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    Maintaining a Healthy BMI: Data From a 16-Year Study of Young Australian Women. Brown Wendy J,Kabir Enamul,Clark Bronwyn K,Gomersall Sjaan R American journal of preventive medicine INTRODUCTION:The aims of this prospective cohort study were to examine 16-year trajectories of weight and BMI in young adult women who had a healthy BMI in 1996 and determinants of remaining in the healthy BMI category. METHODS:A total of 4,881 women with healthy BMI at baseline and either healthy, overweight, or obese BMI at 16-year follow-up reported their weight, height, health, and health behaviors in six surveys of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health between 1996 (aged 18-23 years) and 2012 (aged 34-39 years). Determinants of BMI maintenance were estimated using binary logistic regression and generalized estimating equations in 2015. RESULTS:Almost 60% remained in the healthy BMI category from 1996 to 2012, (mean weight gain, 0.19 kg/year), 29% transitioned to overweight BMI (0.83 kg/year), and 11.6% transitioned to obese (1.73 kg/year). The mean rates of annual weight gain in each group were consistent over time. Only three factors (low alcohol, moderate/high physical activity, having a university degree) were positively associated with maintaining a healthy BMI. Additional behavioral factors (smoking, high sitting time, energy intake, dieting, takeaway food, and use of oral contraceptives), as well as blue collar occupation, separation/divorce/widowhood, and major illness were negatively associated with BMI maintenance. CONCLUSIONS:To prevent the transition from healthy to overweight/obese BMI, weight gain must be limited to <0.5 kg/year. Women with healthy BMI, but with higher rates of weight gain in their early 20s, could be identified by health professionals for assistance with prevention of becoming overweight/obese. 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.09.007
    Lifestyle behaviours associated with 5-year weight gain in a prospective cohort of Australian adults aged 26-36 years at baseline. Smith Kylie J,Gall Seana L,McNaughton Sarah A,Cleland Verity J,Otahal Petr,Dwyer Terence,Venn Alison J BMC public health BACKGROUND:Whether not meeting common guidelines for lifestyle behaviours is associated with weight gain is uncertain. This study examined whether 5-year weight gain was predicted by not meeting guidelines for: breakfast consumption (eating between 6 and 9 am), takeaway food consumption (<2 times/week), television viewing (<2 h/day) and daily steps (≥10,000 steps/day). METHODS:One thousand one hundred and fifty-five Australian participants (43% men, 26-36 years) completed questionnaires and wore a pedometer at baseline (2004-06) and follow-up (2009-11). Weight was measured or self-reported, with a correction factor applied. For each behaviour, participants were classified according to whether they met the guideline: consistently met at baseline and follow-up (reference group); not met at baseline but met at follow-up; met at baseline but not met at follow-up; consistently not met at baseline and follow-up. For each behaviour, weight gain was calculated using linear regression. Weight gain by number of guidelines met was also examined. RESULTS:Mean 5-year weight gain was 2.0 kg (SD:6.3). Compared to the reference group, additional weight (mean, 95% CI) was gained among those who did not meet the guideline at follow-up, or consistently did not meet the guideline, for breakfast (1.8 kg, 0.7-2.9; 1.5 kg, 0.1-2.8); takeaway food (2.2 kg, 0.7-3.6; 1.9 kg, 0.7-3.1); watching television (1.9 kg, 0.9-2.9; 1.4 kg, 0.4-2.3); and daily steps (2.6 kg, 1.1-4.04; 1.6 kg, 0.5-2.7). Those who met ≤1 guideline at follow-up gained 3.8 kg (95% CI 2.3-5.3) more than those meeting all guidelines. CONCLUSION:Individuals who adopted healthier behaviours between baseline and follow-up had similar weight gain to those who met the guidelines at both time points. Encouraging young adults to meet these simple guidelines may reduce weight gain. 10.1186/s12889-016-3931-y
    Cross-sectional and prospective mediating effects of dietary intake on the relationship between sedentary behaviour and body mass index in adolescents. Fletcher Elly A,Lamb Karen E,McNaughton Sarah A,Garnett Sarah P,Dunstan David W,Baur Louise A,Salmon Jo BMC public health BACKGROUND:Cross-sectional evidence suggests TV viewing, but not objectively-measured sedentary time or bouts of sedentary time, is consistently associated with body mass index (BMI) in adolescents. However, it is unclear whether dietary intake is a potential mediator of these relationships. The aim of this study was to explore the cross-sectional and prospective mediating effects of dietary intake on the association of sedentary behaviour with BMI z-score (zBMI) in a cohort of Australian adolescents. METHODS:Cross-sectional and prospective analyses were conducted in adolescents aged 12-15 years participating in the 2002/03 (baseline) and 2004/05 (follow-up) Nepean Growing Up Study. The independent variables were television (TV) viewing, an objective measure of total sedentary time and average sedentary bout duration, and the outcome variable zBMI. Using the Sobel-Goodman method with bootstrapping, mediation analyses were conducted examining three dietary components (discretionary foods, sugar-sweetened beverages [SSB] and takeaway foods) as mediators of associations between TV viewing and zBMI (n = 259) and between total sedentary time and average sedentary bout duration with zBMI (n = 140). RESULTS:No significant cross-sectional or prospective total or direct associations were observed for TV viewing, total sedentary time and average sedentary bout duration with zBMI. However, TV viewing was positively associated with consumption of takeaway foods cross-sectionally (β = 0.06; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.12), prospectively at baseline (β = 0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.12) and prospectively at follow-up (β = 0.10; 95% CI 0.04, 0.16), and average sedentary bout duration was inversely associated with SSB consumption both cross-sectionally (β = -0.36; 95% CI -0.69 to -0.02) and prospectively at baseline (β = -0.36; 95% CI -0.70 to -0.02). No mediation effects were identified. CONCLUSIONS:TV viewing, total sedentary time and bouts of sedentary time were not associated cross-sectionally or prospectively with adolescents' zBMI, and three elements of dietary intake (e.g. intake of discretionary foods, SSB and takeaway foods) did not mediate this relationship. The role of dietary intake and sedentary behaviour in relation to adolescent health requires further clarification. 10.1186/s12889-017-4771-0
    Dietary patterns, body mass index and inflammation: Pathways to depression and mental health problems in adolescents. Oddy Wendy H,Allen Karina L,Trapp Georgina S A,Ambrosini Gina L,Black Lucinda J,Huang Rae-Chi,Rzehak Peter,Runions Kevin C,Pan Feng,Beilin Lawrence J,Mori Trevor A Brain, behavior, and immunity BACKGROUND:Observational studies suggest that dietary patterns may impact mental health outcomes, although biologically plausible pathways are yet to be tested. We aimed to elucidate the longitudinal relationship between dietary patterns, adiposity, inflammation and mental health including depressive symptoms in a population-based cohort of adolescents. METHODS:Data were provided from 843 adolescents participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study at 14 and 17 years (y) of age. Structural equation modelling was applied to test our hypothesised models relating dietary patterns, energy intake and adiposity (body mass index) at 14 y to adiposity and the pro-inflammatory adipokine (leptin) and inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein - hs-CRP) at 17 y, and these inflammatory markers to depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) and Internalising and Externalising Behavioral Problems (Child Behavior Check List Youth Self- Report) at 17 y. We further tested a reverse hypothesis model, with depression at 14 y as a predictor of dietary patterns at the same time-point. RESULTS:The tested models provided a good fit to the data. A 'Western' dietary pattern (high intake of red meat, takeaway, refined foods, and confectionary) at 14 y was associated with higher energy intake and BMI at 14 y, and with BMI and biomarkers of inflammation at 17 y (all p < .05). A 'Healthy' dietary pattern (high in fruit, vegetables, fish, whole-grains) was inversely associated with BMI and inflammation at 17 y (p < .05). Higher BMI at 14 y was associated with higher BMI (p < .01), leptin (p < .05), hs-CRP (p < .05), depressive symptoms (p < .05) and mental health problems (p < .05), all at 17 y. CONCLUSION:A 'Western' dietary pattern associates with an increased risk of mental health problems including depressive symptoms in adolescents, through biologically plausible pathways of adiposity and inflammation, whereas a 'Healthy' dietary pattern appears protective in these pathways. Longitudinal modelling into adulthood is indicated to confirm the complex associations of dietary patterns, adiposity, inflammation and mental health problems, including depressive symptoms. 10.1016/j.bbi.2018.01.002
    Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Juice, Artificially-Sweetened Soda and Bottled Water: An Australian Population Study. Miller Caroline,Ettridge Kerry,Wakefield Melanie,Pettigrew Simone,Coveney John,Roder David,Durkin Sarah,Wittert Gary,Martin Jane,Dono Joanne Nutrients Reducing consumption of free sugars, such as those found in high concentrations in manufactured products such as sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and 100% fruit juices, is a global public health priority. This study aimed to measure prevalence of widely available pre-packaged non-alcoholic water-based beverages (carbonated sodas, sports drinks, energy drinks, artificially-sweetened sodas, fruit juices (any type), and bottled water) and to comprehensively examine behavioral, environmental, current health, and demographic correlates of consumption. A cross-sectional, nationally-representative population survey of 3430 Australian adults (18+ years) was conducted using computer-assisted telephone (mobile and landline) interviewing. Past week prevalence of pre-packaged drinks containing free sugar was 47.3%; daily prevalence was 13.6%. Of all the pre-packaged drinks assessed, consumption of fruit juices (any type) was the most prevalent (38.8%), followed by bottled water (37.4%), soda (28.9%), artificially-sweetened soda (18.1%), sports drinks (8.1%), and energy drinks (4.2%). Higher soda consumption was associated with males, younger age, socio-economic disadvantage, frequent takeaway food consumption, availability of soda in the home, obesity, and a diagnosis of heart disease or depression. A diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes was associated with increased likelihood of consuming artificially-sweetened sodas and decreased likelihood of consuming sugar-sweetened soda. SSB consumption is prevalent in Australia, especially among young adults and males, foreshadowing continued population weight gain and high burdens of chronic disease. To reduce consumption, Australia must take a comprehensive approach, incorporating policy reform, effective community education, and active promotion of water. 10.3390/nu12030817
    Dietary patterns associated with meeting the WHO free sugars intake guidelines. Steele Courtney,Eyles Helen,Te Morenga Lisa,Ni Mhurchu Cliona,Cleghorn Christine Public health nutrition OBJECTIVE:Emerging evidence suggests that free sugars intake in many countries exceeds that recommended by the WHO. However, information regarding real-world dietary patterns associated with meeting the WHO free sugars guidelines is lacking. The current study aimed to determine dietary patterns associated with meeting the guidelines to inform effective free sugars reduction interventions in New Zealand (NZ) and similar high-income countries. DESIGN:Dietary patterns were derived using principal component analysis on repeat 24-h NZ Adult Nutrition Survey dietary recall data. Associations between dietary patterns and the WHO guidelines (<5 and <10 % total energy intake) were determined using logistic regression analyses. SETTING:New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS:NZ adults (n 4721) over 15 years old. RESULTS:Eight dietary patterns were identified: 'takeaway foods and alcohol' was associated with meeting both WHO guidelines; 'contemporary' was associated with meeting the <10 % guideline (males only); 'fast foods, sugar-sweetened beverages and dessert', 'traditional' and 'breakfast foods' were negatively associated with meeting both guidelines; 'sandwich' and 'snack foods' were negatively associated with the <5 % guideline; and 'saturated fats and sugar' was negatively associated with the <10 % guideline. CONCLUSIONS:The majority of NZ dietary patterns were not consistent with WHO free sugars guidelines. It is possible to meet the WHO guidelines while consuming a healthier ('contemporary') or energy-dense, nutrient-poor ('takeaway foods and alcohol') diet. However, the majority of energy-dense patterns were not associated with meeting the guidelines. Future nutrition interventions would benefit from focusing on establishing healthier overall diets and reducing consumption and free sugars content of key foods. 10.1017/S1368980019004543
