Lammert Frank,Gurusamy Kurinchi,Ko Cynthia W,Miquel Juan-Francisco,Méndez-Sánchez Nahum,Portincasa Piero,van Erpecum Karel J,van Laarhoven Cees J,Wang David Q-H
Nature reviews. Disease primers
Gallstones grow inside the gallbladder or biliary tract. These stones can be asymptomatic or symptomatic; only gallstones with symptoms or complications are defined as gallstone disease. Based on their composition, gallstones are classified into cholesterol gallstones, which represent the predominant entity, and bilirubin ('pigment') stones. Black pigment stones can be caused by chronic haemolysis; brown pigment stones typically develop in obstructed and infected bile ducts. For treatment, localization of the gallstones in the biliary tract is more relevant than composition. Overall, up to 20% of adults develop gallstones and >20% of those develop symptoms or complications. Risk factors for gallstones are female sex, age, pregnancy, physical inactivity, obesity and overnutrition. Factors involved in metabolic syndrome increase the risk of developing gallstones and form the basis of primary prevention by lifestyle changes. Common mutations in the hepatic cholesterol transporter ABCG8 confer most of the genetic risk of developing gallstones, which accounts for ∼25% of the total risk. Diagnosis is mainly based on clinical symptoms, abdominal ultrasonography and liver biochemistry tests. Symptoms often precede the onset of the three common and potentially life-threatening complications of gallstones (acute cholecystitis, acute cholangitis and biliary pancreatitis). Although our knowledge on the genetics and pathophysiology of gallstones has expanded recently, current treatment algorithms remain predominantly invasive and are based on surgery. Hence, our future efforts should focus on novel preventive strategies to overcome the onset of gallstones in at-risk patients in particular, but also in the population in general.
Association Between Screen-Detected Gallstone Disease and Cancer in a Cohort Study.
Shabanzadeh Daniel Mønsted,Sørensen Lars Tue,Jørgensen Torben
BACKGROUND & AIMS:Knowledge of temporal associations between screen-detected gallstone disease and specific cancers is limited. The objective of this study was to determine if screen-detected gallstones or cholecystectomy are associated with occurrence of gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal cancers. METHODS:We performed a cohort study of 3 randomly selected groups from the general population of Copenhagen. Participants (N = 5928) were examined from 1982 through 1992 and underwent abdominal ultrasound examination to detect gallstone disease, but were not informed of their gallstone status. Participants were followed for the occurrence of cancers through national registers until December 2014. We performed multivariable Cox regression analyses to identify factors associated with development of cancer. RESULTS:Gallstone disease was identified in 10% of participants (591 of 5928); of these, 6.8% had gallstones and 3.2% had cholecystectomy at baseline. The population was followed for a median of 24.7 years (interquartile range, 18.9-32.4 years) with 1% lost. Pooled gastrointestinal cancers were associated with gallstone disease (11.2% of patients with gallstone disease vs 6.64% without; hazard ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.01). Right-side colon cancer was also associated with gallstone disease (2.57% of patients with gallstone disease vs 0.96% without; hazard ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-3.78). Pancreatic, esophageal, gastric, pooled colorectal, left-side colon, sigmoid colon, and rectal cancers were not associated with gallstone disease. Breast cancer had a weak association with gallstone disease depending on other factors (10.6% of patients with gallstone disease vs 7.41% without; hazard ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-2.11). Pooled nongastrointestinal and prostate cancers were not associated with gallstone disease. CONCLUSIONS:Screen-detected gallstone disease in the general population is associated with pooled gastrointestinal and right-side colon cancers. These associations are not due to detection bias or cholecystectomy. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanism of this association.
Obesity Not Necessary, Risk of Symptomatic Cholelithiasis Increases as a Function of BMI.
