & therapy As a common systemically muscular-skeleton disorder in aging, osteoporosis is characterized by the uninterrupted deconstruction in osseous microarchitecture. Osteoporosis can consequently lead to a significantly high risk of osteoporotic fractures, such as osteoporotic vertebral compressive fractures [OVCF] in the spine and osteoporotic femoral neck fractures, which can significantly increase the numbers of mortality and morbidity in aging people, especially in postmenopausal women. In addition, vitamin K has been demonstrated to play a key role in inhibiting osteoporotic fractures among postmenopausal women, but its long-term benefits, potential harms, and effects of the combination between vitamin K and other anti-osteoporosis medicines such as bisphosphonates or teriparatide were just extensively studied. Therefore, the present review aimed to systematically reviewed published literature on the role of vitamin K in the treatment of osteoporosis. We currently, via multiple queries strategy, searched the relevant literature in Cochrane and PubMed from January 2010 to December 2019. Subsequently, we conducteda systematic review according to the standard guideline of Preferred Reporting Item for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses [PRISMA]. Finally, ten relevant works of literature met our current criteria for inclusion, and then we followed the PRISMA guideline and systematically reviewed each study by the categorized data sources and analytical approaches in each study, meanwhile set up variables and defined each study outcomes. 10.2174/1574888X16666210512020103
    Safety and efficacy of an additive consisting of synthetic vitamin K (phytomenadione) for horses (JARAZ Enterprises GmbH & Co. KG). ,Bampidis Vasileios,Azimonti Giovanna,Bastos Maria de Lourdes,Christensen Henrik,Dusemund Birgit,Fašmon Durjava Mojca,Kouba Maryline,López-Alonso Marta,López Puente Secundino,Marcon Francesca,Mayo Baltasar,Pechová Alena,Petkova Mariana,Ramos Fernando,Sanz Yolanda,Villa Roberto Edoardo,Woutersen Ruud,Groop Jürgen,Anguita Montserrat,Galobart Jaume,Holczknecht Orsolya,Manini Paola,Pettenati Elisa,Pizzo Fabiola,Tarrés-Call Jordi EFSA journal. European Food Safety Authority Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of a feed additive consisting of vitamin K (phytomenadione) produced by chemical synthesis when used as a nutritional additive in complementary feed of horses at a maximum supplemental level of 14 mg vitamin K/horse per day. The use of vitamin K1 is safe when used as a feed additive for horses under the proposed conditions of use. The use of vitamin K1 in nutrition of horses under the proposed conditions of use is considered safe for the consumer and the environment. No exposure of users by inhalation is expected. The Panel cannot conclude on the potential of the additive to be a skin and eye irritant. Vitamin K1 is considered a moderate dermal sensitiser. Vitamin K1 is an effective source of vitamin K in horse nutrition. The Panel recommends that the specifications of the additive refer to the substance-related impurities listed in the most updated monograph of the European Pharmacopoeia. 10.2903/j.efsa.2021.6538
    Life-threatening complications of hyperemesis gravidarum. Popa Stefan L,Barsan Maria,Caziuc Alexandra,Pop Cristina,Muresan Lucian,Popa Luminita Celia,Perju-Dumbrava Lacramioara Experimental and therapeutic medicine Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) refers to severe nausea and emesis noted during pregnancy. However, no consensus exists on the specific diagnostic criteria that can be used for this condition. The aim of the present systematic review was to summarize the available evidence regarding the severe complications observed during HG with a heightened risk of fatality. A systematic search was conducted on PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and WILEY databases for the relevant publications regarding the severe and life-threatening complications of HG. The search terms were as follows: '(Hyperemesis gravidarum)' AND ('complications' OR 'severe' OR 'adverse pregnancy outcomes' OR 'stroke' OR 'seizures' OR 'Wernicke's encephalopathy' OR 'arrhythmias' OR 'pneumomediastinum' OR 'coagulopathy' OR 'electrolytic imbalance'). Abstracts, conference presentations, letters to the editor, studies written in languages other than English and editorials were all excluded. This search identified 43 studies analyzing life-threatening complications of HG, of which 11, seven, eight and 17 articles analyzed neurological, cardiovascular, thoracic and systemic complications, respectively. Reports on life-threatening complications were exceptionally rare in HG. The most frequent severe complications noted were Wernicke's encephalopathy, electrolyte imbalance and vitamin K deficiency. The low mortality rate for patients with HG over the last decade could be explained by the high efficiency of modern therapy, and the precise management of every complication according to current guidelines. 10.3892/etm.2021.10074
