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    Remote ischemic conditioning improves coronary microcirculation in healthy subjects and patients with heart failure. Kono Yasushi,Fukuda Shota,Hanatani Akihisa,Nakanishi Koki,Otsuka Kenichiro,Taguchi Haruyuki,Shimada Kenei Drug design, development and therapy BACKGROUND:Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) is a treatment modality that suppresses inflammation and improves endothelial function, which are factors involved in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF) with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) is a physiological index of coronary microcirculation and is noninvasively measured by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE). This study aimed to investigate the effects of RIC on CFR in healthy subjects and patients with HF, through the assessment by TTDE. METHODS:Ten patients with HF with left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 40%, and ten healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. RIC treatment was performed twice a day for 1 week. Our custom-made RIC device was programmed to automatically conduct 4 cycles of 5 minutes inflation and 5 minutes deflation of a blood pressure cuff to create intermittent arm ischemia. CFR measurements and laboratory tests were examined before, and after 1 week of RIC treatment. RESULTS:One week of RIC treatment was well tolerated in both groups. RIC treatment increased CFR from 4.0 ± 0.9 to 4.6 ± 1.3 (mean ± standard deviation) in healthy subjects (P=0.02), and from 1.9 ± 0.4 to 2.3 ± 0.7 in patients with HF (P = 0.03), respectively. Systolic blood pressure in healthy subjects, and heart rate in HF patients decreased after RIC treatment (both P<0.01). CONCLUSION:This study demonstrated that a 1 week course of RIC treatment improved coronary microcirculation in healthy subjects and patients with HF associated with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. 10.2147/DDDT.S68715
    Postconditioning protects against endothelial ischemia-reperfusion injury in the human forearm. Loukogeorgakis Stavros P,Panagiotidou Anna T,Yellon Derek M,Deanfield John E,MacAllister Raymond J Circulation BACKGROUND:Hypoxic cell death follows interruption of blood supply to tissues. Although successful restoration of blood flow is mandatory for salvage of ischemic tissues, reperfusion can paradoxically place tissues at risk of further injury. Brief periods of ischemia applied at the onset of reperfusion have been shown to reduce ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, a phenomenon called postconditioning. The aim of this study was to determine whether postconditioning protects against endothelial IR injury in humans, in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS:Brachial artery endothelial function was assessed by vascular ultrasound to measure flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in response to forearm reactive hyperemia. FMD was measured before and after IR (20 minutes of arm ischemia followed by 20 minutes of reperfusion) in healthy volunteers. To test the protective effects of postconditioning, 3 cycles of reperfusion followed by ischemia (each lasting 10 or 30 seconds) were applied immediately after 20 minutes of arm ischemia. To determine whether postconditioning needs to be applied at the onset of reperfusion, a 1-minute period of arm reperfusion was allowed before the application of the 10-second postconditioning stimulus. IR caused endothelial dysfunction (FMD 9.1+/-1.2% pre-IR, 3.6+/-0.7% post-IR, P<0.001; n=11), which was prevented by postconditioning applied as 10-second cycles of reperfusion/ischemia (FMD 9.9+/-1.7% pre-IR, 8.3+/-1.4% post-IR, P=NS; n=11) and 30-second cycles of reperfusion/ischemia (FMD 10.8+/-1.7% pre-IR, 9.5+/-1.5% post-IR, P=NS; n=10) immediately at the onset of reperfusion. No protection was observed when the application of the 10-second postconditioning stimulus was delayed for 1 minute after the onset of reperfusion (FMD 9.8+/-1.2% pre-IR, 4.0+/-0.9% post-IR, P<0.001; n=8). CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates for the first time that postconditioning can protect against endothelial IR injury in humans. Postconditioning might reduce tissue injury when applied at the onset of reperfusion by modifying the reperfusion phase of IR. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.590398