Kharga Bikram,Sharma Barun Kumar,Singh Varun Kumar,Nishant Kumar,Bhutia Phuchungla,Tamang Roshan,Jain Nitin
Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR
INTRODUCTION:Obesity is a well-established risk factor for cholelithiasis. But most of the studies have actually tried to establish the risk of cholelithiasis in overweight and obese people. Very few studies have addressed the issue of cholelithiasis in patients with otherwise normal Body Mass Index (BMI). In this study we have tried to establish if there is any relationship between increasing BMI and cholelithiasis. AIM:To establish a relationship between increasing BMI and risk of cholelithiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Retrospective analysis was carried out after doing a prospective pilot study. Ten years data of patients admitted to surgery ward with complaints of pain abdomen was reviewed. Patients with cholelithiasis were segregated as cases and patients with some other diagnosis were selected as controls. Patients with incidental diagnosis of cholelithiasis were excluded. Appropriate analytical tools were used to draw the results using SPSS 20. RESULTS:Over 11,000 patients data was reviewed and 7,182 patients were selected for inclusion into the study. Major exclusion was due to incomplete availability of data. Cholelithiasis group had 2,872 patients and rest of the patients served as controls against them. Female patients outnumbered their male counterparts in cholelithiasis group. Mean age of the gallstone patients was 37.09 years, almost 2 years younger than their controls. Mean BMI of all patients was 23.55 kg/m and in cholelithiasis and control group was 24.93 and 22.62, respectively (df=1, F>1635.395, p<0.001). Gender specific comparison also yielded a significant difference df=3, F=547.238, p<0.001). The difference in the way the patients were distributed among the ethnic groups (Nepalis, Bhutias, Lepchas and others) was also significant (df=3, F=34.234, p<0.001). Most important outcome was that the majority of the patients in the cholelithiasis group were within the normal BMI range. CONCLUSION:We concluded that it's not only the overweight or obese patients who develop symptomatic cholelithiasis but also the individuals with normal BMI. The risk of symptomatic cholelithiasis increases with every increase in BMI. Risk of symptomatic cholelithiasis also increases in women and as the age advances.
[Evaluation of prognostic factors for the development of cholelithiasis in patients with metabolic syndrome].
Gaus O V,Akhmedov V A
Eksperimental'naia i klinicheskaia gastroenterologiia = Experimental & clinical gastroenterology
UNLABELLED:The aim of study to determine the leading clinical and immunological parameters, reflecting the high risk of development and progression of gallstone disease in patients with metabolic syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS:An assessment of clinical, biochemical and immunological parameters in 54 patients with gallstone disease associated with the metabolic syndrome and in comparison groups (31 with metabolic syndrome without gallstone disease and 29 with gallstone disease only) were made. For modeling the significant correlation and prediction of the effect of different combinations of factors on the risk of gallstone disease formation in patients with metabolic syndrome was used the multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS:In accordance with our results the main risk factors of gallstone formation in patients with metabolic syndrome are the age (P = 0.02), waist volume (P = 0.0002), the increase of serum concentration of GGTP (P = 0.00001), MMP-9 (P = 0.002) and TIMP-1 (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION:The results of our study have shown that in patients with metabolic syndrome was estimated the high risk of gallstone disease formation compared and the most significant factors of it formation are the patients age, waist volume and increase of serum concentration of GGTP, MMP-9 and TIMP-1.
Prevalence of Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus Among Patients with Cholelithiasis: A Single-centered, Cross-sectional Study.
Ali Sidra,Ahamad Shaik Tanveer,Talpur Abdul Subhan,Parajuli Shreeya,Farooq Jawad
Introduction Gallstone disease (GD) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the west and most of the countries worldwide. Cholelithiasis and diseases of the biliary tract are becoming more prevalent with the socioeconomic burden in developing countries like Pakistan. GD is a chronic, recurrent hepatobiliary disease, the basis of which is the impaired metabolism of cholesterol, bilirubin, and bile acids, which is characterized by the formation of gallstones in the hepatic bile duct, common bile duct, or gallbladder. Epidemiologic studies have shown that individuals with diabetes have a higher risk of cholelithiasis but only a few studies have been done in Pakistan to establish the association so far. Hence, the aim of the present study is to establish the association between diabetes and gallstone disease. