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    MicroRNA-455 suppresses the oncogenic function of HDAC2 in human colorectal cancer. Mao Q D,Zhang W,Zhao K,Cao B,Yuan H,Wei L Z,Song M Q,Liu X S Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-induced mortality. Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) is involved in prognosis and therapy of CRC. This study aimed to explore novel therapeutic targets for CRC. The alteration of HDAC2 expression in CRC tissues was estimated by qRT-PCR. After lentivirus transfection, HDAC2 knockdown was confirmed by western blot analysis. The effect of HDAC2 knockdown on cell proliferation was then assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Screened by TargetScan, microRNA (miR)-455 was predicted to bind to 3'UTR of HDAC2 and the prediction was verified by luciferase assay. Finally, cells were transfected, respectively, with miR-455 mimics or miR-455 negative control (miR-NC) and the expression of HDAC2, cell proliferation and apoptosis of transfected cells were respectively evaluated by western blot analysis, MTT assay and flow cytometry. Results showed that the HDAC2 expression was up-regulated in CRC tissues (P<0.05). HDAC2 knockdown significantly decreased cell viability at day 3 (P<0.05), day 4 (P<0.01), and day 5 (P<0.001) after infection. Then, miR-455 was verified to directly target HDAC2, resulting in a significant difference in luciferase activity (P<0.01). Moreover, miR-455 decreased the expression of HDAC2 (P<0.01). miR-455 remarkably decreased cell viability at day 3 (P<0.05), day 4 (P<0.01), and day 5 (P<0.001) after transfection while inducing cell apoptosis (P<0.001). In conclusion, miR-455 inhibited cell proliferation while inducing cell apoptosis by targeting HDAC2 in CRC cells. 10.1590/1414-431X20176103
    miR-200c-SUMOylated KLF4 feedback loop acts as a switch in transcriptional programs that control VSMC proliferation. Zheng Bin,Bernier Michel,Zhang Xin-hua,Suzuki Toru,Nie Chan-quan,Li Yong Hui,Zhang Yong,Song Li-Li,Shi Hui-jing,Liu Yan,Zheng Cui-ying,Wen Jin-kun Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology The regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is an important issue because it has major implications for the prevention of pathological vascular conditions. Using microRNA array screen, we found the expression levels of 200 unique miRNAs in hyperplasic tissues. Among them, miR-200c expression substantially was down-regulated. The objective of this work was to assess the function of miR-200c and SUMOylated Krϋppel-like transcription factor 4 (KLF4) in the regulation of VSMC proliferation in both cultured cells and animal models of balloon injury. Under basal conditions, we found that miR-200c inhibited the expression of KLF4 and the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9. Upon PDGF-BB treatment, Ubc9 interacted with and promoted the SUMOylation of KLF4, which allowed the recruitment of transcriptional corepressors (e.g., nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) and HDAC2) to the miR-200c promoter. The reduction in miR-200c levels led to increased target gene expression (e.g., Ubc9 and KLF4), which further repressed miR-200c levels and accelerated VSMC proliferation. These results demonstrate that induction of a miR-200c-SUMOylated KLF4 feedback loop is a significant aspect of the PDGF-BB proliferative response in VSMCs and that targeting Ubc9 represents a novel approach for the prevention of restenosis. 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2015.03.011
    HDAC2 phosphorylation-dependent Klf5 deacetylation and RARα acetylation induced by RAR agonist switch the transcription regulatory programs of p21 in VSMCs. Zheng Bin,Han Mei,Shu Ya-Nan,Li Ying-Jie,Miao Sui-Bing,Zhang Xin-Hua,Shi Hui-Jing,Zhang Tian,Wen Jin-Kun Cell research Abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) occurs in hypertension, atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty, leading to pathophysiological vascular remodeling. As an important growth arrest gene, p21 plays critical roles in vascular remodeling. Regulation of p21 expression by retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and its ligand has important implications for control of pathological vascular remodeling. Nevertheless, the mechanism of RAR-mediated p21 expression in VSMCs remains poorly understood. Here, we show that, under basal conditions, RARα forms a complex with histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) and Krüppel-like factor 5 (Klf5) at the p21 promoter to inhibit its expression. Upon RARα agonist stimulation, HDAC2 is phosphorylated by CK2α. Phosphorylation of HDAC2, on the one hand, promotes its dissociation from RARα, thus allowing the liganded-RARα to interact with co-activators; on the other hand, it increases its interaction with Klf5, thus leading to deacetylation of Klf5. Deacetylation of Klf5 facilitates its dissociation from the p21 promoter, relieving its repressive effect on the p21 promoter. Interference with HDAC2 phosphorylation by either CK2α knockdown or the use of phosphorylation-deficient mutant of HDAC2 prevents the dissociation of Klf5 from the p21 promoter and impairs RAR agonist-induced p21 activation. Our results reveal a novel mechanism involving a phosphorylation-deacetylation cascade that functions to remove the basal repression complex from the p21 promoter upon RAR agonist treatment, allowing for optimum agonist-induced p21 expression. 10.1038/cr.2011.34