    Unhealthy diet practice and symptoms of stress and depression among adolescents in Pasir Gudang, Malaysia. Tajik Esra,Latiffah Abd Latiff,Awang Hamidin,Siti Nur'Asyura Adznam,Chin Yit Siew,Azrin Shah Abu Bakar,Patricia Koh Chai Hsia,Mohd Izudin Hariz Che Ghazali Obesity research & clinical practice BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE:Missing main meals and an unhealthy snacking pattern can lead to poor diet quality and consequently to the presence of chronic diseases among which mental disorder is no exception. Since there is little research on diet, skipping meals and psychological status in Asian countries, this study tries to determine eating behaviour and predicting symptoms of stress and depression of adolescents in Pasir Gudang, Malaysia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted among Form 1 secondary school-going adolescents (n 1565, response rate: 90%) in southern Malaysia from April to May 2013. A self-administered structured and validated questionnaire (socio-demographic, eating behaviour questionnaire, and depression, anxiety and stress scales (DASS-21)) was used for data collection. RESULTS:Among respondents, 803 (51.3%) were female, 1125 were Malay (71.9%) with a mean age of 13.7 (SD=0.8) years. Logistic regression analysis indicated that students who were underweight (OR=3.07, 95% CI 1.21, 7.76), obese (OR=2.64, 95% CI 1.01, 6.87), used to eat out of home (OR=1.37, 95% CI 1.28, 2.13), eat dinner (>4 days/week) (OR=1.59, 95% CI 1.04, 2.43) were more likely to have depression or stress symptoms. Moreover, participants with 4-7 days/week eating breakfast (OR=0.88, 95% CI 0.21, 0.89) were less likely to be at mild/moderate stress. CONCLUSIONS:Findings underscore the effect of unhealthy eating practices among adolescents on mental health. Targeted education should be implemented to improve psychological well-being. 10.1016/j.orcp.2015.06.001
    Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and association with weight status in Irish children: a cross-sectional study prior to the introduction of a government tax on sugar-sweetened beverages. Harrington Janas M,Perry Catherine,Keane Eimear,Perry Ivan J Public health nutrition OBJECTIVE:To provide baseline evidence of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in a sample of Irish children prior to the introduction of the SSB tax; to identify the energy contribution of SSB to daily energy intake; and to explore the association between SSB consumption and overweight/obesity. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTING:Primary schools in Cork, Ireland in 2012. PARTICIPANTS:1075 boys and girls aged 8-11 years. SSB consumption was assessed from 3-d food diaries. BMI was used to define obesity (International Obesity Taskforce definitions). Plausible energy reporters (n 724, 68 % of total sample) were classified using Schofield equation. RESULTS:Eighty-two per cent of children with plausible energy intake consumed SSB. Mean energy intake from SSB was 485 kJ (6 % of total kJ). Mean kilojoules from SSB increased with weight status from 443 kJ for normal-weight children to 648 kJ for children with overweight/obesity (5·8 and 7·6 % of total kJ, respectively). Mean SSB intake was significantly higher in children with overweight/obesity than normal-weight children (383 and 315 ml/d). In adjusted analyses, children consuming >200 ml/d had an 80 % increased odds of overweight/obesity compared to those consuming <200 ml/d (OR 1·8, 95 % CI 1·0, 3·5). Family socioeconomic status and lifestyle determinants, including frequency of takeaway consumption and TV viewing, were also significantly associated with SSB consumption. CONCLUSIONS:SSB account for a substantial proportion of daily energy intake and are significantly associated with child overweight/obesity. This study provides baseline data from a sample of children from which the impact of the SSB tax can be benchmarked. 10.1017/S1368980020000014
    Frequency of Restaurant, Delivery and Takeaway Usage Is Not Related to BMI among Adults in Scotland. Albalawi Ahmad,Hambly Catherine,Speakman John R Nutrients BACKGROUND:The frequency of visits to restaurants has been suggested to contribute to the pandemic of obesity. However, few studies have examined how individual use of these restaurants is related to Body Mass Index (BMI). AIM:To investigate the association between the usage of different types of food outlets and BMI among adults in Scotland. METHOD:The study was cross-sectional. Participants completed an online survey for seven consecutive days where all food purchased at food outlets was reported each day. We explored the relationship between BMI and usage of these food outlets. RESULTS:The total number of participants that completed the survey was 681. The BMI of both males and females was not related to frequency of use of Full-Service Restaurants (FSRs), Fast-Food Restaurants (FFRs), delivery or takeaways, when assessed individually or combined (TFOs = total food outlets). CONCLUSION:These cross-sectional data do not support the widespread belief that consumption of food out of the home at fast-food and full-service restaurants, combined with that derived from deliveries and takeaways, is a major driver of obesity in Scotland. 10.3390/nu12092501
    A latent class analysis of dietary behaviours associated with metabolic syndrome: a retrospective observational cross-sectional study. Park Jung Ha,Kim Ju Young,Kim So Hye,Kim Jung Hyun,Park Young Mi,Yeom Hye Seon Nutrition journal BACKGROUND:Obesity defined solely by the Body Mass Index (BMI) may not reflect the true heterogeneity of the obese population. This study aimed to classify the dietary behaviours of overweight and obese individuals and to explore the relationship between patterns of dietary behaviour and cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS:A total of 259 patients who visited an outpatient weight management clinic at a tertiary hospital and underwent a dietary behaviour assessment between January 2014 and February 2019 were enrolled in the study. Dietary behaviours were assessed in three domains with nine categories, including choice of food (frequently eating out and consumption of instant/fast/takeaway food), eating behaviour (irregular meals; frequent snacking, including eating at night; emotional eating; and overeating/binge eating), and nutrient intake (high-fat/high-calorie foods, salty food, and poorly balanced diet). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to classify the subjects according to these categories. Associations between latent class and metabolic syndrome were assessed by logistic regression. RESULTS:The subjects were classified into three LCA-driven classes, including a referent class of healthy but unbalanced eaters (n = 118), a class of emotional eaters (n = 53), and a class of irregular unhealthy eaters (n = 88). Compared with the referent class, emotional eaters had a significantly higher BMI (beta = 3.40, P < 0.001) accompanied by metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 2.88, 95% confidence interval 1.16-7.13). CONCLUSIONS:Our three LCA-driven obesity phenotypes could be useful for assessment and management of obesity and metabolic syndrome. The association between emotional eaters and higher BMI and metabolic syndrome was stronger than that with other eaters. Thus, emotional regulation strategies might have benefit for emotional eater's diet. 10.1186/s12937-020-00636-7
    Genetic risk of obesity as a modifier of associations between neighbourhood environment and body mass index: an observational study of 335 046 UK Biobank participants. Mason Kate E,Palla Luigi,Pearce Neil,Phelan Jody,Cummins Steven BMJ nutrition, prevention & health Background:There is growing recognition that recent global increases in obesity are the product of a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. However, in gene-environment studies of obesity, 'environment' usually refers to individual behavioural factors that influence energy balance, whereas more upstream environmental factors are overlooked. We examined gene-environment interactions between genetic risk of obesity and two neighbourhood characteristics likely to be associated with obesity (proximity to takeaway/fast-food outlets and availability of physical activity facilities). Methods:We used data from 335 046 adults aged 40-70 in the UK Biobank cohort to conduct a population-based cross-sectional study of interactions between neighbourhood characteristics and genetic risk of obesity, in relation to body mass index (BMI). Proximity to a fast-food outlet was defined as distance from home address to nearest takeaway/fast-food outlet, and availability of physical activity facilities as the number of formal physical activity facilities within 1 km of home address. Genetic risk of obesity was operationalised by weighted Genetic Risk Scores of 91 or 69 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), and by six individual SNPs considered separately. Multivariable, mixed-effects models with product terms for the gene-environment interactions were estimated. Results:After accounting for likely confounding, the association between proximity to takeaway/fast-food outlets and BMI was stronger among those at increased genetic risk of obesity, with evidence of an interaction with polygenic risk scores (p=0.018 and p=0.028 for 69-SNP and 91-SNP scores, respectively) and in particular with a SNP linked to (p=0.009), a gene known to regulate food intake. We found very little evidence of gene-environment interaction for the availability of physical activity facilities. Conclusions:Individuals at an increased genetic risk of obesity may be more sensitive to exposure to the local fast-food environment. Ensuring that neighbourhood residential environments are designed to promote a healthy weight may be particularly important for those with greater genetic susceptibility to obesity. 10.1136/bmjnph-2020-000107
    Does Eating Out Make Elderly People Depressed? Empirical Evidence from National Health and Nutrition Survey in Taiwan. Chang Hung-Hao,Saeliw Kannika The journal of mental health policy and economics OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the association between eating out and depressive symptoms among elderly people. Potential mediators that may link to elderly eating out and depressive symptoms are also discussed.METHODS: A unique dataset of 1,184 individuals aged 65 and older was drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in 2008 in Taiwan. A bivariate probit model and an instrumental variable probit model were estimated to account for correlated, unmeasured factors that may be associated with both the decision and frequency of eating out and depressive symptoms in the elderly. An additional analysis is conducted to check whether the nutrient intakes and body weights can be seen as mediators that link the association between eating out and depressive symptoms of the elderly.RESULTS: Elderly people who eat out are 38 percent points more likely to have depressive symptoms than their counterparts who do not eat out, after controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and other factors. A positive association between the frequency of eating out and the likelihood of having depressive symptoms of the elderly is also found. It is evident that one additional meal away from home is associated with an increase of the likelihood of being depressed by 3.8 percentage points. With respect to the mediations, we find that nutrient intakes and body weight are likely to serve as mediators for the positive relationship between eating out and depressive symptoms in the elderly.CONCLUSION: Our results show that elderly who eat out have a higher chance of having depressive symptoms. To prevent depressive symptoms in the elderly, policy makers should be aware of the relationship among psychological status, physical health and nutritional health when assisting the elderly to better manage their food consumption away from home.LIMITATONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH: Our study have some caveats. First, the interpretation of our results on the causality issue calls for caution in that our analysis relies on a cross-sectional survey. Second, other measures to define elderly depression, such as the Center for Epidemiological Studies -Depression (CES-D) score, can be used to check the robustness of our findings. Finally, the availability of food outlets in the local area and family characteristics are possible associated with food away from home of the elderly. If data permit, the relationship between eating out and elderly depressive symptoms can be better identified after controlling for variables related to food facilities and family characteristics.
