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    Three cases of atypical pneumonia caused by Chlamydophila psittaci. Chau S,Tso Eugene Y K,Leung W S,Fung Kitty S C Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi Psittacosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Chlamydophila psittaci. The most common presentation is atypical pneumonia. Three cases of pneumonia of varying severity due to psittacosis are described. All patients had a history of avian contact. The diagnosis was confirmed by molecular detection of Chlamydophila psittaci in respiratory specimens. The cases showed good recovery with doxycycline treatment. Increased awareness of psittacosis can shorten diagnostic delay and improve patient outcomes. 10.12809/hkmj144321
    Zoonotic atypical pneumonia due to Chlamydophila psittaci: first reported psittacosis case in Taiwan. Cheng Yu-Jen,Lin Kun-Yen,Chen Chun-Chen,Huang Yen-Lin,Liu Chun-Eng,Li Shu-Ying Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi Human psittacosis caused by Chlamydophila psittaci is one of the most common zoonotic atypical pneumonias featuring pulmonary as well as extrapulmonary infections. Most of the cases involve avian contact history especially with psittacine birds. Herein we report a 44-year-old male patient displaying atypical pneumonia symptoms of intermittent fever, dry cough, chest pain, dyspnea, headache, hepatitis, and hyponatremia. He had two sick cockatiels, one of which had died a month previously. A microimmunofluorescence test was performed to check the serum antibody levels against Chlamydophila psittaci. The serum IgM titer showed positive titer of 1:256, 1:256, and 1:128 on Days 11, 23, and 43 after disease onset, respectively. His fever subsided soon and clinical symptoms improved after minocycline was administrated on Day 12. The psittacosis case was confirmed by history of psittacine bird contact, clinical symptoms, treatment response, and positive IgM titer. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a psittacosis case in Taiwan. 10.1016/j.jfma.2012.08.017
    Chlamydia psittaci (psittacosis) as a cause of community-acquired pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hogerwerf L,DE Gier B,Baan B,VAN DER Hoek W Epidemiology and infection Psittacosis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by the transmission of the bacterium Chlamydia psittaci from birds to humans. Infections in humans mainly present as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, most cases of CAP are treated without diagnostic testing, and the importance of C. psittaci infection as a cause of CAP is therefore unclear. In this meta-analysis of published CAP-aetiological studies, we estimate the proportion of CAP caused by C. psittaci infection. The databases MEDLINE and Embase were systematically searched for relevant studies published from 1986 onwards. Only studies that consisted of 100 patients or more were included. In total, 57 studies were selected for the meta-analysis. C. psittaci was the causative pathogen in 1·03% (95% CI 0·79-1·30) of all CAP cases from the included studies combined, with a range between studies from 0 to 6·7%. For burden of disease estimates, it is a reasonable assumption that 1% of incident cases of CAP are caused by psittacosis. 10.1017/S0950268817002060
    Metagenomic next-generation sequencing in the diagnosis of severe pneumonias caused by Chlamydia psittaci. Chen Xiancheng,Cao Ke,Wei Yu,Qian Yajun,Liang Jing,Dong Danjiang,Tang Jian,Zhu Zhanghua,Gu Qin,Yu Wenkui Infection PURPOSE:Chlamydia psittaci infection in humans can lead to serious clinical manifestations, including severe pneumonia, adult respiratory distress syndrome, and, rarely, death. Implementation of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) gives a promising new tool for diagnosis. The clinical spectrum of severe psittacosis pneumonia is described to provide physicians with a better understanding and to highlight the rarity and severity of severe psittacosis pneumonia. METHODS:Nine cases of severe psittacosis pneumonia were diagnosed using mNGS. Retrospective analysis of the data on disease progression, new diagnosis tool, treatments, and outcomes, and the findings were summarised. RESULTS:Frequent symptoms included chills and remittent fever (100%), cough and hypodynamia (100%), and headache and myalgia (77.8%). All patients were severe psittacosis pneumonia developed respiratory failure, accompanied by sepsis in 6/9 patients. mNGS takes 48-72 h to provide the results, and help to identify diagnosis of psittacosis. Laboratory data showed normal or slightly increased leucocytes, neutrophils, and procalcitonin but high C-reactive protein levels. Computed tomography revealed air-space consolidation and ground-glass opacity, which began in the upper lobe of one lung, and spread to both lungs, along with miliary, nodular, or consolidated shadows. One patient died because of secondary infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae, while the other eight patients experienced complete recoveries. CONCLUSIONS:The use of mNGS can improve accuracy and reduce the delay in diagnosis of psittacosis. Severe psittacosis pneumonia responds well to the timely use of appropriate antibiotics. 10.1007/s15010-020-01429-0
    [Clinical characteristics analysis of patients with pneumonia infected by Chlamydia psittaci]. Wang Yang,Lu Houqing,Shao Rende,Wang Wenjie Zhonghua wei zhong bing ji jiu yi xue OBJECTIVE:To explore the clinical characteristics of pneumonia infected by Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci). METHODS:A retrospective analysis was performed on 3 cases of C. psittaci pneumonia admitted to People's Hospital of Tongling City from July 2019 to January 2020. The patients' contact history, clinical manifestations, laboratory examination, imaging characteristics and evolution, etiology, treatment process and outcome were analyzed, so as to provide experience for the diagnosis and prevention of C. psittaci pneumonia. RESULTS:The 3 patients had been infected through pet or zoonotic exposures. All symptoms included high fever (body temperature > 39 centigrade), cough, sputum, chest tightness and dyspnea. The disease progressed rapidly, with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and shock as the main manifestations, but the damages to the heart, liver and kidney were mild. Laboratory tests showed that C-reactive protein (CRP, all > 200 mg/L) and neutrophil proportion (Neut%, > 0.90) were significantly increased, while white blood cell count (WBC) and procalcitonin (PCT) were not significantly increased. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed inflammatory infiltration with interstitial changes, either unilateral or bilateral. Chest X-ray showed large areas of inflammatory infiltrations, fan-shaped or wedge-shaped to the edge of pleura. After 7 days of treatment, the bedside computed X-ray (CR) showed absorption of infiltration. After 11-13 days, the CT reexamination indicated lung infection was basically absorbed. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) confirmed the presence of C. psittaci in patients' sputum. It was sensitive to quinolones and tetracyclines. The patients' body temperature dropped to normal after 2-3 days of antibiotics, and all patients were extubated and transferred to normal ward 10 days later. The total course of illness was 20-30 days. CONCLUSIONS:The patients with C. psittaci pneumonia are critically ill, and clinical manifestations of moderate to severe ARDS and shock are common. Early diagnosis depends on mNGS, and reasonable treatment is important for prognosis. 10.3760/cma.j.cn121430-20200408-00259