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    Emerging Approaches to Predict Prognosis and Monitor Disease Progression in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Lynn Evelyn,O'Callaghan Marissa,Sahadevan Abhilash,McCarthy Cormac American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 10.1164/rccm.201906-1209RR
    Treatment of Pulmonary Lymphangioleiomyomatosis during Pregnancy. Yanagisawa Satoru American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 10.1164/rccm.201712-2566LE
    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Sclafani Alyssa,VanderLaan Paul The New England journal of medicine 10.1056/NEJMicm1712581
    Circulating Biomarkers From the Phase 1 Trial of Sirolimus and Autophagy Inhibition for Patients With Lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Lamattina Anthony M,Taveira-Dasilva Angelo,Goldberg Hilary J,Bagwe Shefali,Cui Ye,Rosas Ivan O,Moss Joel,Henske Elizabeth P,El-Chemaly Souheil Chest BACKGROUND:We have previously conducted the Sirolimus and Autophagy Inhibition in LAM (SAIL) trial, a phase 1 dose-escalation study of the combination of sirolimus and hydroxychloroquine in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). The goal of the present study was to analyze sera from the SAIL trial to identify novel biomarkers that could shed light into disease pathogenesis and response to therapy. METHODS:We used the DiscoveryMAP platform from Rules Based Medicine to simultaneously measure 279 analytes in sera collected at each visit from subjects enrolled in the SAIL trial. We used longitudinal regression and pathway analysis to examine analyte rate of change and corresponding effect on lung function and to identify networks and potential nodes of interest. RESULTS:A total of 222 analytes were included in the analysis. We identified 32 analytes that changed over the treatment period of the study. Pathway analysis revealed enrichment in cytokine-receptor interaction and mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin-related pathways, in addition to seemingly unrelated processes such as rheumatoid arthritis. Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins analysis identified two hubs centered around acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha and beta and coagulation factor II. In addition, we identified vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 and CCL21 as molecules significantly associated with changes in FEV during the study period. CONCLUSIONS:We performed a large-scale analyte study in sera of women with LAM and identified potential markers that could be linked to disease pathogenesis, lung injury, and therapeutic response. These data will enable future investigation into the specific roles of these molecules in LAM. TRIAL REGISTRY:ClinicalTrials.gov; No. NCT01687179; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov). 10.1016/j.chest.2018.08.1029
    SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT OF PULMONARY AND LYMPHATIC MANIFESTATIONS OF LYMPHANGIOLEIOMYOMATOSIS WITH SIROLIMUS. Hecimovic A,Jakopovic M,Pavlisa G,Jankovic M,Vukic-Dugac A,Redzepi G,Brcic L,Samarzija M,Gupta N Lymphology Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, progressive, diffuse cystic lung disease predominantly affecting women of child bearing age. Recently treatment with sirolimus was shown to stabilize lung function decline and improve quality of life in patients with LAM. We treated three premenopausal women suffering from LAM manifesting as diffuse cystic lung disease, chylous effusions, and lymphangioleioyomas with sirolimus (1-3 mg a day; sirolimus trough levels 2.9-8.5 ng/ml). All three patients had a remarkable response to sirolimus, with resolution of effusions, improvement in lung function and shrinking of abdominal lymphangioleiomyomas. Our case series further complements the literature in that sirolimus is a safe and effective treatment for LAM and its lymphatic manifestations.
