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    Interferon induced thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA): Analysis and concise review. Kundra Ajay,Wang Jen Chin Critical reviews in oncology/hematology Interferon (IFN) has been associated with development of thrombotic microangiopathy including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). We reviewed literature from the earliest reported association in 1993, to July 2016 and found 68 cases. Analysis of this data shows: (1) Mean age at diagnosis was 47 years (95% CI, 44-50). (2) Majority of cases were seen where IFN was used for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), multiple sclerosis (MS), chronic hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) and one case each for hairy cell leukemia (HCL) and Sezary syndrome. (3) There were no cases reported for polycythemia vera (PV) or lymphoma. (4) Sex distribution was nearly equivalent with the exception in patients with multiple sclerosis where there was female predominance (12 of 16 with reported data). (5) For pooled analysis, the average duration of treatment with IFN before TMA was diagnosed was 40.4 months. (6) Comparative analysis showed that patients with MS required the highest cumulative dose exposure before developing TMA (MS 68.6 months, CML 35.5 months, HCV 30.4 months). (7) Cases of confirmed TTP (where A disintegrin and Metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif 13: ADAMTS 13 level was measured) showed presence of an inhibitor. (8) In all cases of confirmed TTP, moderate to severe thrombocytopenia was a striking clinical feature at presentation while this was not a consistent finding in all other cases of TMA. (9) Outcome analysis revealed complete remission in 27 (40%), persistent chronic kidney disease (CKD) in 28 (42%) and fatality in 12 patients (18%). (10) Treatment with corticosteroids, plasma exchange and rituximab resulted in durable responses. 10.1016/j.critrevonc.2017.02.011
    Hyperhomocysteinemia: a trigger for complement-mediated TMA? Bernards J,Doubel P,Meeus G,Lerut E,Corveleyn A,Van Den Heuvel L P,Meersseman W,Kuypers D K,Claes K J Acta clinica Belgica A 34-year-old man of North African descent was referred to the emergency department because of malignant hypertension (220/113 mmHg), acute visual disturbances and acute kidney failure (serum creatinine 14.0 mg/dL). Blood analysis was compatible with thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Kidney biopsy confirmed this diagnosis with histological changes including intimal edema, arteriolar thrombi, and severe tubulointerstitial damage. Fundoscopy showed hypertensive retinopathy stage IV. Subsequent biochemical screening revealed normal complement testing and a marked elevation in homocysteine concentration (161 µmol/L; normal value 7-15 µmol/L). Other secondary causes of TMA were excluded. Further genetic testing for cobalamin C (cblC) deficiency showed no pathogenic mutations in the MMACHC gene. However, a homozygous polymorphism (NM_005957.4) in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene was found explaining the severe hyperhomocysteinemia due to reduced activity of MTHFR. Additional genetic testing for alternative complement pathway proteins showed mutations in the genes encoding factor H and factor B, both categorized as possibly pathogenic using mutation prediction software. This is the first described case of TMA in a patient with severe hyperhomocysteinemia caused by a genetic defect other than cblC. We postulate that endothelial damage due to hyperhomocysteinemia and hypertension could have triggered the TMA episode in this patient with two possible predisposing pathogenic mutations in the alternative complement pathway. Furthermore, our case demonstrates the need for complete full diagnostic testing in patients with TMA. 10.1080/17843286.2019.1649039
    Distribution of Transplantation-Associated Thrombotic Microangiopathy (TA-TMA) and Comparison between Renal TA-TMA and Intestinal TA-TMA: Autopsy Study. Yamada Rin,Nemoto Tetsuo,Ohashi Kazuteru,Tonooka Akiko,Horiguchi Shin-Ichiro,Motoi Toru,Hishima Tsunekazu Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Transplantation-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) is an important complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To date, information regarding the organs that are affected by TA-TMA as confirmed histologically remains limited; the clinicopathologic differences between renal TA-TMA and intestinal TA-TMA have not been examined despite being the well-known and commonly affected sites of TA-TMA. We therefore examined 165 autopsied patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and compared the clinicopathologic factors of renal and intestinal TA-TMA. It was clear that 38 (23%) of our patients had TA-TMA. In the TA-TMA cases, the kidney (61%) and intestine (53%) were commonly affected, and the ileum and right colon were vulnerable. Other organs that we found to be affected by TA-TMA included the stomach (8%), gallbladder (5%), and oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, liver, heart, urinary bladder, and ureter (all at 3%), and symptoms thought to be caused by TA-TMA of these organs were not observed in any patient. Histologically, TA-TMA only affected the arteriole, or small arteries, regardless of the organ, and the veins or larger arteries were not affected at all. In the kidney, the glomerular capillary was also affected, and mesangiolysis and double contours of the basement membranes were often in evidence. The histologic overlap of renal and intestinal TA-TMA was rare (13%), and the patients in the intestinal TA-TMA group exhibited more frequency of a history of intestinal acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) during the clinical course compared with that of the renal TA-TMA group (80% versus 22%, P = .0016). Although TA-TMA can affect many other organs, the frequency of these ancillary events was low, and the clinical effect may have been small. Our results suggest that in comparison to renal TA-TMA, intestinal GVHD could be more closely associated with intestinal TA-TMA as a risk factor. 10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.08.025
    Nephrotic syndrome in adults. Mahalingasivam Viyaasan,Booth John,Sheaff Michael,Yaqoob Magdi Acute medicine Nephrotic syndrome is an important presentation of glomerular disease characterised by heavy proteinuria, hypoalbuminaemia and oedema. The differential diagnosis of the underlying condition is wide including primary renal disorders and secondary diseases such as malignancy, infection, diabetes and amyloid. Presentations to acute medicine may be with hypervolaemia, complications of the nephrotic state (such as venous thromboembolism), or complications of therapy (such as infection). Early recognition of nephrotic syndrome is possible through simple urinalysis for protein and testing serum albumin, although a high index of suspicion is sometimes required in patients with comorbidities including potentially distracting cardiac or hepatic diseases.
    Nephrotic syndrome: Efficacy of rituximab in challenging nephrotic syndrome. Lemley Kevin V,Mak Robert H Nature reviews. Nephrology A new trial provides further evidence that rituximab treatment can reduce the risk of relapse in children with steroid-dependent idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Addition of a single infusion of rituximab to steroid therapy was associated with a decrease in proteinuria at 3 months and a significant increase in the relapse-free period. 10.1038/nrneph.2015.26
    Nephrotic Syndrome. Politano Seth Anthony,Colbert Gates B,Hamiduzzaman Nida Primary care Nephrotic syndrome is one cause of end-stage kidney disease. Because edema is a common presenting feature and hypertension and dyslipidemia are often present in nephrotic syndrome, it is important for the primary care physician to suspect this entity. Common causes in adults include diabetic nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and membranous nephropathy. In adults, many primary causes are due to an underlying disease. A cause of the nephrotic syndrome should be established with serologic workup and renal consultation. Renal biopsy is necessary in those with an unknown cause to or classify disease. Treatment focuses on symptoms, complications, and the primary cause. 10.1016/j.pop.2020.08.002