Effect of chronic heat exposure on fat deposition and meat quality in two genetic types of chicken.
Lu Q,Wen J,Zhang H
The effects of chronic heat stress on growth, proportion of carcass and fat deposition, and meat quality were investigated in 2 genetic types of chickens. One hundred and eight 5-wk-old male chickens from a commercially fast-growing strain (Arbor Acres, AA) and a locally slow-growing species (Beijing You chicken, BJY) were kept in the following conditions: constant optimal ambient temperature at 21 degrees C and ad libitum feeding (21AL), constant high ambient temperature at 34 degrees C and ad libitum feeding (34AL), and constant optimal ambient temperature 21 degrees C and pair-fed to the 34AL chickens (21PF). The results showed that feed intakes were decreased by heat exposure in both type of chickens at 8 wk of age (P<0.001). At 34 degrees C, AA broilers exhibited greatly decreased weight gain (22.38 vs. 61.45 g/d for 21AL) and lower breast proportion compared with 21AL, while the relevant indices of BJY chickens were not affected in hot condition. Abdominal fat deposition of BJY chickens was enhanced by heat exposure (P<0.05). Fat deposition of AA broilers was decreased in heat-exposed and pair-fed chickens. Abdominal and intermuscular fat deposition in 34AL birds, however, were enhanced compared with 21PF birds (P<0.01). The L* values, drip loss, initial pH, and shear force of breast meat in BJY chickens were not affected by treatments. In AA birds, chronic heat stress increased L* values and drip loss compared with 21AL, but pH and shear force were not affected by treatments. The results from this study indicated that the impact of heat stress was breed dependent and that BJY chickens showed higher resistance to high ambient temperature, which could be related to their increased feed efficiency and deposition of abdominal fat under heat exposure.
Differential expression of heat shock transcription factors and heat shock proteins after acute and chronic heat stress in laying chickens (Gallus gallus).
Xie Jingjing,Tang Li,Lu Lin,Zhang Liyang,Xi Lin,Liu Hsiao-Ching,Odle Jack,Luo Xugang
Heat stress due to high environmental temperature negatively influences animal performances. To better understand the biological impact of heat stress, laying broiler breeder chickens were subjected either to acute (step-wisely increasing temperature from 21 to 35°C within 24 hours) or chronic (32°C for 8 weeks) high temperature exposure. High temperature challenges significantly elevated body temperature of experimental birds (P<0.05). However, oxidation status of lipid and protein and expression of heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs) 70 and 90 were differently affected by acute and chronic treatment. Tissue-specific responses to thermal challenge were also found among heart, liver and muscle. In the heart, acute heat challenge affected lipid oxidation (P = 0.05) and gene expression of all 4 HSF gene expression was upregulated (P<0.05). During chronic heat treatment, the HSP 70 mRNA level was increased (P<0.05) and HSP 90 mRNA (P<0.05) was decreased. In the liver, oxidation of protein was alleviated during acute heat challenge (P<0.05), however, gene expression HSF2, 3 and 4 and HSP 70 were highly induced (P<0.05). HSP90 expression was increased by chronic thermal treatment (P<0.05). In the muscle, both types of heat stress increased protein oxidation, but HSFs and HSPs gene expression remained unaltered. Only tendencies to increase were observed in HSP 70 (P = 0.052) and 90 (P = 0.054) gene expression after acute heat stress. The differential expressions of HSF and HSP genes in different tissues of laying broiler breeder chickens suggested that anti-heat stress mechanisms might be provoked more profoundly in the heart, by which the muscle was least protected during heat stress. In addition to HSP, HSFs gene expression could be used as a marker during acute heat stress.
Thermal biology of domestic animals.
Collier Robert J,Gebremedhin Kifle G
Annual review of animal biosciences
The thermal environment is the most important ecological factor determining the growth, development, and productivity of domestic animals. Routes of energy exchange (sensible heat and latent heat) between animals and their environment are greatly influenced by body weight, fat deposition, hair-coat properties, functional activity, and number of sweat glands, as well as the presence or absence of anatomical respiratory countercurrent heat exchange capability. Differences in these anatomical features across species have led to specialization of heat exchange. Thermal plasticity and degree of acclimation are critical factors determining the ability of animals to respond to environmental change. Increases in productive capability of domestic animals can compromise thermal acclimation and plasticity, requiring greater investments in housing systems that reduce variability of the thermal environment. The combination of steadily increasing metabolic heat production as domestic animal productivity increases and a rising world temperature poses ongoing and future challenges to maintaining health and well-being of domestic animals.
Potential use of chromium to combat thermal stress in animals: A review.
Bin-Jumah May,Abd El-Hack Mohamed E,Abdelnour Sameh A,Hendy Yasmeen A,Ghanem Hager A,Alsafy Sara A,Khafaga Asmaa F,Noreldin Ahmed E,Shaheen Hazem,Samak Dalia,Momenah Maha A,Allam Ahmed A,AlKahtane Abdullah A,Alkahtani Saad,Abdel-Daim Mohamed M,Aleya Lotfi
The Science of the total environment
Heat stress (HS) has adverse effects on the body: it decreases body weight, feed efficiency, feed intake, carcass quality, and nutrient digestibility. Chromium (Cr) can prevent lipid peroxidation induced by HS through its strong antioxidant activities, especially when it is added to the poultry diet. It improves the action of insulin and nutrient metabolism (of lipids, proteins, nucleic acid, and carbohydrates) through activation of enzymes associated with such pathways. The results of the studies on Cr added to diets with concentrations of 0.05 mg Cr/kg of Cr-methionine led to improved feed efficiency and DM intake by cows and Holstein dairy calves exposed to high environmental temperatures. Moreover, calves that received Cr at levels of 0.05 mg/kg of body weight tended to have higher serum concentrations of glucose and higher ratios of insulin to glucose. In heat-stressed pigs, Cr addition (200 ppb) increased blood neutrophils by about 37%. Several studies have asserted that Cr can inhibit inflammation in lactating cows by promoting the release of Hsp72, assisting production of IL-10 and inhibiting degradation of IκBα in HS conditions. In addition, Cr supplementation was observed to possibly have positive impacts on both cell-mediated and humeral immunity in heat-stressed buffalo calves. Studies over the last two decades have shown with certainty that chromium supplementation has an impact on many variables in chickens. Moreover, Cr is believed to increase insulin action in insulin-sensitive tissues (i.e., adipose and muscles), resulting in increased farm animal productivity through the improvement of feed intake, growth rate, carcass quality, reproductive parameters and immune functions.
Broiler production challenges in the tropics: A review.
Kpomasse Cocou Claude,Oke Oyegunle Emmanuel,Houndonougbo Frédérick Makpondji,Tona Kokou
Veterinary medicine and science
Under tropical climate, broiler production is encumbered by several constraints which make it difficult for them to attain their genetic potential. The scarcity and high price of poultry feed and veterinary services and the harsh environmental conditions with respect to thermal stress are some of the challenges that hinder optimal growth of the birds. Limited availability of feedstuffs, including crucial feed ingredients like maize and oil seedcakes, is an important challenge to the sector, since feed still represents a major cost of producing broiler chickens. Additionally, the problem of climate change, which has become a global concern, is the main problem in broiler production under hot and humid climate. Under high ambient temperature, feed intake decreases, carbohydrates metabolism and protein synthesis efficiency are disturbed. Lipid utilization is lower and glucose or insulin homeostasis is altered while fat deposition and oxidative stress increases. Several strategies are used to ameliorate the effect of heat stress in poultry. The objective of this review was to summarize the challenge in broiler production under hot and humid climate and different approaches to fight heat stress in poultry.
Impact of gut microbiota structure in heat-stressed broilers.
Shi Dayou,Bai Lin,Qu Qian,Zhou Shanshan,Yang Meimei,Guo Shining,Li Qiuhong,Liu Cui
Gut microbiota** play important roles in the health and disease status of both humans and animals. Little is known about whether heat stress changes the composition of the gut microbiota in chicken. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of heat stress on changes in caecal microbiota, including changes in growth performance as well as HSP70 and cortisol levels. Sixty 14-day-old female broilers were equally divided into 2 treatment groups with different housing temperatures for 28 D: a control group (C) at 24 to 26°C and a heat stress (HS) group at 34 to 38°C. The caecal contents of the broiler chicken were then extracted on days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28. Genomic DNA was extracted and amplified based on the V3∼V4 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA high-throughput sequence analyses. The results showed that the average daily gain and average daily feed intake were significantly decreased and that the feed conversion ratio was increased by heat stress. The concentrations of HSP70 and cortisol in the serum were significantly increased. The composition of gut microbiota was influenced by heat stress** through beta diversity analysis and taxon-based analysis. In particular, at the phylum level the composition of Firmicutes, Tenericutes, and Proteobacteria in HS group was increased than that of C group, and Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria in HS group were reduced than that of C group. In addition, the composition of Anaeroplasma and Lactobacillus phyla in HS group were increased than that of C group, whereas the Bacteroides, Oscillospira, Faecalibacterium, and Dorea genera in HS group were decreased than that of C group. In conclusion, the gut microbiota in broilers were changed by heat stress. And the changes of the gut microbiota could provide the basis for further research on the heat stress.
Behavioural, physiological, neuro-endocrine and molecular responses of cattle against heat stress: an updated review.
Mishra S R
Tropical animal health and production
The negative impact of heat stress on cattle growth, development, reproduction and production has been quite alarming across the world. Climate change elevates earth surface temperature which exacerbates the wrath of heat stress on cattle. Moreover, cattle in tropical and sub-tropical countries are most commonly affected by the menace of heat stress which severely wane their production and productivity. In general, cattle exhibit various thermoregulatory responses such as behavioural, physiological, neuro-endocrine and molecular responses to counteract the terrible effects of heat stress. Amongst the aforementioned thermoregulatory responses, behavioural, physiological and neuro-endocrine responses are regarded as most conventional and expeditious responses shown by cattle against heat stress. Furthermore, molecular responses serve as the major adaptive response to attenuate the harmful effects of heat stress. Therefore, present review highlights the significance of behavioural, physiological, neuro-endocrine and molecular responses which act synergistically to combat the deleterious effects of heat stress thereby confer thermo-tolerance in cattle.
Overexpression of heat shock protein 70 and its relationship to intestine under acute heat stress in broilers: 2. Intestinal oxidative stress.
Gu X H,Hao Y,Wang X L
Oxidative stress injury is one important factor in intestinal mucosal barrier damage. Expression of heat shock protein (HSP)70 is an endogenous mechanism by which living cells adapt to stress. This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of HSP70 on intestinal oxidative stress. Two hundred and forty broilers were injected intraperitoneally with HSP70 inducer l-(1)-glutamine or with the inhibitor quercetin. Twenty-four hours later, they were heat stressed for 0, 2, 3, 5, and 10 h, respectively, at 36 ± 1°C. The l-(1)-glutamine significantly increased HSP70 expression (P < 0.001). At 2 h or 3 h of heat stress, the HSP70 expression obviously elevated (P < 0.001). Levels of corticosterone and the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio significantly increased when HSP70 expression was inhibited (P < 0.0001). Serum corticosterone was negatively correlated with the HSP70 expression at 3 h of heat stress (P = 0.0015; R = -0.6537). Heat shock protein 70 significantly protected the integrity of the intestinal mucosa from heat stress, with significantly decreased lactic dehydrogenase when HSP70 expression was enhanced (P < 0.001). In addition, heat-stress time significantly affected the lactic dehydrogenase release (P < 0.001). Furthermore, HSP70 significantly elevated antioxidant enzyme activities (such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxidant capacity) and inhibited lipid peroxidation to relieve intestinal mucosal oxidative injury (P < 0.001). These results suggest that HSP70 is capable of protecting the intestinal mucosa from heat-stress injury by improving antioxidant capacity of broilers and inhibiting the lipid peroxidation production.
Heat Shock Protein 70 Improves In Vitro Embryo Yield and Quality from Heat Stressed Bovine Oocytes.