    Efficacy and Safety of Long-Term Sirolimus Therapy for Asian Patients with Lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Takada Toshinori,Mikami Ayako,Kitamura Nobutaka,Seyama Kuniaki,Inoue Yoshikazu,Nagai Katsura,Suzuki Masaru,Moriyama Hiroshi,Akasaka Keiichi,Tazawa Ryushi,Hirai Toyohiro,Mishima Michiaki,Hayashida Mie,Hirose Masaki,Sugimoto Chikatoshi,Arai Toru,Hattori Noboru,Watanabe Kentaro,Tamada Tsutomu,Yoshizawa Hirohisa,Akazawa Kohei,Tanaka Takahiro,Yagi Keita,Young Lisa R,McCormack Francis X,Nakata Koh Annals of the American Thoracic Society RATIONALE:Sirolimus has been shown in a randomized, controlled clinical trial to stabilize lung function in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) treated for a 12-month time period; however the pretreatment decline in lung function after the drug was discontinued indicated that continued exposure is required to suppress disease progression. OBJECTIVES:To elucidate the durability and tolerability of long-term sirolimus treatment in Asian patients with LAM. METHODS:We conducted a single-arm, open-label, investigator-initiated safety and efficacy study of sirolimus in 63 women with LAM at 9 sites in Japan. Subjects received sirolimus for 2 years at doses adjusted to maintain a trough blood level of 5-15 ng/ml. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Fifty-two subjects (82.5%) completed the trial with mean drug compliance of more than 80% overall during the study. The number of adverse events was greatest during the initial 6 months of therapy, but they continued to occur with declining frequency throughout the 2-year study period. Of the 1,549 adverse events, 27 were classified as serious, including reversible sirolimus pneumonitis in 3 patients. New hypercholesterolemia occurred in 30 patients (48%); microcytosis in 10 patients; loss of body weight in 33 patients; and increase in blood pressure that required treatment in 5 patients. FEV, FVC, and quality-of-life parameters were stable in the overall study cohort during the study period, but baseline to 2-year improvements in lung function occurred in the subset of patients with a prior history of chylothorax. CONCLUSIONS:Although long-term sirolimus treatment of Asian patients with LAM was associated with a large number of adverse events, including three episodes of pneumonitis, most patients completed the 2-year course of medication with good drug compliance and stable quality of life and lung function. 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201605-335OC
    Immunotherapy for Lymphangioleiomyomatosis and Tuberous Sclerosis: Progress and Future Directions. Liu Heng-Jia,Krymskaya Vera P,Henske Elizabeth P Chest Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare genetic multisystem disease characterized by the nodular proliferation of smooth muscle-like LAM cells, progressive cystic changes of the lung, lymphatic abnormalities, and renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs). LAM can arise sporadically or in women with the autosomal dominant disorder, tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), in which hamartomatous tumors of brain, heart, skin, kidney, and lung are found. LAM and TSC are caused by mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 tumor suppressor genes leading to elevated mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin complex activity. Recent data indicate that T cells within LAM nodules and renal AMLs exhibit features of T-cell exhaustion, with coinhibitory receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expression on tumor-infiltrating T cells. Treatment of animal models of TSC and LAM with anti-PD-1 antibodies or with the combination of anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA4 antibodies has led to remarkable results, suppressing TSC2-null tumor growth and inducing tumor rejection. Here we review our current knowledge about the potential for immunotherapy for the treatment of LAM and TSC and highlight critical unknowns and key next steps. 10.1016/j.chest.2019.08.005
    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Doubková Martina,Štefániková Marianna,Čan Vladimír,Merta Zdeněk,Svoboda Marek Klinicka onkologie : casopis Ceske a Slovenske onkologicke spolecnosti BACKGROUND:Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare systemic disease that occurs sporadically (S/LAM) or as part of tuberous sclerosis (TS/LAM). LAM is characterized by proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle cells. This disease clinically manifests as dyspnea on exertion and pneumothorax. Lymphadenopathy in the abdominal and pelvic region leading to lymphatic obstruction can also occur. LAM is associated with kidney angiomyolipoma and meningioma. The disease is diagnosed histologically and/or using typical high-resolution computed tomography findings and anamnestic information. In histopathological studies, the diagnosis is supported by detection of characteristic LAM cells. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are possible treatment options. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Ten consecutive patients diagnosed with LAM and pulmonary manifestation (eight with S/LAM and two with TS/LAM) in 2002-2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Their individual clinical characteristics and our treatment experience are described. RESULTS:The patients varied in terms of disease stage. The best predictors of prognosis were lung function parameters (forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide). Four patients are currently being treated with mTOR inhibitors. This treatment stabilized lung functions in all four patients. The median follow-up was 48 months (12-132 months). Median survival was not achieved and only three patients died. CONCLUSION:An interdisciplinary approach is required to care for LAM patients. Cooperation of pneumologists, surgeons, oncologists, and geneticists is needed. Treatment with mTOR inhibitors led to stabilization in our patients. The side effects were well managed. 10.14735/amko2019367
    New guidelines for LAM diagnosis and treatment. Lobo Patricia The Lancet. Respiratory medicine 10.1016/S2213-2600(16)30311-3
    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). Ataya Ali,Brantly Mark,Riley Leonard American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 10.1164/rccm.1984P7
    mTOR treatment in lymphangioleiomyomatosis: the role of everolimus. Yates Deborah H Expert review of respiratory medicine The orphan lung disease lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) has until recently been untreatable other than by lung transplantation. However, improved understanding of underlying disease mechanisms has revealed the central role of constitutive up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in this disease. Although other pathways exist and are under investigation for treatment, several mTOR inhibitors are currently available and emerging information suggests that these may have some efficacy in preventing loss of lung function in LAM. This paper summarizes current understanding of treatment with mTOR inhibitors in LAM, and everolimus in particular. It outlines pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics relevant to the clinician, recent clinical studies, and issues with potential side effects. mTOR treatment is not yet available in most countries for LAM, but current data for treatment efficacy are impressive, and it is hoped that mTOR inhibition will soon be recognised as an important treatment of this disease. 10.1586/17476348.2016.1148603
    Sirolimus Therapy for Patients With Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Leads to Loss of Chylous Ascites and Circulating LAM Cells. Harari Sergio,Elia Davide,Torre Olga,Bulgheroni Elisabetta,Provasi Elena,Moss Joel Chest A young woman received a diagnosis of abdominal, sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and multiple abdominal lymphangioleiomyomas and was referred for recurrent chylous ascites responding only to a fat-free diet. On admission, pulmonary function test (PFT) results showed a moderate reduction in the transfer factor for carbon monoxide with normal exercise performance. The serum vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) level was 2,209 pg/mL. DNA sequences, amplified at loci kg8, D16S3395, D16S3024, D16S521, and D16S291 on chromosome 16p13.3, showed a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) only for kg8. Fat-free total parenteral nutrition in association with sirolimus (2 mg po daily) was initiated. Serum sirolimus levels were maintained at concentrations between 5 and 15 ng/mL. After 1 month, reintroduction of a low-fat oral feeding was achieved without recurrence of ascites. PFT results were stable. Interestingly, clinical improvement was associated with a reduction in the VEGF-D serum level (1,558 pg/mL). LOH at the kg8 biomarker in blood LAM cells was no longer detected. 10.1016/j.chest.2016.02.654
    [Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis: From pathogenesis to management]. Chebib N,Khouatra C,Lazor R,Archer F,Leroux C,Gamondes D,Thivolet-Bejui F,Cordier J F,Cottin V Revue des maladies respiratoires INTRODUCTION:Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease affecting mainly young women. BACKGROUND:The respiratory manifestations are characterized by a progressive cystic destruction of the lung parenchyma. Extrapulmonary involvement includes benign renal tumours called angiomyolipomas and abdominal lymphatic masses called lymphangioleiomyomas. At the pathological level, the cellular proliferation found in LAM is in part due to the presence of mutations in the tumour suppressor genes TSC1 and TSC2 (Tuberous Sclerosis Complex). These mutations lead to the activation of the mTOR pathway, which is currently the main therapeutic target. mTOR inhibitors such as sirolimus or everolimus have shown a beneficial effect on the decline in pulmonary function and a reduction of angiomyolipoma size, but are necessary in only some patients. PERSPECTIVES:LAM cells have migratory properties mediated by the formation of new lymphatic vessels. They are also able to secrete metalloproteases, which enhance their invasiveness. Moreover, the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors by LAM cells suggests a possible role for sex hormones in the pathogenesis of the disease. CONCLUSION:A better understanding of mTOR-independent mechanisms would allow the development of novel therapeutic approaches. 10.1016/j.rmr.2015.10.005