    Inclusion of dicopper oxide instead of copper sulfate in diets for growing-finishing pigs results in greater final body weight and bone mineralization, but reduced accumulation of copper in the liver. Blavi Laia,Solà David,Monteiro Alessandra,Pérez J Francisco,Stein Hans H Journal of animal science An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of Cu oxide (Cu2O) in diets for growing-finishing pigs improves body weight (BW) and bone mineralization, and reduces accumulation of Cu in the liver compared with pigs fed diets containing Cu sulfate (CuSO4). Two hundred growing pigs (initial BW: 11.5 ± 0.98) kg were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 100 pigs, 5 dietary treatments, 5 pigs per pen, and a total of 8 pens per treatment. Treatments included the negative control (NC) diet that contained 20 mg Cu/kg, and 4 diets in which 125 or 250 mg Cu/kg from CuSO4 or Cu2O were added to the NC diet. The experiment was divided into 4 phases and concluded when pigs reached market weight. Pig weights were recorded on d 1 and at the end of each phase and feed provisions were recorded throughout the experiment. On the last d of phases 1 and 4, one pig per pen was sacrificed to obtain samples of liver and spleen tissue, and the right metacarpal was collected. Results indicated that pigs fed diets containing 250 mg Cu/kg from CuSO4 had greater BW at the end of phases 1 and 2 than pigs fed NC diets. Pigs fed diets containing 250 mg Cu/kg from Cu2O had greater (P < 0.05) BW at the end of phases 1, 2, 3, and 4 compared with pigs fed NC diets, and these pigs also had greater BW at the end of phases 3 and 4 than pigs fed all other diets. Pigs fed the diets with 250 mg Cu/kg tended to have greater (P < 0.10) feed intake than pigs fed the NC diet at the end of phase 2, and for the overall experimental period, pigs fed diets containing 250 mg Cu/kg from Cu2O had greater (P < 0.05) feed intake than pigs on all other treatments. However, no differences in gain:feed ratio were observed among treatments. Copper accumulation in liver and spleen increased with Cu dose, but at the end of phase 1, pigs fed 250 mg Cu/kg from CuSO4 had greater (P < 0.05) Cu concentration in liver and spleen than pigs fed 250 mg Cu/kg from Cu2O. Pigs fed diets containing 250 mg Cu/kg from Cu2O had greater (P < 0.05) quantities of bone ash and greater (P < 0.05) concentrations of Ca, P, and Cu in bone ash than pigs fed NC diets or the 2 diets containing CuSO4, but Zn concentration in bone ash was less (P < 0.05) in pigs fed diets containing 250 mg Cu/kg from Cu2O. To conclude, supplementing diets for growing pigs with Cu2O improves growth performance and bone mineralization with less Cu accumulation in liver compared with pigs fed diets containing CuSO4. 10.1093/jas/skab127
    Recurrent Intracranial Bleed in 3 Siblings: Short of a Shot of Vitamin K! Mahajan Vidushi,Tahlan Anita,Azad Chandrika,Ahluwalia Jasmina,Watzka Matthias,Oldenburg Johannes Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology We present a family who suffered recurrent sibling losses due to vitamin K deficiency bleed. The index child was asymptomatic at presentation, had normal clinical examination, and was investigated for coagulation disorders in view of previous 3 sibling losses as a result of intracranial hemorrhage. His investigations showed deranged coagulogram and clotting factors' assay. The baby was given vitamin K1 1 mg intramuscularly following which his coagulogram and clotting factors' assay returned to normal. The genetic analysis did not identify any inherited cause of bleeding tendency. The significant family history, exclusive breastfeeding, no diarrhea, failure to thrive or drug use, no prophylaxis with vitamin K at birth, recovery of clotting factors on vitamin K administration, and a corroborative molecular analysis confirmed diagnosis of vitamin K deficiency in the index child. This case gives a strong reminder not to miss birth dose of vitamin K in any neonate. 10.1097/MPH.0000000000001833
    The ViKTORIES trial: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin K supplementation to improve vascular health in kidney transplant recipients. Lees Jennifer S,Rankin Alastair J,Gillis Keith A,Zhu Luke Y,Mangion Kenneth,Rutherford Elaine,Roditi Giles H,Witham Miles D,Chantler Donna,Panarelli Maurizio,Jardine Alan G,Mark Patrick B American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons Premature cardiovascular disease and death with a functioning graft are leading causes of death and graft loss, respectively, in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Vascular stiffness and calcification are markers of cardiovascular disease that are prevalent in KTR and associated with subclinical vitamin K deficiency. We performed a single-center, phase II, parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ISRCTN22012044) to test whether vitamin K supplementation reduced vascular stiffness (MRI-based aortic distensibility) or calcification (coronary artery calcium score on computed tomography) in KTR over 1 year of treatment. The primary outcome was between-group difference in vascular stiffness (ascending aortic distensibility). KTRs were recruited between September 2017 and June 2018, and randomized 1:1 to vitamin K (menadiol diphosphate 5 mg; n = 45) or placebo (n = 45) thrice weekly. Baseline demographics, clinical history, and immunosuppression regimens were similar between groups. There was no impact of vitamin K on vascular stiffness (treatment effect -0.23 [95% CI -0.75 to 0.29] × 10 mmHg ; p = .377), vascular calcification (treatment effect -141 [95% CI - 320 to 38] units; p = .124), nor any other outcome measure. In this heterogeneous cohort of prevalent KTR, vitamin K supplementation did not reduce vascular stiffness or calcification over 1 year. Improving vascular health in KTR is likely to require a multifaceted approach. 10.1111/ajt.16566