Stamperna Konstantina,Giannoulis Themistoklis,Dovolou Eleni,Kalemkeridou Maria,Nanas Ioannis,Dadouli Katerina,Moutou Katerina,Mamuris Zissis,Amiridis Georgios S
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI
Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is a chaperon that stabilizes unfolded or partially folded proteins, preventing inappropriate inter- and intramolecular interactions. Here, we examined the developmental competence of in vitro matured oocytes exposed to heat stress with or without HSP70. Bovine oocytes were matured for 24 h at 39 °C without (group C39) or with HSP70 (group H39) and at 41 °C for the first 6 h, followed by 16 h at 39 °C with (group H41) or without HSP70 (group C41). After insemination, zygotes were cultured for 9 days at 39 °C. Cleavage and embryo yield were assessed 48 h post insemination and on days 7, 8, 9, respectively. Gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR in oocytes, cumulus cells and blastocysts. In C41, blastocysts formation rate was lower than in C39 and on day 9 it was lower than in H41. In oocytes, HSP70 enhanced the expression of three HSP genes regardless of incubation temperature. HSP70 at 39 °C led to tight coordination of gene expression in oocytes and blastocysts, but not in cumulus cells. Our results imply that HSP70, by preventing apoptosis, supporting signal transduction, and increasing antioxidant protection of the embryo, protects heat stressed maturing bovine oocyte and restores its developmental competence.
Molecular and Cellular Responses of DNA Methylation and Thioredoxin System to Heat Stress in Meat-Type Chickens.
Habashy Walid S,Milfort Marie C,Rekaya Romdhane,Aggrey Samuel E
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI
Heat stress (HS) causes molecular dysfunction that adversely affects chicken performance and increases mortality. The responses of chickens to HS are extremely complex. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of acute and chronic exposure to HS on the expression of thioredoxin-peroxiredoxin system genes and DNA methylation in chickens. Chickens at 14 d of age were divided into two groups and reared under either constant normal temperature (25 °C) or high temperature (35 °C) in individual cages for 12 days. Five birds per group at one and 12 days post-HS were euthanized and livers were sampled for gene expression. The liver and muscle were sampled for cellular analysis. mRNA expression of thioredoxin and peroxiredoxins (Prdx) 1, 3, and 4 in the liver were down-regulated at 12 days post-HS compared to controls. The liver activity of thioredoxin reductase and levels of peroxiredoxin1 at 12 days post-HS were significantly decreased. The results reveal that there was a significant decrease in DNA methylation at 12 days post HS in liver tissues. In conclusion, pathway of thioredoxin system under HS may provide clues to nutritional strategies to mitigate the effect of HS in meat-type chicken.
Discriminant analysis of response to Newcastle disease and heat tolerance among chicken genotypes in hot humid tropical environment.
Durosaro S O,Ilori B M,Oguntade D O,Iyasere O S,Adebambo A O,Ozoje M O
Tropical animal health and production
Newcastle disease and heat stress reduce the productivity of local chickens of Nigeria (LCN). This study compared the antibody response to Newcastle disease and heat tolerance among different LCN genotypes in hot humid tropics using multivariate discriminant analysis. A total of 299 birds were used for the study. Geometric mean titre against Newcastle disease before vaccination (GMTB), geometric mean titre against Newcastle disease after vaccination (GMTA), rectal temperature at week 4 (RT4), pulse rate at week 4 (PR4), respiratory rate at week 4 (RR4), heat stress index at week 4 (H4), rectal temperature at week 13 (RT13), pulse rate at week 13 (PR13), respiratory rate at week 13 (RR13) and heat stress index at week 13 (H13) were measured. All the traits were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the genotype while sex differences were only observed in GMTB, GMTA and RR13. The stepwise discriminant analysis revealed RR4, PR13, RT13, H4, GMTA, GMTB, H13 and RT4 to be effective in differentiating the three chicken genotypes. Two canonical variables that accounted for 60.21% and 39.79% of the total variation were revealed. Linear discriminant functions for differentiation of the three chicken genotypes were also developed. 87.39% of normal feather, 76.58% of naked neck and 100% of frizzle feather chickens were correctly assigned into their genotypes. The longest Mahalanobis distance was observed between normal feather and frizzle feather chickens. The discriminant functions developed in this study could be used to differentiate the three genotypes of LCN using antibody response to Newcastle disease and heat tolerance.
Trends in HSPB5 research: a 36-year bibliometric analysis.
Xu Zhengdong,Gong Yehong,Wan Jiaqian,Tang Jiaxing,Zhang Qingwen
Cell stress & chaperones
HSPB5 (heat shock protein B5), also known as αB-crystallin, is one of the most widespread and populous of the ten human small heat shock proteins (sHsps). Over the past decades, extensive research has been conducted on HSPB5. However, few studies have statistically analyzed these publications. Herein, we conducted a bibliometric analysis to track the global research trend and current development status of HSPB5 research from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) database between 1985 and 2020. Our results demonstrate that 1220 original articles cited 54,778 times in 391 scholarly journals were published. Visualization analyses reveal that the Journal of Biological Chemistry was the most influential journal with 85 articles. The USA dominated this field with 520 publications (42.62%), followed by Japan with 149 publications (12.21%), and Kato contributed the largest number of publications. Most related publications were published in journals focusing on biochemistry molecular biology, cell biology, neurosciences neurology, and ophthalmology. In addition, keyword co-occurrence analyses identify three predominant research topics: expression of HSPB5, chaperone studies for HSPB5, and pathological studies of HSPB5. This study provides valuable guidance for researchers and leads to collaborative opportunities between diverse research interests to be integrated for HSPB5 research.
Altered relationship between gluconeogenesis and immunity in broilers exposed to heat stress for different durations.
Siddiqui Sharif Hasan,Kang Darae,Park Jinryong,Khan Mousumee,Belal Shah Ahmed,Shin Donghyun,Shim Kwanseob
This study determined the relationship between inflammation and gluconeogenesis level in broilers in different durations of heat stress. A total of 240 Ross 308 broilers were offered control and heat stress temperature from 21 to 35 d post-hatch, each experimental group had 8 replications, and each replication obtained 15 broilers. The temperature in the control (Ctrl) group and heat stress group were maintained at 24 ± 1°C and 34 ± 1°C, respectively throughout the experimental period. Based on the duration of heat stress, the heat stress group was divided into 2 subgroups, like, 7-d heat stress (28-day-old broiler) designated ST group and 14-d heat stress (35-day-old broiler) designated the LT group. The ad libitum commercial feed and fresh water were provided to all experimental broilers during the experiment. The growth performance of experimental broilers was calculated at 35 d. However, the liver and blood samples were collected from the Ctrl group in 21 d, as well as these samples were collected from the heat stress ST and LT groups in 28-d and 35-d, respectively. Obvious gene expression of immunity, gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, and glycogenesis, as well as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and adenosine triphosphate was determined in the liver sample. The blood glucose concentration and histopathology of the liver was also examined in the different grouped broilers. Body weight, weight gain, and feed intake significantly decreased in the 35-d heat stress group than the Ctrl group. However, the feed conversion ratio increased at the 35-d heat stress group than the Ctrl group. The amount of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was significantly higher in ST and LT groups than Ctrl, whereas the blood glucose level was downregulated in the LT group. The amount of adenosine triphosphate was significantly decreased in the LT group than the Ctrl and ST groups. Heat stress acts as an impediment to the general relation between gluconeogenesis and immunity, as well as changes cellular structure. This experiment contributed to the establishment of a relationship between gluconeogenesis and immunity, which affects the growth performance of broilers during heat stress.
Role of heat shock proteins in aging and chronic inflammatory diseases.
Gomez Christian R
Advanced age is associated with a decline in response to stress. This contributes to the establishment of chronic inflammation, one of the hallmarks of aging and age-related disease. Heat shock proteins (HSP) are determinants of life span, and their progressive malfunction leads to age-related pathology. To discuss the function of HSP on age-related chronic inflammation and illness. An updated review of literature and discussion of relevant work on the topic of HSP in normal aging and chronic inflammatory pathology was performed. HSP contribute to inflamm-aging. They also play a key role in age-associated pathology linked to chronic inflammation such as autoimmune disorders, neurological disease, cardiovascular disorder, and cancer. HSP may be targeted for control of their effects related to age and chronic inflammation. Research on HSP functions in age-linked chronic inflammatory disorders provides an opportunity to improve health span and delay age-related chronic disorders.
Modeling heat stress effects on dairy cattle milk production in a tropical environment using test-day records and random regression models.
Mbuthia J M,Mayer M,Reinsch N
Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience
In tropical environments, dairy cattle production is constrained by several factors, including climate. The seasonal loss of milk due to heat stress is a recurring challenge for many dairy producers. The objective of this study was to detect heat stress thresholds, milk yield loss and individual animal variations using random regression models for dairy cattle from test-day milk records. Data were obtained from the Kenya Livestock Breeders Organization for the years 2000-2017 and merged with weather data. The weather parameters were grid-interpolated solar and meteorological data obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Prediction Of Worldwide Energy Resources (NASA/POWER). After editing, the records comprised 49 993, 45 251 and 36 136 test-day records for first, second, and third lactations, respectively, for the four main dairy breeds: Friesian (68.0%), Ayrshire (21.1%), Jersey (7.6%) and Guernsey (3.3%). Variance components were estimated using Restricted Maximum Likelihood in ASReml software. Random regression models with third-order Legendre polynomials were fitted to the average and individual lactation curves and the reaction norms. An extended factor analytic variance structure for the random cow effects was used to estimate (co)variances between days in milk and thermal load. The daily average temperature (TA) and temperature humidity index (THI) were identified as the most suitable thermal load indicators for assessing milk yield losses. Considering a one day lag, the estimated heat stress thresholds were about 22 °C and 69 index units for TA and THI, respectively. Almost no differences were observed for estimated residual variances between the thermal load indicators, indicating there was no better model fit by TA or THI. The heat stress thresholds and milk loss patterns are important for management of dairy production systems in the tropics with climatic conditions similar to this study. Data recording should be improved as a tool to monitor the expected impacts of climate change and mitigation measures.
Expression dynamics of HSP70 during chronic heat stress in Tharparkar cattle.
Bharati Jaya,Dangi S S,Chouhan V S,Mishra S R,Bharti M K,Verma V,Shankar O,Yadav V P,Das K,Paul A,Bag S,Maurya V P,Singh G,Kumar P,Sarkar M
International journal of biometeorology
Six male Tharparkar cattle aged 2-3 years were selected for the study. The animals were acclimatized in the psychrometric chamber at thermoneutral zone (TNZ) for 15 days and then exposed to 42 °C temperature up to 23 days followed by 12 days of recovery period. Physiological responses were estimated, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated at TNZ on day 1, day 5, and day 12; after 6 h of heat stress exposure on day 16 to day 20, day 25, day 30, day 32, day 34, day 36, and day 38; and a recovery period on day 45 and day 50. The PBMCs were cultured to study the effect of thermal challenge on HSP70 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression pattern at different temperature-time combinations. The mRNA and protein expression of HSP70 in PBMCs along with serum extracellular HSP70 (eHSP70) was increased (P < 0.05) and showed two peaks on day 17 and day 32 (2nd and 17th days of thermal challenge, respectively). The HSP70 mRNA expression was increased (P < 0.05) in a temperature- and time-dependent manner in heat stress challenge treatment as compared to control in cultured PBMCs. HSP70 expression was found to be higher (P < 0.05) after 10 days of heat exposure (corresponds to chronic heat stress) as compared to the first 5 days of heat stress (corresponds to short-term heat stress) and control period at TNZ. The present findings indicate that HSP70 is possibly involved in heat stress adaptive response in Tharparkar cattle and the biphasic expression pattern may be providing a second window of protection during chronic heat stress.
Biology of heat stress; the nexus between intestinal hyperpermeability and swine reproduction.