    Cross-sectional study of reversible airway obstruction in LAM: better evidence is needed for bronchodilator and inhaled steroid use. Johnson Jan,Johnson Simon R Thorax Lymphangioleiomyomatosis can be associated with reversible airflow obstruction and although no guidelines around reversibility testing or inhaled therapy exist, many patients receive bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids. To better identify those who may benefit, we examined bronchodilator reversibility and inhaled therapy in a national cohort of 213 subjects. 20% of those tested had airway reversibility by standard criteria. 55% of patients used 13 different combinations of bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids. Increasing inhaler classes were associated with reversibility and more rapid FEV decline. Reversibility testing should be performed in all patients and inhaled therapy should be formally studied. 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2019-213338
    The next breakthrough in LAM clinical trials may be their design: challenges in design and execution of future LAM clinical trials. El-Chemaly Souheil,Henske Elizabeth P Expert review of respiratory medicine The past decade has resulted in stunning progress in the pathogenesis and therapy of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), culminating in the pivotal 'MILES' trial, the first-ever randomized, placebo-controlled trial in LAM, demonstrating the efficacy of sirolimus in 2011. Here, we review clinical progress since 2011, focusing on new therapeutic and observational trials. These trials include the second randomized, placebo-controlled trial, a 2-year study of doxycycline effectiveness in LAM. Other clinical studies have addressed lower-dose sirolimus and treatment of pulmonary hypertension. An improved understanding of LAM pathogenesis is essential to future therapeutic breakthroughs. Critical questions that remain to be addressed include the role of estrogen and lymphangiogenesis in LAM pathogenesis and therapy, mechanisms of cystic lung destruction, the role of autophagy and pro-survival pathways in LAM cell survival. Ultimately, achieving future 'breakthroughs' in LAM will require continued rigorous basic and preclinical investigation, innovative clinical trial design and robust biomarkers. 10.1586/17476348.2015.1024663
    Minireview: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): The "Other" Steroid-Sensitive Cancer. Prizant Hen,Hammes Stephen R Endocrinology Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a devastating rare lung disease affecting primarily childbearing age women in which tumors consisting of abnormal smooth-muscle-like cells grow within the lungs and progressively lead to loss of pulmonary function. LAM cells metastasize to the lungs, predominantly through the lymphatics; however, the source of the LAM cell is still unknown. LAM cells contain inactivating mutations in genes encoding tuberous sclerosis 1 or 2, proteins that normally limit cell growth through suppression of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1. As of today, sirolimus (an mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 inhibitor) is the only treatment, available for LAM patients that is approved by the Food and Drug Administration; however, this drug and others in its class provide stabilization but not remission of LAM. One of the biggest problems in treating LAM is that both the origin of the LAM cells and the mechanism of the sexual dimorphism in LAM are still not understood. LAM cells express estrogen and progesterone receptors, and lung function declines during periods of high circulating estrogen levels. Moreover, numerous basic research studies find that estrogen is a key driving force in LAM cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis. In this review, we highlight recent insights regarding the role of steroid hormones in LAM and discuss possible explanations for the profound female sexual dimorphism of LAM. 10.1210/en.2016-1395
    Long-term stable lung function and second uncomplicated pregnancy on sirolimus in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). Faehling Martin,Wienhausen-Wilke Vera,Fallscheer Sabine,Trinajstic-Schulz B,Weber J,Leschke Matthias Sarcoidosis, vasculitis, and diffuse lung diseases : official journal of WASOG We present a patient with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) on long-term sirolimus (now 79 months) who has had a second successful pregnancy. The second pregnancy on uninterrupted low-dose sirolimus (plasma levels 3-5 mg/L) was uncomplicated both with respect to mother and child suggesting that low-dose sirolimus might be safe in selected pregnant patients with stable LAM. The long-term time course in this patient is in agreement with recent reports of a long-term beneficial effect of sirolimus in LAM. In this patient, the pregnancies did not seem to impair the long-term improvement of lung-function on sirolimus.