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at Liaquat University Civil Hospital, Hyderabad, Pakistan, between February 2017 and August 2017. Patients between the ages of 10 and 70 from either sex, who were diagnosed with cholelithiasis were included in this study whereas those patients who underwent cholecystectomy previously were excluded. Diabetic cases were identified based on fasting glucose levels (FGL) and the serum levels of HbA1c. An interview-based questionnaire was employed to collect the patient's demographic profile and risk factors by the students. Informed consent was taken from all the study subjects and the confidentiality of the data was ensured. Results From the sample size of patients evaluated (a total of 204), based on investigative studies performed, 74 cholelithiatic patients (36.6%) were found to concurrently have diabetes as well. Among the 74 patients with both cholelithiasis and diabetes type-2 (NIDDM), 56 were female and 18 were males. The rest of the patients with cholelithiasis were found to be non-diabetic (78 were males and 52 female). The majority of the GD patients (51 (25 males and 26 females)) in the study sample was in the 50-60 age group. The mean age of the patients was 43 ± 12.1. In this study, we measured the fasting glucose levels (FGL). According to World Health Organization (WHO) and American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria, we categorized 85 of the GD patients to be non-diabetic with serum fasting glucose levels between 70 and 100 gm/dL, and 45 patients were categorized to be in the pre-diabetic group with FGL levels between 100 and 126. Out of the 204 samples with GD, we found that 74 patients have diabetes, with serum FGL >126mg/dL. We measured HbA1c from each individual in the study sample. It was found that 79 patients had HbA1c levels <5.5, they are categorised as non-diabetic according to WHO and ADA criteria, 51 patients had values between 5.5 and 6.5 (pre-diabetic), and 35 GD patients had HbA1c values between 6.5 and 7.5 (categorized as diabetics with good control) and 39 patients with HbA1c above 7.5 (diabetes with poor control). Conclusion In this study, we concluded that there is a higher prevalence of NIDDM in GD patients and there is an association between GD and NIDDM. This study also reiterated the association between obesity and GD. Female sex and advancing age also contribute to the formation of cholelethiasis. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption further worsen cholelithiasis but are not established primary risk factors.
Low phospholipid-associated cholestasis and cholelithiasis.
Clinics and research in hepatology and gastroenterology
Low phospholipid-associated cholestasis and cholelithiasis (LPAC) is a genetic disorder characterized by cholesterol gallbladder and intrahepatic stones. It is caused by a mutation of the gene ABCB4, which encodes the canalicular protein ABCB4/MDR3, a flippase that plays an essential role in the secretion of phosphatidylcholine into bile. Failure of this protein leads to secretion of bile that is poor in phospholipids and, hence, highly lithogenic, with potent detergent properties. This, in turn, leads to cholangiocyte luminal membrane injury and biliary lesions causing cholestasis. The diagnosis should be suspected when at least two of the following criteria are present: onset of symptoms before the age of 40 years; recurrence of biliary symptoms (biliary colic, jaundice, cholangitis, acute pancreatitis) after cholecystectomy; presence of echogenic foci within the liver indicative of intrahepatic stones or biliary sludge; previous episode(s) of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy; and family history of gallstones in first-degree relatives. Intrahepatic stones can be demonstrated by ultrasonography with color Doppler examination, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging with magnetic resonance cholangiography, and the diagnosis confirmed by ABCB4 genotyping. Therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid offers prompt relief of symptoms and usually prevents complications. In some cases, however, surgery may be necessary.
[Cholelithiasis as a possible manifestation of systemic digestive diseases].
Vakhrushev Ya M,Gorbunov A Yu,Tronina D V,Suchkova E V,Lyapina M V,Khokhlacheva N A
AIM:To comprehensively study of the function of digestive organs in cholelithiasis (CL). SUBJECTS AND METHODS:Three hundred and seventeen patients with the early (prestone) stage of CL were examined. The latter was verified by ultrasonography (USG) and biochemical bile tests. The patients underwent pH metry and esophagogastroduodenoscopy, followed by histological examination of gastroduodenal mucosa (GDM) biopsy specimens. Manometry was used to evaluate duodenal function. The serum levels of pepsinogen-1 (PG-1), pepsinogen-2 (PG-2), cholecystokinin (CCK), gastrin, cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP), α1-antitrypsin, insulin, and C-peptide were analyzed by an enzyme immunoassay. Small intestinal function was examined using a set of diagnostic tests. RESULTS:Gallbladder USG revealed biliary sludge in 273 (86.1%) patients. Biochemical examination of bile established a lower cholatocholesterol coefficient in its cystic as well as hepatic portions, suggesting enhanced bile lithogenicity. Manometry of the duodenum showed its hypertension, hypotension, and normotension in 57.6, 24.8, and 17.6% of the CL patients, respectively. There were significant increases in basal gastric body pH and PG-1 and PG-2 levels as compared to the control group. Morphological examination of GDM biopsy specimens revealed chronic superficial gastritis in 61.8% of the patients, chronic atrophic gastritis in 17.4%, and moderate diffuse duodenitis in 18.3%. In 148 (46.7%) patients with CL, the latter was burdened by pancreatic comorbidity. Stress tests using water-soluble starch, sucrose, and glucose demonstrated impairments in various stages of digestion; substantially decreased levels of CCK, gastrin and cyclic nucleotides were observed in the patients with CL compared to the controls. CONCLUSION:Most patients with CL were detected to have digestive organ structural and functional disorders. Moreover, CL may be regarded as a possible manifestation of systemic digestive diseases.