Mayorga E J,Ross J W,Keating A F,Rhoads R P,Baumgard L H
Unfavorable weather conditions are one of the largest constraints to maximizing farm animal productivity. Heat stress (HS), in particular, compromises almost every metric of profitability and this is especially apparent in the grow-finish and reproductive aspects of the swine industry. Suboptimal production during HS was traditionally thought to result from hypophagia. However, independent of inadequate nutrient consumption, HS affects a plethora of endocrine, physiological, metabolic, circulatory, and immunological variables. Whether these changes are homeorhetic strategies to survive the heat load or are pathological remains unclear, nor is it understood if they temporally occur by coincidence or if they are chronologically causal. However, mounting evidence suggest that the origin of the aforementioned changes lie at the gastrointestinal tract. Heat stress compromises intestinal barrier integrity, and increased appearance of luminal contents in circulation causes local and systemic inflammatory responses. The resulting immune activation is seemingly the epicenter to many, if not most of the negative consequences HS has on reproduction, growth, and lactation. Interestingly, thermoregulatory and production responses to HS are only marginally related. In other words, increased body temperature indices poorly predict decreases in productivity. Further, HS induced malnutrition is also a surprisingly inaccurate predictor of productivity. Thus, selecting animals with a "heat tolerant" phenotype based solely or separately on thermoregulatory capacity or production may not ultimately increase resilience. Describing the physiology and mechanisms that underpin how HS jeopardizes animal performance is critical for developing approaches to ameliorate current production issues and requisite for generating future strategies (genetic, managerial, nutritional, and pharmaceutical) aimed at optimizing animal well-being, and improving the sustainable production of high-quality protein for human consumption.
An updated review on cattle thermoregulation: physiological responses, biophysical mechanisms, and heat stress alleviation pathways.
Dos Santos Mateus Medeiros,Souza-Junior João Batista Freire,Dantas Maiko Roberto Tavares,de Macedo Costa Leonardo Lelis
Environmental science and pollution research international
Heat stress is one of the main obstacles to achieving efficient cattle production systems, and it may have numerous adverse effects on cattle. As the planet undergoes climatic changes, which is predicted to raise the earth's average temperature by 1.5 °C between 2030 and 2052, its impact may trigger several stressful factors for livestock. Among these, an increase in core body temperature would trigger physiological imbalance, consequently affecting reproduction, animal health, and dry matter intake adversely. Core body temperature increase is commonly observed and poses challenges to livestock farmers. In cattle farming, thermal stress severely affects milk production and weight gain, and can compromise food security in the coming years. This review presents an updated approach to the physiological and thermoregulatory responses of cattle under various environmental conditions. Strategies for mitigating the harmful effects of heat stress on livestock are suggested as viable alternatives for the betterment of production systems.
The anti-heat stress effects of Chinese herbal medicine prescriptions and rumen-protected γ-aminobutyric acid on growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, and health status in beef cattle.
Chen Jian,Guo Kun,Song Xiaozhen,Lan Lvtao,Liu Shiqi,Hu Ruiming,Luo Junrong
Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho
This study aims to evaluate the anti-heat stress effect of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) prescription, rumen-protected γ-aminobutyric acid (RP-GABA), and CHM plus RP-GABA co-medication on growth performance, apparent digestibility, and serum parameters in heat-stressed beef cattle. Forty beef cattle were randomly divided into four groups. Control group was supplied with basal diet, while CHM, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and CHM + GABA groups were, respectively, supplied with CHM, RP-GABA, and CHM plus RP-GABA in basal diet. Our result indicated that CHM + GABA elevated apparent digestibility including crude protein, Ca, P, crude fat (CF) (p < .01), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (p < .05), but no difference was found with CF and NDF digestibility both in CHM and GABA group (p > .05). More importantly, average daily gain (ADG) was improved in CHM, GABA, and CHM + GABA groups, while average daily feed intake (ADFI) significantly increased only in CHM + GABA groups (p < .05). Meanwhile, CHM + GABA displayed notably more positive effect in serum hormones, immune globulin, ions contents, and blood inflammatory cytokines than other treatment groups and control group. These results demonstrated that both CHM and GABA are effective in alleviating heat stress response and the co-medication has a synergistic effect on anti-heat stress.
Dietary supplementation of artificial sweetener and capsicum oleoresin as a strategy to mitigate the negative consequences of heat stress on pig performance.
Biggs Morgan E,Kroscher Kellie A,Zhao Lidan D,Zhang Zhenhe,Wall Emma H,Bravo David M,Rhoads Robert P
Journal of animal science
Pigs exposed to elevated ambient temperatures exhibit reduced daily gain, alterations in muscle and fat deposition, and decreased health. Negative aspects of gastrointestinal (GI) function, integrity, and permeability also occur. High-intensity sweeteners can ameliorate the negative effects of heat stress (HS) by increasing GI glucagon-like peptide-2 production while capsicum oleoresin has been shown to reduce inflammatory response. The effects of an artificial high-intensity sweetener and capsicum oleoresin (CAPS-SUC; TakTik X-Hit, Pancosma, Switzerland) on growth performance of pigs were examined. Forty-eight pigs (12 wk of age, 43.2 ± 4.3 kg) were assigned to six treatments: thermoneutral conditions (21 ± 1.1 °C; 40% to 70% relative humidity) fed ad libitum with (TN+) or without supplement (TN-), heat stress (35 ± 1 °C; 20% to 40% relative humidity) fed ad libitum with (HS+) or without supplement (HS-), and thermoneutral conditions pair-fed to HS intake with (PFTN+) or without supplement (PFTN-). Supplementation (0.1 g/kg feed) began 2 d prior to the 3-d environmental treatment period. Body weights (BWs) and blood samples were collected on days -1 and 3. Rectal temperature (RT) and respiration rate (RR) were measured thrice daily and the feed intake (FI) was recorded daily. Intestinal sections were collected for histology. Pigs in HS conditions exhibited increased RT (~1.2 °C) and RR (~2.7-fold) compared with TN and PFTN groups (P < 0.01). HS+ animals had increased RR when compared with HS- animals (P < 0.02). Heat stress decreased FI compared with TN. HS and PFTN decreased (P < 0.05) average daily gain compared with TN. Supplement did not alter the BW gain. HS and PFTN decreased (P < 0.05) Gain:Feed compared with TN during environmental treatment. Supplementation with CAPS-SUC increased Gain:Feed by 0.12 (P < 0.05). Circulating glucose concentrations tended to decrease in CAPS-SUC vs. non-supplemented HS and PFTN animals (P ≤ 0.1). Circulating insulin concentrations as well as monocyte count increased in HS compared with PFTN (P < 0.04) but did not differ from TN and likely linked to altered FI. CAPS-SUC increased basophil count (P < 0.02), irrespective of environment. Ileal villus height tended to decrease during HS and PFTN compared with TN (P < 0.08), indicating an effect of intake. Overall, CAPS-SUC supplementation increased pig feed efficiency and may improve immune response.
Evaluation of thermal indices based on their relationships with some physiological responses of housed lactating cows under heat stress.
Yan Geqi,Li Hao,Zhao Wanying,Shi Zhengxiang
International journal of biometeorology
Thermal indices as environmental risk indicators have been used to assess heat stress of dairy cows. The present study aimed to evaluate the predictive performance of the typical cattle-related thermal indices by comparing their prediction to heat stress levels and associations with some physiological responses. The study was conducted from August to September 2019 in a naturally ventilated barn in Jiangsu, China. Nine typical cattle-related thermal indices, i.e., temperature-humidity index (THI), black globe temperature index (BGHI), equivalent temperature index, effective temperature (ET) for dairy cows, respiratory rate predictor (RRP), adjusted temperature-humidity index (THIadj), heat load index (HLI), comprehensive climate index (CCI), and equivalent temperature index for cattle (ETIC), were evaluated. Respiration rate (RR) and body surface temperature (BST) were collected twice per day from a total of 287 lactating cows, 18 of which were continuously measured vaginal temperature (VT). Over the experimental period, the average daily RR, VT, and BST were 55.8 breaths/min, 38.7 °C, and 32.3 to 36.4 °C that depend on body positions, respectively. The study found that the prediction of THI, BGHI, THIadj, and CCI was closer to the actual heat stress conditions which were mild to moderate heat stress. Correlation analyses showed that RR, VT, and BST correlated most closely with effective temperature (r = 0.580; P < 0.05), BGHI (r = 0.642; P < 0.05), and CCI (r = 0.849; P < 0.05). In this evaluation, based on the comprehensive performance of CCI in the relatively accurate prediction to heat stress level and duration, detection on environmental differences between standing and lying zone, and correlations with some physiological responses, CCI is seemingly the promising thermal index to assess heat stress of housed dairy cows.
Impacts of heat stress on immune responses and oxidative stress in farm animals and nutritional strategies for amelioration.
Chauhan Surinder S,Rashamol V P,Bagath M,Sejian Veerasamy,Dunshea Frank R
International journal of biometeorology
Heat stress is one of the greatest challenges for the global livestock industries as increased environmental temperature and humidity compromises animal production during summer leading to devastating economic consequences. Over the last 30 years, significant developments have been achieved in cooling and provision of shade and shelter to mitigate heat stress reducing some of the losses associated with heat stress in farm animals. However, the recent increase in the incidence of heat waves which are also becoming more severe and lasting longer, due to climate change, further accentuates the problem of heat stress. Economic losses associated with heat stress are both direct due to loss in production and animal life, and indirect due to poorer quality products as a result of poor animal health and welfare. Animal health is affected due to impaired immune responses and increased reactive oxygen species production and/or deficiency of antioxidants during heat stress leading to an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidants and resultant oxidative stress. Research over the last 20 years has achieved partial success in understanding the intricacies of heat stress impacts on oxidative stress and immune responses and developing interventions to ameliorate impacts of heat stress, improving immune responses and farm animal health. This paper reviews the body of knowledge on heat stress impacts on immune response in farm animals. The impacts of heat stress on both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses have been discussed identifying the shift in immune response from cell-mediated towards humoral response, thereby weakening the immune status of the animal. Both species and breed differences have been identified as influencing how heat stress impacts the immune status of farm animals. In addition, crosstalk signaling between the immune system and oxidative stress has been considered and the role of antioxidants as potential nutritional strategies to mitigate heat stress has been discussed.
Heat stress: a major contributor to poor animal welfare associated with long-haul live export voyages.
Caulfield Malcolm P,Cambridge Heather,Foster Susan F,McGreevy Paul D
Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997)
Recent investigations by the Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry into high mortalities on live export voyages from Australia to the Middle East during the Northern hemisphere summer suggest that animal welfare may be compromised by heat stress. The live export industry has generated a computer model that aims to assess the risk of heat stress and to contain mortality levels on live export ships below certain arbitrary limits. Although the model must be complied with under Australian law, it is not currently available for independent scientific scrutiny, and there is concern that model and the mandated space allowances are inadequate. This review appraises the relevant literature on heat stress in sheep and cattle, including laboratory studies aimed at mimicking the ambient temperatures and humidity levels likely to be encountered on live export voyages. Animal welfare is likely to be very poor as a result of heat stress in some shipments.
Prospects of HSP70 as a genetic marker for thermo-tolerance and immuno-modulation in animals under climate change scenario.
Hassan Faiz-Ul,Nawaz Ayesha,Rehman Muhammad S,Ali Muhammad A,Dilshad Syed M R,Yang Chengjian
Animal nutrition (Zhongguo xu mu shou yi xue hui)
Heat stress induced by long periods of high ambient temperature decreases animal productivity, leading to heavy economic losses. This devastating situation for livestock production is even becoming worse under the present climate change scenario. Strategies focused to breed animals with better thermo-tolerance and climatic resilience are keenly sought these days to mitigate impacts of heat stress especially in high input livestock production systems. The 70-kDa heat shock proteins (HSP70) are a protein family known for its potential role in thermo-tolerance and widely considered as cellular thermometers. HSP70 function as molecular chaperons and have major roles in cellular thermotolerance, apoptosis, immune-modulation and heat stress. Expression of is controlled by various factors such as, intracellular pH, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP), protein kinase C and intracellular free calcium, etc. Over expression of 0 has been observed under oxidative stress leading to scavenging of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and protection of pulmonary endothelial barrier against bacterial toxins. Polymorphisms in flanking and promoter regions in gene have shown association with heat tolerance, weaning weight, milk production, fertility and disease susceptibility in livestock. This review provides insight into pivotal roles of HSP70 which make it an ideal candidate genetic marker for selection of animals with better climate resilience, immune response and superior performance.
