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    Diabetic nephropathy--emerging epigenetic mechanisms. Kato Mitsuo,Natarajan Rama Nature reviews. Nephrology Diabetic nephropathy (DN), a severe microvascular complication frequently associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, is a leading cause of renal failure. The condition can also lead to accelerated cardiovascular disease and macrovascular complications. Currently available therapies have not been fully efficacious in the treatment of DN, suggesting that further understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of DN is necessary for the improved management of this disease. Although key signal transduction and gene regulation mechanisms have been identified, especially those related to the effects of hyperglycaemia, transforming growth factor β1 and angiotensin II, progress in functional genomics, high-throughput sequencing technology, epigenetics and systems biology approaches have greatly expanded our knowledge and uncovered new molecular mechanisms and factors involved in DN. These mechanisms include DNA methylation, chromatin histone modifications, novel transcripts and functional noncoding RNAs, such as microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs. In this Review, we discuss the significance of these emerging mechanisms, how they mediate the actions of growth factors to augment the expression of extracellular matrix and inflammatory genes associated with DN and their potential usefulness as diagnostic biomarkers or novel therapeutic targets for DN. 10.1038/nrneph.2014.116
    Contribution of epigenetics in diabetic retinopathy. Kowluru Renu A,Mishra Manish Science China. Life sciences Diabetes has become the epidemic of the 21st century, and with over 90% patients with diabetes becoming at a risk of developing retinopathy, diabetic retinopathy has emerged as a major public health concern. In spite of cutting edge research in the field, how retina and its vasculature are damaged by the diabetic milieu remains ambiguous. The environmental factors, life style or disease process can also bring in modifications in the DNA, and these epigenetic modifications either silence or activate a gene without altering the DNA sequence. Diabetic environment up- or downregulates a number of genes in the retina, and emerging research has shown that it also facilitates epigenetic modifications. In the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, the genes associated with important enzymes (e.g., mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and thioredoxin interacting protein) and transcriptional factors are epigenetically modified, the enzymes responsible for these epigenetic modifications are either activated or inhibited, and the levels of microRNAs are altered. With epigenetic modifications taking an important place in diabetic retinopathy, it is now becoming critical to evaluate these modifications, and understand their impact on this slow progressing blinding disease. 10.1007/s11427-015-4853-0
    Epigenetics in the development, modification, and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Whayne Thomas F Molecular biology reports Epigenetics has major relevance to all disease processes; cardiovascular (CV) disease and its related conditions are no exception. Epigenetics is defined as the study of heritable alterations in gene expression, or cellular phenotype, and goes far beyond a pure genetic approach. A more precise definition is that epigenetics represents all the meiotically and mitotically inherited changes in gene expression that are not encoded on the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence itself. Major epigenetic mechanisms are modifications of histone proteins in chromatin and DNA methylation (which does not alter the DNA sequence). There is increasing evidence for the involvement of epigenetics in human disease such as cancer, inflammatory disease and CV disease. Other chronic diseases are also susceptible to epigenetic modification such as metabolic diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. There is much evidence for the modification of epigenetics by nutrition and exercise. Through these modifications, there is infinite potential for benefit for the fetus, the newborn, and the individual as well as population effects. Association with CV disease, including coronary heart disease and peripheral vascular disease, is evident through epigenetic relationships and modification by major CV risk factors such as tobacco abuse. Aging itself may be altered by epigenetic modification. Knowledge of epigenetics and its relevance to the development, modification, and prevention of CV disease is in a very preliminary stage but has an infinite future. 10.1007/s11033-014-3727-z
    Epigenetic mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Prattichizzo Francesco,Giuliani Angelica,Ceka Artan,Rippo Maria Rita,Bonfigli Anna Rita,Testa Roberto,Procopio Antonio Domenico,Olivieri Fabiola Clinical epigenetics The development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications is largely due to the complex interaction between genetic factors and environmental influences, mainly dietary habits and lifestyle, which can either accelerate or slow down disease progression. Recent findings suggest the potential involvement of epigenetic mechanisms as a crucial interface between the effects of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. The common denominator of environmental factors promoting T2DM development and progression is that they trigger an inflammatory response, promoting inflammation-mediated insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Proinflammatory stimuli, including hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and other inflammatory mediators, can affect epigenetic mechanisms, altering the expression of specific genes in target cells without changes in underlying DNA sequences. DNA methylation and post-translational histone modifications (PTHMs) are the most extensively investigated epigenetic mechanisms. Over the past few years, non-coding RNA, including microRNAs (miRNAs), have also emerged as key players in gene expression modulation. MiRNAs can be actively released or shed by cells in the bloodstream and taken up in active form by receiving cells, acting as efficient systemic communication tools. The miRNAs involved in modulation of inflammatory pathways (inflammamiRs), such as miR-146a, and those highly expressed in endothelial lineages and hematopoietic progenitor cells (angiomiRs), such as miR-126, are the most extensively studied circulating miRNAs in T2DM. However, data on circulating miRNA signatures associated with specific diabetic complications are still lacking. Since immune cells and endothelial cells are primarily involved in the vascular complications of T2DM, their relative contribution to circulating miRNA signatures needs to be elucidated. An integrated approach encompassing different epigenetic mechanisms would have the potential to provide new mechanistic insights into the genesis of diabetes and its severe vascular complications and identify a panel of epigenetic markers with diagnostic/prognostic and therapeutic relevance. 10.1186/s13148-015-0090-4
    Epigenetic Mechanisms in Diabetic Kidney Disease. Thomas Merlin C Current diabetes reports Progressive kidney disease is a common companion to both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. However, the majority of people with diabetes do not develop diabetic kidney disease. This may in part be explained by good control of glucose, blood pressure, obesity and other risk factors for kidney disease. It may also be partly due to their genetic makeup or ethnicity. However, the vast majority of the variability in incident nephropathy remains unaccounted for by conventional risk factors or genetics. Epigenetics has recently emerged as an increasingly powerful paradigm to understand and potentially explain complex non-Mendelian conditions-including diabetic kidney disease. Persistent epigenetic changes can be acquired during development or as adaptations to environmental exposure, including metabolic fluctuations associated with diabetes. These epigenetic modifications-including DNA methylation, histone modifications, non-coding RNAs and other changes in chromatin structure and function-individually and co-operatively act to register, store, retain and recall past experiences in a way to shape the transcription of specific genes and, therefore, cellular functions. This review will explore the emerging evidence for the role of epigenetic modifications in programming the legacy of hyperglycaemia for kidney disease in diabetes. 10.1007/s11892-016-0723-9
    Epigenetic mechanisms in diabetic complications and metabolic memory. Reddy Marpadga A,Zhang Erli,Natarajan Rama Diabetologia The incidence of diabetes and its associated micro- and macrovascular complications is greatly increasing worldwide. The most prevalent vascular complications of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes include nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy and cardiovascular diseases. Evidence suggests that both genetic and environmental factors are involved in these pathologies. Clinical trials have underscored the beneficial effects of intensive glycaemic control for preventing the progression of complications. Accumulating evidence suggests a key role for epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications in chromatin, and non-coding RNAs in the complex interplay between genes and the environment. Factors associated with the pathology of diabetic complications, including hyperglycaemia, growth factors, oxidant stress and inflammatory factors can lead to dysregulation of these epigenetic mechanisms to alter the expression of pathological genes in target cells such as endothelial, vascular smooth muscle, retinal and cardiac cells, without changes in the underlying DNA sequence. Furthermore, long-term persistence of these alterations to the epigenome may be a key mechanism underlying the phenomenon of 'metabolic memory' and sustained vascular dysfunction despite attainment of glycaemic control. Current therapies for most diabetic complications have not been fully efficacious, and hence a study of epigenetic mechanisms that may be involved is clearly warranted as they can not only shed novel new insights into the pathology of diabetic complications, but also lead to the identification of much needed new drug targets. In this review, we highlight the emerging role of epigenetics and epigenomics in the vascular complications of diabetes and metabolic memory. 10.1007/s00125-014-3462-y
    Epigenetics of metabolic syndrome. Carson Caryn,Lawson Heather A Physiological genomics The dramatic increase in global prevalence of metabolic disease is inexplicable when considering only environmental or only genetic factors, leading to the need to explore the possible roles of epigenetic factors. A great deal of progress has been made in this interdisciplinary field in recent years, with many studies investigating various aspects of the metabolic syndrome and its associated epigenetic changes. Rodent models of metabolic diseases have been particularly illuminating because of the ability to leverage tools such as genetic and environmental modifications. The current review summarizes recent breakthroughs regarding epigenetic markers in studies of obesity, Type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, the three major disorders associated with metabolic syndrome. We also discuss open questions and future directions for integrating genomic, epigenomic, and phenotypic big biodata toward understanding metabolic syndrome etiology. 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00072.2018