    Ischaemia-reperfusion injury impairs tissue plasminogen activator release in man. Pedersen Christian M,Barnes Gareth,Schmidt Michael R,Bøtker Hans Erik,Kharbanda Rajesh K,Newby David E,Cruden Nicholas L European heart journal AIMS:Ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury causes endothelium-dependent vasomotor dysfunction that can be prevented by ischaemic preconditioning. The effects of IR injury and preconditioning on endothelium-dependent tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) release, an important mediator of endogenous fibrinolysis, remain unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS:Ischaemia-reperfusion injury (limb occlusion at 200 mmHg for 20 min) was induced in 22 healthy subjects. In 12 subjects, IR injury was preceded by local or remote ischaemic preconditioning (three 5 min episodes of ipsilateral or contralateral limb occlusion, respectively) or sham in a randomized, cross-over trial. Forearm blood flow (FBF) and endothelial t-PA release were assessed using venous occlusion plethysmography and venous blood sampling during intra-arterial infusion of acetylcholine (5-20 µg/min) or substance P (2-8 pmol/min). Acetylcholine and substance P caused dose-dependent increases in FBF (P<0.05 for all). Substance P caused a dose-dependent increase in t-PA release (P<0.05 for all). Acetylcholine and substanceP-mediated vasodilatation and substanceP-mediated t-PA release were impaired following IR injury (P<0.05 for all). Neither local nor remote ischaemic preconditioning protected against the impairment of substance P-mediated vasodilatation or t-PA release. CONCLUSION:Ischaemia-reperfusion injury induced substanceP-mediated, endothelium-dependent vasomotor and fibrinolytic dysfunction in man that could not be prevented by ischaemic preconditioning. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION:Reference number: NCT00789243, URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00789243?term=NCT00789243&rank=1. 10.1093/eurheartj/ehr380
    Ischemic preconditioning prevents endothelial injury and systemic neutrophil activation during ischemia-reperfusion in humans in vivo. Kharbanda R K,Peters M,Walton B,Kattenhorn M,Mullen M,Klein N,Vallance P,Deanfield J,MacAllister R Circulation BACKGROUND:Endothelial dysfunction leading to neutrophil infiltration of tissues has been implicated in tissue injury caused by ischemia-reperfusion (IR). Tissue injury during IR can be reduced by prior ischemic preconditioning (IPC). In humans, it is unclear whether endothelial dysfunction occurs during IR or whether IPC offers protection against endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory cell activation. We studied the effects of experimental IR on endothelial and neutrophil function in the human forearm in vivo and examined the protection afforded by IPC. METHOD AND RESULTS:The forearm was made ischemic for 20 minutes by inflating a blood pressure cuff to 200 mm Hg. We assessed endothelial function of conduit (radial artery flow-mediated dilation) and resistance vessels (blood flow responses to intra-arterial infusion of the endothelium-dependent dilator acetylcholine) in healthy volunteers before and after IR. IR reduced flow-mediated dilation of the radial artery at 15 minutes of reperfusion (7.7+/-1.5% to 3.5+/-0.9%) and the dilator response of resistance vessels to acetylcholine at 15, 30, and 60 minutes of reperfusion. IR did not reduce the dilator response of the radial artery to glyceryltrinitrate and only caused a small reduction of glyceryltrinitrate-induced dilation of resistance vessels at 60 minutes of reperfusion. IR caused an increase in neutrophil CD11b expression and platelet-neutrophil complexes in the circulating blood. IPC (three 5-minute episodes of ischemia) before IR prevented endothelial dysfunction and neutrophil activation. CONCLUSIONS:A clinically relevant period of ischemia-reperfusion causes profound and sustained endothelial dysfunction and systemic neutrophil activation. IPC attenuates both of these effects in humans. 10.1161/01.cir.103.12.1624
    Repetition of ischemic preconditioning augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans: role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide and endothelial progenitor cells. Kimura Masashi,Ueda Keiko,Goto Chikara,Jitsuiki Daisuke,Nishioka Kenji,Umemura Takashi,Noma Kensuke,Yoshizumi Masao,Chayama Kazuaki,Higashi Yukihito Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology BACKGROUND:Several studies have shown that both early and late effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) protect against myocardial injury after ischemic reperfusion. METHODS AND RESULTS:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the late effects of IPC on endothelial function in humans. Late phase of IPC was induced by upper limb ischemia (cuff inflation of over 200 mm Hg for 5 minutes) 6 times a day for 1 month. We evaluated forearm blood flow (FBF) responses to acetylcholine (ACh) and to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) before and after IPC stimulus in 30 young healthy men. FBF was measured using a strain-gauge plethysmograph. The IPC stimulus significantly increased plasma concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), circulating level of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and FBF responses to ACh, but these did not change in the control group. The FBF responses to SNP were similar before and after the IPC stimulus. Infusion of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, completely eliminated the IPC stimulus-induced augmentation of FBF responses to ACh. In the contralateral arms of subjects that received the IPC stimulus, FBF responses to ACh did not change, but levels of VEGF and circulating EPCs increased. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest that repetition of late IPC stimulus augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans through increases in nitric oxide production and number of EPCs under a local condition. Repetition of IPC stimulus may be a simple, safe, and feasible therapeutic technique for endothelial protection of peripheral vessels. 10.1161/ATVBAHA.107.143578
    Daily ischemic preconditioning provides sustained protection from ischemia-reperfusion induced endothelial dysfunction: a human study. Luca Mary Clare,Liuni Andrew,McLaughlin Kelsey,Gori Tommaso,Parker John D Journal of the American Heart Association BACKGROUND:It is well established that acute ischemic preconditioning (IPC) protects against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury; however, the effectiveness of repeated IPC exposure has not been extensively investigated. We aimed to determine whether daily IPC episodes provide continued protection from IR injury in a human forearm model, and the role of cyclooxygenase-2 in these responses. METHODS AND RESULTS:Thirty healthy volunteers were randomized to participate in 2 of 3 protocols (IR alone, 1-day IPC, 7-day IPC) in an operator-blinded, crossover design. Subjects in the IR alone protocol underwent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) measurements pre- and post-IR (15' upper-arm ischemia and 15' reperfusion). The 1-day IPC protocol involved FMD measurements before and after 1 episode of IPC (3 cycles of 5' upper-arm ischemia and 5' reperfusion) and IR. Day 7 of the 7-day IPC protocol was identical to the 1-day IPC protocol but was preceded by single daily episodes of IPC for 6 days prior. During each protocol, subjects received a 7-day treatment of either the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib or placebo. Pre-IR FMD was similar between groups. IR alone reduced FMD post-IR (placebo, ΔFMD: -4.4±0.7%; celecoxib, ΔFMD: -5.0±0.5%). One-day IPC completely prevented this effect (placebo, ΔFMD: -1.1±0.6%; celecoxib, ΔFMD: 0.0±0.7%; P<0.0001). Similarly, 7-day IPC demonstrated persistent endothelial protection post-IR (placebo, ΔFMD: -0.9±0.9%; celecoxib, ΔFMD: 0.0±0.8%; P<0.0001, P<0.0001 for ANOVA effect of IPC protocol). Celecoxib did not alter responses to IR in any protocol. CONCLUSIONS:Daily episodes of IPC provide sustained protection from IR-induced endothelial dysfunction in humans through a mechanism that appears cyclooxygenase-2-independent. 10.1161/JAHA.112.000075
    Aging attenuates the protective effect of ischemic preconditioning against endothelial ischemia-reperfusion injury in humans. van den Munckhof Inge,Riksen Niels,Seeger Joost P H,Schreuder Tim H,Borm George F,Eijsvogels Thijs M H,Hopman Maria T E,Rongen Gerard A,Thijssen Dick H J American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology Reperfusion is mandatory after ischemia but also triggers ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) can limit endothelial I/R injury. Nonetheless, translation of IPC to the clinical arena is often disappointing. Since application of IPC typically relates to older patients, efficacy of IPC may be attenuated with aging. Our objective was to examine the impact of advanced age on the ability of IPC to protect against endothelial dysfunction due to I/R injury. We included 15 healthy young (20-25 yr) and 15 older (68-77 yr) men. We examined brachial artery endothelial function using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) before and after arm I/R (induced by inflation of an upper-arm blood pressure cuff for 20 min and 15 min of reperfusion). In a randomized order, I/R was preceded by IPC or a control intervention consisting of three cycles of 5 min upper-arm cuff inflation to 220 or 20 mmHg, respectively. As a result, in young men, FMD decreased significantly after I/R (6.4 ± 2.7 to 4.4 ± 2.5%). This decrease was not present when I/R was preceded by IPC (5.9 ± 2.3 to 5.6 ± 2.5%). IPC-induced protection appeared to be significantly reduced in the elderly patients (P = 0.04). Although FMD decreased after I/R in older men (3.5 ± 1.7 to 2.5 ± 1.0%), IPC could not prevent this (3.7 ± 2.1 to 2.2 ± 1.1%). In conclusion, this study is the first to observe in humans in vivo that older age is associated with an abolished effect of IPC to protect against endothelial dysfunction after I/R in the brachial artery. This provides a possible explanation for the problematic translation of strategies that reduce I/R injury from preclinical work to the clinical arena. 10.1152/ajpheart.00054.2013