Early Heat Exposure Effects on Proteomic Changes of the Broiler Liver under Acute Heat Stress.
Kang Darae,Shim Kwanseob
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI
As environmental temperatures continue to rise, heat stress (HS) is having a negative effect on the livestock industry. In order to solve this problem, many studies have been conducted to reduce HS. Among them, early heat exposure has been suggested as a method for reducing HS in poultry. In this study, we analyzed proteomics and tried to identify the metabolic mechanisms of early heat exposure on acute HS. A total of 48 chicks were separated into three groups: CC (control groups raised at optimum temperature), CH (raised with CC but exposed acute HS at the 35th day), and HH (raised with CC but exposed early heat at the fifth day and acute HS at the 35th day). After the whole period, liver samples were collected for proteomic analysis. A total of 97 differentially expressed proteins were identified by acute HS. Of these, 62 proteins recovered their expression levels by early heat exposure. We used these 62 proteins to determine the protective effects of early heat exposure. Of the various protein-related terms, we focused on the oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and energy production metabolism. Our findings suggest the possibility of early heat exposure effects in acute HS that may be useful in breeding or management techniques for producing broilers with high heat resistance.
Physiological alterations of poultry to the high environmental temperature.
Farag Mayada R,Alagawany Mahmoud
Journal of thermal biology
Heat stress has become a serious problem in poultry industry along with rising of the global temperatures. High environmental temperature causes deleterious impacts on physiology and immunology of poultry and impairs their productivity. Heat stress is linked to compromised productivity through a decline in growth rate, feed utilization, blood biochemistry and immunity. In addition, heat stress induced adverse effects on mineral balance of birds and the extent of such effects depended on the type of mineral and the severity of heat stress. Exposure of broilers to high temperature adversely affects mineral metabolism and their excretion route and reduced the retention of some minerals like P, Na, K, S, Mg, Mn, Zn and Cu. On the other hand, the effect of climate on intestinal microbiota has been described in a number of studies. Where, exposure to heat stress can also increase the colonization of Salmonella in the intestine and increase the susceptibility of birds to E. coli and change ileal contents. It is also characterized by decreased antioxidant enzymes in poultry species, resulting in increased oxidative stress that means presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in excess of the available antioxidant capacity of animal cells. However, further studies are still required to increase the information and knowledge of basic mechanisms associated with the consequences of heat stress on poultry. This article focuses on the scientific evidence available on the negative role of heat stress on physiological responses, biochemical blood parameters, immunity, antioxidant, mineral balance, acid-base balance, osmoregulation, body and rectal temperature, intestinal and ileal microbiota as well as the parameters related to thyroid, liver and kidney functions in some poultry species.
Protein and Amino Acid Metabolism in Poultry during and after Heat Stress: A Review.
Qaid Mohammed M,Al-Garadi Maged A
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI
This review examined the influence of environmental heat stress, a concern facing modern broiler producers, on protein metabolism and broiler performance, as well as the physiological mechanisms that activate and control or minimize the detrimental impacts of stress. In addition, available scientific papers that focused on amino acids (AA) digestibility under stress conditions were analyzed. Furthermore, AA supplementation, a good strategy to enhance broiler thermotolerance, amelioration, or stress control, by keeping stress at optimal levels rather than its elimination, plays an important role in the success of poultry breeding. Poultry maintain homeothermy, and their response to heat stress is mainly due to elevated ambient temperature and the failure of effective heat loss, which causes a considerable negative economic impact on the poultry industry worldwide. Reduced feed intake, typically observed during heat stress, was the primary driver for meat production loss. However, accumulating evidence indicates that heat stress influences poultry metabolism and endocrine profiles independently of reduced feed intake. In conclusion, high ambient temperatures significantly reduced dietary AA intake, which in turn reduced protein deposition and growth in broilers. Further studies are required to determine the quantity of the AA needed in warm and hot climates and to introduce genetic tools for animal breeding associated with the heat stress in chickens.
The upper temperature thresholds of life.
Asseng Senthold,Spänkuch Dietrich,Hernandez-Ochoa Ixchel M,Laporta Jimena
The Lancet. Planetary health
Temperature affects many life processes, but its effect might be expected to differ among eukaryotic organisms inhabiting similar environments. We reviewed literature on temperature thresholds of humans, livestock, poultry, agricultural crops, and sparse examples of fisheries. We found that preferable and harmful temperatures are similar for humans, cattle, pigs, poultry, fish, and agricultural crops. Preferable temperatures range from 17°C to 24°C. Stress temperature thresholds are lower when humidity is higher. However, extended exposure to temperatures above 25°C with high humidity can cause heat stress in many organisms. Short exposures to temperatures above 35°C with high humidity, or above 40°C with low humidity, can be lethal. Increases in exposure, frequency, and duration of stressful and lethal temperatures increase the physiological stress and bodily damage suffered by humans, livestock, poultry, fish, and agricultural crops.
Proteomic Analysis of the Protective Effect of Early Heat Exposure against Chronic Heat Stress in Broilers.
Kang Da Rae,Shim Kwan Seob
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI
The increasing trend of global warming has affected the livestock industry through the heat stress, especially in poultry. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanisms of heat stress in poultry would be helpful for maintaining the poultry production. Three groups were designed to determine early heat stress effects during chronic heat stress: CC, raised at a comfortable temperature; CH, chronic heat exposure at 35 °C for 21-35 days continuously; and HH, early heat exposure at 40 °C for 24 h at 5 days old with 35 °C temperature for 21-35 days continuously. In this study, proteome analysis was carried out to identify differentially expressed proteins in the liver tissue of broilers under chronic and early heat exposure. There were eight differentially expressed proteins from early heat stress during chronic heat exposure, which were related to actin metabolism. According to KEGG (Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) analysis, the proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism were expressed to promote the metabolism of carbohydrates under chronic heat stress. Early heat reduced the heat stress-induced expression changes of select proteins. Our study has shown that early heat exposure suggests that the liver of broilers has various physiological mechanisms for regulating homeostasis to aid heat resistance.
Heat stress-induced renal damage in poultry and the protective effects of HSP60 and HSP47.
Tang Shu,Zhou Shuang,Yin Bin,Xu Jiao,Di Liangjiao,Zhang Jinbao,Bao Endong
Cell stress & chaperones
The present study investigates the effects of heat stress on the kidney in broilers, based on previous findings which showed that heat stress caused cardiac damage in broilers. Further, the possible renoprotective role of aspirin and the heat shock proteins HSP60 and HSP47 was also investigated. The enzyme levels of urea and uric acid, which are indicators of renal damage, and lactate dehydrogenase, an indicator of oxidative damage, were measured in chickens that were only exposed to heat stress, chickens that were pretreated with aspirin before heat stress, and chickens that were only treated with aspirin. Further, histological examination of renal tissue from the three groups was also performed. Finally, expression of HSP60 and HSP47 was also examined. In the heat stress group, the enzyme measurements were indicative of renal dysfunction and oxidative damage, and the histological findings were indicative of renal ischemia and damage. Aspirin seemed to have a protective effect against the renal damage caused by the stress, based on the enzyme measurements and histopathological findings in the aspirin-treated group. The findings also indicate that aspirin may induce HSP60 and HSP47 expression in renal cells. Finally, the expression patterns of HSP60 and HSP47 indicated that they may play a renoprotective role, as their expression was higher in the aspirin-treated groups. In conclusion, the present findings show that heat stress causes renal damage in poultry and that aspirin may play a protective role against this damage via pathways that involve HSP60 and HSP47.
Climate change and heat stress: Impact on production, reproduction and growth performance of poultry and its mitigation using genetic strategies.
Kumar Manoj,Ratwan Poonam,Dahiya S P,Nehra Anil Kumar
Journal of thermal biology
Heat stress is an important environmental determinant which adversely affects the performance of poultry worldwide. The present communication reviews the impact of heat stress on production, reproduction and growth performance of poultry, and its alleviation using genetic strategies. The adverse effects of high environmental temperature on poultry include decrease in growth rate, body weight, egg production, egg weight, egg quality, meat quality, semen quality, fertility and hatchability, which cause vast financial losses to the poultry industry. High ambient temperature has an antagonistic effect on performance traits of the poultry. Thus, selection of birds for high performance has increased their susceptibility to heat stress. Additionally, heat burden during transportation of birds from one place to another leads to reduced meat quality, increased mortality and welfare issues. Molecular markers are being explored nowadays to recognize the potential candidate genes related to production, reproduction and growth traits for selecting poultry birds to enhance thermo-tolerance and resistance against diseases. In conclusion, there is a critical need of formulating selection strategies based on genetic markers and exploring more genes in addition to HSP25, 70, 90, H1, RB1CC, BAG3, PDK, ID1, Na, F, dw and K responsible for thermoregulation, to improve the overall performance of poultry along with their ability to tolerate heat stress conditions.
Impact of Heat Stress on Poultry Health and Performances, and Potential Mitigation Strategies.
Wasti Sanjeev,Sah Nirvay,Mishra Birendra
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI
Heat stress is one of the major environmental stressors in the poultry industry resulting in substantial economic loss. Heat stress causes several physiological changes, such as oxidative stress, acid-base imbalance, and suppressed immunocompetence, which leads to increased mortality and reduced feed efficiency, body weight, feed intake, and egg production, and also affects meat and egg quality. Several strategies, with a variable degree of effectiveness, have been implemented to attenuate heat stress in poultry. Nutritional strategies, such as restricting the feed, wet or dual feeding, adding fat in diets, supplementing vitamins, minerals, osmolytes, and phytochemicals, have been widely studied and found to reduce the deleterious effects of heat stress. Furthermore, the use of naked neck (Na) and frizzle (F) genes in certain breed lines have also gained massive attention in recent times. However, only a few of these strategies have been widely used in the poultry industry. Therefore, developing heat-tolerant breed lines along with proper management and nutritional approach needs to be considered for solving this problem. Thus, this review highlights the scientific evidence regarding the effects of heat stress on poultry health and performances, and potential mitigation strategies against heat stress in broiler chickens and laying hens.
Physiological mechanisms through which heat stress compromises reproduction in pigs.
Ross Jason W,Hale Benjamin J,Seibert Jacob T,Romoser Matthew R,Adur Malavika K,Keating Aileen F,Baumgard Lance H
Molecular reproduction and development
Seasonal variations in environmental temperatures impose added stress on domestic species bred for economically important production traits. These heat-mediated stressors vary on a seasonal, daily, or spatial scale, and negatively impact behavior and reduce feed intake and growth rate, which inevitably lead to reduced herd productivity. The seasonal infertility observed in domestic swine is primarily characterized by depressed reproductive performance, which manifests as delayed puberty onset, reduced farrowing rates, and extended weaning-to-estrus intervals. Understanding the effects of heat stress at the organismal, cellular, and molecular level is a prerequisite to identifying mitigation strategies that should reduce the economic burden of compromised reproduction. In this review, we discuss the effect of heat stress on an animal's ability to maintain homeostasis in multiple systems via several hypothalamic-pituitary-end organ axes. Additionally, we discuss our understanding of epigenetic programming and how hyperthermia experienced in utero influences industry-relevant postnatal phenotypes. Further, we highlight the recent recognized mechanisms by which distant tissues and organs may molecularly communicate via extracellular vesicles, a potentially novel mechanism contributing to the heat-stress response.
Heat Stress Reduces Metabolic Rate While Increasing Respiratory Exchange Ratio in Growing Pigs.