    Eating Out-of-Home in Adult Residents in Shanghai and the Nutritional Differences among Dining Places. Zang Jiajie,Luo Baozhang,Wang Yaping,Zhu Zhenni,Wang Zhengyuan,He Xin,Wang Wenjing,Guo Yan,Chen Xiao,Wang Chunfang,Guo Changyi,Zou Shurong,Jia Xiaodong,Wu Fan Nutrients BACKGROUND:With the rapid development of Shanghai's economy, diet habits have undergone great changes. The study aimed to examine the situation of out-of-home (OH) eating in Shanghai adults and the nutrition characteristics of eating in different dining places, and to assess the social demographic determinants of eating OH. METHOD:Data was sourced from the Shanghai Diet and Health Survey (SDHS) involving people aged 18 years or older in 2012⁻2013. The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and three-day 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) were used to collect dietary intake data on how people eat out in a cross-sectional study of 1689 adults. OH food refers to the food prepared or consumed away from home. We define that people who eat at least one meal prepared away from home in each survey have a habit of eating outside. The multiple linear and logistic regression methods were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS:The prevalence of eating OH and at restaurants was only 55.1% and 31.8%, respectively. There was an increase in energy, protein, carbohydrate, fat, and iron intake while eating OH. Restaurant and company/school canteen consumption were both associated with an increase in daily total energy intake of 140 kcal and 91 kcal, and fat intake of 6.0 g and 4.3 g, respectively. However, eating at restaurants was associated with higher intake of 548 mg of sodium. However, no significant association was observed between eating at canteens and higher sodium intake. CONCLUSIONS:Eating OH related to a poor diet quality, and the diet quality was different restaurant and canteen food. There may be a need for interventions to target residents' overall dining-out behavior, particularly focusing on the consumption of restaurant food. 10.3390/nu10070951
    Changes in Eating-Out Frequency according to Sociodemographic Characteristics and Nutrient Intakes among Korean Adults. Ju Se-Young Iranian journal of public health Background:The quality of out-of-home foods is an increasingly important issue due to increasing popularity of eating out. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship of eating-out frequency with general characteristics, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes among Korean adults. Methods:This study collected data from 2010- 2015 KNHANES. The total number of participants was 33,427 Korean adults aged 19 years and older. All statistical analyses were conducted using SAS software version 9.3. Results:Eating-out more frequently was associated with younger, unmarried, employed, urban resident, higher income, higher education, and being male. Regarding dietary behavior, subjects with skipping breakfast and taking snack behavior showed a tendency to eat out more frequently. Meanwhile, energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, and sodium intake were higher in subjects with ≥ 5/week eating-out frequency than those in subjects with < 5/week eating-out frequency. Conclusion:This study provides important insights into the effect of targeted public health education and policies.
    [Eating out behavior and its impact on obesity among Chinese residents aged 18-59 in 2015]. Ju Lahong,Yu Dongmei,Guo Qiya,Fang Hongyun,Xu Xiaoli,Li Shujuan,Cheng Xue,Piao Wei,Cai Shuya,Zhao Liyun Wei sheng yan jiu = Journal of hygiene research OBJECTIVE:To study the eating out behavior and its impact on obesity among Chinese residents aged 18-59. METHODS:Multistage stratified random sampling method was used to collect data in 302 monitoring sites of the China National Chronic Non-communicable Disease and Nutrition Surveillance of adults in 31 provinces of China from 2015. A total of 53 887 subjects were included in this study by data cleaning. The population data published by the National Bureau of Statistics in 2010 were used as a standard population of the data result for 2015. Complex sampling weighting method was adopted in data analyses. The number and percentage of cases were used to describe the eating behaviors of different characteristics of the population, Statistical analysis was conducted by using SURVEYFREQ process, and Chi-square test was used to comparative analysis. Multi-factor analysis was conducted to the relationship between eating out frequency and different characteristics and obesity by using SURVEYLOGISTIC model regression. RESULTS:In 2015, proportions of eating out for all the three meals was 36. 1% of Chinese residents aged 18-59 in the past week, that of were 41. 3% and 24. 3% of Chinese residents aged 18-44 and 45-59, respectively. Proportions of Chinese residents was 12. 2% for eating out 1-6 times a week, 15. 8% for eating out 7-13 times a week, and 8. 1% for eating out 14-21 times a week. Results from the multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that 18-44 years old, male, urban, highly educated, family per capita annual income ≥ 20 000 yuan, unmarried, on the job and school students chose to eat out more commonly. No statistical association was noticed between the frequency of eating out and obesity in women, men who ate out 14-21 times a week showed higher risk of obesity than those who not ate out, with OR=1. 8(95%CI 1. 3-2. 5). CONCLUSION:Proportions of eating out increased for Chinese residents aged 18-59, men who ate out 14-21 times a week showed higher risk of obesity. 10.19813/j.cnki.weishengyanjiu.2021.03.008
    Restaurant interventions for salt reduction in China: protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Du Wenwen,Zhang Jiguo,Li Yuan,He Feng J,Zhou Xue,Xu Zhihua,Gao Yifu,Yin Lei,Chang Xiaoyu,Yan Wei,Tan Monique,MacGregor Graham A,Luo Rong,Zhang Puhong,Wang Huijun BMJ open INTRODUCTION:Salt intake in China is high, and most of it comes from that added by consumers. Nevertheless, recent years have seen a rapid increase in the frequency at which people eat out. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed for salt reduction in restaurants through a randomised controlled trial in China. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:As a randomised controlled trial with restaurants as study subjects, we recruited 192 restaurants from 12 counties of 6 provinces in China. After the baseline survey, restaurants were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Using social cognitive theory, comprehensive intervention activities were designed to encourage salt reduction in all restaurant foods, and at the same time, to encourage consumers to choose lower salt options when eating out. The interventions will be conducted only in restaurants of the intervention group during the first year. The follow-up assessment will be conducted at the end of the trial. The primary outcome is the change in the average salt content of the five best-selling dishes of the restaurant, as measured by laboratory tests. Secondary outcomes include differences in the monthly use of salt and salty condiments between intervention and control restaurants, and the knowledge, attitude and practice on salt among restaurant consumers. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The study was reviewed and approved by the Review Board of the National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and Queen Mary Research Ethics Committee. Results will be disseminated through presentations, publications and social media. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ChiCTR1800019694; Pre-results. 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-038744
    The association between frequency of eating out with overweight and obesity among children aged 6-17 in China: a National Cross-sectional Study. Ma Yanning,Gong Weiyan,Ding Caicui,Song Chao,Yuan Fan,Fan Jing,Feng Ganyu,Chen Zheng,Liu Ailing BMC public health BACKGROUND:In parallel with the increased prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, the proportion of eating out in China has increased dramatically in recent years. The purpose of the study was to explore the association between frequency of eating out with overweight and obesity among Chinese children. METHODS:The representative sample was recruited from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey (CNNHS) in 2010-2012, which included Chinese children aged 6-17 years (7685 boys and 7576 girls). Frequency of eating out was collected by interview-administered questionnaire and categorized as: 0, 1-2 and ≥ 3 times per week. Height and weight were measured, consequently body mass index was calculated. RESULTS:The prevalence of eating out among Chinese children aged 6-17 years old was 23.2%. Children who ate out 0, 1-2, ≥3 times per week were accounted for 76.8, 10.9 and 12.3% respectively. Findings revealed that eating out three times per week or more was statistically significant associated with higher prevalence of overweight and obesity among boys (OR = 1.20,95CI:1.04-1.38) compared with those ate out less than three times per week. However, no significantly association was observed among girls (OR = 0.91, 95CI:0.78-1.01). In additional, Younger children, rural children, children from low income family, those with leisure exercises (certain physical activities regularly carried out such as swimming, walking, running, equipment fitness), leisure time sedentary behaviors (LTSB)(> 2 h/d) were relatively more likely to eat out. CONCLUSIONS:The results illustrated that eating out three times or more had a significantly positive effect on overweight and obesity among boys in China. 10.1186/s12889-021-11104-0
    Reported consumption of takeaway food and its contribution to socioeconomic inequalities in body mass index. Miura Kyoko,Turrell Gavin Appetite The aim of this study was to examine whether takeaway food consumption mediated (explained) the association between socioeconomic position and body mass index (BMI). A postal-survey was conducted among 1500 randomly selected adults aged between 25 and 64years in Brisbane, Australia during 2009 (response rate 63.7%, N=903). BMI was calculated using self-reported weight and height. Participants reported usual takeaway food consumption, and these takeaway items were categorised into "healthy" and "less healthy" choices. Socioeconomic position was ascertained by education, household income, and occupation. The mean BMI was 27.1kg/m(2) for men and 25.7kg/m(2) for women. Among men, none of the socioeconomic measures were associated with BMI. In contrast, women with diploma/vocational education (β=2.12) and high school only (β=2.60), and those who were white-collar (β=1.55) and blue-collar employees (β=2.83) had significantly greater BMI compared with their more advantaged counterparts. However, household income was not associated with BMI. Among women, the consumption of "less healthy" takeaway food mediated BMI differences between the least and most educated, and between those employed in blue collar occupations and their higher status counterparts. Decreasing the consumption of "less healthy" takeaway options may reduce socioeconomic inequalities in overweight and obesity among women but not men. 10.1016/j.appet.2013.12.007
    The effect of shift work on eating habits: a systematic review. Souza Renata Vieira,Sarmento Roberta Aguiar,de Almeida Jussara Carnevale,Canuto Raquel Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health Objective This systematic review aimed to evaluate the association between shift work and eating habits. Methods The protocol was registered in PROSPERO (number 42015024680). PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for published reports. Of 2432 identified articles, 33 observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Their methodological approaches were assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Data were extracted using a standardized form. Studies were considered to have a low or a high risk of bias according to a percentage score of quality. Results The majority of the studies presented a quality score of <70% and a high risk of bias for comparability, sample selection and non-respondents. Shift workers show changes in meal patterns, skipping more meals and consuming more food at unconventional times. They also show higher consumption of unhealthy foods, such as saturated fats and soft drinks. Conclusions This review suggests that shift work can affect the quality of workers' diets, but new studies, especially longitudinal studies, which examine the time of exposure to shift work, the duration of the workday and sleep patterns, are necessary to confirm this association. 10.5271/sjweh.3759
    Takeaway food consumption and cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults. Smith K J,Blizzard L,McNaughton S A,Gall S L,Dwyer T,Venn A J European journal of clinical nutrition BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Takeaway food consumption is positively associated with adiposity. Little is known about the associations with other cardio-metabolic risk factors. This study aimed to determine whether takeaway food consumption is associated with fasting glucose, insulin, lipids, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and blood pressure. SUBJECTS/METHODS:A national sample of 1896, 26-36 year olds completed a questionnaire on socio-demographics, takeaway food consumption, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Waist circumference and blood pressure were measured, and a fasting blood sample was taken. For this analysis, takeaway food consumption was dichotomised to once a week or less and twice a week or more. Linear regression was used to calculate differences in the adjusted mean values for fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, HOMA and blood pressure. Models were adjusted for age, employment status, leisure time physical activity and TV viewing. RESULTS:Compared with women who ate takeaway once a week or less, women who ate takeaway twice a week or more had significantly higher adjusted mean fasting glucose (4.82 vs 4.88 mmol/l, respectively; P=0.045), higher HOMA scores (1.27 vs 1.40, respectively, P=0.034) and tended to have a higher mean fasting insulin (5.95 vs 6.45 mU/l, respectively, P=0.054). Similar associations were observed for men for fasting insulin and HOMA score, but the differences were not statistically significant. For both women and men adjustment for waist circumference attenuated the associations. CONCLUSION:Consuming takeaway food at least twice a week was associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in women but less so in men. The effect of takeaway food consumption was attenuated when adjusted for obesity. 10.1038/ejcn.2011.202