    Impact of Maternal Diet on the Epigenome during In Utero Life and the Developmental Programming of Diseases in Childhood and Adulthood. Lee Ho-Sun Nutrients Exposure to environmental factors in early life can influence developmental processes and long-term health in humans. Early life nutrition and maternal diet are well-known examples of conditions shown to influence the risk of developing metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, in adulthood. It is increasingly accepted that environmental compounds, including nutrients, can produce changes in the genome activity that, in spite of not altering the DNA sequence, can produce important, stable and, in some instances, transgenerational alterations in the phenotype. Epigenetics refers to changes in gene function that cannot be explained by changes in the DNA sequence, with DNA methylation patterns/histone modifications that can make important contributions to epigenetic memory. The epigenome can be considered as an interface between the genome and the environment that is central to the generation of phenotypes and their stability throughout the life course. To better understand the role of maternal health and nutrition in the initiation and progression of diseases in childhood and adulthood, it is necessary to identify the physiological and/or pathological roles of specific nutrients on the epigenome and how dietary interventions in utero and early life could modulate disease risk through epigenomic alteration. 10.3390/nu7115467
    Epigenetic modifications in adipose tissue - relation to obesity and diabetes. Kasinska Marta A,Drzewoski Jozef,Sliwinska Agnieszka Archives of medical science : AMS The growing number of people suffering from obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global health problem that results in increased mortality from their complications, mainly cardiovascular diseases. Although the relationship between obesity and T2DM is well established, the common molecular pathomechanisms are still under investigation. Recently, it has been suggested that epigenetic modifications may be involved in both obesity and T2DM development. Epigenetics plays a pivotal role in the regulation of gene expression by the reversible modifications of chromatin structure without any changes in DNA sequence. Epigenetic modifications include DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications and miRNA interference. Therefore, the aim of this article is to discuss the current knowledge on epigenetic modifications in adipose tissue and their association with obesity and T2DM. 10.5114/aoms.2015.53616
    The epigenetic landscape in the cardiovascular complications of diabetes. Costantino S,Ambrosini S,Paneni F Journal of endocrinological investigation A growing body of evidence suggests that epigenetic modifications-changes to the genome that do not involve changes in DNA sequence-may significantly derail transcriptional programs implicated in angiogenesis, oxidative stress and inflammation, thus fostering cardiovascular damage in patients with diabetes. Notably, adverse epigenetic signals acquired over the life course can be transmitted to the offspring, and may contribute to early cardiovascular phenotypes in the young generations. Hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance-key hallmarks of diabetes-induce an array of epigenetic modifications (i.e., DNA methylation, histone marks, and non-coding RNAs) which are responsible for a long-lasting impairment of vascular and cardiac function, even after intensive glycemic control. Hence, unveiling the "epigenetic landscape" in patients with diabetes may provide a post-genomic snapshot of global cardiovascular risk, and may furnish the tools to design personalized, epigenetic-based therapies to alleviate the burden of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. The present review aims to acquaint the scientific community with the rapidly advancing field of epigenetics and its implications in the cardiovascular complications of diabetes. 10.1007/s40618-018-0956-3
    Epigenetic profiles of pre-diabetes transitioning to type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. VanderJagt Thomas A,Neugebauer Monica H,Morgan Marilee,Bowden Donald W,Shah Vallabh O World journal of diabetes AIM:To examine DNA methylation profiles in a longitudinal comparison of pre-diabetes mellitus (Pre-DM) subjects who transitioned to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS:We performed DNA methylation study in bisulphite converted DNA from Pre-DM (n = 11) at baseline and at their transition to T2DM using Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip, that enables the query of 27578 individual cytosines at CpG loci throughout the genome, which are focused on the promoter regions of 14495 genes. RESULTS:There were 694 CpG sites hypomethylated and 174 CpG sites hypermethylated in progression from Pre-DM to T2DM, representing putative genes involved in glucose and fructose metabolism, inflammation, oxidative and mitochondrial stress, and fatty acid metabolism. These results suggest that this high throughput platform is able to identify hundreds of prospective CpG sites associated with diverse genes that may reflect differences in Pre-DM compared with T2DM. In addition, there were CpG hypomethylation changes associated with a number of genes that may be associated with development of complications of diabetes, such as nephropathy. These hypomethylation changes were observed in all of the subjects. CONCLUSION:These data suggest that some epigenomic changes that may be involved in the progression of diabetes and/or the development of complications may be apparent at the Pre-DM state or during the transition to diabetes. Hypomethylation of a number of genes related to kidney function may be an early marker for developing diabetic nephropathy. 10.4239/wjd.v6.i9.1113
    Epigenetics and Type 2 Diabetes Risk. Dhawan Sangeeta,Natarajan Rama Current diabetes reports PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The influence of environmental factors on type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk is now well recognized and highlights the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms. This review will focus on the role of epigenetic factors in the risk and pathogenesis of T2D. RECENT FINDINGS:Epigenetic dysregulation has emerged as a key mechanism underpinning the pathogenesis of T2D and its complications. Environmental variations, including alterations in lifestyle, nutrition, and metabolic demands during prenatal and postnatal life can induce epigenetic changes that may impact glucose homeostasis and the function of different metabolic organs. Accumulating data continues to uncover the specific pathways that are epigenetically dysregulated in T2D, providing an opportunity for therapeutic targeting. Environmental changes can disrupt specific epigenetic mechanisms underlying metabolic homeostasis, thus contributing to T2D pathogenesis. Such epigenetic changes can be transmitted to the next generation, contributing to the inheritance of T2D risk. Recent advances in epigenome-wide association studies and epigenetic editing tools present the attractive possibility of identifying epimutations associated with T2D, correcting specific epigenetic alterations, and designing novel epigenetic biomarkers and interventions for T2D. 10.1007/s11892-019-1168-8
    Relationship between epigenetic regulation, dietary habits, and the developmental origins of health and disease theory. Mochizuki Kazuki,Hariya Natsuyo,Honma Kazue,Goda Toshinao Congenital anomalies Environmental stressors during developmental stages are hypothesized to increase the risk of developing metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and psychiatric diseases during later life. This theory is known as the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Recent studies suggest that accumulation of environmental stress, including those during developmental stages, is internalized as acquired information designated as "epigenetic memory." This epigenetic memory is generally indicated as DNA methylation and histone modifications in the chromatin. In general, the demethylation of CpG islands induces histone acetylation and associated changes from heterochromatin to euchromatin, and enhances transcriptional activation. These changes are induced by the binding of transcriptional factors to cis-elements located on promoter and enhancer regions and the associated binding of histone acetyl-transferase and the transcription initiation complex. Recent studies have demonstrated novel epigenetic modifications that regulate transcription elongation steps by activating histone acetylation and bromodomain-containing protein 4, which contains two bromodomains to bind acetylated histones, on the gene body (transcribed region). Gene expression alterations induced by carbohydrate signals and by changes in energy balance in the body are regulated by this model. In addition, induction of many metabolic genes, which are induced or reduced in adulthood by malnutrition during developmental stages, by intake of major nutrients, or development of lifestyle diseases in adulthood, are targeted by these novel epigenetic changes. In the present review, we introduce epigenetic regulations and the relationship with nutrient intake, and discuss links between epigenetic regulation and the development of metabolic diseases according to DOHaD. 10.1111/cga.12213
    Epigenetics in formation, function, and failure of the endocrine pancreas. Golson Maria L,Kaestner Klaus H Molecular metabolism BACKGROUND:Epigenetics, in the broadest sense, governs all aspects of the life of any multicellular organism, as it controls how differentiated cells arrive at their unique phenotype during development and differentiation, despite having a uniform (with some exceptions such as T-cells and germ cells) genetic make-up. The endocrine pancreas is no exception. Transcriptional regulators and epigenetic modifiers shape the differentiation of the five major endocrine cell types from their common precursor in the fetal pancreatic bud. Beyond their role in cell differentiation, interactions of the organism with the environment are also often encoded into permanent or semi-permanent epigenetic marks and affect cellular behavior and organismal health. Epigenetics is defined as any heritable - at least through one mitotic cell division - change in phenotype or trait that is not the result of a change in genomic DNA sequence, and it forms the basis that mediates the environmental impact on diabetes susceptibility and islet function. SCOPE OF REVIEW:We will summarize the impact of epigenetic regulation on islet cell development, maturation, function, and pathophysiology. We will briefly recapitulate the major epigenetic marks and their relationship to gene activity, and outline novel strategies to employ targeted epigenetic modifications as a tool to improve islet cell function. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS:The improved understanding of the epigenetic underpinnings of islet cell differentiation, function and breakdown, as well as the development of innovative tools for their manipulation, is key to islet cell biology and the discovery of novel approaches to therapies for islet cell failure. 10.1016/j.molmet.2017.05.015
    Epigenetic disturbances in obesity and diabetes: Epidemiological and functional insights. Loh Marie,Zhou Li,Ng Hong Kiat,Chambers John Campbell Molecular metabolism BACKGROUND:Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are major public health issues worldwide, and put a significant burden on the healthcare system. Genetic variants, along with traditional risk factors such as diet and physical activity, could account for up to approximately a quarter of disease risk. Epigenetic factors have demonstrated potential in accounting for additional phenotypic variation, along with providing insights into the causal relationship linking genetic variants to phenotypes. SCOPE OF REVIEW:In this review article, we discuss the epidemiological and functional insights into epigenetic disturbances in obesity and diabetes, along with future research directions and approaches, with a focus on DNA methylation. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS:Epigenetic mechanisms have been shown to contribute to obesity and T2D disease development, as well as potential differences in disease risks between ethnic populations. Technology to investigate epigenetic profiles in diseased individuals and tissues has advanced significantly in the last years, and suggests potential in application of epigenetic factors in clinical monitoring and as therapeutic options. 10.1016/j.molmet.2019.06.011