Fausnacht Dane W,Kroscher Kellie A,McMillan Ryan P,Martello Luciane S,Baumgard Lance H,Selsby Joshua T,Hulver Matthew W,Rhoads Robert P
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI
Heat stress (HS) diminishes animal production, reducing muscle growth and increasing adiposity, especially in swine. Excess heat creates a metabolic phenotype with limited lipid oxidation that relies on aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis as a predominant means of energy production, potentially reducing metabolic rate. To evaluate the effects of HS on substrate utilization and energy expenditure, crossbred barrows (15.2 ± 2.4 kg) were acclimatized for 5 days (22 °C), then treated with 5 days of TN (thermal neutral, 22 °C, = 8) or HS (35 °C, = 8). Pigs were fed ad libitum and monitored for respiratory rate (RR) and rectal temperature. Daily energy expenditure (DEE) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER, CO2:O2) were evaluated fasted in an enclosed chamber through indirect calorimetry. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the longissimus dorsi pre/post. HS increased temperature (39.2 ± 0.1 vs. 39.6 ± 0.1 °C, < 0.01) and RER (0.91 ± 0.02 vs. 1.02 ± 0.02 VCO2:VO2, < 0.01), but decreased DEE/BW (68.8 ± 1.7 vs. 49.7 ± 4.8 kcal/day/kg, < 0.01) relative to TN. Weight gain ( = 0.80) and feed intake ( = 0.84) did not differ between HS and TN groups. HS decreased muscle metabolic flexibility (~33%, = 0.01), but increased leucine oxidation (~35%, = 0.02) compared to baseline values. These data demonstrate that HS disrupts substrate regulation and energy expenditure in growing pigs.
Chronic Heat Stress Induces Acute Phase Responses and Serum Metabolome Changes in Finishing Pigs.
Cui Yanjun,Wang Chong,Hao Yue,Gu Xianhong,Wang Haifeng
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI
Heat stress (HS) is a main environmental challenge affecting the animal welfare and production efficiency in pig industry. In recent years, numerous reports have studied the alterations in gene expressions and protein profiles in heat-stressed pigs. However, the use of metabolome to unravel adaptive mechanisms of finishing pig in response to chronic HS have not yet been elucidated. We aimed to investigate the effects of chronic HS on serum metabolome in finishing pigs, and to identify the biomarkers of heat stress. Pigs (n = 8 per treatment) were exposed to either thermal neutral (TN; 22 °C) or heat stress (HS, 30 °C) conditions for three weeks. Serum metabonomics of TN- and HS-treated pigs were compared using the GC-MS approach. Metabonomics analysis revealed that twenty-four metabolites had significantly different levels in TN compared to HS (variable importance in the projection values >1 and < 0.05). These metabolites are involved in carbohydrate, amino acid, fatty acid, amines metabolism, and gut microbiome-derived metabolism. Three serum monoses (glucose, mannose 2, and galactose) and 6-phosphogluconic acid were decreased, indicating insufficient source of fuel for energy supply, resulting in negative energy balance (NEB) in heat-stressed pigs. Increased levels of non-esterified fatty acid (myristic acid, palmitic acid, and linoleic acid) and short-chain fatty acids (3-hydroxybutanoic acid and maleic acid) suggested fat decomposition compensating for energy shortage, which was an adaptive response to NEB. Increased concentrations of fluorine, lyxose 1, and D-galacturonic acid were significantly correlated with the levels of acute phase proteins (HP, LBP, α2-HSG, and Lysozyme), suggesting acute phase response in HS-stressed pigs. These metabolites are expected to be novel biomarkers of chronic HS in pigs, yet the use of which awaits further validation.
Heat stress on microbiota composition, barrier integrity, and nutrient transport in gut, production performance, and its amelioration in farm animals.
Patra Amlan Kumar,Kar Indrajit
Journal of animal science and technology
Livestock species experience several stresses, particularly weaning, transportation, overproduction, crowding, temperature, and diseases in their life. Heat stress (HS) is one of the most stressors, which is encountered in livestock production systems throughout the world, especially in the tropical regions and is likely to be intensified due to global rise in environmental temperature. The gut has emerged as one of the major target organs affected by HS. The alpha- and beta-diversity of gut microbiota composition are altered due to heat exposure to animals with greater colonization of pathogenic microbiota groups. HS also induces several changes in the gut including damages of microstructures of the mucosal epithelia, increased oxidative insults, reduced immunity, and increased permeability of the gut to toxins and pathogens. Vulnerability of the intestinal barrier integrity leads to invasion of pathogenic microbes and translocation of antigens to the blood circulations, which ultimately may cause systematic inflammations and immune responses. Moreover, digestion of nutrients in the guts may be impaired due to reduced enzymatic activity in the digesta, reduced surface areas for absorption and injury to the mucosal structure and altered expressions of the nutrient transport proteins and genes. The systematic hormonal changes due to HS along with alterations in immune and inflammatory responses often cause reduced feed intake and production performance in livestock and poultry. The altered microbiome likely orchestrates to the hosts for various relevant biological phenomena occurring in the body, but the exact mechanisms how functional communications occur between the microbiota and HS responses are yet to be elucidated. This review aims to discuss the effects of HS on microbiota composition, mucosal structure, oxidant-antioxidant balance mechanism, immunity, and barrier integrity in the gut, and production performance of farm animals along with the dietary ameliorations of HS. Also, this review attempts to explain the mechanisms how these biological responses are affected by HS.
Nutritional manipulation to combat heat stress in poultry - A comprehensive review.
Abdel-Moneim Abdel-Moneim Eid,Shehata Abdelrazeq M,Khidr Raafat E,Paswan Vinod K,Ibrahim Nashaat S,El-Ghoul Abdelkawy A,Aldhumri Sami Ali,Gabr Salah A,Mesalam Noura M,Elbaz Ahmed M,Elsayed Mohamed A,Wakwak Magda M,Ebeid Tarek A
Journal of thermal biology
Global warming and climate change adversely affect livestock and poultry production sectors under tropical and subtropical conditions. Heat stress is amongst the most significant stressors influencing poultry productivity in hot climate regions, causing substantial economic losses in poultry industry. These economic losses are speculated to increase in the coming years with the rise of global temperature. Moreover, modern poultry strains are more susceptible to high ambient temperature. Heat stress has negative effects on physiological response, growth performance and laying performance, which appeared in the form of reducing feed consumption, body weight gain, egg production, feed efficiency, meat quality, egg quality and immune response. Numerous practical procedures were used to ameliorate the negative impacts of increased temperature; among them the dietary manipulation, which gains a great concern in different regions around the world. These nutritional manipulations are feed additives (natural antioxidants, minerals, electrolytes, phytobiotics, probiotics, fat, and protein), feed restriction, feed form, drinking cold water and others. However, in the large scale of poultry industry, only a few of these strategies are commonly used. The current review article deliberates the different practical applications of useful nutritional manipulations to mitigate the heat load in poultry. The documented information will be useful to poultry producers to improve the general health status and productivity of heat-stressed birds via enhancing stress tolerance, oxidative status and immune response, and thereby provide recommendations to minimize production losses due to heat stress in particular under the growing global warming crisis.
Heat Stress in Broiler Chickens and the Effect of Dietary Polyphenols, with Special Reference to Willow ( spp Bark Supplements-A Review.
Saracila Mihaela,Panaite Tatiana Dumitra,Papuc Camelia Puia,Criste Rodica Diana
Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in the use of a wide range of phytoadditives to counteract the harmful effects of heat stress in poultry. Willow ( spp.) is a tree with a long history. Among various forms, willow bark is an important natural source of salicin, β-O-glucoside of saligenin, but also of polyphenols (flavonoids and condensed tannins) with antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activity. In light of this, the current review presents some literature data aiming to: (1) describe the relationship between heat stress and oxidative stress in broilers, (2) present or summarize literature data on the chemical composition of species, (3) summarize the mechanisms of action of willow bark in heat-stressed broilers, and (4) present different biological effects of the extract of species in different experimental models.
Antioxidative activity of the polyphenols from the involucres of Castanea mollissima Blume and their mitigating effects on heat stress.
Dong S,Li H,Gasco L,Xiong Y,Guo K J,Zoccarato I
Polyphenols extracted from plants have multiple functions in animal production. To explore new sources of tannin-rich extracts, which have potential benefits for animal health, this study focused on the effects of polyphenolic extracts from involucres of Castanea mollissima Blume (PICB) on heat-stressed broilers. In vitro experiments were first performed using intestinal cryptlike epithelial cell line-6 (IEC-6) cells to evaluate the effects of PICB on cell proliferation and antioxidative parameters under normal and heat-stress conditions. Then in vivo experiments were carried out with 2 trials: in trial 1, 400 one-d-old male Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly assigned to 5 groups (4 replicates/group, 20 chicks/replicate): group 1 was a normal control group fed the basic ration; groups 2 to 5 were fed the basic ration supplemented with 0.2% vitamin C and 0.2%, 0.3%, and 0.4% PICB, respectively. Trial 1 lasted 42 d, and growth performance was monitored every week. At the end of the trial, the chicks were sacrificed and sampled. In trial 2, 400 twenty-eight-d-old chicks were randomly assigned to 5 groups as described in trial 1. After 1 week of adaptation, heat stress was applied for 7 consecutive days. On days 3 and 7 of heat stress, the chicks were sacrificed and sampled. The results showed that PICB could stimulate IEC-6 cell proliferation and had strong in vitro antioxidant activity. PICB had no effect on the growth performance and carcass parameters of AA broilers in trial 1, whereas in trial 2, group 4 saw improved growth performance and antioxidant activity compared to the first three groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, PICB had no effects on the growth performance of IEC-6 cells and AA broilers under normal conditions, whereas it could mitigate heat-stress effects on the growth performance and antioxidant activity of IEC-6 cells and AA broilers, implying that PICB could be used as a suitable additive to improve animal production under heat-stress conditions.
Effect of polyphenols extracted from Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on physiological changes, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, oxidative stress and body weight of broilers (Gallus domesticus) under chronic heat stress.
Aengwanich Worapol,Suttajit Maitree
Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho
The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of polyphenols extracted from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on physiological changes, oxidative stress and production of male broilers maintained at high environmental temperatures. The results found that body temperature and respiratory rate of broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C was higher than broilers maintained at 26 +/- 2 degrees C (P < 0.05). On day 1, the heterophil/ lymphocyte ratio of broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C and received polyphenols at 300 and 400 mg/kg in diets was lower than broilers that received polyphenols at 0 and 200 mg/kg in diets (P < 0.05). At week 1, the malondialdehyde of the broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C who received polyphenols at 400 mg/ kg in their diet was lower than broilers that received polyphenols at 100 and 200 mg/kg in diets (P < 0.05). At week 1, the body weights of broilers that were maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C who received polyphenols at 100-500 mg/ kg in diets, and broilers maintained at 26 +/- 2 degrees C were higher than that of the control group which had not been treated with a polyphenol diet (P < 0.05). This study indicated that polyphenols could reduce heat stress, oxidative stress and improve the growth rate of heat-stressed broilers.
Grape seed extract supplementation attenuates the heat stress-induced responses of jejunum epithelial cells in Simmental × Qinchuan steers.
