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    Putrescine elicits ROS-dependent activation of the salicylic acid pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Liu Changxin,Atanasov Kostadin E,Arafaty Nazanin,Murillo Ester,Tiburcio Antonio F,Zeier Jürgen,Alcázar Rubén Plant, cell & environment Polyamines are small amines that accumulate during stress and contribute to disease resistance through as yet unknown signaling pathways. Using a comprehensive RNA-sequencing analysis, we show that early transcriptional responses triggered by each of the most abundant polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, spermine, thermospermine and cadaverine) exhibit specific quantitative differences, suggesting that polyamines (rather than downstream metabolites) elicit defense responses. Signaling by putrescine, which accumulates in response to bacteria that trigger effector triggered immunity (ETI) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR), is largely dependent on the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, and is partly dependent on salicylic acid (SA), the expression of ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY (EDS1) and NONEXPRESSOR of PR GENES1 (NPR1). Putrescine elicits local SA accumulation as well as local and systemic transcriptional reprogramming that overlaps with SAR. Loss-of-function mutations in arginine decarboxylase 2 (ADC2), which is required for putrescine synthesis and copper amine oxidase (CuAO), which is involved in putrescine oxidation, compromise basal defenses, as well as putrescine and pathogen-triggered systemic resistance. These findings confirm that putrescine elicits ROS-dependent SA pathways in the activation of plant defenses. 10.1111/pce.13874