    Remote ischemic preconditioning prevents reduction in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation after strenuous exercise. Bailey Tom G,Birk Gurpreet K,Cable N Timothy,Atkinson Greg,Green Daniel J,Jones Helen,Thijssen Dick H J American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology Strenuous exercise is associated with an immediate decrease in endothelial function. Repeated bouts of ischemia followed by reperfusion, known as remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC), is able to protect the endothelium against ischemia-induced injury beyond the ischemic area. We examined the hypothesis that RIPC prevents the decrease in endothelial function observed after strenuous exercise in healthy men. In a randomized, crossover study, 13 healthy men performed running exercise preceded by RIPC of the lower limbs (4 × 5-min 220-mmHg bilateral occlusion) or a sham intervention (sham; 4 × 5-min 20-mmHg bilateral occlusion). Participants performed a graded maximal treadmill running test, followed by a 5-km time trial (TT). Brachial artery endothelial function was examined before and after RIPC or sham, as well as after the 5-km TT. We measured flow-mediated dilation (FMD), an index of endothelium-dependent function, using high-resolution echo-Doppler. We also calculated the shear rate area-under-the-curve (from cuff deflation to peak dilatation; SR(AUC)). Data are described as mean and 95% confidence intervals. FMD changed by <0.6% immediately after both ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and sham interventions (P > 0.30). In the sham trial, FMD changed from 5.1 (4.4-5.9) to 3.7% (2.6-4.8) following the 5-km TT (P = 0.02). In the RIPC trial, FMD changed negligibly from 5.4 (4.4-6.4) post-IPC and 5.7% (4.6-6.8) post 5-km TT (P = 0.60). Baseline diameter, SR(AUC), and time-to-peak diameter were all increased following the 5-km TT (P < 0.05), but these changes did not influence the IPC-mediated maintenance of FMD. In conclusion, these data indicate that strenuous lower-limb exercise results in an acute decrease in brachial artery FMD of ~1.4% in healthy men. However, we have shown for the first time that prior RIPC of the lower limbs maintains postexercise brachial artery endothelium-dependent function at preexercise levels. 10.1152/ajpheart.00272.2012
    Seven-day remote ischaemic preconditioning improves endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomised pilot study. Maxwell Joseph D,Carter Howard H,Hellsten Ylva,Miller Gemma D,Sprung Victoria S,Cuthbertson Daniel J,Thijssen Dick H J,Jones Helen European journal of endocrinology Background:Remote ischaemic preconditioning (rIPC) may improve cardiac/cerebrovascular outcomes of ischaemic events. Ischaemic damage caused by cardiovascular/cerebrovascular disease are primary causes of mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Due to the positive effects from a bout of rIPC within the vasculature, we explored if daily rIPC could improve endothelial and cerebrovascular function. The aim of this pilot study was to obtain estimates for the change in conduit artery and cerebrovascular function following a 7-day rIPC intervention. Methods:Twenty-one patients with T2DM were randomly allocated to either 7-day daily upper-arm rIPC (4 × 5 min 220 mmHg, interspaced by 5-min reperfusion) or control. We examined peripheral endothelial function using flow mediated dilation (FMD) before and after ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI, 20 min forearm ischaemic-20 min reperfusion) and cerebrovascular function, assessed by dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) at three time points; pre, post and 8 days post intervention. Results:For exploratory purposes, we performed statistical analysis on our primary comparison (pre-to-post) to provide an estimate of the change in the primary and secondary outcome variables. Using pre-intervention data as a covariate, the change from pre-post in FMD was 1.3% (95% CI: 0.69 to 3.80; P = 0.09) and 0.23 %cm/s %/mmHg mmHg/% (-0.12, 0.59; P = 0.18) in dCA normalised gain with rIPC versus control. Based upon this, a sample size of 20 and 50 for FMD and normalised gain, respectively, in each group would provide 90% power to detect statistically significant (P < 0.05) between-group difference in a randomised controlled trial. Conclusion:We provide estimates of sample size for a randomised control trial exploring the impact of daily rIPC for 7 days on peripheral endothelial and cerebrovascular function. The directional changes outline from our pilot study suggest peripheral endothelial function can be enhanced by daily rIPC in patients with T2DM. 10.1530/EJE-19-0378
