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    High ammonium inhibits root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana by promoting auxin conjugation rather than inhibiting auxin biosynthesis. Di Dong-Wei,Li Guangjie,Sun Li,Wu Jingjing,Wang Meng,Kronzucker Herbert J,Fang Shuang,Chu Jinfang,Shi Weiming Journal of plant physiology Ammonium (NH) inhibits primary root (PR) growth in most plant species when present even at moderate concentrations. Previous studies have shown that transport of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is critical to maintaining root elongation under high-NH stress. However, the precise regulation of IAA homeostasis under high-NH stress (HAS) remains unclear. In this study, qRT-PCR, RNA-seq, free IAA and IAA conjugate and PR elongation measurements were conducted in genetic mutants to investigate the role of IAA biosynthesis and conjugation under HAS. Our data clearly show that HAS decreases free IAA in roots by increasing IAA inactivation but does not decrease IAA biosynthesis, and that the IAA-conjugating genes GH3.1, GH3.2, GH3.3, GH3.4, and GH3.6 function as the key genes in regulating high-NH sensitivity in the roots. Furthermore, the analysis of promoter::GUS staining in situ and genetic mutants reveals that HAS promotes IAA conjugation in the elongation zone (EZ), which may be responsible for the PR inhibition observed under HAS. This study provides potential new insight into the role of auxin in the improvement of tolerance to NH. 10.1016/j.jplph.2021.153415