    Epigenetics and Common Non Communicable Disease. Tabatabaiefar Mohammad Amin,Sajjadi Roshanak S,Narrei Sina Advances in experimental medicine and biology Common Non communicable diseases (NCDs), such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, schizophrenia, and diabetes, have become the major cause of death in the world. They result from an interaction between genetics, lifestyle and environmental factors. The prevalence of NCDs are increasing, and researchers hopes to find efficient strategies to predict, prevent and treat them. Given the role of epigenome in the etiology of NCDs, insight into epigenetic mechanisms may offer opportunities to predict, detect, and prevent disease long before its clinical onset.Epigenetic alterations are exerted through several mechanisms including: chromatin modification, DNA methylation and controlling gene expression by non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). In this chapter, we will discuss about NCDs, with focus on cancer, diabetes and schizophrenia. Different epigenetic mechanisms, categorized into two main groups DNA methylation and chromatin modifications and non-coding RNAs, will be separately discussed for these NCDs. 10.1007/978-3-030-10616-4_2
    Fatty acids, epigenetic mechanisms and chronic diseases: a systematic review. González-Becerra K,Ramos-Lopez O,Barrón-Cabrera E,Riezu-Boj J I,Milagro F I,Martínez-López E,Martínez J A Lipids in health and disease BACKGROUND:Chronic illnesses like obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases, are worldwide major causes of morbidity and mortality. These pathological conditions involve interactions between environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Recent advances in nutriepigenomics are contributing to clarify the role of some nutritional factors, including dietary fatty acids in gene expression regulation. This systematic review assesses currently available information concerning the role of the different fatty acids on epigenetic mechanisms that affect the development of chronic diseases or induce protective effects on metabolic alterations. METHODS:A targeted search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline databases using the keywords "fatty acids and epigenetic". The data were analyzed according to the PRISMA-P guidelines. RESULTS:Consumption fatty acids like n-3 PUFA: EPA and DHA, and MUFA: oleic and palmitoleic acid was associated with an improvement of metabolic alterations. On the other hand, fatty acids that have been associated with the presence or development of obesity, T2D, pro-inflammatory profile, atherosclerosis and IR were n-6 PUFA, saturated fatty acids (stearic and palmitic), and trans fatty acids (elaidic), have been also linked with epigenetic changes. CONCLUSIONS:Fatty acids can regulate gene expression by modifying epigenetic mechanisms and consequently result in positive or negative impacts on metabolic outcomes. 10.1186/s12944-019-1120-6
    Early-Life Arsenic Exposure, Nutritional Status, and Adult Diabetes Risk. Navas-Acien Ana,Spratlen Miranda J,Abuawad Ahlam,LoIacono Nancy J,Bozack Anne K,Gamble Mary V Current diabetes reports PURPOSE OF REVIEW:In utero influences, including nutrition and environmental chemicals, may induce long-term metabolic changes and increase diabetes risk in adulthood. This review evaluates the experimental and epidemiological evidence on the association of early-life arsenic exposure on diabetes and diabetes-related outcomes, as well as the influence of maternal nutritional status on arsenic-related metabolic effects. RECENT FINDINGS:Five studies in rodents have evaluated the role of in utero arsenic exposure with diabetes in the offspring. In four of the studies, elevated post-natal fasting glucose was observed when comparing in utero arsenic exposure with no exposure. Rodent offspring exposed to arsenic in utero also showed elevated insulin resistance in the 4 studies evaluating it as well as microRNA changes related to glycemic control in 2 studies. Birth cohorts of arsenic-exposed pregnant mothers in New Hampshire, Mexico, and Taiwan have shown that increased prenatal arsenic exposure is related to altered cord blood gene expression, microRNA, and DNA methylation profiles in diabetes-related pathways. Thus far, no epidemiologic studies have evaluated early-life arsenic exposure with diabetes risk. Supplementation trials have shown B vitamins can reduce blood arsenic levels in highly exposed, undernourished populations. Animal evidence supports that adequate B vitamin status can rescue early-life arsenic-induced diabetes risk, although human data is lacking. Experimental animal studies and human evidence on the association of in utero arsenic exposure with alterations in gene expression pathways related to diabetes in newborns, support the potential role of early-life arsenic exposure in diabetes development, possibly through increased insulin resistance. Given pervasive arsenic exposure and the challenges to eliminate arsenic from the environment, research is needed to evaluate prevention interventions, including the possibility of low-cost, low-risk nutritional interventions that can modify arsenic-related disease risk. 10.1007/s11892-019-1272-9
    Epigenetics and epigenomics in diabetic kidney disease and metabolic memory. Kato Mitsuo,Natarajan Rama Nature reviews. Nephrology The development and progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), a highly prevalent complication of diabetes mellitus, are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. DKD is an important contributor to the morbidity of patients with diabetes mellitus, indicating a clear need for an improved understanding of disease aetiology to inform the development of more efficacious treatments. DKD is characterized by an accumulation of extracellular matrix, hypertrophy and fibrosis in kidney glomerular and tubular cells. Increasing evidence shows that genes associated with these features of DKD are regulated not only by classical signalling pathways but also by epigenetic mechanisms involving chromatin histone modifications, DNA methylation and non-coding RNAs. These mechanisms can respond to changes in the environment and, importantly, might mediate the persistent long-term expression of DKD-related genes and phenotypes induced by prior glycaemic exposure despite subsequent glycaemic control, a phenomenon called metabolic memory. Detection of epigenetic events during the early stages of DKD could be valuable for timely diagnosis and prompt treatment to prevent progression to end-stage renal disease. Identification of epigenetic signatures of DKD via epigenome-wide association studies might also inform precision medicine approaches. Here, we highlight the emerging role of epigenetics and epigenomics in DKD and the translational potential of candidate epigenetic factors and non-coding RNAs as biomarkers and drug targets for DKD. 10.1038/s41581-019-0135-6
    Endothelin-1 regulation is entangled in a complex web of epigenetic mechanisms in diabetes. Biswas S,Feng B,Thomas A,Chen S,Aref-Eshghi E,Sadikovic B,Chakrabarti S Physiological research Endothelial cells (ECs) are primary targets of glucose-induced tissue damage. As a result of hyperglycemia, endothelin-1 (ET-1) is upregulated in organs affected by chronic diabetic complications. The objective of the present study was to identify novel transcriptional mechanisms that influence ET-1 regulation in diabetes. We carried out the investigation in microvascular ECs using multiple approaches. ECs were incubated with 5 mM glucose (NG) or 25 mM glucose (HG) and analyses for DNA methylation, histone methylation, or long non-coding RNA- mediated regulation of ET-1 mRNA were then performed. DNA methylation array analyses demonstrated the presence of hypomethylation in the proximal promoter and 5' UTR/first exon regions of EDN1 following HG culture. Further, globally blocking DNA methylation or histone methylation significantly increased ET-1 mRNA expressions in both NG and HG-treated HRECs. While, knocking down the pathogenetic lncRNAs ANRIL, MALAT1, and ZFAS1 subsequently prevented the glucose-induced upregulation of ET-1 transcripts. Based on our past and present findings, we present a novel paradigm that reveals a complex web of epigenetic mechanisms regulating glucose-induced transcription of ET-1. Improving our understanding of such processes may lead to better targeted therapies.
    [Epigenetics and obesity]. Casanello Paola,Krause Bernardo J,Castro-Rodríguez José A,Uauy Ricardo Revista chilena de pediatria Current evidence supports the notion that exposure to various environmental conditions in early life may induce permanent changes in the epigenome that persist throughout the life-course. This article focuses on early changes associated with obesity in adult life. A review is presented on the factors that induce changes in whole genome (DNA) methylation in early life that are associated with adult onset obesity and related disorders. In contrast, reversal of epigenetic changes associated with weight loss in obese subjects has not been demonstrated. This contrasts with well-established associations found between obesity related DNA methylation patterns at birth and adult onset obesity and diabetes. Epigenetic markers may serve to screen indivuals at risk for obesity and assess the effects of interventions in early life that may delay or prevent obesity in early life. This might contribute to lower the obesity-related burden of death and disability at the population level. The available evidence indicates that epigenetic marks are in fact modifiable, based on modifications in the intrauterine environment and changes in food intake, physical activity and dietary patterns patterns during pregnancy and early years of adult life. This offers the opportunity to intervene before conception, during pregnancy, infancy, childhood, and also in later life. There must be documentation on the best preventive actions in terms of diet and physical activity that will modify or revert the adverse epigenetic markers, thus preventing obesity and diabetes in suceptible individuals and populations. 10.1016/j.rchipe.2016.08.009
    Epigenetic effects of metformin: From molecular mechanisms to clinical implications. Bridgeman Stephanie Claire,Ellison Gaewyn Colleen,Melton Phillip Edward,Newsholme Philip,Mamotte Cyril Desire Sylvain Diabetes, obesity & metabolism There is a growing body of evidence that links epigenetic modifications to type 2 diabetes. Researchers have more recently investigated effects of commonly used medications, including those prescribed for diabetes, on epigenetic processes. This work reviews the influence of the widely used antidiabetic drug metformin on epigenomics, microRNA levels and subsequent gene expression, and potential clinical implications. Metformin may influence the activity of numerous epigenetic modifying enzymes, mostly by modulating the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activated AMPK can phosphorylate numerous substrates, including epigenetic enzymes such as histone acetyltransferases (HATs), class II histone deacetylases (HDACs) and DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), usually resulting in their inhibition; however, HAT1 activity may be increased. Metformin has also been reported to decrease expression of multiple histone methyltransferases, to increase the activity of the class III HDAC SIRT1 and to decrease the influence of DNMT inhibitors. There is evidence that these alterations influence the epigenome and gene expression, and may contribute to the antidiabetic properties of metformin and, potentially, may protect against cancer, cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline and aging. The expression levels of numerous microRNAs are also reportedly influenced by metformin treatment and may confer antidiabetic and anticancer activities. However, as the reported effects of metformin on epigenetic enzymes act to both increase and decrease histone acetylation, histone and DNA methylation, and gene expression, a significant degree of uncertainty exists concerning the overall effect of metformin on the epigenome, on gene expression, and on the subsequent effect on the health of metformin users. 10.1111/dom.13262