    [Diseases Due to the Deficiency in Vitamin K Conversion System and Its Prevention]. Nakagawa Kimie Yakugaku zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays an important role in blood coagulation and bone formation. Vitamin K has homologues due to differences in the side chain structure, phylloquinone (abbreviated as vitamin K, PK) having a phytyl side chain and menaquinones (MK-n, n=1 to 14) having an isoprenoid side chain structure. The main vitamin K that we take from our daily diet is PK, and a fermented food, natto, contains MK-7 produced by Bacillus subtilis natto. However, the majority of vitamin K present in the tissues of mammals, including humans, is menaquinone-4 (abbreviated as vitamin K, MK-4) having a geranylgeranyl side chain. This reason is that PK or MK-n obtained in the diet is converted into MK-4 in the body. We identified that the UbiA prenyltransferase domain containing protein 1 (UBIAD1) is the conversion enzyme of PK and MK-n to MK-4. The physiological roles of MK-4 in all tissues of the whole body and the physiological significance of MK-4 converted from PK and MK-n by UBIAD1 have not been sufficiently elucidated yet. To investigate the function of UBIAD1 in vivo, we generated UBIAD1 systemic knockout mice and tissue-specific UBIAD1 knockout mice. In this paper, we introduce the usefulness of vitamin K for diseases that may involve vitamin K and UBIAD1. 10.1248/yakushi.20-00243-1
    Effects of Sources and Forms of Vitamin K on Its Storage Stability in Vitamin Premixes or Vitamin Trace Mineral Premixes. Wang Huakai,Yang Pan,Li Longxian,Zhang Nan,Ma Yongxi,Xu Xuexin Animals : an open access journal from MDPI Six types of vitamin K (VK); two sources (menadione sodium bisulfite, MSB; menadione nicotinamide bisulfite, MNB), and three different forms (crystal, micro-capsule, and micro-sphere) were used to determine the retention of VK in vitamin premixes (Experiment 1) or vitamin trace mineral (VTM) premixes (Experiment 2) after 1, 2, 3, and 6 months of storage. The retention of VK in vitamin premixes was evaluated at 25 °C/60% relative humidity or 40 °C/75% relative humidity in an incubator in Experiment 1 and in VTM premixes (choline chloride: 0 vs. 16,000 mg/kg) stored at room temperature in Experiment 2. The VK retention in vitamin premix or VTM premix decreased significantly with the extension of storage time ( < 0.05). In Experiment 1, the VK retention was higher in the 25 °C/60% incubator (56%) than in the 40 °C/75% incubator (28%). The MNB retention (52%) was higher than MSB retention (32%). The retention of VK in micro-capsules (43%) or micro-spheres (48%) was higher than the crystal form (35%) after six months of storage. In Experiment 2, there was no difference between the retention of MSB (49%) or MNB (47%). The retention of VK of micro-capsule (51%) or micro-sphere (54%) was higher than that of crystal form (40%). The VK retention was higher in the choline-free group (51%) than in the choline group (47%) after six months of storage. Finally, the predicted equations of VK retention with storage time in vitamin premixes or VTM premixes were established. The of the prediction equations was ≥0.9005, indicating that time is an important factor in predicting VK retention. In conclusion, the higher temperature-relative humidity, choline had negative effects on VK retention during premix storage. MNB retention was higher than MSB during storage of vitamin premix. The encapsulated forms of VK, micro-capsules and micro-spheres, could improve VK storage stability in vitamin premix and VTM premix. 10.3390/ani11041140
    The Role of Vitamin K in Humans: Implication in Aging and Age-Associated Diseases. Popa Daniela-Saveta,Bigman Galya,Rusu Marius Emil Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland) As human life expectancy is rising, the incidence of age-associated diseases will also increase. Scientific evidence has revealed that healthy diets, including good fats, vitamins, minerals, or polyphenolics, could have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, with antiaging effects. Recent studies demonstrated that vitamin K is a vital cofactor in activating several proteins, which act against age-related syndromes. Thus, vitamin K can carboxylate osteocalcin (a protein capable of transporting and fixing calcium in bone), activate matrix Gla protein (an inhibitor of vascular calcification and cardiovascular events) and carboxylate Gas6 protein (involved in brain physiology and a cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disease inhibitor). By improving insulin sensitivity, vitamin K lowers diabetes risk. It also exerts antiproliferative, proapoptotic, autophagic effects and has been associated with a reduced risk of cancer. Recent research shows that protein S, another vitamin K-dependent protein, can prevent the cytokine storm observed in COVID-19 cases. The reduced activation of protein S due to the pneumonia-induced vitamin K depletion was correlated with higher thrombogenicity and possibly fatal outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Our review aimed to present the latest scientific evidence about vitamin K and its role in preventing age-associated diseases and/or improving the effectiveness of medical treatments in mature adults ˃50 years old. 10.3390/antiox10040566