    Meal Timing Regulates the Human Circadian System. Wehrens Sophie M T,Christou Skevoulla,Isherwood Cheryl,Middleton Benita,Gibbs Michelle A,Archer Simon N,Skene Debra J,Johnston Jonathan D Current biology : CB Circadian rhythms, metabolism, and nutrition are intimately linked [1, 2], although effects of meal timing on the human circadian system are poorly understood. We investigated the effect of a 5-hr delay in meals on markers of the human master clock and multiple peripheral circadian rhythms. Ten healthy young men undertook a 13-day laboratory protocol. Three meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) were given at 5-hr intervals, beginning either 0.5 (early) or 5.5 (late) hr after wake. Participants were acclimated to early meals and then switched to late meals for 6 days. After each meal schedule, participants' circadian rhythms were measured in a 37-hr constant routine that removes sleep and environmental rhythms while replacing meals with hourly isocaloric snacks. Meal timing did not alter actigraphic sleep parameters before circadian rhythm measurement. In constant routines, meal timing did not affect rhythms of subjective hunger and sleepiness, master clock markers (plasma melatonin and cortisol), plasma triglycerides, or clock gene expression in whole blood. Following late meals, however, plasma glucose rhythms were delayed by 5.69 ± 1.29 hr (p < 0.001), and average glucose concentration decreased by 0.27 ± 0.05 mM (p < 0.001). In adipose tissue, PER2 mRNA rhythms were delayed by 0.97 ± 0.29 hr (p < 0.01), indicating that human molecular clocks may be regulated by feeding time and could underpin plasma glucose changes. Timed meals therefore play a role in synchronizing peripheral circadian rhythms in humans and may have particular relevance for patients with circadian rhythm disorders, shift workers, and transmeridian travelers. 10.1016/j.cub.2017.04.059
    Acculturation, meal frequency, eating-out, and body weight in Korean Americans. Lee Soo-Kyung Nutrition research and practice Consuming regular meals has been studied in relation to better health, while higher regularity of eating-out has been linked to obesity. This study examined whether acculturation was associated with regularity of meals, eating-out, and overweight in Korean Americans. Pre-tested questionnaires were mailed to a U.S. national sample with Korean American surnames, and 55% of the deliverable sample responded, producing 356 usable questionnaires. Acculturation was measured using a two-culture matrix model and Gordon's theoretical work, and showed there were three distinct groups (acculturated, bicultural, and traditional). Only 36% reported that they regularly ate three meals a day. Breakfast was the least frequent meal of the day with 43% reporting eating breakfast everyday. More than half (58%) reported that they usually eat out or get take-out food at least once a week. After controlling for age, sex, income, education, and working status, higher acculturation was related to greater regularity of eating-out, but not meal regularity. A total of 28% of men and 6% of women were overweight (BMI>25), and there were significant and positive relationships between body weight status and acculturation in men but not women. However, no significant relationships between frequency of meals and eating-out and overweight status were present. This study did not find significant relationships of meal regularity and eating-out with body weight, however, given the positive relationship between acculturation and eating-out among the subjects and the well-established relationship between eating-out and obesity, nutrition education about skipping meals and eating-for Korean Americans may be useful to prevent such relationships from developing. 10.4162/nrp.2008.2.4.269
    The influence of mortality reminders on cultural in-group versus out-group takeaway food safety perceptions during the COVID-19 pandemic. McCabe Simon,Erdem Seda Journal of applied social psychology During the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic takeaway food orders generally increased, yet sales of Chinese and Italian food declined. At this time, news sources ran stories on the safety of cuisine from these countries, frequently juxtaposed with communications on mortality-related information related to the virus. Terror management theory suggests mortality concerns can lead people to defend against the psychological threat of death by bolstering positive evaluations of products and values of their own culture, and by disparaging products and values of other cultures. This translates to food preferences, with death reminders heightening consumption of food from one's own (vs. others') culture. However, whether this extends to food safety perceptions has not yet been probed. In the present experimental study, we examine whether death reminders (vs. a control topic) led U.S. participants to view American takeaway food as safer to consume, relative to Chinese and Italian food. Results indicate that across conditions, American food was evaluated as safer relative to Chinese and Italian takeout. Further, American takeaway was seen as safer after mortality reminders (vs. a control topic), with no differences in safety evaluations for Chinese or Italian takeout. Results are discussed in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic. 10.1111/jasp.12740
    Long working hours and skipping breakfast concomitant with late evening meals are associated with suboptimal glycemic control among young male Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Azami Yasushi,Funakoshi Mitsuhiko,Matsumoto Hisashi,Ikota Akemi,Ito Koichi,Okimoto Hisashi,Shimizu Nobuaki,Tsujimura Fumihiro,Fukuda Hiroshi,Miyagi Chozi,Osawa Sayaka,Osawa Ryo,Miura Jiro Journal of diabetes investigation AIMS/INTRODUCTION:To assess the associations of working conditions, eating habits and glycemic control among young Japanese workers with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This hospital- and clinic-based prospective study included 352 male and 126 female working patients with diabetes aged 20-40 years. Data were obtained from June to July 2012 and June to July 2013. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for suboptimal glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin level of ≥7%) obtained from June to July 2013. RESULTS:Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that disease duration of ≥10 years (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.02-5.80), glycosylated hemoglobin level of ≥7% in 2012 (OR 8.50, 95% CI 4.90-14.80), skipping breakfast and late evening meals (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.25-5.00) and working ≥60 h/week (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.16-7.40) were predictive of suboptimal glycemic control in male workers, whereas a glycosylated hemoglobin level of ≥7% in 2012 (OR 17.96, 95% CI 5.93-54.4), oral hyperglycemic agent therapy (OR 12.49, 95% CI 2.75-56.86) and insulin therapy (OR 11.60, 95% CI 2.35-57.63) were predictive of suboptimal glycemic control in female workers. CONCLUSIONS:Working ≥60 h/week and habitual skipping breakfast concomitant with late evening meals might affect the ability of young male workers with type 2 diabetes to achieve and maintain glycemic control. 10.1111/jdi.12852
    Associations between exposure to takeaway food outlets, takeaway food consumption, and body weight in Cambridgeshire, UK: population based, cross sectional study. Burgoine Thomas,Forouhi Nita G,Griffin Simon J,Wareham Nicholas J,Monsivais Pablo BMJ (Clinical research ed.) OBJECTIVES:To examine the association between environmental exposure to takeaway food outlets, takeaway food consumption, and body weight, while accounting for home, work place, and commuting route environments. DESIGN:Population based, cross sectional study, using data on individual participants' diet and weight, and objective metrics of food environment exposure. PARTICIPANTS:Working adults participating in the Fenland Study, Cambridgeshire, UK (n = 5442, aged 29-62 years), who provided home and work addresses and commuting preferences. Takeaway food outlet exposure was derived using data from local authorities for individual environmental domains (at home, at work, and along commuting routes (the shortest route between home and work)), and for exposure in all three domains combined. Exposure was divided into quarters (Q); Q1 being the least exposed and Q4 being the most exposed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Self reported consumption of takeaway type food (g/day; pizza, burgers, fried foods, and chips) using food frequency questionnaires, measured body mass index, and cut-offs for body mass index as defined by the World Health Organization. RESULTS:In multiple linear regression models, exposure to takeaway food outlets was positively associated with consumption of takeaway food. Among domains at home, at work, and along commuting routes, associations were strongest in work environments (Q4 v Q1; β coefficient = 5.3 g/day, 95% confidence interval 1.6 to 8.7; P<0.05), with evidence of a dose-response effect. Associations between exposure in all three domains combined and consumption were greater in magnitude across quarters of exposure (Q4 v Q1; 5.7 g/day, 2.6 to 8.8; P<0.001), with evidence of a dose-response effect. Combined exposure was especially strongly associated with increased body mass index (Q4 v Q1; body mass index 1.21, 0.68 to 1.74; P<0.001) and odds of obesity (Q4 v Q1; odds ratio 1.80, 1.28 to 2.53; P<0.05). There was no evidence of effect modification by sex. CONCLUSIONS:Exposure to takeaway food outlets in home, work, and commuting environments combined was associated with marginally higher consumption of takeaway food, greater body mass index, and greater odds of obesity. Government strategies to promote healthier diets through planning restrictions for takeaway food could be most effective if focused around the workplace. 10.1136/bmj.g1464
    How is Satiety Affected When Consuming Food While Working on A Computer? Ding Lily,Hamid Nazimah,Shepherd Daniel,Kantono Kevin Nutrients More people working at offices are choosing to eat meals at their desks, making "desktop dining" an increasingly common phenomenon. Previous studies have reported that environmental distractors, such as television viewing, can influence meal intake and subsequent snack intake. However, the impact of stressful mental tasks on eating behavior has received relatively less attention, focusing only on subsequent meal intake or concurrent snack intake. This study sets out to determine whether eating while working influenced current meal energy intake. This research also examined the relationship between dietary restraint status and energy intake. A crossover experimental design was employed requiring participants (14 males and 29 females) to eat pizza quietly and at rest (control), and while working on a computer (work). Measurements included BMI, energy intake, state anxiety, restrained eating behavior, stress levels (pre- and post-eating), and appetite (before and after both work and control sessions). The findings showed that consuming food while working on a computer significantly increased stress but had no influence on energy intake compared to the control condition. However, post-eating hunger levels were significantly higher in the work condition compared to the control condition. As expected, satiety levels decreased significantly from pre- to post-eating for both work and control conditions. In addition, no significant relationship was observed between restrained eating behavior and energy intake in both work and control conditions. These results suggest that eating while working affected satiety of normal weight participants, as indicated by the significant difference in post-meal satiety levels between work and control conditions. 10.3390/nu11071545
    The impact of meal timing on cardiometabolic syndrome indicators in shift workers. Molzof Hylton E,Wirth Michael D,Burch James B,Shivappa Nitin,Hebert James R,Johnson Russell L,Gamble Karen L Chronobiology international The aims of this study were to 1) compare the inflammatory potential of night- and day-shift nurses' diets with regard to time of day and work status and 2) explore how the timing of food intake during work and off-work is associated with cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) risk factors between these two groups. Female nurses (N = 17; 8 day-shift and 9 night-shift) reported food intake over 9 days. On a middle day off of work, metabolic parameters were measured after an overnight fast. Energy/macronutrient intake and inflammatory potential of dietary intake (as assessed via the Dietary Inflammatory Index) were calculated for nurses' workdays, work nights, off-work days, and off-work nights. Work-night total food intake (grams) accounted for a significant amount of variance in CMS risk factors for night-shift nurses only. Increased total gram consumption during night-shift nurses' work nights was associated with increased lipid levels - independent of the macronutrient composition of the food consumed. Alternatively, for night-shift nurses, work-day intake of several food parameters accounted for a significant proportion of variance in HDL cholesterol levels, with higher intake associated with higher HDL levels. For both day- and night-shift nurses, food intake during the day was more pro-inflammatory regardless of shift type or work status. Our novel approach of combining time-of-day-specific and work-day-specific analyses of dietary inflammatory factors and macronutrient composition with measurement of CMS risk factors suggests a link between meal timing and cardiometabolic health for shift-working nurses. 10.1080/07420528.2016.1259242