    Epigenetics in Human Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes. Ling Charlotte,Rönn Tina Cell metabolism Epigenetic mechanisms control gene activity and the development of an organism. The epigenome includes DNA methylation, histone modifications, and RNA-mediated processes, and disruption of this balance may cause several pathologies and contribute to obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This Review summarizes epigenetic signatures obtained from human tissues of relevance for metabolism-i.e., adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islets, liver, and blood-in relation to obesity and T2D. Although this research field is still young, these comprehensive data support not only a role for epigenetics in disease development, but also epigenetic alterations as a response to disease. Genetic predisposition, as well as aging, contribute to epigenetic variability, and several environmental factors, including exercise and diet, further interact with the human epigenome. The reversible nature of epigenetic modifications holds promise for future therapeutic strategies in obesity and T2D. 10.1016/j.cmet.2019.03.009
    Epigenetic markers to further understand insulin resistance. Ling Charlotte,Rönn Tina Diabetologia Epigenetic variation in human adipose tissue has been linked to type 2 diabetes and its related risk factors including age and obesity. Insulin resistance, a key risk factor for type 2 diabetes, may also be associated with altered DNA methylation in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Furthermore, linking epigenetic variation in target tissues to similar changes in blood cells may identify new blood-based biomarkers. In this issue of Diabetologia, Arner et al studied the transcriptome and methylome in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue of 80 obese women who were either insulin-sensitive or -resistant (DOI 10.1007/s00125-016-4074-5 ). While they found differences in gene expression between the two groups, no alterations in DNA methylation were found after correction for multiple testing. Nevertheless, based on nominal p values, their methylation data overlapped with methylation differences identified in adipose tissue of individuals with type 2 diabetes compared with healthy individuals. Differential methylation of these overlapping CpG sites may predispose to diabetes by occurring already in the insulin-resistant state. Furthermore, some methylation changes may contribute to an inflammatory process in adipose tissue since the identified CpG sites were annotated to genes encoding proteins involved in inflammation. Finally, the methylation pattern in circulating leucocytes did not mirror the adipose tissue methylome of these 80 women. Together, identifying novel molecular mechanisms contributing to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes may help advance the search for new therapeutic alternatives. 10.1007/s00125-016-4109-y
    Epigenetics and Epigenomics: Implications for Diabetes and Obesity. Rosen Evan D,Kaestner Klaus H,Natarajan Rama,Patti Mary-Elizabeth,Sallari Richard,Sander Maike,Susztak Katalin Diabetes The American Diabetes Association convened a research symposium, "Epigenetics and Epigenomics: Implications for Diabetes and Obesity" on 17-19 November 2017. International experts in genetics, epigenetics, computational biology, and physiology discussed the current state of understanding of the relationships between genetics, epigenetics, and environment in diabetes and examined existing evidence for the role of epigenetic factors in regulating metabolism and the risk of diabetes and its complications. The authors summarize the presentations, which highlight how the complex interactions between genes and environment may in part be mediated through epigenetic changes and how information about nutritional and other environmental stimuli can be transmitted to the next generation. In addition, the authors present expert consensus on knowledge gaps and research recommendations for the field. 10.2337/db18-0537
    Developmental origins of type 2 diabetes: Focus on epigenetics. Vaiserman Alexander,Lushchak Oleh Ageing research reviews Traditionally, genetics and lifestyle are considered as main determinants of aging-associated pathological conditions. Accumulating evidence, however, suggests that risk of many age-related diseases is not only determined by genetic and adult lifestyle factors but also by factors acting during early development. Type 2 diabetes (T2D), an age-related disease generally manifested after the age of 40, is among such disorders. Since several age-related conditions, such as pro-inflammatory states, are characteristic of both T2D and aging, this disease is conceptualized by many authors as a kind of premature or accelerated aging. There is substantial evidence that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), induced by poor or unbalanced nutrient intake, exposure to xenobiotics, maternal substance abuse etc., may impair fetal development, thereby causing the fetal adipose tissue and pancreatic beta cell dysfunction. Consequently, persisting adaptive changes may occur in the glucose-insulin metabolism, including reduced capacity for insulin secretion and insulin resistance. These changes can lead to an improved ability to store fat, thus predisposing to T2D development in later life. The modulation of epigenetic regulation of gene expression likely plays a central role in linking the adverse environmental conditions early in life to the risk of T2D in adulthood. In animal models of IUGR, long-term persistent changes in both DNA methylation and expression of genes implicated in metabolic processes have been repeatedly reported. Findings from human studies confirming the role of epigenetic mechanisms in linking early-life adverse experiences to the risk for T2D in adult life are scarce compared to data from animal studies, mainly because of limited access to suitable biological samples. It is, however, convincing evidence that these mechanisms may also operate in human beings. In this review, theoretical models and research findings evidencing the role of developmental epigenetic variation in the pathogenesis of T2D are summarized and discussed. 10.1016/j.arr.2019.100957
    Mitochondrial Epigenetic Changes Link to Increased Diabetes Risk and Early-Stage Prediabetes Indicator. Zheng Louise D,Linarelli Leah E,Brooke Joseph,Smith Cayleen,Wall Sarah S,Greenawald Mark H,Seidel Richard W,Estabrooks Paul A,Almeida Fabio A,Cheng Zhiyong Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by mitochondrial derangement and oxidative stress. With no known cure for T2D, it is critical to identify mitochondrial biomarkers for early diagnosis of prediabetes and disease prevention. Here we examined 87 participants on the diagnosis power of fasting glucose (FG) and hemoglobin A1c levels and investigated their interactions with mitochondrial DNA methylation. FG and A1c led to discordant diagnostic results irrespective of increased body mass index (BMI), underscoring the need of new biomarkers for prediabetes diagnosis. Mitochondrial DNA methylation levels were not correlated with late-stage (impaired FG or A1c) but significantly with early-stage (impaired insulin sensitivity) events. Quartiles of BMI suggested that mitochondrial DNA methylation increased drastically from Q1 (20 < BMI < 24.9, lean) to Q2 (30 < BMI < 34.9, obese), but marginally from Q2 to Q3 (35 < BMI < 39.9, severely obese) and from Q3 to Q4 (BMI > 40, morbidly obese). A significant change was also observed from Q1 to Q2 in HOMA insulin sensitivity but not in A1c or FG. Thus, mitochondrial epigenetic changes link to increased diabetes risk and the indicator of early-stage prediabetes. Further larger-scale studies to examine the potential of mitochondrial epigenetic marker in prediabetes diagnosis will be of critical importance for T2D prevention. 10.1155/2016/5290638
    Epigenetic changes in diabetes. Al-Haddad Rami,Karnib Nabil,Assaad Rawad Abi,Bilen Yara,Emmanuel Nancy,Ghanem Anthony,Younes Joe,Zibara Victor,Stephan Joseph S,Sleiman Sama F Neuroscience letters The incidence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. Diabetes is quickly becoming one of the leading causes of death. Diabetes is a genetic disease; however, the environment plays critical roles in its development and progression. Epigenetic changes often translate environmental stimuli to changes in gene expression. Changes in epigenetic marks and differential regulation of epigenetic modulators have been observed in different models of diabetes and its associated complications. In this minireview, we will focus DNA methylation, Histone acetylation and methylation and their roles in the pathogenesis of diabetes. 10.1016/j.neulet.2016.04.046
    DNA methylation: the pivotal interaction between early-life nutrition and glucose metabolism in later life. Zheng Jia,Xiao Xinhua,Zhang Qian,Yu Miao The British journal of nutrition Traditionally, it has been widely acknowledged that genes together with adult lifestyle factors determine the risk of developing some metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, obesity and diabetes mellitus in later life. However, there is now substantial evidence that prenatal and early-postnatal nutrition play a critical role in determining susceptibility to these diseases in later life. Maternal nutrition has historically been a key determinant for offspring health, and gestation is the critical time window that can affect the growth and development of offspring. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis proposes that exposures during early life play a critical role in determining the risk of developing metabolic diseases in adulthood. Currently, there are substantial epidemiological studies and experimental animal models that have demonstrated that nutritional disturbances during the critical periods of early-life development can significantly have an impact on the predisposition to developing some metabolic diseases in later life. The hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms may link imbalanced early-life nutrition with altered disease risk has been widely accepted in recent years. Epigenetics can be defined as the study of heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence. Epigenetic processes play a significant role in regulating tissue-specific gene expression, and hence alterations in these processes may induce long-term changes in gene function and metabolism that persist throughout the life course. The present review focuses on how nutrition in early life can alter the epigenome, produce different phenotypes and alter disease susceptibilities, especially for impaired glucose metabolism. 10.1017/S0007114514002827
    The epigenetic regulation of podocyte function in diabetes. Majumder Syamantak,Advani Andrew Journal of diabetes and its complications Chronic hyperglycemia early in the course of diabetes confers a sustained increase in the risk of complications development. In recent years, efforts to understand the molecular basis for this "metabolic memory" have focused on epigenetic mechanisms as a means by which transient high glucose can cause persistent and propagated changes in cell function. For instance, in vascular endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and peripheral blood cells, temporary exposure to high glucose causes changes in epigenetic marks that promote a shift towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype. However, the influence of epigenetic processes in complications development extends beyond their contribution to metabolic memory. Podocytes, for example, are terminally differentiated cells of the renal glomerulus whose injury is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of nephropathy. Over recent months, several reports have emerged describing the essential actions of histone-modifying enzymes and DNA methylation patterns (the two principal epigenetic mechanisms) in maintaining podocyte integrity, especially under diabetic conditions. Here, we review the known and potential role of epigenetic processes within podocytes, focusing on the evidence linking these processes to oxidative stress, crosstalk with tubule cells, autophagy and slit-pore protein expression. Whether podocytes themselves exhibit a metabolic memory awaits to be seen. 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2015.07.015