    Long-term, regular remote ischemic preconditioning improves endothelial function in patients with coronary heart disease. Liang Y,Li Y P,He F,Liu X Q,Zhang J Y Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPre) can prevent myocardial injury. The purpose of this study was to assess the beneficial effects of long-term regular RIPre on human arteries. Forty patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery were assigned randomly to a RIPre group (n=20) or coronary heart disease (CHD) group (n=20). Twenty patients scheduled for mastectomy were enrolled as a control group. RIPre was achieved by occluding arterial blood flow 5 min with a mercury sphygmomanometer followed by a 5-min reperfusion period, and this was repeated 4 times. The RIPre procedure was repeated 3 times a day for 20 days. In all patients, arterial fragments discarded during surgery were collected to evaluate endothelial function by flow-mediated dilation (FMD), CD34(+) monocyte count, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression). Phosphorylation levels of STAT-3 and Akt were also assayed to explore the underlying mechanisms. Compared with the CHD group, long-term regular RIPre significantly improved FMD after 20 days (8.5±2.4 vs 4.9±4.2%, P<0.05) and significantly reduced troponin after CABG surgery (0.72±0.31 and 1.64±0.19, P<0.05). RIPre activated STAT-3 and increased CD34(+) endothelial progenitor cell counts found in arteries. Long-term, regular RIPre improved endothelial function in patients with CHD, possibly due to STAT-3 activation, and this may have led to an increase in endothelial progenitor cells. 10.1590/1414-431X20144452
    Impact of eight weeks of repeated ischaemic preconditioning on brachial artery and cutaneous microcirculatory function in healthy males. Jones Helen,Nyakayiru Jean,Bailey Tom G,Green Daniel J,Cable N Timothy,Sprung Victoria S,Hopkins Nicola D,Thijssen Dick H J European journal of preventive cardiology BACKGROUND:Ischaemic preconditioning has well-established cardiac and vascular protective effects. Short interventions (one week) of daily ischaemic preconditioning episodes improve conduit and microcirculatory function. This study examined whether a longer (eight weeks) and less frequent (three per week) protocol of repeated ischaemic preconditioning improves vascular function. METHODS:Eighteen males were randomly allocated to either ischaemic preconditioning (22.4 ± 2.3 years, 23.7 ± 3.1 kg/m(2)) or a control intervention (26.0 ± 4.8 years, 26.4 ± 1.9 kg/m(2)). Brachial artery endothelial-dependent (FMD), forearm cutaneous microvascular function and cardiorespiratory fitness were assessed at zero, two and eight weeks. RESULTS:A greater improvement in FMD was evident following ischaemic preconditioning training compared with control at weeks 2 (2.24% (0.40, 4.08); p=0.02) and 8 (1.11% (0.13, 2.10); p=0.03). Repeated ischaemic preconditioning did not change cutaneous microcirculatory function or fitness. CONCLUSIONS:These data indicate that a feasible and practical protocol of regular ischaemic preconditioning episodes improves endothelial function in healthy individuals within two weeks, and these effects persist following repeated ischaemic preconditioning for eight weeks. 10.1177/2047487314547657
    Does 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring act as ischemic preconditioning and influence endothelial function? Fico Brandon G,Zhu Weili,Tanaka Hirofumi Journal of human hypertension Ischemic preconditioning can exert a powerful protection against a subsequent period of ischemia, via repeated inflation and deflation of a blood pressure cuff. Most often, damages of ischemia-reperfusion injury and benefits of preconditioning are evaluated via endothelial function. The ambulatory blood pressure monitoring constitutes repeated bouts of ischemia for 24 h. We examined whether repeated bouts of ischemia accumulated over 24 h influenced endothelial function. Twenty-two apparently healthy non-medicated middle-aged subjects 41 (8) years participated in the study. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03303404). Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured as an index of endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The ambulatory blood pressure monitoring device went through an average of 110 (13) inflation/deflation cycles, which resulted in 46 (6) min of cumulative ischemic stimuli. Following 24-h of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, FMD did not change significantly 6.6 (2.0) vs. 6.8 (2.7)%. Similarly, shear rate and reactive hyperemia were unchanged. We concluded that ambulatory blood pressure monitoring did not influence endothelium-dependent vasodilation acting via ischemic preconditioning. 10.1038/s41371-019-0214-y