    A High-Protein Meal during a Night Shift Does Not Improve Postprandial Metabolic Response the Following Breakfast: A Randomized Crossover Study with Night Workers. Cunha Nayara B,Silva Catarina M,Mota Maria C,Lima Caio A,Teixeira Kely R C,Cunha Thulio M,Crispim Cibele A Nutrients The aim of this study was to compare the acute effect of a high-protein/moderate carbohydrate (HP-MCHO) versus low-protein/high-carbohydrate (LP-HCHO) meal served at night on the postprandial metabolic response of male night workers the following breakfast. A randomized crossover study was performed with 14 male night workers (40.9 ± 8.9 years old; 29.1 ± 5.3 kg/m). Participants underwent two different isocaloric dietary conditions at 1:00 h of the night shift: HP-MCHO (45 en% carbohydrate, 35 en% protein and 20 en% fat) and LP-HCHO (65 en% carbohydrate, 15 en% protein and 20 en% fat). Postprandial capillary glucose levels were determined immediately before the intake of the test meal and 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the end of the meal. At the end of the work shift (6:30 h), participants received a standard breakfast and postprandial levels of glucose, insulin and triglycerides were determined immediately before and then every 30 min for 2 h (30, 60, 90 and 120 min). Higher values of capillary glucose were found after the LP-HCHO condition compared to the HP-MCHO condition (area under the curve (AUC) = 119.46 ± 1.49 mg/dL × min and 102.95 ± 1.28 mg/dL × min, respectively; < 0.001). For the metabolic response to standard breakfast as the following meal, no significant differences in glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and HOMA-IR levels were found between interventions. A night meal with a higher percentage of protein and a lower percentage of carbohydrate led to minor postprandial glucose levels during the night shift but exerted no effect on the metabolic response of the following meal. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT03456219. 10.3390/nu12072071
    The Role of Parents and Children in Meal Selection and Consumption in Quick Service Restaurants. Cohen Juliana F W,Rimm Eric B,Davison Kirsten K,Cash Sean B,McInnis Kyle,Economos Christina D Nutrients Children regularly consume foods from quick service restaurants (QSRs) in the United States, but little is known about how ordering decisions are made and the impact on selection and consumption. A total of = 218 parents dining with a child (ages 4-16 years) inside a participating QSR completed interviews and demographic surveys and provided their child's leftover foods at the end of the meal. Children's meal consumption was measured using plate-waste methodology. The majority of children selected their meal without parental involvement (80%) and decided what to order prior to entering the QSR (63%). Using mixed-model analysis of variance, children selected and consumed significantly fewer calories and less total fat and sodium when a parent ordered the meal compared with when the child ordered the meal alone. There were no significant differences in selection or consumption when a parent and child ordered the meal together. Approximately one-third of the children consumed foods that were shared. In conclusion, because children primarily select foods without parental involvement and prior to entering QSRs, innovative strategies are needed to influence ordering decisions inside QSRs toward healthier options. Additionally, because food is frequently shared, policies that only focus on children's menus may not be as effective in impacting children's dietary intake. 10.3390/nu12030735
    The protective role of family meals for youth obesity: 10-year longitudinal associations. Berge Jerica M,Wall Melanie,Hsueh Tsun-Fang,Fulkerson Jayne A,Larson Nicole,Neumark-Sztainer Dianne The Journal of pediatrics OBJECTIVE:To examine whether having family meals as an adolescent protects against becoming overweight or obese 10 years later as a young adult. STUDY DESIGN:Data from Project Eating and Activity in Teens -III, a longitudinal cohort study with emerging young adults, were used. At baseline (1998-1999), adolescents completed surveys in middle or high schools, and at 10-year follow-up (2008-2009) surveys were completed online or via mailed surveys. Young adult participants (n = 2117) were racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse (52% minority; 38% low income) between the ages of 19 and 31 years (mean age = 25.3; 55% female). Logistic regression was used to associate weight status at follow-up with family meal frequency 10 years earlier during adolescence, controlling and testing for interactions with demographic characteristics. RESULTS:All levels of baseline family meal frequency (ie, 1-2, 3-4, ≥5 family meals/wk) during adolescence were significantly associated with reduced odds of overweight or obesity 10 years later in young adulthood compared with never having family meals as an adolescent. Interactions by race indicated that family meals had a stronger protective effect for obesity in black vs white young adults. CONCLUSIONS:Family meals during adolescence were protective against the development of overweight and obesity in young adulthood. Professionals who work with adolescents and parents may want to strategize with them how to successfully carry out at least 1 to 2 family meals per week in order to protect adolescents from overweight or obesity in young adulthood. 10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.08.030
    Do neighbourhood characteristics act together to influence BMI? A cross-sectional study of urban parks and takeaway/fast-food stores as modifiers of the effect of physical activity facilities. Mason Kate E,Pearce Neil,Cummins Steven Social science & medicine (1982) Studies exploring associations between neighbourhood environment and obesity often overlook the fact that neighbourhoods are multi-dimensional and that the effects of one environmental exposure may be modified by another. We examine whether associations between neighbourhood density of formal physical activity (PA) facilities and body mass index (BMI) are modified by the density of neighbourhood green spaces and takeaway stores. We used cross-sectional data from the UK Biobank cohort and linked UK Biobank Urban Morphometric Platform (UKBUMP) for 345,269 urban-dwelling adults aged 40-69. We examined associations between objectively measured BMI and the number of formal PA facilities (gyms, pools, etc.) within 1 km of each individual's home, testing separately for interactions with the number of local public green spaces, and number of takeaway stores, within the same 1 km buffers. We estimated modifier-stratified associations using multivariable, multilevel models to account for a clustered sampling design and potential confounding. Likelihood ratio tests were used to assess statistical interaction. We found that the association between a greater number of local PA facilities and lower BMI was stronger among people with fewer urban green spaces in their neighbourhood than among those with more green spaces (P = 0.021). The same relationship between PA facilities and BMI was also noticeably attenuated among those with more takeaway stores near home, compared with people with none (P = 0.014). We conclude that formal PA facilities may buffer against a lack of informal, green resources for PA in areas where the latter are scarce. However, the potential benefits of formal PA facilities in terms of obesity risk may be undermined by an unhealthy food environment close to home. Locating formal PA facilities in places with fewer public green resources and reducing the prevalence of takeaway stores in areas with formal PA resources may maximise the health benefits to be derived from these neighbourhood resources. 10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113242
    Characterization of an Unusual Foodborne Illness Including an Outbreak and Sporadic Illness Caused by Three Bacterial Pathogens Via a Takeaway Service. Zhang Hongzhi,Ye Yulong,Yang Bowen,Gu Qifang,Zhu Yanqi,Que Fengxia,Liu Yue,Yu Ying,Yu Dandan,Zhang Xi Foodborne pathogens and disease Takeaway food services are an emerging business in China and have a potential impact on food safety. An unusual foodborne illness associated with takeaway food delivered through a logistics company on August 27, 2018 is reported. Epidemiological investigations showed that 28 patients from 2 companies were diagnosed with gastroenteritis symptoms. The major symptoms included nausea (24, 85.71%), vomiting (24, 85.71%), diarrhea (22, 78.57%), and abdominal pain (22, 78.75%). Laboratory investigations showed that six isolates, three isolates, and one isolate were detected. Six isolates were detected from one patient, food, and a food handler, and all six isolates had the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) genotype. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A was detected from food and the six isolates. These results confirmed that isolates were the major agent causing this foodborne illness. Three isolates with the same PFGE pattern and MLST genotype were detected from patients. This was the first time that isolates have been identified as causing a foodborne disease outbreak in China. Only one O4:K8 serotype of with the gene isolate was detected from one patient. These results confirmed that this was an unusual foodborne illness that included an outbreak associated with two different pathogens and a third pathogen sporadic illness. Takeaway services pose a risk to public health because they have the potential to distribute contaminated products over a large geographic area within a short time. Therefore, more attention should be paid to prevent and control foodborne illnesses caused by contaminated food from takeaway services. 10.1089/fpd.2018.2601
    Determinants of takeaway and fast food consumption: a narrative review. Janssen Hayley G,Davies Ian G,Richardson Lucinda D,Stevenson Leonard Nutrition research reviews Out-of-home foods (takeaway, take-out and fast foods) have become increasingly popular in recent decades and are thought to be a key driver in increasing levels of overweight and obesity due to their unfavourable nutritional content. Individual food choices and eating behaviours are influenced by many interrelated factors which affect the results of nutrition-related public health interventions. While the majority of research based on out-of-home foods comes from Australia, the UK and USA, the same issues (poor dietary habits and increased prevalence of non-communicable disease) are of equal concern for urban centres in developing economies undergoing 'nutrition transition' at a global scale. The present narrative review documents key facets, which may influence out-of-home food consumption, drawn from biological, societal, environmental, demographic and psychological spheres. Literature searches were performed and references from relevant papers were used to find supplementary studies. Findings suggest that the strongest determinants of out-of-home food availability are density of food outlets and deprivation within the built environment; however, the association between socio-economic status and out-of-home food consumption has been challenged. In addition, the biological and psychological drives combined with a culture where overweight and obesity are becoming the norm makes it 'fashionable' to consume out-of-home food. Other factors, including age group, ethnicity and gender demonstrate contrasting effects and a lack of consensus. It is concluded that further consideration of the determinants of out-of-home food consumption within specific populations is crucial to inform the development of targeted interventions to reduce the impact of out-of-home foods on public health. 10.1017/S0954422417000178
    Frequency of takeaway food consumption and its association with major food group consumption, anthropometric measures and blood pressure during adolescence. Gopinath Bamini,Flood Victoria M,Burlutsky George,Louie Jimmy C Y,Baur Louise A,Mitchell Paul The British journal of nutrition We prospectively assessed the (1) frequency and socio-economic correlates of takeaway food consumption during adolescence; and (2) association between frequent takeaway food consumption with intakes of major food groups and anthropometric measures and blood pressure (BP). In total, 699 Sydney schoolchildren (380 girls and 319 boys) who had dietary data at both 12 and 17 years of age were included for analyses. Takeaway food consumption was self-reported and based on a single question. Anthropometric measures and BP were collected. The proportion of participants who ate takeaway foods once per week or more increased significantly over 5 years from the age of 12 to 17 years: 35·5-44·1 % (P<0·0001). In total, 12-year-old girls compared with boys had reduced odds of takeaway foods once per week or more at the age of 17 years (P=0·01), multivariable-adjusted OR 0·63 (95 % CI 0·44, 0·90). In total, 12-year-old children who ate takeaway foods once per week or more had significantly lower mean fruit (220·3 v. 253·0 g/d; P=0·03) and vegetable consumption (213·2 v. 247·7 g/d; P=0·004), 5 years later (at 17 years of age). Frequent takeaway food consumption at the age of 12 years was not associated with anthropometric indices and BP at the age of 17 years. Consumption of takeaway foods became more frequent during adolescence, particularly among boys, and it was associated with reduced intake of fruits and vegetables. 10.1017/S000711451600101X
