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    Proteomic identification of proteins differentially expressed by melatonin in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Cho Eun-Hae,Koh Phil-Ok Journal of pineal research Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury induces hepatic dysfunction or failure. Melatonin is a potent free radical scavenger and a strong antioxidant. Although many studies have demonstrated the protective effect of melatonin in hepatic injury, the molecular mechanisms of this protection are unclear. We identified specific proteins that are differentially expressed by melatonin treatment in hepatic I-R injury. Adult mice were subjected to 1 hr of ischemia and 3 hr of reperfusion. Animals were treated with vehicle or melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) 15 min prior to ischemia and just before reperfusion. Serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were higher in I-R group than in sham-operated group, and these increases were reduced by melatonin treatment. Proteins that were differentially expressed following melatonin treatment during hepatic I-R injury were detected using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Hepatic I-R injury induced down-regulation of glyoxalase I, glutaredoxin-3, spermidine synthase, proteasome subunit beta type-4, and dynamin like protein-1 (DLP-1). However, melatonin prevented the reductions in these proteins induced by I-R injury. Among the identified proteins, we focused on DLP-1, which is essential for the maintenance of mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum morphology. Western blot analysis confirmed that melatonin prevents the hepatic I-R injury-induced decrease in DLP-1. These results suggest that melatonin protects hepatic cells against hepatic I-R injury and that its protective effects involve the regulation of specific proteins. 10.1111/j.1600-079X.2010.00799.x
    Fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4) is a hypoxia inducible gene that sensitizes mice to liver ischemia/reperfusion injury. Hu Bingfang,Guo Yan,Garbacz Wojciech G,Jiang Mengxi,Xu Meishu,Huang Hai,Tsung Allan,Billiar Timothy R,Ramakrishnan Sadeesh K,Shah Yatrik M,Lam Karen S L,Huang Min,Xie Wen Journal of hepatology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) has been known as a mediator of inflammatory response in the macrophages and adipose tissue, but its hepatic function is poorly understood. The goal of this study is to investigate the role of FABP4 in liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), a clinical condition that involves both hypoxia and inflammation. METHODS:To examine the I/R regulation of FABP4, mice were subjected to I/R surgery before being measured for FABP4 gene expression. Both loss-of-function (by using a pharmacological FABP4 inhibitor) and gain-of-function (by adenoviral overexpression of FABP4) were used to determine the functional relevance of FABP4 expression and its regulation during I/R. To determine the hypoxia responsive regulation of FABP4, primary mouse hepatocytes were exposed to hypoxia. The FABP4 gene promoter was cloned and its regulation by hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) was characterized by luciferase reporter gene, electrophoretic mobility shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. RESULTS:We found that the hepatic expression of FABP4 was markedly induced by I/R. At the functional level, pharmacological inhibition of FABP4 alleviated the I/R injury, whereas adenoviral overexpression of FABP4 sensitized mice to I/R injury. We also showed that exposure of primary hepatocytes to hypoxia or transgenic overexpression of HIF-1α in the mouse liver was sufficient to induce the expression of FABP4. Our promoter analysis established FABP4 as a novel transcriptional target of HIF-1α. CONCLUSIONS:FABP4 is a hypoxia inducible gene that sensitizes mice to liver I/R injury. FABP4 may represent a novel therapeutic target, and FABP4 inhibitors may be used as therapeutic agents to manage hepatic I/R injury. 10.1016/j.jhep.2015.05.030
    Prevention of Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Carbohydrate-Derived Nanoantioxidants. Long Yin,Wei Hao,Li Jun,Li Mengting,Wang Yizhan,Zhang Ziyi,Cao Tianye,Carlos Corey,German Lazarus G,Jiang Dawei,Sun Tuanwei,Engle Jonathan W,Lan Xiaoli,Jiang Yadong,Cai Weibo,Wang Xudong Nano letters Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), which mainly results from excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by a reperfusion burst of oxygen, has long been a major cause of liver dysfunction and failure after surgical procedures. Here, a monodispersed hydrophilic carbohydrate-derived nanoparticle (C-NP) was synthesized as a nanoantioxidant that could effectively prevent hepatic IRI. The spherical C-NPs had a size of ∼78 ± 11.3 nm covered with polar surface groups. They were well dispersible in water with good colloidal stability, nontoxicity, and good ROS scavenging capability. The C-NPs also exhibited good circulation lifetime, effective delivery to liver, and gradual degradability with an ability to assist the IRI group maintaining a normal and healthy liver status. The pathology mechanism of C-NPs in hepatic IRI was confirmed to be scavenging of excessive ROS by C-NPs. The effective therapeutic treatment of C-NPs in living animals revealed a great potential in clinical prevention for hepatic IRI. 10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c02248