Li Xiaomin,Yang You,Liu Shimin,Yang Jing,Chen Cheng,Sun Zhihong
The British journal of nutrition
Grape seed extract (GSE), a rich source of polyphenols, is reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. The objective of the present study was to determine whether GSE could attenuate the heat stress-induced responses of jejunum epithelial cells (JEC) in cattle. The JEC of a steer (Simmental × Qinchuan) were exposed to heat stress for 2 h in the absence (0 μg/ml) or presence (10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/ml) of GSE in the culture medium. When cultured at 40°C, JEC supplemented with GSE exhibited increased glutathione peroxidase activity (P= 0·04), viability (P= 0·004), and mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF; P= 0·03) and EGF receptor (EGFR; P = 0·01). Under the same conditions, the cells exhibited decreased mRNA expression of IL-8 (P= 0·01) and TNF-α (P= 0·03) and decreased protein concentrations of IL-1β (P= 0·02), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4; P= 0·04) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70; P< 0·001). When cultured at 43°C, JEC supplemented with GSE exhibited increased catalase activity (P= 0·04), viability (P< 0·001), and mRNA expression of EGF (P< 0·001) and EGFR (P< 0·001) and decreased protein concentrations of IL-1β (P< 0·001), TLR4 (P= 0·03) and HSP70 (P< 0·001), as well as mRNA expression of IL-8 (P< 0·001), TLR4 (P= 0·002) and TNF-α (P< 0·001). Temperature × GSE concentration interactions were also observed for the concentrations of IL-1β (P< 0·001), IL-8 (P< 0·001), TNF-α (P= 0·01) and HSP70 (P= 0·04) and viability (P< 0·001) of JEC. The results of the present study indicate that GSE can attenuate the responses of JEC induced by heat stress within a certain range of temperatures.
The adaptogenic anti-ageing potential of resveratrol against heat stress-mediated liver injury in aged rats: Role of HSP70 and NF-kB signalling.
Khafaga Asmaa F,Noreldin Ahmed E,Taha Ayman E
Journal of thermal biology
Heat stress (HS) is a major international problem which has attracted a considerable attention due to its oxidative tissue effects and high morbidity and mortality rates, especially among elderly people. Discovering an effective antioxidant is pivotal for overcoming HS-induced injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the hepatic protective effects of orally supplemented resveratrol (RES) against HS-mediated liver injury in young and old male Wistar albino rats. Compared to control rats, RES administered orally at a dose of 20 mg/kg BW for 21 successive days efficiently ameliorated HS-induced oxidative damage by significantly increasing (P ≤ 0.05) the level of reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase, and decreasing the levels of malondialdehyde and TNF-α in hepatic tissue of both young and aged rats. However, level of NF-κB was downregulated significantly in aged rats rather than young rats. Moreover, RES significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.05) the serum levels of aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase in both ages of rats compared to their corresponding HS-stressed rats. Furthermore, RES upregulated the immunohistochemical expression of caspase 3 and heat shock protein 70 in young and aged rats, however it was more pronounced in young one. In addition, RES administration moderately normalized (P ≤ 0.0001) the harmful effects of HS on the hepatic architecture of both young and aged rats. In conclusion, this study reveals for the first time that RES exerts promising hepato-ameliorative effects against HS-induced oxidative stress in the young and aged rats via its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effect, as well as via its inhibitory effect against the NF-κB signalling in a cellular system.
Heat stress impairs mitochondria functions and induces oxidative injury in broiler chickens.
Huang C,Jiao H,Song Z,Zhao J,Wang X,Lin H
Journal of animal science
The objective of this study was to explore the linkage of oxidative stress occurring in mitochondria, skeletal muscles, and plasma in heat stress-challenged broilers. At d 35, 24 broilers were randomly assigned to 2 treatments: rearing at high temperature (32 ± 1°C; heat stress group) or normal temperature (21 ± 1.2°C; control) for 7 d. The oxidative damage of lipid, DNA, and protein and the activities of antioxidative enzymes were measured, respectively, in plasma, skeletal muscles (breast and thigh muscles), and skeletal muscle mitochondria. The result showed that heat exposure increased (P < 0.01) plasma concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) whereas it deceased total antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05) and ability to inhibit hydroxyl radicals (AIHR; P< 0.001). Protein carbonyl and TBARS levels were increased (P < 0.001) by heat stress in breast and thigh muscles. In skeletal muscle mitochondria, heat stress increased (P < 0.05) 8-OHdG and suppressed AIHR. Plasma activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was increased (P< 0.001) whereas glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) was suppressed by heat stress (P < 0.001). Heat exposure increased SOD and catalase activities in breast muscle (P < 0.01) but the reverse was true in thigh muscle (P < 0.05). Glutathione peroxidase was increased in thigh muscle (P < 0.001) but was not changed in breast muscle (P > 0.05). Heat stress increased SOD (P < 0.05) and decreased GSH-Px activities (P < 0.05) of mitochondria regardless of muscle types. Plasma allantoin level increased (P < 0.01) correspondingly with urate (P < 0.001) in heat-stressed broilers, indicating that urate could serve as an antioxidant to enhance the antioxidative capacity during stress in a concentration-dependent manner. The activities of respiratory chain complexes I and III were estimated in skeletal muscle mitochondria. Mitochondrial complex I activity was suppressed (P < 0.01) by heat exposure in breast and thigh muscles but complex III activity was elevated only in breast muscle (P < 0.01) of heat-stressed broiler. The fatty acid composition in skeletal muscle was not influenced by heat stress. In conclusion, suppressed mitochondrial complex I activity is associated with oxidative stress induced by heat exposure, which, in turn, is linked with the oxidative damages in muscle tissues and plasma.
Heat stress management in poultry farms: A comprehensive overview.
Saeed Muhammad,Abbas Ghulam,Alagawany Mahmoud,Kamboh Asghar Ali,Abd El-Hack Mohamed E,Khafaga Asmaa F,Chao Sun
Journal of thermal biology
Heat stress causes significant economic losses in poultry production, especially in tropical and arid regions of the world. Several studies have investigated the effects of heat stress on the welfare and productivity of poultry. The harmful impacts of heat stress on different poultry types include decreased growth rates, appetites, feed utilization and laying and impaired meat and egg qualities. Recent studies have focused on the deleterious influences of heat stress on bird behaviour, welfare and reproduction. The primary strategies for mitigating heat stress in poultry farms have included feed supplements and management, but the results have not been consistent. This review article discusses the physiological effects of heat stress on poultry health and production and various management and nutritional approaches to cope with it.
Effects of heat stress on animal physiology, metabolism, and meat quality: A review.
Gonzalez-Rivas Paula A,Chauhan Surinder S,Ha Minh,Fegan Narelle,Dunshea Frank R,Warner Robyn D
Heat stress is one of the most stressful events in the life of livestock with harmful consequences for animal health, productivity and product quality. Ruminants, pigs and poultry are susceptible to heat stress due to their rapid metabolic rate and growth, high level of production, and species-specific characteristics such as rumen fermentation, sweating impairment, and skin insulation. Acute heat stress immediately before slaughter stimulates muscle glycogenolysis and can result in pale, soft and exudative (PSE) meat characterized by low water holding capacity (WHC). By contrast, animals subjected to chronic heat stress, have reduced muscle glycogen stores resulting in dark, firm and dry (DFD) meat with high ultimate pH and high WHC. Furthermore, heat stress leads to oxidative stress, lipid and protein oxidation, and reduced shelf life and food safety due to bacterial growth and shedding. This review discusses the scientific evidence regarding the effects of heat stress on livestock physiology and metabolism, and their consequences for meat quality and safety.
Impacts of heat stress on meat quality and strategies for amelioration: a review.
Zhang Minghao,Dunshea Frank R,Warner Robyn D,DiGiacomo Kristy,Osei-Amponsah R,Chauhan Surinder S
International journal of biometeorology
During the summer, high ambient temperature and humidity cause economic loss to the global livestock industry via reduced livestock productivity and increased mortality. The problem of heat stress (HS) is likely to be exacerbated by global warming and climate change. Recent research has shown that HS not only leads to physiological and metabolic perturbations in live animals but can also affect carcass and meat quality characteristics plausibly by altering the rate and extent of postmortem muscle glycolysis and resultant pH. However, these impacts of HS are not consistent across species. Higher incidence of pale soft and exudative (PSE) meat has been reported in poultry. On the contrary, higher incidence of high ultimate pH and dark firm and dry (DFD) meat or no impacts of HS have been reported in sheep and cattle. With the limited data on HS impacts on meat quality of ruminants, it is difficult to explain the exact mechanisms driving these variable impacts. However, it is hypothesized that the severity and duration of HS may lead to variable impacts due to lack of opportunity to adapdate to acute heat exposure. Longer HS exposure may allow ruminants to adapdate to heat and may not record any negative impacts on meat quality. This paper reviews the recent research on impacts of HS on meat quality characteristics and identify the key areas of further research required to better understand these negative impacts to develop strategies for amelioration. In addition, some mitigation strategies of HS have also been discussed which include both managemental and nutritional interventions.
Research Note: Evaluation of a heat stress model to induce gastrointestinal leakage in broiler chickens.
Ruff Jared,Barros Thaina L,Tellez Guillermo,Blankenship Justin,Lester Howard,Graham Brittany D,Selby Callie A M,Vuong Christine N,Dridi Sami,Greene Elizabeth S,Hernandez-Velasco X,Hargis Billy M,Tellez-Isaias Guillermo
The purpose of this study was to evaluate heat stress as a model to induce gastrointestinal leakage in broiler chickens. On the day of hatch, 320 chicks were allocated into 8 environmental chambers, 4 thermoneutral (TN) and 4 continuous heat stress (HS). Each chamber was divided into 2 pens containing separate feeders and water jugs (8 replicates per treatment, 20 birds/pen). The environment was established to simulate production setting as best possible for the first 21 D. A gradual reduction of temperature from 32°C to 24°C with relative humidity at 55 ± 5% was adopted for the first 21 D. At the time of HS, the HS groups were exposed to 35°C from Day 21 to 42, while thermoneutral ones were maintained at 24°C from Day 21 to 42. Chickens were equipped with a Thermochron temperature logger for continuous monitoring of core body temperature. The environmental temperature and relative humidity were continuously recorded. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-d) was orally gavaged to 2 chickens/replicate (n = 16) randomly selected on days 21, 28, 35, and 42. After 1 h of oral gavage, blood samples were collected to determine the passage of FITC-d. Tibias were removed from all chickens to evaluate break strength only on 21 D and 42 D (before HS and at the end of the trial). Performance parameters were evaluated weekly from 21 D to the end of the trial. Body temperature was significantly (P < 0.05) increased after 2 h of starting HS and remained that way until the end of the study. Chronic HS caused an increase in core body temperature which decreased feed intake, body weight, and feed efficiency (28, 35, and 42 D) when compared with control TN chickens. Similarly, serum FITC-d was significantly increased in HS chickens at all points of evaluation. Chronic HS also caused a significant reduction of bone strength at 42 D when compared with the control chickens. The results from the present study suggest that HS can be a robust model to induce gut leakage in broiler chickens.
The effect of heat stress on intestinal integrity and Salmonella invasion in broiler birds.
Alhenaky Alhanof,Abdelqader Anas,Abuajamieh Mohannad,Al-Fataftah Abdur-Rahman
Journal of thermal biology
The intestinal mucosa works as a barrier to protect the internal environment of the animal from bacteria and bacterial toxins found in the gut lumen. Heat stress may harm this function. Therefore, we designed the current experiment to investigate the effect of heat stress on intestinal integrity, physiological and immunological responses and Salmonella invasion in broiler chickens. At 26 days of age, 72 birds were randomly distributed into 3 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 3 birds per replicate. The three treatments were control treatment; kept at thermoneutral environmental conditions (20 ± 2°C), chronic heat stress treatment (exposed to 30 ± 2°C; 24h/day) and acute heat stress treatment (exposed to 35 ±2°C from 09:00 to 13:00 and kept at 20 ± 1°C from 13:00 to 09:00). The heat stress exposure was conducted for 10 successive days. Compared with the control treatment, birds subject to chronic and acute heat stress had reduced (P < 0.05) body weight and body gain and increased (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio. However, feed intake and mortality rate were only increased (P < 0.05) in the acute heat stress treatment. Rectal temperature and Δ rectal temperature (°C/h) increased (P < 0.05) sharply during the first 2 days of exposure followed by gradual decreases until a plateau was achieved. Heat-stressed birds had increased (P < 0.05) serum concentrations of corticosterone, endotoxin lipopolysaccharide and the systemic inflammatory cytokine: TNF-α and IL-2, as well as a higher (P < 0.05) prevalence of Salmonella spp. in meat and livers, as compared with control treatment. It can be concluded that heat stress impaired intestinal integrity which resulted in increased intestinal permeability to endotoxin, translocation of intestinal pathogens (Salmonella spp.) and serum inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, avoiding thermal dysfunction of intestinal barrier is a significant factor in maintaining welfare, immune status and meat safety of broiler birds.