    The effectiveness of healthy meals at work on reaction time, mood and dietary intake: a randomised cross-over study in daytime and shift workers at an university hospital. Leedo Eva,Beck Anne Marie,Astrup Arne,Lassen Anne D The British journal of nutrition Our dietary habits affect both cognitive performance and mood. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of increased availability of healthy meals and water at work on healthcare staff. The study used an 8-week randomised cross-over design. A total of sixty physicians, nurses and nursing assistants, including sixteen working on shifts, were recruited. The participants received a self-selected keyhole-labelled (Nordic nutrition label) lunch, snack and bottled water during each shift throughout the intervention period. Reaction time (Go/No-Go test), mood-related scores (POMS) and dietary intake were assessed at run-in, and at the end of the intervention and the control periods. The intake of fat (P=0·030) and PUFA (P=0·003) was lower, and the intake of carbohydrate (P=0·008), dietary fibre (P=0·031) and water (P<0·001) was greater in the intervention period than in the control period. The intervention had no effect on reaction time or any of the mood-related scores in the group as a whole. In shift-working participants, the intervention period resulted in a 31·1 % lower Fatigue-Inertia Score (P=0·003), a 15·3 % higher Vigour-Activity Score (P=0·041) and a 42·7 % lower Total Mood Disturbance Score (P=0·017), whereas the only dietary component that significantly improved was water intake (P=0·034), when compared with the control period. Providing healthy meals, snacks and water during working hours seems to be an effective way of improving employees' dietary intake. Moreover, increased intake of water may be associated with beneficial effects on fatigue, vigour and total mood in shift-working healthcare staff. 10.1017/S000711451700191X
    Cholesterol analysis of Korean eat-out foods for national food composition database. Sharmin Farhana,Jeong Beom-Gyun,Jung Jiyoung,Quines Venus,Chun Jiyeon Journal of food science and technology Information on cholesterol intake through restaurant meal is of high concern because of increasing eat-out population. Since nutrient labeling is not mandatory for restaurant food in Korea, cholesterol database on restaurant menu is unavailable. This study was performed to construct regional and national cholesterol database on primary Korean restaurant foods including 30 soup/stew, 24 rice dishes, and 27 noodles. From 2009 to 2012, Korea Ministry of Food and Drug Safety collected total 5832 foods (81 food types ×6 regions ×12 restaurants) nationwide and then 486 composites representing food types and regions were prepared for cholesterol analysis. Cholesterol contents of 486 composite samples were highly affected by recipe, food type, seasonality of ingredients, and geographical location, showing the range of 1.1-143.0, 1.5-85.1, and 0.4-62.2 mg/100 g for soup/stew, rice dishes, and noodles, respectively. The highest cholesterol value was observed in - (spicy fish roe soup) while - (buckwheat noodle in beef stock) showed the lowest among all samples. Most foods contain relatively low cholesterol content, but the serving size and consumption frequency of dishes should be considered in order not to exceed the recommended daily intake limit (300 mg cholesterol). Saponification coupled with gas chromatography applied for cholesterol analysis was reliable based on accuracy (95% > recovery) and precision (repeatability <4% and reproducibility <8%). Quality control chart monitored for 4 years showed that all analyses were under the control. This study provides reliable and representative cholesterol contents of Korean restaurant key foods, which can be utilized for assessments of cholesterol intake in the current Korean diet. 10.1007/s13197-017-2615-7
    Sleep duration, nightshift work, and the timing of meals and urinary levels of 8-isoprostane and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin in Japanese women. Nagata Chisato,Tamura Takashi,Wada Keiko,Konishi Kie,Goto Yuko,Nagao Yasuko,Ishihara Kazuhiro,Yamamoto Satoru Chronobiology international It has been hypothesized that disruption of circadian rhythms affects human health. Shift work and sleep deprivation are thought to disrupt the normal light-dark cycle, although the disruption due to shiftwork may be dependent on sleep deprivation. Both conditions have been suggested to be associated with an increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Non-photic environmental factors, such as the timing of eating, are also thought to regulate circadian rhythm and thus, may have effects on health, but the evidence from human studies is scarce. Oxidative stress is a risk factor of cardiometabolic disorders. Some laboratory studies suggest an involvement of circadian clock genes in the regulation of the redox system. The present study aimed to examine the association of sleeping habits, nightshift work, and the timing of meals with urinary levels of 8-isoprostane, a marker of oxidative stress, and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, the principal metabolite of melatonin. Study subjects were 542 women who had previously attended a breast cancer mass screening in a community in Japan. Information on bedtimes and wake-up times, history of nightshift work, and the timing of meals was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. The 8-isoprostane and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin were measured using the first morning void of urine and expressed per mg of creatinine. The geometric mean of 8-isoprostane levels was 12.1% higher in women with ≤6 hours of sleep than that in those with >8 hours of sleep on weekdays, and longer sleep duration on weekdays was significantly associated with lower urinary levels of 8-isoprostane after controlling for covariates (p for trend = 0.04). Women who were currently working the nightshift had a 33.3% higher geometric mean of 8-isoprostane levels than those who were not working nightshift (p = 0.03). Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were unrelated to sleep habits or nightshift work. Women who ate breakfast at irregular times had a 19.8% higher geometric mean of 8-isoprostane levels than those who ate breakfast at a regular time or who did not eat (p = 0.02). Women who ate nighttime snacks at irregular times had a 16.2% higher geometric mean of 8-isoprostane levels than those who did not eat nighttime snacks or who ate nighttime snacks at a regular time (p = 0.003). Among women who ate dinner at a regular time, earlier times for dinner were associated with higher 8-isoprostane and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels (p values for trends were 0.01 and 0.02, respectively). However, the times of dinner and nighttime snack are overlapping, and the time of last meal of the day was not associated with 8-isoprostane and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels. The time of breakfast or lunch was not associated with these biomarkers among women who ate the meal at regular times. Disturbing the rhythmicity of daily life may be associated with oxidative stress. 10.1080/07420528.2017.1355313
    Associations between food consumption habits with meal intake behaviour in Spanish adults. Keller Kristin,Rodríguez López Santiago,Carmenate Moreno M Margarita,Acevedo Cantero Paula Appetite The aim of the present study is to explore the contribution of different types of meal intake behaviour on a healthy diet and seeks to find associations with food consumption habits. A cross-sectional survey with data from 1332 Spanish adults aged between 20 and 79 years was conducted. The survey was carried out during the cardiovascular health event 'Semanas del Corazon 2008' in four Spanish cities. Several food consumption habits such as the recommended intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, as well as the regular consumption of fatty and salty food and ready-made meals, were used as dependent variables in logistic regression. We evaluated different meal intake behaviour such as the type of meals, snacking, and drinks taken with a meal. Our survey revealed that snacking is positively associated with the regular consumption of salty and fatty food, and having sugary drinks with meals was positively associated with the regular consumption of ready-made meals. Having a forenoon meal is positively associated with the consumption of two or more portions of milk and dairy products and vegetables, and taking an afternoon meal with the recommended intake of milk and dairy products and fruits. Drinking water during a meal increases the probability of consuming two or more portions of fruits and vegetables. Our results enhance the understanding of the contribution that meal intake behaviour makes to a healthy diet based on food consumption habits. This work provides an insight into eating behaviour and would make a useful contribution to interventions aimed at promoting healthier eating habits. 10.1016/j.appet.2014.08.012
    Subjective Hunger, Gastric Upset, and Sleepiness in Response to Altered Meal Timing during Simulated Shiftwork. Gupta Charlotte C,Centofanti Stephanie,Dorrian Jillian,Coates Alison M,Stepien Jacqueline M,Kennaway David,Wittert Gary,Heilbronn Leonie,Catcheside Peter,Noakes Manny,Coro Daniel,Chandrakumar Dilushi,Banks Siobhan Nutrients Shiftworkers report eating during the night when the body is primed to sleep. This study investigated the impact of altering food timing on subjective responses. Healthy participants ( = 44, 26 male, age Mean ± SD = 25.0 ± 2.9 years, BMI = 23.82 ± 2.59kg/m) participated in a 7-day simulated shiftwork protocol. Participants were randomly allocated to one of three eating conditions. At 00:30, participants consumed a meal comprising 30% of 24 h energy intake (Meal condition; = 14, 8 males), a snack comprising 10% of 24 h energy intake (Snack condition; = 14; 8 males) or did not eat during the night (No Eating condition; = 16, 10 males). Total 24 h individual energy intake and macronutrient content was constant across conditions. During the night, participants reported hunger, gut reaction, and sleepiness levels at 21:00, 23:30, 2:30, and 5:00. Mixed model analyses revealed that the snack condition reported significantly more hunger than the meal group ( < 0.001) with the no eating at night group reporting the greatest hunger ( < 0.001). There was no difference in desire to eat between meal and snack groups. Participants reported less sleepiness after the snack compared to after the meal ( < 0.001) or when not eating during the night ( 0.001). Gastric upset did not differ between conditions. A snack during the nightshift could alleviate hunger during the nightshift without causing fullness or increased sleepiness. 10.3390/nu11061352
    Altering meal timing to improve cognitive performance during simulated nightshifts. Gupta Charlotte C,Centofanti Stephanie,Dorrian Jillian,Coates Alison,Stepien Jacqueline M,Kennaway David,Wittert Gary,Heilbronn Leonie,Catcheside Peter,Noakes Manny,Coro Daniel,Chandrakumar Dilushi,Banks Siobhan Chronobiology international Altering meal timing could improve cognition, alertness, and thus safety during the nightshift. This study investigated the differential impact of consuming a meal, snack, or not eating during the nightshift on cognitive performance (ANZCTR12615001107516). 39 healthy participants (59% male, age mean±SD: 24.5 ± 5.0y) completed a 7-day laboratory study and underwent four simulated nightshifts. Participants were randomly allocated to: Meal at Night (MN; 12), Snack at Night (SN; = 13) or No Eating at Night (NE; = 14). At 00:30 h, MN consumed a meal and SN consumed a snack (30% and 10% of 24 h energy intake respectively). NE did not eat during the nightshift. Macronutrient intake was constant across conditions. At 20:00 h, 22:30 h, 01:30 h, and 04:00 h, participants completed the 3-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT-B), 40-min driving simulator, post-drive PVT-B, subjective sleepiness scale, 2-choice Reaction Time task, and Running Memory task. Objective sleep was recorded for each of the day sleeps using Actigraphy and for the third day sleep, Polysomnography was used. Performance was compared between conditions using mixed model analyses. Significant two-way interactions were found. At 04:00 h, SN displayed increased time spent in the safe zone ( < .001; percentage of time spent within 10 km/h of the speed limit and 0.8 m of lane center), and decreases in speed variability ( < .001), lane variability ( < .001), post-drive PVT-B lapses (defined as RT > 355 ms; < .001), and reaction time on the 2-choice reaction time task ( < .001) and running memory task ( < .001) compared to MN and NE. MN reported greater subjective sleepiness at 04:00 h ( < .001) compared to SN and NE. There was no difference in objective sleep between eating conditions. Eating a large meal during the nightshift impairs cognitive performance and sleepiness above the effects of time of night alone. For improved performance, shiftworkers should opt for a snack at night. 10.1080/07420528.2019.1676256
