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    Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. Wang Dawei,Hu Bo,Hu Chang,Zhu Fangfang,Liu Xing,Zhang Jing,Wang Binbin,Xiang Hui,Cheng Zhenshun,Xiong Yong,Zhao Yan,Li Yirong,Wang Xinghuan,Peng Zhiyong JAMA Importance:In December 2019, novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, China. The number of cases has increased rapidly but information on the clinical characteristics of affected patients is limited. Objective:To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of NCIP. Design, Setting, and Participants:Retrospective, single-center case series of the 138 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed NCIP at Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University in Wuhan, China, from January 1 to January 28, 2020; final date of follow-up was February 3, 2020. Exposures:Documented NCIP. Main Outcomes and Measures:Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data were collected and analyzed. Outcomes of critically ill patients and noncritically ill patients were compared. Presumed hospital-related transmission was suspected if a cluster of health professionals or hospitalized patients in the same wards became infected and a possible source of infection could be tracked. Results:Of 138 hospitalized patients with NCIP, the median age was 56 years (interquartile range, 42-68; range, 22-92 years) and 75 (54.3%) were men. Hospital-associated transmission was suspected as the presumed mechanism of infection for affected health professionals (40 [29%]) and hospitalized patients (17 [12.3%]). Common symptoms included fever (136 [98.6%]), fatigue (96 [69.6%]), and dry cough (82 [59.4%]). Lymphopenia (lymphocyte count, 0.8 × 109/L [interquartile range {IQR}, 0.6-1.1]) occurred in 97 patients (70.3%), prolonged prothrombin time (13.0 seconds [IQR, 12.3-13.7]) in 80 patients (58%), and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (261 U/L [IQR, 182-403]) in 55 patients (39.9%). Chest computed tomographic scans showed bilateral patchy shadows or ground glass opacity in the lungs of all patients. Most patients received antiviral therapy (oseltamivir, 124 [89.9%]), and many received antibacterial therapy (moxifloxacin, 89 [64.4%]; ceftriaxone, 34 [24.6%]; azithromycin, 25 [18.1%]) and glucocorticoid therapy (62 [44.9%]). Thirty-six patients (26.1%) were transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) because of complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (22 [61.1%]), arrhythmia (16 [44.4%]), and shock (11 [30.6%]). The median time from first symptom to dyspnea was 5.0 days, to hospital admission was 7.0 days, and to ARDS was 8.0 days. Patients treated in the ICU (n = 36), compared with patients not treated in the ICU (n = 102), were older (median age, 66 years vs 51 years), were more likely to have underlying comorbidities (26 [72.2%] vs 38 [37.3%]), and were more likely to have dyspnea (23 [63.9%] vs 20 [19.6%]), and anorexia (24 [66.7%] vs 31 [30.4%]). Of the 36 cases in the ICU, 4 (11.1%) received high-flow oxygen therapy, 15 (41.7%) received noninvasive ventilation, and 17 (47.2%) received invasive ventilation (4 were switched to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation). As of February 3, 47 patients (34.1%) were discharged and 6 died (overall mortality, 4.3%), but the remaining patients are still hospitalized. Among those discharged alive (n = 47), the median hospital stay was 10 days (IQR, 7.0-14.0). Conclusions and Relevance:In this single-center case series of 138 hospitalized patients with confirmed NCIP in Wuhan, China, presumed hospital-related transmission of 2019-nCoV was suspected in 41% of patients, 26% of patients received ICU care, and mortality was 4.3%. 10.1001/jama.2020.1585
    Cerebral hemodynamic alterations in patients with Covid-19 Sonkaya Ali Rıza,Öztrk Bilgin,Karadaş Ömer Turkish journal of medical sciences Background/aim:Coronavirus 2019 disease (Covid-19) was first seen in December 2019 and afterwards it became pandemic. Several systemic involvements have been reported in Covid-19 patients. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the cerebrovascular hemodynamics in patients with Covid-19. Materials and methods:The sample of this study included 20 patients hospitalized in our clinic diagnosed with Covid-19 via PCR modality and 20 healthy volunteers of similar age and sex. Bilateral middle cerebral arteries were investigated with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Basal cerebral blood flow velocities and vasomotor reactivity rates were determined and statistically compared. Results:When patient and control groups were compared, the mean blood flow velocity was found to be higher in Covid-19 patients than in the healthy volunteers and it was statistically significant (P = 0.00). The mean vasomotor reactivity rates values were found to be lower in the Covid-19 group than the healthy group and was also statistically significant (P = 0.00). Conclusion:An increase in basal cerebral blood velocity and a decrease in vasomotor reactivity rates in patients with Covid-19 can be considered as an indicator of dysfunction of cerebral hemodynamics in the central nervous system and this can be evaluated as a result of endothelial dysfunction. 10.3906/sag-2006-203