    Epigenetic mechanisms underlying the toxic effects associated with arsenic exposure and the development of diabetes. Khan Fazlullah,Momtaz Saeideh,Niaz Kamal,Hassan Fatima Ismail,Abdollahi Mohammad Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association BACKGROUND:Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a major threat to the human health worldwide. The consumption of arsenic in drinking water and other food products is associated with the risk of development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The available experimental evidence indicates that epigenetic alterations may play an important role in the development of diseases that are linked with exposure to environmental toxicants. iAs seems to be associated with the epigenetic modifications such as alterations in DNA methylation, histone modifications, and micro RNA (miRNA) abundance. OBJECTIVE:This article reviewed epigenetic mechanisms underlying the toxic effects associated with arsenic exposure and the development of diabetes. METHOD:Electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar were searched for published literature from 1980 to 2017. Searched MESH terms were "Arsenic", "Epigenetic mechanism", "DNA methylation", "Histone modifications" and "Diabetes". RESULTS:There are various factors involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM but it is assumed that arsenic consumption causes the epigenetic alterations both at the gene-specific level and generalized genome level. CONCLUSION:The research indicates that exposure from low to moderate concentrations of iAs is linked with the epigenetic effects. In addition, it is evident that, arsenic can change the components of the epigenome and hence induces diabetes through epigenetic mechanisms, such as alterations in glucose transport and/or metabolism and insulin expression/secretion. 10.1016/j.fct.2017.07.021
    Translational implications of the β-cell epigenome in diabetes mellitus. Johnson Justin S,Evans-Molina Carmella Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of glucose homeostasis that affects more than 24 million Americans and 382 million individuals worldwide. Dysregulated insulin secretion from the pancreatic β cells plays a central role in the pathophysiology of all forms of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, an enhanced understanding of the pathways that contribute to β-cell failure is imperative. Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in DNA transcription that occur in the absence of changes to the linear DNA nucleotide sequence. Recent evidence suggests an expanding role of the β-cell epigenome in the regulation of metabolic health. The goal of this review is to discuss maladaptive changes in β-cell DNA methylation patterns and chromatin architecture, and their contribution to diabetes pathophysiology. Efforts to modulate the β-cell epigenome as a means to prevent, diagnose, and treat diabetes are also discussed. 10.1016/j.trsl.2014.03.002
    The Role of Epigenetic Changes in The Development of Diabetes Mellitus. Wardhana Wardhana,Soeatmadji Djoko Wahono Acta medica Indonesiana Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most abundant diseases in the 21st century and believed as result of interaction between genes and environment exposure. There is a hypotesis of epigenetic mechanisms, using molecular basis to explain about the mechanism of DM. Because of the enviromental exposure including nutrition status and hyperglycemia state, the risk of DM has started since pre-conception, last until adulthood and will be inhireted trans-generational . Mainly, there are 3 epigenetic mechanisms that have role in DM. Epigenetic mechanisms are also have role in the metabolic memory that the DM complications may still developed although the blood glucose level is already normal. The restriction of calory intake may help delaying the development and onset of degerative diseases including DM by stabilizing genome through epigenetic mechanisms.
    Can Epigenetics of Endothelial Dysfunction Represent the Key to Precision Medicine in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus? Coco Celeste,Sgarra Luca,Potenza Maria Assunta,Nacci Carmela,Pasculli Barbara,Barbano Raffaela,Parrella Paola,Montagnani Monica International journal of molecular sciences In both developing and industrialized Countries, the growing prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and the severity of its related complications make T2DM one of the most challenging metabolic diseases worldwide. The close relationship between genetic and environmental factors suggests that eating habits and unhealthy lifestyles may significantly affect metabolic pathways, resulting in dynamic modifications of chromatin-associated proteins and homeostatic transcriptional responses involved in the progression of T2DM. Epigenetic mechanisms may be implicated in the complex processes linking environmental factors to genetic predisposition to metabolic disturbances, leading to obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Endothelial dysfunction represents an earlier marker and an important player in the development of this disease. Dysregulation of the endothelial ability to produce and release vasoactive mediators is recognized as the initial feature of impaired vascular activity under obesity and other insulin resistance conditions and undoubtedly concurs to the accelerated progression of atherosclerotic lesions and overall cardiovascular risk in T2DM patients. This review aims to summarize the most current knowledge regarding the involvement of epigenetic changes associated with endothelial dysfunction in T2DM, in order to identify potential targets that might contribute to pursuing "precision medicine" in the context of diabetic illness. 10.3390/ijms20122949
    Exercise and inflammation-related epigenetic modifications: focus on DNA methylation. Horsburgh Steven,Robson-Ansley Paula,Adams Rozanne,Smith Carine Exercise immunology review Epigenetics is the study of mitotically or meiotically heritable phenotypes that occur as a result of modifications to DNA, thereby regulating gene expression independently of changes in base sequence due to manipulation of the chromatin structure. These modifications occur through a variety of mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, post-translational histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs, and can cause transcriptional suppression or activation depending on the location within the gene. Environmental stimuli, such as diet and exercise, are thought to be able to regulate these mechanisms, with inflammation as a probable contributory factor. Research into these areas is still in its infancy however. This review will focus on DNA methylation in the context of inflammation (both pro- and anti-inflammatory processes) and exercise. The complexity and relative shortcomings of some existing techniques for studying epigenetics will be highlighted, and recommendations for future study approaches made.
    Epigenetic alterations in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Karachanak-Yankova S,Dimova R,Nikolova D,Nesheva D,Koprinarova M,Maslyankov S,Tafradjiska R,Gateva P,Velizarova M,Hammoudeh Z,Stoynev N,Toncheva D,Tankova T,Dimova I Balkan journal of medical genetics : BJMG Epigenetic changes, in particular DNA methylation processes, play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) linking genetic and environmental factors. To clarify this role, we have analyzed in patients with different duration of T2DM: (i) expression levels of methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 () as marker of DNA methylation, and ii) methylation changes in 22 genes connected to cellular stress and toxicity. We have analyzed mRNA expression levels in16 patients and 12 controls and the methylation status of stress and toxicity genes in four DNA pools: (i) controls; (ii) newly-diagnosed T2DM patients; (iii) patients with T2DM duration of <5 years and (iv) of >5 years. The expression levels were 10.4-times increased on average in T2DM patients compared to controls. Consistent increase in DNA methylation fraction with the increase in T2DM duration was observed in and genes, connected to oxidative stress protection and in and tumor-suppressor genes. In conclusion, increased expression in patients indicated general dysregulation of DNA methylation in T2DM. The elevated methylation of and genes suggests disturbance in oxidative stress protection in T2DM. The increased methylation of and genes unraveled an epigenetic cause for T2DM related increase in cancer risk. 10.1515/bjmg-2015-0081
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risk; what the pharmacotherapy can change through the epigenetics. Andreeva-Gateva Pavlina A,Mihaleva Ivelina D,Dimova Ivanka I Postgraduate medicine Diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases are part of the metabolic syndrome and share similar risk factors, including obesity, arterial hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Atherosclerosis and insulin resistance contribute to the development of the diseases, and subclinical inflammation is observed in both conditions. There are many proofs about the connection between epigenetic factors and different diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Interestingly, recent studies show that at least some anti-diabetic drugs, as well as blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), exert epigenetic effects aside from their hypoglycemic and antihypertensive functions, respectively. More studies are needed to discover other positive effects of the medications established through epigenetic mechanisms and to find out more about the epigenetic role in the development of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. 10.1080/00325481.2019.1681215
    Crosstalk Between Histone and DNA Methylation in Regulation of Retinal Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Diabetes. Duraisamy Arul J,Mishra Manish,Kowluru Renu A Investigative ophthalmology & visual science Purpose:Diabetes activates matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and MMP-9 via damaging retinal mitochondria, activates capillary cell apoptosis. MMP-9 promoter has binding sites for many transcription factors, and in diabetes its promoter undergoes epigenetic modifications, including histone modifications and DNA methylation. Enhancer of Zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2), which catalyzes dimethylation/trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me2 and me3), is also associated with DNA methylation. Our aim was to investigate link(s) between histone and DNA modifications in the regulation of MMP-9. Methods:Using human retinal endothelial cells, and also retinal microvessels from diabetic rats, effect of hyperglycemia on H3K27me3, and recruitment of Ezh2 at the MMP-9 promoter were quantified by chromatin-immunoprecipitation technique. Role of H3K27 trimethylation in regulating DNA methylation-transcription of MMP-9 was determined by regulating Ezh2 by its specific siRNA and also a pharmacologic inhibitor. Results:Hyperglycemia elevated H3K27me3 levels and the recruitment of Ezh2 at the MMP-9 promoter, and increased the enzyme activity of Ezh2. Inhibition of Ezh2 attenuated recruitment of both DNA methylating (Dnmt1) and hydroxymethylating (Tet2) enzymes and 5 hydroxymethyl cytosine at the same region of the MMP-9 promoter, and prevented increase in MMP-9 transcription and mitochondrial damage. Conclusions:Activation of Ezh2 in diabetes, via trimethylation of H3K27, facilitates recruitment of the enzymes responsible for regulation of DNA methylation of the MMP-9 promoter, resulting in its transcriptional activation. Thus, a close crosstalk between H3K27 trimethylation and DNA methylation in diabetes plays a critical role in the maintenance of cellular epigenetic integrity of MMP-9. 10.1167/iovs.17-22706