    Evaluation of the extent of pulmonary cysts and their association with functional variables and serum markers in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). Baldi Bruno Guedes,Araujo Mariana Sponholz,Freitas Carolina Salim Gonçalves,da Silva Teles Gustavo Borges,Kairalla Ronaldo Adib,Dias Olívia Meira,Pereira Daniel Antunes Silva,Pimenta Suzana Pinheiro,Carvalho Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Lung PURPOSE:Although computed tomography (CT) has been used previously to assess disease severity in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), the associations between the extent of pulmonary cysts on CT and six-minute walk test (6MWT), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-D) are not well established. We performed a cross-sectional study to quantify the extent of pulmonary cysts in CT and to establish their correlations with pulmonary function tests (PFTs), 6MWT results, including a composite index (desaturation-distance ratio, DDR), and levels of VEGF-D and MMPs in LAM. METHODS:Twenty-three LAM patients underwent CT scanning to automatically quantify the extent of pulmonary cysts and performed PFTs and 6MWT. Serum levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF-D were also measured. RESULTS:The severity of pulmonary cystic involvement was mild (the extent of cysts was 6.8 %) and correlated best with FEV1/FVC (r = -0.84), residual volume (r = 0.66), DLCO (r = -0.82), the DDR index (r = 0.77), and desaturation during the 6MWT (r = -0.81). There was a weak correlation with VEGF-D (r = 0.45), but no association was found with MMP-2 and MMP-9. CONCLUSIONS:The severity of pulmonary cystic involvement was mild in this sample of LAM patients and correlated best with airway obstruction, air trapping, reduced DLCO, the DDR index, and desaturation during the 6MWT. Serum VEGF-D cannot be completely defined as a valuable marker of disease severity and there may be a mechanism independent of MMPs to explain the formation of pulmonary cysts. 10.1007/s00408-014-9641-2
    Mayo clinic experience of lung transplantation in pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Ussavarungsi Kamonpun,Hu Xiaowen,Scott J P,Erasmus David B,Mallea Jorge M,Alvarez Francisco,Lee Augustine S,Keller Cesar A,Ryu Jay H,Burger Charles D Respiratory medicine OBJECTIVES:Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, cystic lung disease that generally results in progressive decline in lung function. Despite advancement of pharmacological therapy for LAM, lung transplantation remains an important option for women with end-stage LAM. METHODS:Patients with LAM undergoing lung transplantation at the Mayo Clinic campuses in Rochester, Minnesota and Jacksonville, Florida since 1995 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS:Overall, 12 women underwent lung transplantation. Nine of 12 (75%) underwent double lung transplant. The mean age was 42 ± 8 years at the time of transplant. One patient (8%) had a chylothorax and 7 (58%) had recurrent pneumothoraces, 4 (33%) of which required pleurodesis. All had diffuse, cystic lung disease on chest CT consistent with LAM which was confirmed in the explant of all patients. The average length of ICU and hospital stays were 5 ± 4 and 19 ± 19 days, respectively. Mild to moderate anastomotic ischemia was evident in all patients but resolved with time. No patient was treated with sirolimus pre-transplant. Seven patients received sirolimus post-transplant; however, clinical benefit was documented in only 2 patients, 1 of which was treated for large retroperitoneal cysts with ureteral obstruction and another with persistent chylothorax and retroperitoneal lymphangioleimyomas. Five patients are deceased. The median survival by Kaplan-Meier analysis was 119 months with a median follow-up of 68 months (range 2-225 months). CONCLUSIONS:Lung transplant remains a viable treatment for patients with end-stage LAM. The role of sirolimus peri-transplantation remains ill-defined. 10.1016/j.rmed.2015.08.014