Effect of chronic heat stress on some physiological and immunological parameters in different breed of broilers.
Xu Yongjie,Lai Xiaodan,Li Zhipeng,Zhang Xiquan,Luo Qingbin
The differences in physiological and immunological parameters and pathological damage to organ tissues exposed to chronic heat stress provide the basis for evaluating heat resistance of different chicken breeds (white recessive rock [WRR] and The Lingshan [LS]). Ninety broilers of each breed were divided equally into a chronic heat stress group and a no heat stress group. The effects of chronic heat stress on the physiological and immunological parameters of broilers were analyzed using flow cytometry, ELISA, RT-qPCR, etc. Under heat stress conditions: (1) H and H/L values were significantly increased (P < 0.01) in the 2 breeds, and were higher in the WRR broilers than in the LS broilers at a late stage (P < 0.05). Although the corticosterone levels were also significantly increased (P < 0.01) in both breeds, they were lower in the 49 d WRR broilers than in the LS broilers (P < 0.01). The number of leukocytes were significantly increased in the 49 d WRR broilers (P < 0.01), whereas the number of CD3+, CD8+ cells, and erythrocytes were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). A significantly (P < 0.01) lower number of CD3+, CD4+ T-lymphocytes, and CD4+/CD8+ were present in WRR compared to that in the LS broilers. (2) The HSP70 transcript was significantly increased in the WRR broilers (P < 0.01), and was higher than the level in the LS broilers. The expression level of HSP70 protein was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in WRR broilers. (3) The WRR broilers developed cardiac and leg muscle inflammatory cellular hyperplasia and local inflammatory lesions, as well as cerebral meningitis and inflammatory hyperplasia of the brain tissue. The LS broilers developed mild cerebral inflammatory hyperplasia and mild inflammatory cellular proliferation in the leg muscle. In conclusion, under heat stress conditions, the relative physiological and immunological parameters were worse in the WRR broilers than in the LS broilers. The WRR broilers showed poor heat tolerance as evidenced from the expression of HSP70 and the extent of histopathological damages.
Heat stress reduces sexual development and affects pathogenesis of Eimeria maxima in meat-type chickens.
Schneiders Gustavo H,Foutz James C,Milfort Marie C,Ghareeb Ahmed F A,Fuller Alberta L,Rekaya Romdhane,Williams Susan M,Aggrey Samuel E
Coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria spp. presents a self-limiting intestinal infection of poultry. Intestinal replication of the parasite causes severe morphological alterations to the host gastrointestinal tract, marked, among others, by the disruption of the intestinal barrier. We have previously reported a significant reduction in merozoite replication and oocyst shedding in E. tenella in vitro and in vivo. The objective of this study was to investigate the pathogenesis of E. maxima infection in broiler chickens under heat stress (HS) and mRNA expression of host cytokines that might affect the curtailed development of the parasite. We herein demonstrate that there is a significant detrimental effect of HS on the pathogenesis of E. maxima infection in broilers. There was a restricted replication of the parasite in HS chickens evidenced by significantly reduced oocyst shedding and disruption of the intestinal blood barrier. Gene expression of parasite genes demonstrated curtailed sexual reproduction of E. maxima in HS chickens. There was downregulation of Eimeria spp. genes related to gamete fusion, oocyst shedding, mitosis and spermiogenesis. Host gene expression indicates alterations in the cytokine expression that could be related to reduced parasite development in vivo.
Effect of dietary nutmeg oil on heat-stress tolerance-related parameters in Korean native chicken reared under hot temperature.
Hartanto Slamet,Ko Han Seo,Jee Seung Hwan,Kang Ji Ung,Seo Jee Soo,Kang Yu Hyun,Kim Hee Na,Ohh Sang Jip
Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition
This study investigated the effect of dietary nutmeg oil (NO) on growth performance, blood parameters, lipid peroxidation and heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression in Korean native chicken (KNC) reared under hot temperature. We allocated 273 meat-type KNCs (Hanhyup-3, 4-week-old, body weight [BW] = 539.93 ± 1.75 g) to the following three treatments with seven replicate pens (13 birds/pen) per treatment. Three treatment diets were as follows: (a) Control, basal diet without NO supplementation; (b) NO 250; and (c) NO 500, basal diet supplemented with 250 and 500 ppm NO respectively. Diets and water were provided ad libitum throughout the 6-week feeding trial. During overall period (0-6 weeks), no differences (p > 0.05) were observed in BW gain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion rate (FCR) among treatments. However, the FI at 0-3 weeks decreased (p < 0.05) quadratically with increasing NO levels. Most blood parameters did not differ (p > 0.05) among treatments, although the monocyte level of the NO 500 group was considerably lower (p > 0.05) than that of the other groups. Furthermore, dietary NO did not affect serum triglyceride, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, calcium, phosphorus and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (p > 0.05); however, it linearly decreased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level (p < 0.05). Additionally, serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration decreased (p < 0.05) and heart MDA concentration was lower (p = 0.08) with increasing dietary NO supplementation. After a 3-hr heat (35°C) challenge, the rectal temperature (RT) reduced (p < 0.05) linearly with increasing NO levels. Dietary NO did not affect liver HSP70 (p > 0.05) gene expression. In conclusion, NO potentially enhanced the ability of chickens to alleviate heat stress. Furthermore, our findings suggest that lipid oxidation inhibition by dietary NO likely mediated the enhanced heat-stress tolerance of the chickens.
Alleviation by gamma amino butyric acid supplementation of chronic heat stress-induced degenerative changes in jejunum in commercial broiler chickens.
Al Wakeel Rasha A,Shukry Mustafa,Abdel Azeez Ahmed,Mahmoud Shawky,Saad Michel Fahmy
Stress (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
High ambient temperature adversely influences poultry production. In the present study, gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) supplementation was used to alleviate the adverse changes due to heat stress (HS) in a broiler chicken strain (Ross 308). At 21 days of age, the birds were divided into four groups of 13. Two groups were housed under normal room temperature, one group was given orally 0.2 ml 0.9% physiological saline (CN) daily, the other group received 0.2 ml of 0.5% GABA solution orally (GN). A third group was exposed to environmental HS (33 ± 1 °C lasting for 2 weeks) + physiological saline (CH) and a fourth group was exposed to HS + GABA supplementation (GH). GABA supplementation during HS significantly reduced the birds' increased body temperature (p <.0001) and increased their body weight gain (p <.0001). This effect was associated with increases in the heat stress-induced reductions in jejunal villus length, crypt depth and mucous membrane thickness, and decreases in the vascular changes occurred due to HS. Additionally, GABA supplementation significantly modulated HS-induced changes in glucose facilitated transporter 2 (GLUT2), peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA expression in the jejunal mucosa (p < .0001). GABA supplementation also significantly elevated the triiodothyronine (T) hormone level and hemoglobin levels and decreased the heterophil-lymphocyte ratio (H/L ratio) (p <.0001). Furthermore, it induced higher hepatic glutathione peroxidase enzyme (GSH-Px) activities and decreased the malondialdehyde dehydrogenase (MDA) content. These results indicate that GABA supplementation during HS may be used to alleviate HS-related changes in broiler chickens.
Vitamin CNa enhances the antioxidant ability of chicken myocardium cells and induces heat shock proteins to relieve heat stress injury.
Yin Bin,Di Liangjiao,Tang Shu,Bao Endong
Research in veterinary science
In order to explore the function of vitamin C (VC) and VC-Na in the relief of heat stress injury in chicken cardiomyocytes, 150 30-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were randomly divided into a control group (fed normal drinking water), a VC group (50 μg/mL VC in drinking water), and a VC-Na group (50 μg/mL VC-Na in drinking water). After 7 days of adaptation feeding, the chickens were subjected to heat stress at 40 ± 2 °C and 60%-70% humidity for 0, 1, 3, 5, and 10 h, respectively, and the sera and heart tissues of the chickens were collected immediately at the corresponding heat stress time points. The effects of VC and VC-Na supplementation on the relief of chicken myocardial cell injury following heat stress was studied by detecting the levels of LDH, CK, CK-MB, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the sera, and through histopathological analysis and the expression of CRYAB, Hsp27, and Hsp70 in the myocardial cells. The results showed that supplementing with 50 μg/mL VC or VC-Na significantly reduced the levels of LDH, and CK-MB in serum as well as heat-stress-induced granular and vacuolar degeneration, myocardial fiber breakage, and cell necrosis, indicating effective resistance to heat-stress damage. Additionally, the levels of T-AOC in serum were increased in the VC and VC-Na groups, suggesting enhancing of antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, the expression of CRYAB were induced at 0, 3, 5, and 10 h (P < 0.01) in both VC and VC-Na group, and that of Hsp70 were induced at 0 h (P < 0.05) in VC group and at 0, 3, 5, 10 h (P < 0.01) in VC-Na group. Thus, supplementing chicken diets with VC or VC-Na presented heat-stress damage resistance by enhancing antioxidant capacity and inducing expression of CRYAB and Hsp70.
Evaluation of physiological and molecular responses to acute heat stress in two chicken breeds.
Adu-Asiamah P,Zhang Y,Amoah K,Leng Q Y,Zheng J H,Yang H,Zhang W L,Zhang L
Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience
High environmental temperatures are a foremost concern affecting poultry production; thus, understanding and controlling such conditions are vital to successful production and welfare of poultry. In view of this, a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement involving two local strains (Kirin chicken (KC) and Three-yellow chicken (TYC)) and two temperature groups (normal/control = 30 ± 2 °C and acute heat stress (AHS) = 35 ± 1 °C for 8-h with 70% humidity) was used to assess the main regulatory factors such as heat shock protein (HSP70) gene, cytokine genes (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10), muscle development gene (IGF-1) and tissue histopathological changes. At 56 days old, the temperatures of the comb (CT), feet (FT), eyelid (ET) and rectal (RT) from each group were taken thrice at 0, 2, 4 and 8-h during AHS, and 1 and 3-h recovery period after AHS. At 80 days old, the slaughter weight was also analyzed. The CT and ET of the AHS groups increased during the 8-h trial, while the RT of both strains decreased significantly at 4 h but increased at 8 h in the TYC group. All temperature recordings dropped in the AHS groups of both strains during the recovery period. The results revealed that the mRNA expression of HSP70 in the liver was higher in the heat-stressed group of both strains compared to the control. The expression of HSP70 was shown in the AHS-KC group to be significantly high compared to the control (P < 0.05). Moreover, the IGF1 gene in the liver, breast muscle and leg muscle was downregulated in the AHS-TYC group compared to the control (P < 0.05), although that in the AHS-KC was downregulated in the breast muscle. The mRNA expression of spleen IL-1β significantly decreased in the AHS-TYC group (P < 0.01), whereas that of the AHS-KC had no significant difference (P > 0.05). The mRNA expression of spleen IL-6 and IL-10 was increased in the AHS-KC group but did not exhibit obvious changes in the AHS-TYC. Correspondingly, the histopathological examinations revealed tissue injury in the AHS groups of both strains, with the TYC strain experiencing more severe changes. The final live and carcass weights showed a significant enhancement in the treatments (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) and treatment×strain interaction (P < 0.05) with breast muscle rate significantly reducing among the treatments (P < 0.01) at 80 days. In conclusion, the differential response to AHS after physiological, molecular and immune response portrays KC to have better thermal tolerance than the TYC.
Both experimental hypo- and hyper-thyroidism exacerbate the adverse effects of chronic heat stress in broilers.