    Role of epigenetic mechanisms in the development of chronic complications of diabetes. Wegner Malgorzata,Neddermann Daniel,Piorunska-Stolzmann Maria,Jagodzinski Pawel P Diabetes research and clinical practice There is growing evidence that epigenetic regulation of gene expression including post-translational histone modifications (PTHMs), DNA methylation and microRNA (miRNA)-regulation of mRNA translation could play a crucial role in the development of chronic, diabetic complications. Hyperglycemia can induce an abnormal action of PTHMs and DNA methyltransferases as well as alter the levels of numerous miRNAs in endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, retina, and renal cells. These epigenetic abnormalities result in changes in the expression of numerous genes contributing to effects such as development of chronic inflammation, impaired clearance of reactive oxygen species (ROS), endothelial cell dysfunction and/or the accumulation of extracellular matrix in the kidney, which causing the development of retinopathy, nephropathy or cardiomyopathy. Some epigenetic modifications, for example PTHMs and DNA methylation, become irreversible over time. Therefore, these processes have gained much attention in explaining the long-lasting detrimental consequences of hyperglycaemia causing the development of chronic complications even after improved glycaemic control is achieved. Our review suggests that the treatment of chronic complications should focus on erasing metabolic memory by targeting chromatin modification enzymes and by restoring miRNA levels. 10.1016/j.diabres.2014.03.019
    Epigenetic Risk Profile of Diabetic Kidney Disease in High-Risk Populations. Xu Lixia,Natarajan Rama,Chen Zhen Current diabetes reports PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Epigenetic variations have been shown to reveal vulnerability to diabetes and its complications. Although it has become clear that metabolic derangements, especially hyperglycemia, can impose a long-term metabolic memory that predisposes to diabetic complications, the underlying mechanisms remain to be understood. It has been suggested that epigenetics (e.g., histone modification, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNAs) help link metabolic disruption to aberrancies related to diabetic kidney disease (DKD). In this review, we discuss the key findings and advances made in the epigenetic risk profile of DKD and provide perspectives on the emerging topics that implicate epigenetics in DKD. RECENT FINDINGS:Epigenetic profiles can be profoundly altered in patients with diabetes, in circulating blood cells as well as in renal tissues. These changes provide useful insight into the mechanisms of diabetic kidney injury and progressive kidney dysfunction. Increasing evidence supports the role of epigenetic regulation in DKD. More studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism and importance of epigenetic changes in the initiation and progression of DKD and to further explore their diagnostic and therapeutic potential in the clinical management of patients with diabetes who have a high risk for DKD. 10.1007/s11892-019-1129-2
    Diabetic retinopathy, metabolic memory and epigenetic modifications. Kowluru Renu A Vision research Retinopathy, a sight-threatening disease, remains one of the most feared complications of diabetes. Although hyperglycemia is the main initiator, progression of diabetic retinopathy continues even after re-institution of normal glycemic control in diabetic patients, and the deleterious effects of prior hyperglycemic insult depend on the duration and the severity of this insult, suggesting a 'metabolic memory' phenomenon. Metabolic memory phenomenon is successfully duplicated in the experimental models of diabetic retinopathy. Hyperglycemia, in addition to initiating many other biochemical and functional abnormalities and altering expression of genes associated with them, also increases oxidative stress. Increased production of cytosolic reactive oxygen species dysfunctions the mitochondria, and a compromised antioxidant defense system becomes overwhelmed to neutralize free radicals. With the duration of diabetes extending, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is also damaged, and transcription of mtDNA-encoded genes, important for function of the electron transport chain, is compromised. This fuels into a 'self-propagating' vicious cycle of free radicals, and retinopathy continues to progress. Hyperglycemic insult also affects the enzymatic machinery responsible for epigenetic modifications; these modifications alter gene expression without affecting the DNA sequence. Histones and/or DNA modifications of many enzymes, important in mitochondrial homeostasis, affect their activities and disturb mitochondrial homeostasis. Experimental models have shown that these epigenetic modifications have potential to halt only if normal glycemia is maintained from the day of induction of diabetes (streptozotocin) in rats, but if hyperglycemia is allowed to proceed even for couple months before initiation of normal glycemia, these epigenetic modification resist reversal. Supplementation of a therapy targeted to prevent increased oxidative stress or epigenetic modifications, during the normal glucose phase, which has followed high glucose insult, however, helps ameliorate these abnormalities and prevents the progression of diabetic retinopathy. Thus, without undermining the importance of tight glycemic control for a diabetic patient, supplementation of their 'best possible' glycemic control with such targeted therapies has potential to retard further progression of this blinding disease. 10.1016/j.visres.2017.02.011
    Epigenetics in diabetic nephropathy, immunity and metabolism. Keating Samuel T,van Diepen Janna A,Riksen Niels P,El-Osta Assam Diabetologia When it comes to the epigenome, there is a fine line between clarity and confusion-walk that line and you will discover another fascinating level of transcription control. With the genetic code representing the cornerstone of rules for information that is encoded to proteins somewhere above the genome level there is a set of rules by which chemical information is also read. These epigenetic modifications show a different side of the genetic code that is diverse and regulated, hence modifying genetic transcription transiently, ranging from short- to long-term alterations. While this complexity brings exquisite control it also poses a formidable challenge to efforts to decode mechanisms underlying complex disease. Recent technological and computational advances have improved unbiased acquisition of epigenomic patterns to improve our understanding of the complex chromatin landscape. Key to resolving distinct chromatin signatures of diabetic complications is the identification of the true physiological targets of regulatory proteins, such as reader proteins that recognise, writer proteins that deposit and eraser proteins that remove specific chemical moieties. But how might a diverse group of proteins regulate the diabetic landscape from an epigenomic perspective? Drawing from an ever-expanding compendium of experimental and clinical studies, this review details the current state-of-play and provides a perspective of chromatin-dependent mechanisms implicated in diabetic complications, with a special focus on diabetic nephropathy. We hypothesise a codified signature of the diabetic epigenome and provide examples of prime candidates for chemical modification. As for the pharmacological control of epigenetic marks, we explore future strategies to expedite and refine the search for clinically relevant discoveries. We also consider the challenges associated with therapeutic strategies targeting epigenetic pathways. 10.1007/s00125-017-4490-1
    Epigenetic Control of Endocrine Pancreas Differentiation : Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives. Astro Veronica,Adamo Antonio Frontiers in cell and developmental biology The raising worldwide prevalence of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM) solicits the derivation of methods yielding mature and fully functional β-cells to be used in regenerative medicine. Several protocols to differentiate human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into human pancreatic β-like cells have recently been developed. These methods, coupled with a bioengineering approach using biocompatible encapsulating devices, have recently led to experimental clinical trials showing great promises to ultimately end the battle of diabetic patients for managing hyperglycemia. However, differentiation protocols face the challenge of achieving homogenous population of mono-hormonal insulin-secreting mature β-cells. Major epigenetic events such as DNA methylation, post-translational modification of histones and non-coding RNAs expression, orchestrate physiological endocrine pancreas specification into α-, β-, γ-, and δ-cells, both and . The dysregulation of such epigenetic processes is associated to multiple pancreatic disorders including diabetes. Understanding the epigenomic and transcriptomic landscape underlying endocrine pancreas development could, therefore, improve differentiation methods. In this review, we summarize the most effective protocols for differentiation of hESCs/hiPSCs toward pancreatic β-cells and we discuss the current limitations in the derivation of functional glucose-responsive, insulin-releasing β-cells. Moreover, we focus on the main transcriptional and epigenetic events leading to pancreatic specification and on the applicative potential of novel epigenetic drugs for the establishment of innovative pharmacological therapeutic approaches. 10.3389/fcell.2018.00141
    The effect of exercise on epigenetic modifications of PGC1: The impact on type 2 diabetes. Santos Júlia M,Tewari Shikha,Benite-Ribeiro Sandra A Medical hypotheses The worldwide prevalence of diabetes type 2 is increasing and intramuscular accumulation of fatty acid metabolites is gradually becoming recognized as core features of this condition as lipotoxicity induces insulin resistance. Emerging evidences suggest that defects in mitochondria, key organelle in lipid metabolism, play a central role on insulin resistance. Mitochondria homeostasis is tightly regulated by a nucleus-mitochondria signaling pathway and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC1) is the master regulator of important mitochondria process. PGC1 is down regulated in insulin resistant skeletal muscle and abnormal posttranslational modification at histone, epigenetic modifications, is an important factor. Studies have demonstrated the benefits of regular exercise on improving insulin sensitivity however the mechanism for this outcome is not entirely identified. Moreover evidences point out the increase in PGC1 expression induced by exercise as an important element for the improvement of insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle via increase in mitochondria density and glucose transporter expression (GLUT4). Therefore, we here proposed that aerobic exercise attenuates epigenetic modifications at PGC1 induced by high-energy diets and reduced physical activity, and that leads to inhibition/delay of type 2 diabetic onset. 10.1016/j.mehy.2014.03.018
    Epigenetic Mechanisms in Monocytes/Macrophages Regulate Inflammation in Cardiometabolic and Vascular Disease. Davis Frank M,Gallagher Katherine A Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology Cardiometabolic and vascular disease, with their associated secondary complications, are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western society. Chronic inflammation is a common theme that underlies initiation and progression of cardiovascular disease. In this regard, monocytes/macrophages are key players in the development of a chronic inflammatory state. Over the past decade, epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation and posttranslational histone processing, have emerged as important regulators of immune cell phenotypes. Accumulating studies reveal the importance of epigenetic enzymes in the dynamic regulation of key signaling pathways that alter monocyte/macrophage phenotypes in response to environmental stimuli. In this review, we highlight the current paradigms of monocyte/macrophage polarization and the emerging role of epigenetic modification in the regulation of monocyte/macrophage phenotype in obesity, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, and abdominal aortic aneurysms. 10.1161/ATVBAHA.118.312135
