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    Programmed death ligand-1 induction restrains the cytotoxic T lymphocyte response against microglia. Chauhan Priyanka,Hu Shuxian,Prasad Sujata,Sheng Wen S,Lokensgard James R Glia Microglial cells are the main reservoir for HIV-1 within the brain and potential exists for negative immune checkpoint blockade therapies to purge this viral reservoir. Here, we investigated cytolytic responses of CD8 T lymphocytes against microglia loaded with peptide epitopes. Initially, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated efficient killing of HIV-1 p24 AI9 or YI9 peptide-loaded splenocytes in MHC-matched recipients. Cytolytic killing of microglia was first demonstrated using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen for in vitro cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) assays. Peptide-loaded primary microglia obtained from programmed death ligand (PD-L) 1 knockout (KO) animals showed significantly more killing than cells from wild-type (WT) animals when co-cultured with activated CD8 T-cells isolated from rAd5-OVA primed animals. Moreover, when peptide loaded-microglial cells from WT animals were treated with neutralizing α-PD-L1 Ab, significantly more killing was observed compared to either untreated or IgG isotype-treated cells. Most importantly, significantly increased in vivo killing of HIV-1 p24 YI9 peptide-loaded microglia from PD-L1 KO animals, as well as AI9 peptide-loaded BALB/c microglial cells treated with α-PD-L1, was observed within brains of rAd5-p24 primed-CNS boosted C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice, respectively. Finally, ex vivo responses of brain CD8 T-cells in response to AI9 stimulation showed significantly increased IFN-γ and IL-2 production when treated with α-PD-1 Abs. Greater proliferation of CD8+ T-cells from the brain was also observed following blockade. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that PD-L1 induction on microglia restrains CTL responses and indicate that immune checkpoint blockade targeting this pathway may be beneficial in clearing viral brain reservoirs. 10.1002/glia.23932
    Anti-PD-1 Induces M1 Polarization in the Glioma Microenvironment and Exerts Therapeutic Efficacy in the Absence of CD8 Cytotoxic T Cells. Rao Ganesh,Latha Khatri,Ott Martina,Sabbagh Aria,Marisetty Anantha,Ling Xiaoyang,Zamler Daniel,Doucette Tiffany A,Yang Yuhui,Kong Ling-Yuan,Wei Jun,Fuller Gregory N,Benavides Fernando,Sonabend Adam M,Long James,Li Shulin,Curran Michael,Heimberger Amy B Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:Anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) therapy has demonstrated inconsistent therapeutic results in patients with glioblastoma (GBM) including those with profound impairments in CD8 T-cell effector responses. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We ablated the gene in BL6 mice and intercrossed them with Ntv-a mice to determine how CD8 T cells affect malignant progression in forming endogenous gliomas. Tumor-bearing mice were treated with PD-1 to determine the efficacy of this treatment in the absence of T cells. The tumor microenvironment of treated and control mice was analyzed by IHC and FACS. RESULTS:We observed a survival benefit in immunocompetent mice with endogenously arising intracranial glioblastomas after intravenous administration of anti-PD-1. The therapeutic effect of PD-1 administration persisted in mice even after genetic ablation of the CD8 gene (CD8). CD11b and Iba1 monocytes and macrophages were enriched in the glioma microenvironment of the CD8 mice. The macrophages and microglia assumed a proinflammatory M1 response signature in the setting of anti-PD-1 blockade through the elimination of PD-1-expressing macrophages and microglia in the tumor microenvironment. Anti-PD-1 can inhibit the proliferation of and induce apoptosis of microglia through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, as fluorescently labeled anti-PD-1 was shown to gain direct access to the glioma microenvironment. CONCLUSIONS:Our results show that the therapeutic effect of anti-PD-1 blockade in GBM may be mediated by the innate immune system, rather than by CD8 T cells. Anti-PD-1 immunologically modulates innate immunity in the glioma microenvironment-likely a key mode of activity. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-4110
    Emerging Role of PD-1 in the Central Nervous System and Brain Diseases. Zhao Junli,Roberts Alexus,Wang Zilong,Savage Justin,Ji Ru-Rong Neuroscience bulletin Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is an immune checkpoint modulator and a major target of immunotherapy as anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies have demonstrated remarkable efficacy in cancer treatment. Accumulating evidence suggests an important role of PD-1 in the central nervous system (CNS). PD-1 has been implicated in CNS disorders such as brain tumors, Alzheimer's disease, ischemic stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, cognitive function, and pain. PD-1 signaling suppresses the CNS immune response via resident microglia and infiltrating peripheral immune cells. Notably, PD-1 is also widely expressed in neurons and suppresses neuronal activity via downstream Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 and modulation of ion channel function. An improved understanding of PD-1 signaling in the cross-talk between glial cells, neurons, and peripheral immune cells in the CNS will shed light on immunomodulation, neuromodulation, and novel strategies for treating brain diseases. 10.1007/s12264-021-00683-y