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    Interferon regulatory factor 9 is a key mediator of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. Wang Pi-Xiao,Zhang Ran,Huang Ling,Zhu Li-Hua,Jiang Ding-Sheng,Chen Hou-Zao,Zhang Yan,Tian Song,Zhang Xiao-Fei,Zhang Xiao-Dong,Liu De-Pei,Li Hongliang Journal of hepatology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is characterized by anoxic cell injury and the generation of inflammatory mediators, leading to hepatic parenchymal cell death. The activation of interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) has been implicated in hepatic I/R injury, but the role of IRF9 in this progression is unclear. METHODS:We investigated the function and molecular mechanisms of IRF9 in transgene and knockout mice subjected to warm I/R of the liver. Isolated hepatocytes from IRF9 transgene and knockout mice were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury to determine the in vitro effects of IRF9. RESULTS:The injuries were augmented in IRF9-overexpressing mice that were subjected to warm I/R of the liver. In contrast, a deficiency in IRF9 markedly reduced the necrotic area, serum alanine amino transferase/aspartate amino transferase (ALT/AST), immune cell infiltration, inflammatory cytokine levels, and hepatocyte apoptosis after liver I/R. Sirtuin (SIRT) 1 levels were significantly higher and the acetylation of p53 was decreased in the IRF9 knockout mice. Notably, IRF9 suppressed the activity of the SIRT1 promoter luciferase reporter and deacetylase activity. Liver injuries were significantly more severe in the IRF9/SIRT1 double knockout (DKO) mice in the I/R model, eliminating the protective effects observed in the IRF9 knockout mice. CONCLUSIONS:IRF9 has a novel function of inducing hepatocyte apoptosis after I/R injury by decreasing SIRT1 expression and increasing acetyl-p53 levels. Targeting IRF9 may be a potential strategy for ameliorating ischemic liver injury after liver surgery. 10.1016/j.jhep.2014.08.022
    Macrophage heme oxygenase-1-SIRT1-p53 axis regulates sterile inflammation in liver ischemia-reperfusion injury. Nakamura Kojiro,Zhang Min,Kageyama Shoichi,Ke Bibo,Fujii Takehiro,Sosa Rebecca A,Reed Elaine F,Datta Nakul,Zarrinpar Ali,Busuttil Ronald W,Araujo Jesus A,Kupiec-Weglinski Jerzy W Journal of hepatology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), characterized by exogenous antigen-independent local inflammation and hepatocellular death, represents a risk factor for acute and chronic rejection in liver transplantation. We aimed to investigate the molecular communication involved in the mechanism of liver IRI. METHODS:We analyzed human liver transplants, primary murine macrophage cell cultures and IR-stressed livers in myeloid-specific heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene mutant mice, for anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective functions of macrophage-specific HO-1/SIRT1 (sirtuin 1)/p53 (tumor suppressor protein) signaling. RESULTS:Decreased HO-1 expression in human post-reperfusion liver transplant biopsies correlated with a deterioration in hepatocellular function (serum ALT; p<0.05) and inferior patient survival (p<0.05). In the low HO-1 liver transplant biopsy group, SIRT1/Arf (alternative reading frame)/p53/MDM2 (murine double minute 2) expression levels decreased (p<0.05) while cleaved caspase 3 and frequency of TUNEL+cells simultaneously increased (p<0.05). Immunofluorescence showed macrophages were the principal source of HO-1 in human and mouse IR-stressed livers. In vitro macrophage cultures revealed that HO-1 induction positively regulated SIRT1 signaling, whereas SIRT1-induced Arf inhibited ubiquitinating activity of MDM2 against p53, which in turn attenuated macrophage activation. In a murine model of hepatic warm IRI, myeloid-specific HO-1 deletion lacked SIRT1/p53, exacerbated liver inflammation and IR-hepatocellular death, whereas adjunctive SIRT1 activation restored p53 signaling and rescued livers from IR-damage. CONCLUSION:This bench-to-bedside study identifies a new class of macrophages activated via the HO-1-SIRT1-p53 signaling axis in the mechanism of hepatic sterile inflammation. This mechanism could be a target for novel therapeutic strategies in liver transplant recipients. LAY SUMMARY:Post-transplant low macrophage HO-1 expression in human liver transplants correlates with reduced hepatocellular function and survival. HO-1 regulates macrophage activation via the SIRT1-p53 signaling network and regulates hepatocellular death in liver ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thus targeting this pathway in liver transplant recipients could be of therapeutic benefit. 10.1016/j.jhep.2017.08.010
    [Role of short-term starvation in alleviating hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice and possible mechanism of action]. Zhou J J,Qin J J,Lyu L,Zhou H M,Zhang F Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi = Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi = Chinese journal of hepatology To investigate the role of short-term starvation (STS) in alleviating hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice and possible mechanism of action. Wild-type male C57BL/6 mice aged 8 weeks were randomly divided into 75% hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury group (IR group), STS+75% hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury group (STS group), and sirtinol+STS+75% hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury group (SIR group), using a random number table, and sham-operation groups (IR-Sham group, STS-Sham group, and SIR-Sham group) were also established. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured, and the histomorphological changes of the liver were observed, as well as the expression of Sirt1, LC3B, and P62 proteins in liver tissue and the results of LC3B fluorescence staining. An analysis of variance was used for comparison of data between multiple groups, and the t-test was used for comparison of data between two groups. Compared with the IR group, the STS group had significant reductions in the serum levels of ALT (3 152.7 ± 735.6 U/L vs 8 414.2 ± 1 052.2 U/L, < 0.01) and AST (3 577.0 ± 714.0 U/L vs 10 845.8 ± 1 145.7 U/L, < 0.01) and significant alleviation of liver pathological injury (Suzuki score: 1.50±0.55 vs 3.50±0.55, < 0.01). Compared with the STS group, the SIR group had significant increases in the serum levels of ALT (7 002.7 ± 1 485.2 U/L vs 3 152.7 ± 735.6 U/L, < 0.01) and AST (8 980.7 ± 1 739.1 U/L vs 3 577.0 ± 714.0 U/L, < 0.01) and significant exacerbation of liver pathological injury (Suzuki score: 3.33 ± 0.52 vs 1.50 ± 0.55, < 0.01). Compared with the IR group and the IR-Sham group, the STS group and the STS-Sham group had significant increases in the mRNA and protein expression of Sirt1 and the protein expression of LC3B and a significant reduction in the protein expression of P62, as well as a significant increase in the percentage of LC3B-positive cells in liver tissue (22.83% ± 5.19% / 22.17% ± 4.83% vs 10.16% ± 3.06% / 10.83% ± 1.94%, both < 0.01). Compared with the STS group and the STS-Sham group, the SIR group and the SIR-Sham group had significant reductions in the expression of Sirt1 and LC3B proteins and a significant increase in the expression of P62 protein, as well as a significant reduction in the percentage of LC3B-positive cells in liver tissue (11.83% ± 9.24% / 14.67% ± 4.68% vs 22.83% ± 5.19% / 22.17% ± 4.83%, both < 0.01). STS can effectively alleviate hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury, and its protective effect may be associated with increasing the expression of Sirt1, inducing and promoting hepatocyte autophagy, and reducing hepatocyte death. 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1007-3418.2018.01.010