    The role of diet and exercise in the transgenerational epigenetic landscape of T2DM. Barrès Romain,Zierath Juleen R Nature reviews. Endocrinology Epigenetic changes are caused by biochemical regulators of gene expression that can be transferred across generations or through cell division. Epigenetic modifications can arise from a variety of environmental exposures including undernutrition, obesity, physical activity, stress and toxins. Transient epigenetic changes across the entire genome can influence metabolic outcomes and might or might not be heritable. These modifications direct and maintain the cell-type specific gene expression state. Transient epigenetic changes can be driven by DNA methylation and histone modification in response to environmental stressors. A detailed understanding of the epigenetic signatures of insulin resistance and the adaptive response to exercise might identify new therapeutic targets that can be further developed to improve insulin sensitivity and prevent obesity. This Review focuses on the current understanding of mechanisms by which lifestyle factors affect the epigenetic landscape in type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Evidence from the past few years about the potential mechanisms by which diet and exercise affect the epigenome over several generations is discussed. 10.1038/nrendo.2016.87
    Mechanisms of metabolic memory and renal hypoxia as a therapeutic target in diabetic kidney disease. Hirakawa Yosuke,Tanaka Tetsuhiro,Nangaku Masaomi Journal of diabetes investigation Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a worldwide public health problem. The definition of DKD is under discussion. Although the term DKD was originally defined as 'kidney disease specific to diabetes,' DKD frequently means chronic kidney disease with diabetes mellitus and includes not only classical diabetic nephropathy, but also kidney dysfunction as a result of nephrosclerosis and other causes. Metabolic memory plays a crucial role in the progression of various complications of diabetes, including DKD. The mechanisms of metabolic memory in DKD are supposed to include advanced glycation end-products, deoxyribonucleic acid methylation, histone modifications and non-coding ribonucleic acid including micro ribonucleic acid. Regardless of the presence of diabetes mellitus, the final common pathway in chronic kidney disease is chronic kidney hypoxia, which influences epigenetic processes, including deoxyribonucleic acid methylation, histone modification, and conformational changes in micro ribonucleic acid and chromatin. Therefore, hypoxia and oxidative stress are appropriate targets of therapies against DKD. Prolyl hydroxylase domain inhibitor enhances the defensive mechanisms against hypoxia. Bardoxolone methyl protects against oxidative stress, and can even reverse impaired renal function; a phase 2 trial with considerable attention to heart complications is currently ongoing in Japan. 10.1111/jdi.12624
    MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Epigenetic modifications and gestational diabetes: a systematic review of published literature. Moen Gunn-Helen,Sommer Christine,Prasad Rashmi B,Sletner Line,Groop Leif,Qvigstad Elisabeth,Birkeland Kåre I European journal of endocrinology OBJECTIVE:To summarize the current knowledge on epigenetic alterations in mother and offspring subjected to gestational diabetes (GDM) and indicate future topics for research. DESIGN:Systematic review. METHODS:We performed extensive searches in PubMed, EMBASE and Google scholar, using a combination of the search terms: GDM, gestational diabetes, epigenetic(s), methylation, histone modification, histone methylation, histone acetylation, microRNA and miRNA. Studies that compared women diagnosed with GDM and healthy controls were included. Two authors independently scanned the abstracts, and all included papers were read by at least two authors. The searches were completed on October 31st, 2016. RESULTS:We identified 236 articles, of which 43 were considered relevant for this systematic review. Studies published showed that epigenetic alterations could be found in both mothers with GDM and their offspring. However, differences in methodology, diagnostic criteria for GDM and populations studied, together with a limited number of published studies and small sample sizes, preclude clear conclusions about the role of epigenetic modifications in transmitting risk from GDM mothers to their offspring. CONCLUSION:The current research literature suggests that GDM may have impact on epigenetic modifications in the mother and offspring. However, larger studies that include multiple cohorts of GDM patients and their offspring are needed. 10.1530/EJE-16-1017
    Epigenetic Modifications Linked to T2D, the Heritability Gap, and Potential Therapeutic Targets. Szabó Monica,Máté Beáta,Csép Katalin,Benedek Theodora Biochemical genetics With the pandemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D), there is an ever-increasing need to fully understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease. Type 2 diabetes shows a high heritability risk (25-80%); however, genes account only for 10% of this risk. From all the risk factors for diabetes, epigenetic mechanisms have the highest statistical scoring in explaining the disease. A multitude of organ-specific epigenomic changes have been linked to type 2 diabetes. Nutritional influences, mainly in the early life, physical activity level, environmental toxins act as epigenetic factors and the recognized epigenetic changes can represent a therapeutical target, new drugs being currently in development for this application. Our current review focuses on the most common epigenetic modifications linked to type 2 diabetes or insulin resistance, the potentially emerging epigenetic-related interventions and pharmacoepigenetic knowledge. 10.1007/s10528-018-9863-8
    Recent progress in genetic and epigenetic research on type 2 diabetes. Kwak Soo Heon,Park Kyong Soo Experimental & molecular medicine Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a common complex metabolic disorder that has a strong genetic predisposition. During the past decade, progress in genetic association studies has enabled the identification of at least 75 independent genetic loci for T2DM, thus allowing a better understanding of the genetic architecture of T2DM. International collaborations and large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies have made these achievements possible. However, whether the identified common variants are causal is largely unknown. In addition, the detailed mechanism of how these genetic variants exert their effect on the pathogenesis of T2DM requires further investigation. Currently, there are ongoing large-scale sequencing studies to identify rare, functional variants for T2DM. Environmental factors also have a crucial role in the development of T2DM. These could modulate gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA regulation. There is evidence that epigenetic changes are important in the development of T2DM. Recent studies have identified several DNA methylation markers of T2DM from peripheral blood and pancreatic islets. In this review, we will briefly summarize the recent progress in the genetic and epigenetic research on T2DM and discuss how environmental factors, genetics and epigenetics can interact in the pathogenesis of T2DM. 10.1038/emm.2016.7
    Does epigenetic dysregulation of pancreatic islets contribute to impaired insulin secretion and type 2 diabetes? Dayeh Tasnim,Ling Charlotte Biochemistry and cell biology = Biochimie et biologie cellulaire β cell dysfunction is central to the development and progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D develops when β cells are not able to compensate for the increasing demand for insulin caused by insulin resistance. Epigenetic modifications play an important role in establishing and maintaining β cell identity and function in physiological conditions. On the other hand, epigenetic dysregulation can cause a loss of β cell identity, which is characterized by reduced expression of genes that are important for β cell function, ectopic expression of genes that are not supposed to be expressed in β cells, and loss of genetic imprinting. Consequently, this may lead to β cell dysfunction and impaired insulin secretion. Risk factors that can cause epigenetic dysregulation include parental obesity, an adverse intrauterine environment, hyperglycemia, lipotoxicity, aging, physical inactivity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. These risk factors can affect the epigenome at different time points throughout the lifetime of an individual and even before an individual is conceived. The plasticity of the epigenome enables it to change in response to environmental factors such as diet and exercise, and also makes the epigenome a good target for epigenetic drugs that may be used to enhance insulin secretion and potentially treat diabetes. 10.1139/bcb-2015-0057
    Epigenetic regulation in diabetic vascular complications. Jin Jiayu,Wang Xinhong,Zhi Xiuling,Meng Dan Journal of molecular endocrinology Cardiovascular disease (CVD), the main complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), accounts for a high percentage of mortality in diabetic patients. Endothelial dysfunction is a major causative event in the pathogenesis of diabetes-related vascular disease and the earliest symptom of vascular injury. Epigenetic modification plays a key role in the initiation, maintenance, and progression of both endothelial dysfunction and diabetes. Epigenetic alterations respond to the environment and mediate the 'legacy effect' of uncontrolled hyperglycaemia early in the disease despite thorough glycaemic control in a phenomenon called metabolic memory. Therefore, an understanding of the integrated system of different epigenetic mechanisms in DM and its vascular complications is urgently needed. This review summarizes aberrant epigenetic regulation under diabetic conditions, including histone modifications, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Understanding the connections between these processes and DM may reveal a novel potential therapeutic target for diabetic vascular complications. 10.1530/JME-19-0170
    Epigenetics and developmental origins of diabetes: correlation or causation? Bansal Amita,Simmons Rebecca A American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism The incidence of metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity continue to increase. Although it is evident that the increasing incidence of diabetes confers a global societal and economic burden, the mechanisms responsible for the increased incidence of T2D are not well understood. Extensive efforts to understand the association of early-life perturbations with later onset of metabolic diseases, the founding principle of developmental origins of health and disease, have been crucial in determining the mechanisms that may be driving the pathogenesis of T2D. As the programming of the epigenome occurs during critical periods of development, it has emerged as a potential molecular mechanism that could occur early in life and impact metabolic health decades later. In this review, we critically evaluate human and animal studies that illustrated an association of epigenetic processes with development of T2D as well as intervention strategies that have been employed to reverse the perturbed epigenetic modification or reprogram the naturally occurring epigenetic marks to favor improved metabolic outcome. We highlight that although our understanding of epigenetics and its contribution toward developmental origins of T2D continues to grow, whether epigenetics is a cause, consequence, or merely a correlation remains debatable due to the many limitations/challenges of the existing epigenetic studies. Finally, we discuss the potential of establishing collaborative research efforts between different disciplines, including physiology, epigenetics, and bioinformatics, to help advance the developmental origins field with great potential for understanding the pathogenesis of T2D and developing preventive strategies for T2D. 10.1152/ajpendo.00424.2017