    Takeaway meal consumption and risk markers for coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity in children aged 9-10 years: a cross-sectional study. Donin Angela S,Nightingale Claire M,Owen Chris G,Rudnicka Alicja R,Cook Derek G,Whincup Peter H Archives of disease in childhood OBJECTIVE:To investigate associations between takeaway meal consumption and risk markers for coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity risk markers in children. DESIGN:A cross-sectional, school-based observational study. SETTING:85 primary schools across London, Birmingham and Leicester. PARTICIPANTS:1948 UK primary school children in year 5, aged 9-10 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Children reported their frequency of takeaway meal consumption, completed a 24-hour dietary recall, had physical measurements and provided a fasting blood sample. RESULTS:Among 1948 participants with complete data, 499 (26%) never/hardly ever consumed a takeaway meal, 894 (46%) did so <1/week and 555 (28%) did ≥1/week. In models adjusted for age, sex, month, school, ethnicity and socioeconomic status, more frequent takeaway meal consumption was associated with higher dietary intakes of energy, fat % energy and saturated fat % energy and higher energy density (all P trend <0.001) and lower starch, protein and micronutrient intakes (all P trend <0.05). A higher frequency of takeaway meal consumption was associated with higher serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P trend=0.04, 0.01, respectively); children eating a takeaway meal ≥1/week had total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol 0.09 mmol/L (95% CI 0.01 to 0.18) and 0.10 mmol/L (95% CI 0.02 to 0.18) higher respectively than children never/hardly ever eating a takeaway meal; their fat mass index was also higher. CONCLUSIONS:More frequent takeaway meal consumption in children was associated with unhealthy dietary nutrient intake patterns and potentially with adverse longer term consequences for obesity and coronary heart disease risk. 10.1136/archdischild-2017-312981
    "Doing a good thing for myself": a qualitative study of young adults' strategies for reducing takeaway food consumption. Grunseit Anne C,Cook Amelia S,Conti Janet,Gwizd Melissa,Allman-Farinelli Margaret BMC public health BACKGROUND:Increasingly the population is eating meals and snacks prepared outside the home, especially younger adults. Takeaway foods can be energy-dense, high in saturated fat and sodium, and deleterious to health. Extending studies examining the barriers to healthy eating, this paper explores strategies employed by young adults who report reducing consumption of unhealthy takeaway foods. METHODS:Young adults aged 18 to 35 years in paid employment were recruited to participate in eight semi-structured focus groups. In response to initial findings, recruitment for the final four groups refocused on participants who either wanted, were in the process of, or had changed their takeaway food habits. Focus group recordings were transcribed verbatim and coded by two researchers for recurrent themes using an inductive method. RESULTS:Forty-eight participants with a mean BMI of 23.4 kg/m and mean age of 25 years took part, of which 34 were female, and 27 were born outside Australia. Four broad strategies emerged: altering cognitions about consumption/reduction of takeaway food; practical changes to behaviours; finding external support; and, reconfiguring social events. In detail, participants cognitively recast takeaway food consumption as negative (expensive and unhealthy) and reducing consumption of such foods or consuming healthy alternatives as a (positive) self-care action. Setting goals and making personal rules around consumption, and consciously making practical changes, such as planning for food shopping, were other strategies. Externally derived support including supportive food environments and friends and family passively reduced exposure to unhealthy takeaway food. Finally, some participants actively created social environments supportive of healthy choices. CONCLUSIONS:Our participants reported strategies they believed led to them successfully reduce their takeaway food consumption by matching the attractions (e.g., convenience) and countering apparent disincentives for reducing consumption (e.g., losing a reward) of takeaway food. They reported eschewing more short-term rewards and costs, to prioritise their health, believing that avoiding these foods would benefit them personally and financially. The identified strategies are consistent with documented techniques for successful behaviour change and corresponded to all levels in the social-ecological model from intrapersonal factors to public policy. The findings could underpin health promotion strategies to support this at-risk group. 10.1186/s12889-019-6731-3
    Does rearranging meal times at night improve cardiovascular risk factors? An Australian pilot randomised trial in night shift workers. Leung Gloria K W,Davis Rochelle,Huggins Catherine E,Ware Robert S,Bonham Maxine P Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Shift workers face an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), type-2 diabetes and obesity. Eating during the night is a likely contributing factor, as it coincides with the time at which postprandial metabolism is least efficient. In this pilot randomised crossover trial, we examine the effects of a short overnight fast on CVD risk markers (primarily postprandial triglyceride and glucose response) of night shift workers. METHODS AND RESULTS:Night shift workers with abdominal obesity underwent 4-week intervention and control periods, separated by ≥ 2 weeks washout. In the intervention period, an overnight fast (0100 h-0600 h) was implemented, by redistributing 24-h energy intake. Usual dietary habits were followed in the control period. Outcomes between intervention and control were compared using mixed effects linear regression models. Nineteen adults completed the trial [13 females, mean (±SD) age 41 ± 10 years, BMI 30.7 ± 5.7 kg/m]. Postprandial triglyceride and glucose response post intervention were not different to post control. The overnight fast was well-tolerated by participants with an adherence rate of 95%, assessed by weekly 24-h dietary recalls. Exploratory analysis indicates lower mean body weight post intervention compared to post control (mean difference: -0.9 kg, 95% CI: -1.3 to -0.4). CONCLUSIONS:Night shift workers who habitually ate during their night shifts were able to rearrange their meal times to maintain a small overnight fast, which may have promoted small weight changes. This warrants further investigation into the role of meal timing in mitigating the metabolic consequences of night shift work. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (http://anzctr.org.au/) registered on the 30th May 2017 (ACTRN12617000791336). 10.1016/j.numecd.2021.03.008
    Association between Take-Out Food Consumption and Obesity among Chinese University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study. Jiang Yuhe,Wang Junbo,Wu Shaowei,Li Nan,Wang Yiming,Liu Jiarui,Xu Xinran,He Zonghan,Cheng Yawen,Zeng Xueqing,Wang Bingwei,Zhang Chenyu,Zhao Miao,Su Zhijie,Guo Bingbing,Yang Wenzhong,Zheng Ruimao International journal of environmental research and public health BACKGROUND:The frequency of take-out food consumption has increased rapidly among Chinese college students, which has contributed to high obesity prevalence. However, the relationships between take-out food consumption, body mass index (BMI), and other individual factors influencing eating behavior among college students are still unclear. This study explored the association of take-out food consumption with gender, BMI, physical activity, preference for high-fat and high-sugar (HFHS) food, major category, and degree level among Chinese college students. METHODS:Cross-sectional data were collected from 1220 college students in Beijing, China, regarding information about take-out food consumption, physical activity, and preference for HFHS food using a self-reported questionnaire. The logistic linear regression model was used to analyze the association between take-out food consumption and personal and lifestyle characteristics. RESULTS:Out of 1220 college students, 11.6% of college students were overweight or obese. Among the personal and lifestyle characteristics, high frequency of take-out food consumption was significantly associated with a non-medical major, high preference for HFHS food, degree level, and higher BMI, but not physical activity. CONCLUSION:Among Chinese college students, consumption of take-out food may be affected by major category, preference for HFHS food, degree level, and BMI. This could provide guidance on restrictions of high take-out food consumption, which contributes to high obesity prevalence and high risk for metabolic diseases. 10.3390/ijerph16061071
    Beyond emotion: online takeaway food consumption is associated with emotional overeating among Chinese college students. Zhang Yan,Hou Fangfang,Yang Songhao,Li Jiexue,Zha Xiaoli,Shen Guodong Eating and weight disorders : EWD BACKGROUND:Online takeaway food has become very popular in China. However, the potential effects of online takeaway food consumption on eating behaviours among individuals during the transition stage from adolescence to young adulthood have not yet been assessed. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to examine the effects of takeaway food consumption on emotional overeating behaviour among college students. METHODS:Data were collected from 1450 college students from six universities in Anhui, China. The frequency of emotional overeating during the past 4 weeks was assessed by the emotional overeating questionnaire (EOQ). Data on the frequency of online takeaway food consumption and other potential risk factors at the individual, interpersonal, physical environment, and macro-system levels were assessed by questionnaire. Multilevel linear regression analyses were employed to explore the association between takeaway food consumption and emotional overeating behaviour. RESULTS:Compared to those who consumed online takeaway food less than 1 day per week, participants who consumed this food 4-5 days per week and participants who consumed this food 6-7 days per week had significantly higher EOQ scores (β = 0.14, p < 0.05 and β = 0.67, p < 0.001, respectively). More frequent consumption was associated with higher EOQ scores (p for trend < 0.001). CONCLUSION:A higher frequency of takeaway food consumption was associated with an elevated risk of emotional overeating among college students independent of personal emotional status and other potential confounders at the interpersonal, physical environmental and macro-system levels. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level V; cross-sectional descriptive study. 10.1007/s40519-021-01224-2
    Association Between Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Meal Substitutes, Workload, and Obesity in Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Study. Lin Ting-Ti,Guo Yue Leon,Gordon Christopher,Cayanan Elizabeth,Chen Yi-Chuan,Ouyang Chung-Mei,Shiao Judith Shu-Chu International journal of environmental research and public health : High occupational stress has been associated with altered eating behaviors and obesity. Occupational stress is reported to be high in Asian countries. Furthermore, many Asian countries are increasingly consuming Western-type foods (e.g., incorporating drinks with meals) which collectively may also be contributing to obesity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine (a) associations between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption as meal replacement and obesity and (b) associations between workload and substituting meals with SSB in nurses. : A representative sample of 854 hospital-based nurses completed a structured questionnaire about SSB consumption, workload, and body mass index (BMI). Log binomial regression models were employed to test associations between SSBs and obesity rates and associations between workload and SSBs. : Most participants (57.6%) consumed SSBs as meal replacements during work. This was related to high workloads during shifts. Substituting SSBs for meals was significantly associated with increased likelihood of obesity (aPRR = 1.4, 95% CI (1.1, 1.7)). Workload was positively associated with SSB intake as meal substitutes (aPRR = 1.4, 95% CI (1.2, 1.6)). : Our findings show that SSBs are used as meal substitutes and is due to the workload demands. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is also positively associated with the increased likelihood of obesity. Interventions that modify workloads and decrease SSB consumption may improve workers' eating behaviors and health. 10.3390/ijerph16244984
    Type and density of independent takeaway outlets: a geographical mapping study in a low socioeconomic ward, Manchester. Blow Jennifer,Gregg Rebecca,Davies Ian G,Patel Sumaiya BMJ open OBJECTIVES:The socioeconomic disparity in childhood and early adult obesity prevalence has been well characterised. Takeaway outlets may cluster in lower socioeconomic areas and their proximity to schools is of concern. This study aimed to map takeaway food outlets, characterise takeaway types and their proximity to educational institutions within a low socioeconomic ward in Manchester. DESIGN:The Rusholme ward and a 2 km Euclidean buffer were included as the study area. Local authority Environmental Health data were used to map the takeaway outlets, using QGIS V.2.18.0 (OPENGIS.ch LLC, Einsiedeln, Switzerland). The types of takeaway outlets and major roads were included. Number of outlets within a 400 m Euclidean walking buffer of educational institutions were mapped. SETTING:Rusholme, Manchester, UK. RESULTS:Within the study area, 202 takeaway food outlets were identified and mapped as cluster points. Of these, 62.3% are located on major (A and B) roads, while the remaining outlets were located on minor roads. The majority (57.4%) of takeaway outlets sold similar items (fried chicken, burgers, pizzas, kebabs), with the remainder offering more diverse menus. Of the 53 schools, colleges and universities within the study area, 28 (52.8%) had 1-5 takeaway food outlets within 400 m, 9 (17.0%) had 6-10 outlets; 4 (7.5%) more than 11 outlets with 12 (22.6%) having zero outlets within 400 m. CONCLUSION:Within this low socioeconomic area, there was a high concentration of takeaway food outlets, predominantly along major roads and in easy walking distance of educational establishments with the majority offering similar foods. In addition, a high proportion of these outlets were in easy walking distance of educational establishments. Public health policy needs to consider the implications of current takeaway food outlets and not just the proliferation of these outlets with current planning laws. 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023554
