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    A first-in-human phase 1 study of a hepcidin monoclonal antibody, LY2787106, in cancer-associated anemia. Vadhan-Raj Saroj,Abonour Rafat,Goldman Jonathan W,Smith David A,Slapak Christopher A,Ilaria Robert L,Tiu Ramon V,Wang Xuejing,Callies Sophie,Cox Joanne,Tuttle Jay L,Lau Yiu-Keung,Roeland Eric J Journal of hematology & oncology BACKGROUND:Hepcidin plays a central role in iron homeostasis and erythropoiesis. Neutralizing hepcidin with a monoclonal antibody (mAb) may prevent ferroportin internalization, restore iron efflux from cells, and allow transferrin-mediated iron transport to the bone marrow. This multicenter, phase 1 study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and efficacy of a fully humanized mAb (LY2787106) with high affinity for hepcidin in cancer patients with anemia. METHODS:Thirty-three patients with hepcidin levels ≥5 ng/mL received LY2787106 either every 3 weeks (19 patients, dose range 0.3-10 mg/kg) (part A) or weekly (14 patients, dose 10 mg/kg) (part B). LY2787106 PK/PD markers of iron and hematology biology were measured. RESULTS:LY2787106 clearance (32 mL/h) and volume of distribution (7.7 L) were independent of dose and time, leading to a dose-proportional increase in concentration with dose. Consistent dose-dependent increases in serum iron, and transferrin saturation were seen at the 3 and 10 mg/kg dose levels, typically peaking within 24 h after LY2787106 administration and returning to baseline by day 8. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings indicate that LY2787106 was well tolerated in cancer patients with anemia and that targeting the hepcidin-ferroportin pathway by neutralizing hepcidin resulted in transient iron mobilization, thus supporting the role of hepcidin in iron regulation. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrial.gov, NCT01340976. 10.1186/s13045-017-0427-x
    Roxadustat for Anemia in Patients with Kidney Disease Not Receiving Dialysis. Chen Nan,Hao Chuanming,Peng Xiaomei,Lin Hongli,Yin Aiping,Hao Li,Tao Ye,Liang Xinling,Liu Zhengrong,Xing Changying,Chen Jianghua,Luo Laimin,Zuo Li,Liao Yunhua,Liu Bi-Cheng,Leong Robert,Wang Chunrong,Liu Cameron,Neff Thomas,Szczech Lynda,Yu Kin-Hung P The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Roxadustat (FG-4592) is an oral inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase that stimulates erythropoiesis and regulates iron metabolism. In phase 2 studies involving patients with chronic kidney disease, roxadustat increased levels of endogenous erythropoietin to within or near the physiologic range, along with increasing hemoglobin levels and improving iron homeostasis. Additional data are needed regarding the efficacy and safety of roxadustat for the treatment of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease who are not undergoing dialysis. METHODS:In this phase 3 trial conducted at 29 sites in China, we randomly assigned 154 patients with chronic kidney disease in a 2:1 ratio to receive roxadustat or placebo three times a week for 8 weeks in a double-blind manner. All the patients had a hemoglobin level of 7.0 to 10.0 g per deciliter at baseline. The randomized phase of the trial was followed by an 18-week open-label period in which all the patients received roxadustat; parenteral iron was withheld. The primary end point was the mean change from baseline in the hemoglobin level, averaged over weeks 7 through 9. RESULTS:During the primary-analysis period, the mean (±SD) change from baseline in the hemoglobin level was an increase of 1.9±1.2 g per deciliter in the roxadustat group and a decrease of 0.4±0.8 g per deciliter in the placebo group (P<0.001). The mean reduction from baseline in the hepcidin level (associated with greater iron availability) was 56.14±63.40 ng per milliliter in the roxadustat group and 15.10±48.06 ng per milliliter in the placebo group. The reduction from baseline in the total cholesterol level was 40.6 mg per deciliter in the roxadustat group and 7.7 mg per deciliter in the placebo group. Hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis occurred more frequently in the roxadustat group than in the placebo group. The efficacy of roxadustat in hemoglobin correction and maintenance was maintained during the 18-week open-label period. CONCLUSIONS:In Chinese patients with chronic kidney disease who were not undergoing dialysis, those in the roxadustat group had a higher mean hemoglobin level than those in the placebo group after 8 weeks. During the 18-week open-label phase of the trial, roxadustat was associated with continued efficacy. (Funded by FibroGen and FibroGen [China] Medical Technology Development; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02652819.). 