    Epigenetics and type II diabetes mellitus: underlying mechanisms of prenatal predisposition. Sterns J David,Smith Colin B,Steele John R,Stevenson Kimberly L,Gallicano G Ian Frontiers in cell and developmental biology Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a widespread metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance precipitating abnormally high blood glucose levels. While the onset of T2DM is known to be the consequence of a multifactorial interplay with a strong genetic component, emerging research has demonstrated the additional role of a variety of epigenetic mechanisms in the development of this disorder. Heritable epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, play a vital role in many important cellular processes, including pancreatic cellular differentiation and maintenance of normal β-cell function. Recent studies have found possible epigenetic mechanisms to explain observed risk factors, such as altered atherogenic lipid profiles, elevated body mass index (BMI), and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), for later development of T2DM in children born to mothers experiencing both famine and hyperglycemic conditions. It is suggested that these epigenetic influences happen early during gestation and are less susceptible to the effects of postnatal environmental modification as was previously thought, highlighting the importance of early preventative measures in minimizing the global burden of T2DM. 10.3389/fcell.2014.00015
    [The impact of chromatin modification on the development of chronic complications in patients with diabetes]. Wegner Małgorzata,Pioruńska-Stolzmann Maria,Jagodziński Paweł P Postepy higieny i medycyny doswiadczalnej (Online) Diabetes is a chronic, metabolic disease. Over 347 million people worldwide have diabetes. Chronic complications (retinopathy, nephropathy or neuropathy) are the major dangerous outcome of this disease. Recent studies indicate a significant role of epigenetic regulation in the development of chronic complications in patients with diabetes. Hyperglycemia could cause abnormal regulation of the activity of enzymes participating in the post-translational histone modifications (PTHMs) and initiation of changes in patterns of DNA methylation. It leads to modification of chromatin structure. These epigenetic abnormalities result in changes in the expression of genes involved in development of chronic inflammation, such as NF-KAPPAB (nuclear factor kappaB gene), TNFα (tumor necrosis factor a gene), IL6 (interleukin 6 gene) or MCP1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 gene). It enhances endothelial cell dysfunction, which plays an important role in development of chronic, diabetic complications. In addition, caused by hyperglycemia epigenetic modifications changes in structure of chromatin explains "metabolic memory", a phenomenon of presence of pathological pathways related to the prolonged hyperglycemia in the past, despite maintaining good metabolic control later on. 10.5604/17322693.1165198
    Role of histone modification and DNA methylation in signaling pathways involved in diabetic retinopathy. Shafabakhsh Rana,Aghadavod Esmat,Ghayour-Mobarhan Majid,Ferns Gordon,Asemi Zatollah Journal of cellular physiology Retinopathy, characterized by an alteration of the retinal microvasculature, is a common complication of diabetes mellitus. These changes can cause increased permeability and alter endothelial cell proliferation, edema, and abnormal neovascularization and eventually result in blindness. The pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is complicated, involving many factors/mediators such as genetic susceptibility, microRNAs, and cytokines. One of the factors involved in DR pathogenesis is epigenetic changes that can have a key role in the regulation of gene expression; these include microRNAs, histone modifications, and methylation of DNA. The main epigenetic modifications are DNA methylation and posttranslational modifications of the histones. Generally, the studies on epigenetics can provide new opportunities to investigate the molecular basis of diseases with complicated pathogenesis, including DR, and provide essential insights into the potential design of strategies for its treatment. The aim of this study is an investigation of DR pathogenesis and epigenetic modifications that involve in DR development. 10.1002/jcp.27844
    Epigenetic modifications: An important mechanism in diabetic disturbances. Rorbach-Dolata Anna,Kubis Adriana,Piwowar Agnieszka Postepy higieny i medycyny doswiadczalnej (Online) In the search for explanations of diabetes pathomechanisms, especially the development of its vascular complications (micro- and macrovascular ), although current, good metabolic control of diabetes, attention was drawn to the role of epigenetic inheritance associated with epigenetic modifications of histone proteins and DNA in hyperglycemia conditions. This study showed the significant role of DNA methylation and histone epigenetic modifications (a different nature and a different degree) in the transmission of information that is not connected with gene inheritance but concerns the persistent changes induced by hyperglycemia..Attention was paid to the role of DNA methylation of pancreatic cells in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, but also type 2. The important role of DNA methylation changes in a so-called intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) as reason of subsequent development of diabetes was particularly emphasized. In the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and its complications, especially microvascular complications, the greatest share and importance of epigenetic modifications on mitochondrial DNA metylation are the most important. The multidirectionality Complicaand complexity of epigenetic modifications of histone proteins indicate their importance in the development of diabetic disturbances. An especially important role is attributed to methylation and acetylation of histone proteins, in particular on arginine and lysine, whose changes occur most frequently. Moreover, epigenetic modifications of the enzymes, especially methylases, responsible for these processes are the underlying. It has been indicated that the identification of epigenetic differences within the DNA or histone proteins may be a useful prognostic biomarker of susceptibility to the disease development in the future. Moreover, they may become a potential target for future therapeutic interventions for clinical disorders in diabetes. 10.5604/01.3001.0010.6156
    Epigenetic Modifications Associated with the Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Hossan Tareq,Kundu Shoumik,Alam Sayeda Sadia,Nagarajan Sankari Endocrine, metabolic & immune disorders drug targets BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial metabolic disorder. Pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance are the most common and crucial events of T2DM. Increasing evidence suggests the association of epigenetic modifications with the pathogenesis of T2DM through the changes in important biological processes including pancreatic β- cell differentiation, development and maintenance of normal β-cell function. Insulin sensitivity by the peripheral glucose uptake tissues is also changed by the altered epigenetic mechanisms. In this review, we discussed the major epigenetic alterations and their effects on β-cell function, insulin secretion and insulin resistance in context of T2DM. METHODS:We investigated the presently available epigenetic modifications including DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications, ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling and non-coding RNAs related to the pathogenesis of T2DM. Published literatures on this topic were searched both on Google Scholar and Pubmed with related keywords and investigated for relevant information. RESULTS:The epigenetic modifications introduce changes in gene expression which are essential for appropriate β-cell development and functions, insulin secretion and sensitivity resulting in the pathogenesis of T2DM. Interestingly, T2DM could also be a prominent reason for the mentioned epigenetic alterations. CONCLUSION:This review article emphasized on the epigenetic modifications associated with T2DM and discussed the consequences in deterioration of the disease condition. 10.2174/1871530319666190301145545
    Epigenetics Variation and Pathogenesis in Diabetes. Zhang Haichen,Pollin Toni I Current diabetes reports PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Great strides have recently been made in elucidating the role of genetic sequence variation in diabetes pathogenesis. Increasingly, studies are focusing on other factors that may contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes, such as epigenetics, a term "traditionally" encompassing changes to the DNA that do not alter sequence and are heritable (primary methylation and histone modification) but often expanded to include microRNAs. This review summarizes latest findings on the role of epigenetics in diabetes pathogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS:Recent studies illustrate roles for methylation changes, histone modification, imprinting, and microRNAs across several diabetes types and complications. Notably, methylation changes in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region have been found to precede the development of type 1 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, lifestyle factors appear to interact with epigenetic mechanisms in pathogenesis. Emerging technologies have allowed increasingly comprehensive descriptive analysis of the role of epigenetic mechanisms in diabetes pathogenesis which have yielded meaningful insights into effects on expression of relevant genes. These findings have the potential to inform future development of predictive testing to enable primary prevention and further work to uncover the complex pathogenesis of diabetes. 10.1007/s11892-018-1091-4
    The role of global and regional DNA methylation and histone modifications in glycemic traits and type 2 diabetes: A systematic review. Muka T,Nano J,Voortman T,Braun K V E,Ligthart S,Stranges S,Bramer W M,Troup J,Chowdhury R,Dehghan A,Franco O H Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD BACKGROUND:New evidence suggests the potential involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in type 2 diabetes (T2D) as a crucial interface between the effects of genetic predisposition and environmental influences. AIM:To systematically review studies investigating the association between epigenetic marks (DNA methylation and histone modifications) with T2D and glycemic traits (glucose and insulin levels, insulin resistance measured by HOMA-IR). METHOD AND RESULTS:Six bibliographic databases (Embase.com, Medline (Ovid), Web-of-Science, PubMed, Cochrane Central and Google Scholar) were screened until 28th August 2015. We included randomized controlled trials, cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies in humans that examined the association between epigenetic marks (global, candidate or genome-wide methylation of DNA and histone modifications) with T2D, glucose and insulin levels and insulin metabolism. Of the initially identified 3879 references, 53 articles, based on 47 unique studies met our inclusion criteria. Overall, data were available on 10,823 participants, with a total of 3358 T2D cases. There was no consistent evidence for an association between global DNA-methylation with T2D, glucose, insulin and insulin resistance. The studies reported epigenetic regulation of several candidate genes for diabetes susceptibility in blood cells, muscle, adipose tissue and placenta to be related with T2D without any general overlap between them. Histone modifications in relation to T2D were reported only in 3 observational studies. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:Current evidence supports an association between epigenetic marks and T2D. However, overall evidence is limited, highlighting the need for further larger-scale and prospective investigations to establish whether epigenetic marks may influence the risk of developing T2D. 10.1016/j.numecd.2016.04.002