    Regulation of histone deacetylase 2 by protein kinase CK2. Tsai Shih-Chang,Seto Edward The Journal of biological chemistry Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) is a member of a large family of enzymes that alter gene expression by catalyzing the removal of acetyl groups from core histones. Originally isolated as a transcriptional co-repressor, HDAC2 possesses extensive amino acid sequence homology to HDAC1 (the founding member and most extensively studied HDAC enzyme). Because of this high degree of sequence similarity between HDAC1 and HDAC2, coupled with the fact that the two always co-exist in the same complexes, it is difficult to assess whether different properties exist between these two proteins. We report here that HDAC2 is a phosphoprotein similar to HDAC1. In addition, like HDAC1, the phospho-acceptor sites in HDAC2 are located in the C-terminal portion of the protein. However, unlike HDAC1, which can be phosphorylated by protein kinase CK2, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and protein kinase G, HDAC2 is phosphorylated uniquely by protein kinase CK2 in vitro. Studies using unfractionated cell extracts with CK2 inhibitors suggest that protein kinase CK2 is the major source of HDAC2 kinase. Finally, and perhaps most interesting, HDAC2 phosphorylation promotes enzymatic activity, selectively regulates complex formation, but has no effect on transcriptional repression. Together, our data indicate that like many HDACs, HDAC2 is regulated by post-translational modification, particularly phosphorylation. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that there are similarities and differences in the regulation of HDAC1 and HDAC2 by phosphorylation. 10.1074/jbc.M204149200
    Postmortem distribution of MAB-CHMINACA in body fluids and solid tissues of a human cadaver. Hasegawa Koutaro,Wurita Amin,Minakata Kayoko,Gonmori Kunio,Nozawa Hideki,Yamagishi Itaru,Watanabe Kanako,Suzuki Osamu Forensic toxicology During the latter part of 2014, we experienced an autopsy case in which 5-fluoro-ADB, one of the most dangerous synthetic cannabinoids, was identified and quantitated in solid tissues and in three herbal blend products [Forensic Toxicol (2015) 33:112-121]. At that time, although we suspected that there may be some drug(s) other than 5-fluoro-ADB in the herbal products, all trials to find it/them were unsuccessful. Subsequently, we carefully re-examined the presence of other synthetic cannabinoid(s) in the above herbal blend products using accurate mass spectrometry and found two new compounds, 5-fluoro-ADB-PINACA and MAB-CHMINACA (Forensic Toxicol. doi: 10.1007/s 11419-015-0264-y). In the present communication, we report the distribution of MAB-CHMINACA in body fluids and solid tissue specimens collected from the same deceased individual (kept frozen at -80 °C) as described above for demonstration of 5-fluoro-ADB. Unexpectedly, unchanged MAB-CHMINACA could be identified and quantitated in whole blood and in pericardial fluid specimens, but it was below the detection limit (0.1 ng/ml) in the urine specimen. A higher concentration of MAB-CHMINACA could be found in all of the nine solid tissues; the highest concentration of MAB-CHMINACA was found in the liver (156 ng/g), followed by the kidney, pancreas and so on. The compounds were detected in all nine solid tissues; their levels were generally higher than those in the whole blood and pericardial fluid. Contrary to expectations, the concentration of MAB-CHMINACA in the adipose tissue was relatively low. Our results show that the victim smoked one of the three herbal blend products containing both MAB-CHMINACA and 5-fluoro-ADB, resulting in the coexistence of both compounds. It should be concluded that 5-fluoro-ADB and MAB-CHMINACA synergically exerted their toxicities, leading to death after a short interval. The differences in the distribution of 5-fluoro-ADB and MAB-CHMINACA among the cadaver specimens were also discussed in view of the structures of both compounds. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate MAB-CHMINACA in biological/human specimens. 10.1007/s11419-015-0272-y
    MicroRNA-455-3p mediates GATA3 tumor suppression in mammary epithelial cells by inhibiting TGF-β signaling. Zeng Yi,Gao Tianyang,Huang Wei,Yang Yang,Qiu Rongfang,Hou Yongqiang,Yu Wenqian,Leng Shuai,Feng Dandan,Liu Wei,Teng Xu,Yu Hefen,Wang Yan The Journal of biological chemistry GATA3 is a basic and essential transcription factor that regulates many pathophysiological processes and is required for the development of mammary luminal epithelial cells. Loss-of-function GATA3 alterations in breast cancer are associated with poor prognosis. Here, we sought to understand the tumor-suppressive functions GATA3 normally performs. We discovered a role for GATA3 in suppressing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer by activating miR-455-3p expression. Enforced expression of miR-455-3p alone partially prevented EMT induced by transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) both in cells and tumor xenografts by directly inhibiting key components of TGF-β signaling. Pathway and biochemical analyses showed that one miRNA-455-3p target, the TGF-β-induced protein ZEB1, recruits the Mi-2/nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex to the promotor region of miR-455 to strictly repress the GATA3-induced transcription of this microRNA. Considering that ZEB1 enhances TGF-β signaling, we delineated a double-feedback interaction between ZEB1 and miR-455-3p, in addition to the repressive effect of miR-455-3p on TGF-β signaling. Our study revealed that a feedback loop between these two axes, specifically GATA3-induced miR-455-3p expression, could repress ZEB1 and its recruitment of NuRD (MTA1) to suppress miR-455, which ultimately regulates TGF-β signaling. In conclusion, we identified that miR-455-3p plays a pivotal role in inhibiting the EMT and TGF-β signaling pathway and maintaining cell differentiation. This forms the basis of that miR-455-3p might be a promising therapeutic intervention for breast cancer. 10.1074/jbc.RA119.010800