10.1056/NEJMoa1813599
    A mouse model of anemia of inflammation: complex pathogenesis with partial dependence on hepcidin. Kim Airie,Fung Eileen,Parikh Sona G,Valore Erika V,Gabayan Victoria,Nemeth Elizabeta,Ganz Tomas Blood Anemia is a common complication of infections and inflammatory diseases, but the few mouse models of this condition are not well characterized. We analyzed in detail the pathogenesis of anemia induced by an injection of heat-killed Brucella abortus and examined the contribution of hepcidin by comparing wild-type (WT) to iron-depleted hepcidin-1 knockout (Hamp-KO) mice. B abortus-treated WT mice developed severe anemia with a hemoglobin nadir at 14 days and partial recovery by 28 days. After an early increase in inflammatory markers and hepcidin, WT mice manifested hypoferremia, despite iron accumulation in the liver. Erythropoiesis was suppressed between days 1 and 7, and erythrocyte destruction was increased as evidenced by schistocytes on blood smears and shortened red blood cell lifespan. Erythropoietic recovery began after 14 days but was iron restricted. In B abortus-treated Hamp-KO compared with WT mice, anemia was milder, not iron restricted, and had a faster recovery. Similarly to severe human anemia of inflammation, the B abortus model shows multifactorial pathogenesis of inflammatory anemia including iron restriction from increased hepcidin, transient suppression of erythropoiesis, and shortened erythrocyte lifespan. Ablation of hepcidin relieves iron restriction and improves the anemia. 10.1182/blood-2013-08-521419
    Management of anaemia in chronic kidney disease: summary of updated NICE guidance. Padhi Smita,Glen Jessica,Pordes Ben A J,Thomas Mark E, BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 10.1136/bmj.h2258
    Momelotinib inhibits ACVR1/ALK2, decreases hepcidin production, and ameliorates anemia of chronic disease in rodents. Asshoff Malte,Petzer Verena,Warr Matthew R,Haschka David,Tymoszuk Piotr,Demetz Egon,Seifert Markus,Posch Wilfried,Nairz Manfred,Maciejewski Pat,Fowles Peter,Burns Christopher J,Smith Gregg,Wagner Kay-Uwe,Weiss Guenter,Whitney J Andrew,Theurl Igor Blood Patients with myelofibrosis (MF) often develop anemia and frequently become dependent on red blood cell transfusions. Results from a phase 2 study for the treatment of MF with the Janus kinase 1/2 (JAK1/2) inhibitor momelotinib (MMB) demonstrated that MMB treatment ameliorated anemia, which was unexpected for a JAK1/2 inhibitor, because erythropoietin-mediated JAK2 signaling is essential for erythropoiesis. Using a rat model of anemia of chronic disease, we demonstrated that MMB treatment can normalize hemoglobin and red blood cell numbers. We found that this positive effect is driven by direct inhibition of the bone morphogenic protein receptor kinase activin A receptor, type I (ACVR1), and the subsequent reduction of hepatocyte hepcidin production. Of note, ruxolitinib, a JAK1/2 inhibitor approved for the treatment of MF, had no inhibitory activity on this pathway. Further, we demonstrated the effect of MMB is not mediated by direct inhibition of JAK2-mediated ferroportin (FPN1) degradation, because neither MMB treatment nor myeloid-specific deletion of JAK2 affected FPN1 expression. Our data support the hypothesis that the improvement of inflammatory anemia by MMB results from inhibition of ACVR1-mediated hepcidin expression in the liver, which leads to increased mobilization of sequestered iron from cellular stores and subsequent stimulation of erythropoiesis. 10.1182/blood-2016-09-740092