Al Wakeel R A,Saad M F,Abdel Azeez A,Elkhiat F,Shukry M
British poultry science
1. The effects of hypo- and hyper-thyroidism in mitigating or exacerbating the negative changes of chronic heat stress (HS) in broilers were investigated.2. Three-week-old broilers were distributed into six groups ( = 13 per group). Three groups were housed at ambient room temperature: control group (CN), propylthiouracil-treated group (AN) and thyroxine-treated group (TN). The other three groups were exposed to HS at 33 ± 1°C for 2 weeks: control heat stress (CH), propylthiouracil + heat stress (AH) and thyroxine + HS (TH).3. Induced hypothyroidy significantly decreased cloacal temperature and body weight gain in the birds in both the normal and HS groups (AN, AH). Conversely, hyperthyroidy resulted in a significant elevation in cloacal temperature in the TN and TH groups and a significant decline in weight gain in the TH group. Hyperthyroidy exacerbated the HS-induced degenerative changes in jejunal mucosa and caused noticeable vascular changes. A significant increase in the expression levels of jejunal nutrient transporter genes was observed in the AH and TH groups. The hyperthyroidic state significantly upregulated the expression level in the TH group and the reverse occurred with propylthiouracil (PTU) treatment in the AH group.4. PTU supplementation to chicks reared under HS significantly decreased the triiodothyronine level, antibody () titre, and increased the heterophil-lymphocyte ratio. Furthermore, it induced higher hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in the AN and AH groups and decreased the malondialdehyde content (MDA) in the AN group. Hyperthyroidy significantly increased triiodothyronine concentration, H/L ratio and decreased Hb concentration and titres in the TH group. Additionally, this status increased the MDA content and decreased the GSH-Px activities.5. In conclusion, manipulation of thyroid status is not a remedy to overcome the undesirable effects of HS in broilers.
Dietary taurine supplementation ameliorates muscle loss in chronic heat stressed broilers via suppressing the perk signaling and reversing endoplasmic reticulum-stress-induced apoptosis.
Ma Bingbing,Zhang Lin,Li Jiaolong,Xing Tong,Jiang Yun,Gao Feng
Journal of the science of food and agriculture
BACKGROUND:Heat stress seriously affects animal health and induces enormous financial losses in poultry production. Exploring the appropriate means for ameliorating unfavorable effects caused by heat stress is essential. We investigated whether taurine supplementation could attenuate breast muscle loss in chronic heat-stressed broilers, as well as its mechanism. We designed three groups: a normal control group (22 °C), a heat stress group (32 °C) and a taurine treatment group (32 °C, basal diet + 5 g·kg taurine). RESULTS:We found that taurine significantly moderated the decreases of breast muscle mass and yield, as well as the increases of serum aspartate aminotransferase activity and serum urine acid level in chronic heat-stressed broilers. Additionally, supplementary taurine significantly alleviated elevations of the cytoplasm Ca concentration, protein expressions of GRP78 and p-PERK, mRNA expressions of Ca channels (RyR1, IP3R3) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress factors (GRP78, GRP94, PERK, EIF2α, ATF4, IRE1, XBP1, ATF6 and CHOP), apoptosis (Caspase-3 and TUNEL), protein catabolism, and the reduction of taurine transporter (TauT) mRNA expression in the breast muscle induced by chronic heat stress. CONCLUSION:Supplementary taurine could attenuate chronic heat stress-induced breast muscle loss via reversing ER stress-induced apoptosis and suppressing protein catabolism. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
Protective effect of resveratrol against hepatic damage induced by heat stress in a rat model is associated with the regulation of oxidative stress and inflammation.
Cheng Kang,Yan Enfa,Song Zhihua,Li Simian,Zhang Hao,Zhang Lili,Wang Chao,Wang Tian
Journal of thermal biology
Heat stress jeopardizes humans and animals health, and results in enormous economic loss in public health care and livestock production. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation in heat-stressed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally fed with 100 mg resveratrol/kg body weight/day prior to heat stress (40 ∘C per day for 1.5 h) exposure for 3 consecutive days. Serum and liver samples were collected for the analysis of hepatic injury, redox status and immune response. The results showed that the heat-stress-induced increased aspartate aminotransferase activities in the serum, aberrant hepatic histology, excessive hepatic malondialdehyde and tumor necrosis factor alpha concentrations, and up-regulation of heat shock protein 70, superoxide dismutase 1, glutathione peroxidase 1, toll-like receptor 4 and interleukin 10 mRNA expression in the liver were mitigated by oral resveratrol treatment. Collectively, the beneficial effects of resveratrol on hepatic damage induced by heat stress were associated with the regulation of oxidative stress and inflammation.
Heat stress and poultry production: impact and amelioration.
Vandana G D,Sejian V,Lees A M,Pragna P,Silpa M V,Maloney Shane K
International journal of biometeorology
Globally, the poultry industry is gaining significant importance among the agricultural and its allied sectors. However, heat stress was found to negatively affect the poultry production particularly in the tropical regions. This review is therefore an attempt to generate information pertaining to the impacts of heat stress on poultry production and its amelioration. Heat stress reduces the growth, reproductive performance, and egg production in poultry birds. The reduction in productive potential of poultry birds on exposure to heat stress may be attributed to the deviation of energy resources from production to adaptation pathway. There are different approaches pertaining to relieving the adverse impacts of heat stress on poultry production. These approaches can be broadly categorized under genetic, management, and nutritional strategies. These approaches may reduce the negative effects of heat stress and enhance the productive performance of poultry birds. The management strategies include appropriate shelter design, providing shade, using sprinklers, implementing cooling devices, and using fans and ventilation systems. The recommended floor space for mature birds weighing 1.7 kg is 0.06 m/bird while it is 0.13 m/bird for the birds weighing 3.5 kg with 27.8 kg/m bird density in either case. The nutritional interventions comprise ration balancing and providing essential micronutrients to improve the productive and reproductive performance in poultry birds. Fat, antioxidants, yeast, and electrolyte supplementations are some of the most commonly used nutritional strategies to ensure optimum production in the poultry industry. Furthermore, providing adequate water supply and disease surveillance measures may help to ensure optimum meat and egg production in the birds. The advanced biotechnological tools may aid to identify suitable genetic markers in poultry birds which might help in developing new strains of higher thermo-tolerance by designing suitable breeding program involving marker-assisted selection. These strategies may help to optimize and sustain poultry production in the changing climate scenario.
Chronic heat stress regulates the relation between heat shock protein and immunity in broiler small intestine.
Siddiqui Sharif Hasan,Kang Darae,Park Jinryong,Khan Mousumee,Shim Kwanseob
Chronic heat stress is considered to decrease the immune functions which makes negative effect on broiler growth performance. Here, we investigated the relationship between chronic heat stress, growth performance, and immunity in the small intestine of broilers. The study included two groups (control and heat stressed group) with eight replications per group. Ten broilers of 20-day aged were allocated in each replication. On day 35, the treatment group was subdivided into two groups based on their body weights (heavy and low body weight). Although, there was only the control and treatment group on day 28. The growth performance decreased and expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), HSP60, and HSP47 increased on days 28 and 35 in the chronic heat stress group as compared with those in the control group. The expression levels of HSPs were significantly higher in the low body weight group than in the control group. The genes HSP70 and HSP60 were significantly associated with pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the small intestine of the broilers of the treatment group. Thus, HSP70 and HSP60 activated the adaptive immunity in the small intestines of the broilers from the treatment group to allow adaptation to chronic heat stress environment.
Heat precondition is a potential strategy to combat hepatic injury triggered by severe heat stress.
Gupta Avinash,Sharma Dolly,Gupta Harshita,Singh Ajeet,Chowdhury Daipayan,Meena Ramesh Chand,Ganju Lilly,Kumar Bhuvnesh
AIM:Environmental heat stress alters physiological and biochemical functions which leads to multiorgan dysfunction including severe hepatic injury in animals. We hypothesize that heat preconditioning can be potential intervention in combating heat illnesses. MAIN METHODS:Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to moderate heat stress, severe heat stress and heat preconditioning in heat simulation chamber. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, skin and core temperature were monitored in pre and post heat exposed animals. After stress exposure, blood for hemodynamic and liver tissue for liver function tests, oxidative stress, inflammatory variables and structural studies were collected from rats. Hepatic mitochondria were isolated to study the key structural alterations and functional changes by transmission electron microscopy. KEY FINDINGS:The effect of heat precondition shows improvement in time to attain the core temperature, weight loss, blood pressure and heart rate in rats. Results exhibited decreased levels of liver function tests, elevated levels of free radicals and inflammatory cytokines in heat exposed liver as compared with heat preconditioned animals. Expression levels of mitochondrial heat shock protein 60, superoxide dismutase 1 and uncoupling protein 1 along with activity of electron transport chain complexes I-V were examined and found to be increased in heat preconditioned as compared to heat stressed animals. Morphological studies of liver parenchyma demonstrated reduction in structural deterioration of hepatic lobules and restoration of mitochondrial structural integrity in heat preconditioned rats. SIGNIFICANCE:Present study suggests that heat preconditioning intervention plays a crucial role in protection against heat induced hepatic injury in animals.
The impact of heat stress on the immune system in dairy cattle: A review.
Bagath M,Krishnan G,Devaraj C,Rashamol V P,Pragna P,Lees A M,Sejian V
Research in veterinary science
Heat stress is well documented to have a negative influence on livestock productivity and these impacts may be exacerbated by climate change. Dairy cattle can be more vulnerable to the negative effects of heat stress as these adverse impacts may be more profound during pregnancy and lactation. New emerging diseases are usually linked to a positive relationship with climate change and the survival of microrganisms and/or their vectors. These diseases may exaggerate the immune suppression associated with the immune suppressive effect of heat stress that is mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axes. It has been established that heat stress has a negative impact on the immune system via cell mediated and humoral immune responses. Heat stress activates the HPA axis and increases peripheral levels of glucocorticoids subsequently suppressing the synthesis and release of cytokines. Heat stress has been reported to induce increased blood cortisol concentrations which have been shown to inhibit the production of cytokines such as interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-6, IL-12, interferon γ (IFNγ), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α). The impact of heat stress on the immune responses of dairy cows could be mediated by developing appropriate amelioration strategies through nutritional interventions and cooling management. In addition, improving current animal selection methods and the development of climate resilient breeds may support the sustainability of livestock production systems into the future.
Heat stress induces expression of HSP genes in genetically divergent chickens.
Cedraz Haniel,Gromboni Juliana Gracielle Gonzaga,Garcia Antonio Amandio Pinto,Farias Filho Ronaldo Vasconcelos,Souza Teillor Machado,Oliveira Eduardo Ribeiro de,Oliveira Elizangela Bonfim de,Nascimento Carlos Souza do,Meneghetti Camila,Wenceslau Amauri Arias
BACKGROUND:Chickens are animals that are sensitive to thermal stress, which may decrease their production level in terms that it affects feed intake and thus, decreasing body weight gain. The Heat Shock Factors (HSF) and Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) genes are involved in the key cellular defense mechanisms during exposure in hot environments. Aimed with this study to analyze the expression of HSF1, HSF3, HSP70 and HSP90 genes in two local breeds (Peloco and Caneluda) and a commercial broiler line (Cobb 500®) to verify differences in resistance of these chicken to Heat stress treatment. Chicken were submitted to heat stress under an average temperature of 39°C ± 1. RESULTS:Under stress environment, the HSP70 and HSP90 genes were more expressed in backyard chickens than in broiler. There was a difference in HSP70 and HSP90 expression between Caneluda and Cobb and between Peloco and Cobb under stress and comfort environment respectively. HSP70 expression is higher in local breeds during heat stress than in a commercial broiler line. No significant differences were observed in the expression of HSF1 and HSF3 genes between breeds or environments. CONCLUSIONS:HSP70 and HSP90 genes are highly expressed, HSF1 and HSF3 genes did not have high expression in all genetic groups. HSP70 and HSP90 are highly expressed in Peloco and Caneluda within heat stress, these breeds proved to be very resistant to high temperature.