    Takeaway food, sugar-sweetened beverages and preclinical cardiometabolic phenotypes in children and adults. Saraf Shweta,Grobler Anneke,Liu Richard S,Liu Mengjiao,Wake Melissa,Olds Tim,Lycett Kate,Juonala Markus,Ranganathan Sarath,Burgner David,Kerr Jessica A European journal of preventive cardiology AIMS:To investigate relationships between takeaway food and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption with cardiometabolic phenotypes during childhood and mid-adulthood. METHOD:Design: Cross-sectional Child Health CheckPoint within the national population-representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Participants: 1838 children (mean age 11.5 years; 49.1% female) and 1846 adults (mean age 43.7 years; 87.6% female). Exposures: Self-reported takeaway food and SSB consumption ('frequent': ≥ weekly). Outcomes: Functional (pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure (BP)) and structural (carotid intima-media thickness, retinal microvascular calibre) preclinical cardiovascular phenotypes; lipids (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides). Analysis: Linear regression (exposure: takeaway or SSB consumption, individually or together) adjusted for age, sex and socio-economic position; and mediation analysis for body mass index (BMI). RESULTS:Associations were small among children (standardized mean difference (SMD) ≤0.15). In adults, associations were stronger with functional, but not structural, cardiovascular phenotypes and lipids, particularly for frequent takeaway food consumption (e.g. PWV (0.20 m/s; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03 to 0.37); systolic (3.3 mmHg; 95% CI 1.3 to 5.3) and diastolic BP (1.4 mmHg; 95% CI 0.2 to 2.6); LDL (0.10 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.18); HDL (-0.14 mmol/L; 95% CI -0.19 to -0.10) and triglycerides (0.30 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.48)]. BMI mediated associations between takeaway food consumption and PWV, BP, HDL and TG (proportion of mediation 34% to 75%), while mediation effects were smaller for SSB consumption. CONCLUSIONS:Frequent takeaway food consumption in adults was associated with adverse blood lipids and vascular function (mainly via BMI). Lack of strong associations in children highlights opportunities for prevention. 10.1093/eurjpc/zwaa070
    Correlates of English local government use of the planning system to regulate hot food takeaway outlets: a cross-sectional analysis. Keeble Matthew,Adams Jean,White Martin,Summerbell Carolyn,Cummins Steven,Burgoine Thomas The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity BACKGROUND:Greater neighbourhood takeaway food outlet access has been associated with increased takeaway food consumption and higher body weight. National planning guidelines in England suggest that urban planning could promote healthier food environments through takeaway food outlet regulation, for example by restricting the proliferation of outlets near schools. It is unknown how geographically widespread this approach is, or local characteristics associated with its use. We aimed to address these knowledge gaps. METHODS:We used data from a complete review of planning policy documents adopted by local government areas in England (n = 325), which contained policies for the purpose of takeaway food outlet regulation. This review classified local government area planning policies as having a health (diet or obesity) or non-health focus. We explored geographical clustering of similar planning policies using spatial statistics. We used multinomial logistic regression models to investigate whether the odds of planning policy adoption varied according to local characteristics, for example the proportion of children with excess weight or the current number of takeaway food outlets. RESULTS:We observed clusters of local government areas with similar adopted planning policies in the North East, North West, and Greater London regions of England. In unadjusted logistic regression models, compared to local government areas with the lowest, those with highest proportion of 10-11 year olds with excess weight (OR: 25.31; 95% CI: 6.74, 94.96), and takeaway food outlet number (OR: 54.00; 95% CI: 6.17, 472.41), were more likely to have a health-focused planning policy, than none. In models adjusted for deprivation, relationships for excess weight metrics were attenuated. Compared to local government areas with the lowest, those with the highest takeaway food outlet number remained more likely to have a health-focused planning policy, than none (OR: 16.98; 95% CI: 1.44, 199.04). When local government areas were under Labour political control, predominantly urban, and when they had more geographically proximal and statistically similar areas in the same planning policy status category, they were also more likely to have health-focused planning policies. CONCLUSIONS:Planning policies for the purpose of takeaway food outlet regulation with a health focus were more likely in areas with greater numbers of takeaway food outlets and higher proportions of children with excess weight. Other characteristics including Labour political control, greater deprivation and urbanisation, were associated with planning policy adoption, as were the actions of similar and nearby local government areas. Further research should engage with local policymakers to explore the drivers underpinning use of this approach. 10.1186/s12966-019-0884-4
    [Associations between Takeaway Food Nutrients and Nutritional Literacy of Takeaway Platform Practitioners in Chengdu]. Duan Xiao Xia,Liao Yu Ting,Huang Jin Cheng,Zhang Xi,Dai Xue Mei,Zhou Jing,Yuan Ping Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae Objective To investigate the nutritional literacy levels of the takeaway platform practitioners in Chengdu,the takeaway food nutrients,and the correlation between them.Methods We employed a multi-stage random sampling method to investigate the nutritional literacy levels of 100 takeaway platform restaurants in the main urban area of Chengdu and examined the nutritional components of hot set meals in each restaurant.A questionnaire survey was conducted on the nutritional literacy levels of chefs and food matching staff.The correlations of nutrient energy supply rationality with nutritional literacy level and set meal price were then analyzed.Results The total pass rate of nutrition knowledge of chefs/food matching staff was 61.0%.Only 2.0% of the set meals had reasonable total energy supply.The set meals with reasonable energy supply of available carbohydrate,protein,and fat accounted for 3.0%,62.0%,and 21.0%,and those with over energy supply accounted for 97.0%,26.0%,and 73.0%,respectively.The rest set meals provided insufficient energy.There was a positive correlation between the nutritional literacy level and the rationality of protein energy supply(r=0.414,P=0.003).Conclusions The nutritional literacy levels of chefs/food matching staff of takeaway food restaurants in Chengdu are moderate.The hot set meals on the takeaway platform have the problem of excess energy supply.The nutrition knowledge of chefs/food matching staff cannot effectively satisfy rational nutrition matching.The nutritional literacy levels of chefs/food matching staff showed no significant correlation with the rationality of nutrient energy supply. 10.3881/j.issn.1000-503X.12530
    Effect of consuming a late-night high-protein/moderate-carbohydrate vs. low-protein/high-carbohydrate meal by night workers on their food perceptions later during the day: a randomized crossover study. Silva Catarina Mendes,Cunha Nayara Bernardes Da,Mota Maria Carliana,Marot Luisa Pereira,Teixeira Kely Raspante Cerqueira,Cunha Thulio Marquez,Crispim Cibele Aparecida Chronobiology international It is typical of night workers to consume a large dinner meal before their work shift, even though this practice may increase the risk for metabolic disorders. Night workers usually eat at night to socialize with colleagues as well as to stay alert and to avoid upset stomach during the night shift. However, little is known if and how the composition of the nighttime meal by night shift workers influences their food perceptions and eating behavior later during the day. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of a high-protein/moderate-carbohydrate (HP/MCHO) meal vs. low-protein/high-carbohydrate (LP/HCHO) meal eaten at night by night-shift workers on their food consumption and perceptions later during the day. Fourteen male night shift workers were followed-up for 7 days for their eating and sleep habits. Then, participants underwent two isocaloric dietary events - one event a HP/MCHO meal containing 45% carbohydrate, 35% protein, and 20% fat and the other event a LP/HCHO meal containing 65% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 20% fat, with a 6-day washout period between them - at 01:00 h during their night shift. Thereafter throughout the day, participants filled a food register of all the food consumed and perceptions, including hunger before meals, enjoyment of meals, and satiety. Generalized estimating equation analyses were used to examine the effect of both conditions on food consumption and food perceptions. Appetite for salty food snacks was greater after the HP/MCHO condition than after the LP/HCHO condition ( = .041). During the day following consumption of the nighttime HP/MCHO vs. LP/HCHO meal, there was higher percentage of carbohydrate consumption during lunch and a lower percentage of fat consumption during dinner (48.14% vs. 36.98% and 27.34% vs. 40.39%, respectively). These findings suggest the composition in terms of carbohydrates, protein, and fats of the meal consumed for the night shift by night workers may affect later during the day both food consumption and perceptions. 10.1080/07420528.2020.1807561
    Shift work and its relation with meal and snack patterns among healthcare workers. Hulsegge Gerben,Loef Bette,Benda Tessa,van der Beek Allard J,Proper Karin Ingeborg Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health Objective Unfavorable eating patterns might contribute to the adverse health effects of shift work. Our objective was to examine differences in meal and snack frequency, as well as the quality of snacks, between shift and day workers and between different types of shifts. Methods Cross-sectional data from 485 healthcare workers aged 18-65 years of the Klokwerk+ cohort study was used. Dietary intake was assessed using 3-day food diaries, and meals and snacks were classified by the food-based classification of eating episodes method. Using multivariable-adjusted regression analyses, we estimated differences in meal and snack frequency and the quality of snacks between shift and day workers. Within the shift working group, eating frequency on day, evening, and night shifts were compared to work-free days. Results Meal and snack frequency as well as the quality of snacks showed no significant differences between shift and day workers (P≥0.05). Shift workers had a higher frequency of high-quality snacks [β 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12-0.46] and a lower frequency of low-quality snacks (β -0.29, 95% CI -0.49- -0.09) on evening shifts compared to their work-free days. Compared to work-free days, shift workers had a higher frequency of high-quality snacks on days shifts (β 0.24, 95% CI 0.10-0.38), and only those aged ≤40 years had a higher frequency of snacks on night shifts (β 0.53, 95% CI 0.06-1.00) (interaction by age P<0.05). Conclusion This study observed no differences between day and shift workers either in meal and snack frequency or in the quality of snacks. However, snacking patterns differed across shifts. Future research should investigate whether these snacking patterns contribute to the adverse health effects of shift work. 10.5271/sjweh.3829
    Acute effects of night work and meals on blood glucose levels. Aarrebo Jensen Marie,Hansen Åse Marie,Sallerup Mette,Odgaard Nielsen Nina,Schlünssen Vivi,Helene Garde Anne Chronobiology international Employees working at night are at increased risk of diabetes. A possible mechanism is related to differences in glucose regulation at night. Laboratory simulated night work studies show regulation of blood glucose is impaired at night. Regular exposure to high glucose levels at night may explain the observed relationship between night work and diabetes. We performed a field study of 19 nonsmoking women from the health-care sector to investigate how night work and the composition of meals affect post-prandial blood glucose levels. Blood glucose levels were self-assessed by finger-prick blood sampling using the Beurer blood glucose monitoring system. Measurements were done before and 15, 30, 60, and 120 min after different test meals: a nighttime high sugar meal during a night shift and during a day shift, and a reference (low sugar) meal under these same two conditions. There was a statistically significant difference in blood glucose concentration between the four test meal conditions ( = .0086). Post-meal blood glucose levels following the night-shift meals, compared to following daytime meals, rose faster and remained elevated for longer a duration of time. At the 15 min time point following the high sugar test meal, the blood glucose concentration was 8.3 mmol/L when consumed at night vs. 7.3 mmol/L when consumed during the day. We found no difference in area under the blood glucose concentration-time curve (AUC) after consumption of the high or low sugar test meals during the night shift compared with consumption of them during the day. Our findings indicate the glucose levels in response to food intake by female night working healthcare assistants are higher following the nighttime compared with daytime consumption of a high sugar content meal. However, we did not find a difference in total glucose exposure across time (assessed as AUC) after eating a high vs. low sugar meal during the night shift. 10.1080/07420528.2020.1824671