[The early postoperative rehabilitation of the patients presenting with cholelithiasis and experiencing psychoemotional stress].
Poddubnaia O A,Marsheva S I
Voprosy kurortologii, fizioterapii, i lechebnoi fizicheskoi kultury
Early postoperative rehabilitation of the patients presenting with cholelithiasis and experiencing psychoemotional stress is designed to restore the function of bile secretion, enhance their adaptive capabilities, and normalize the psychovegetative status for the purpose of preventing further progress of the disease and reducing the risk of the development of post-cholecystectomy syndrome. The inclusion of drinking mineral water, magnetic laser therapy, and UHF therapy in the combined rehabilitative treatment of such patients results in the appreciable enhancement of all functional abilities of the body manifest as the significant improvement and normalization of clinical and laboratory characteristics (elimination of clinical symptoms of the disease, improvement of general and biochemycal parameters of peripheral blood). Simultaneously, the adaptive capabilities and the psychovegetative status of the patients improved as apparent from the increased lymphocyte count, normalization of the Kerdo and Hildebrandt indices and indices of stress level, decreased psychoemotional stress, enhancement of physical functioning characteristics. Taken together, these changes account for the high effectiveness of the above procedures of early postoperative rehabilitation of the patients presenting with cholelithiasisand experiencing psychoemotional stress (94.7%).
[Abdominal pain syndrome and quality of life in patients with cholelithiasis after cholecystectomy during a 10-year follow-up].
Makarova Yu V,Litvinova N V,Osipenko M F,Voloshina N B
AIM:To estimate the incidence of abdominal pain syndrome (APS) and to assess quality of life (QOL) in patients within 10 years after cholecystectomy (CE). SUBJECTS AND METHODS:This investigation is part of a long-term prospective follow-up study of patients after CE for cholelithiasis (CL). It enrolled 145 people: 30 (21.5%) patients with baseline asymptomatic CL and 115 (80.7%) with its clinical manifestations. The time course of changes in APS and QOL were analyzed. RESULTS:Over 10 years, all the patients showed a decrease in the incidence of APS from 84.1% (n=95) to 66.4% (n=75; p=0.004). In Group 1 (n=89), APS was at baseline detected in all the patients; 10 years later, its incidence declined to 67.4% (n=60; p < 0.001). Biliary pains were predominant; these had been identified significantly less frequently over the 10-year period in 47 (52.8%) patients; p<0.001). In Group 2 (n=24), pre-CE APS was generally detected in 6 (25%) patients; following 10 years, the incidence rates of pain significantly increased to 62.5% (n=15; p=0.035), among which there were predominant biliary pains (in 54.2%; p<0.001) and dyspepsia from 33.3% (n=8) up to 66.7% (n=16; p=0.039). QOL in the physical and mental health domains was found to decrease in both groups. CONCLUSION:Ten years after CE, the group with the baseline clinical manifestations of CL and poorer QOL showed a lower incidence of APS mainly due to the reduced incidence of biliary pains and the baseline asymptomatic group exhibited a rise in the incidence of APS due to the appearance of biliary pains and dyspepsia.
History of cholelithiasis and cancer risk in a network of case-control studies.
Tavani A,Rosato V,Di Palma F,Bosetti C,Talamini R,Dal Maso L,Zucchetto A,Levi F,Montella M,Negri E,Franceschi S,La Vecchia C
Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
BACKGROUND:We analyzed the relationship between cholelithiasis and cancer risk in a network of case-control studies conducted in Italy and Switzerland in 1982-2009. METHODS:The analyses included 1997 oropharyngeal, 917 esophageal, 999 gastric, 23 small intestinal, 3726 colorectal, 684 liver, 688 pancreatic, 1240 laryngeal, 6447 breast, 1458 endometrial, 2002 ovarian, 1582 prostate, 1125 renal cell, 741 bladder cancers, and 21 284 controls. The odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS:The ORs for subjects with history of cholelithiasis compared with those without were significantly elevated for small intestinal (OR=3.96), prostate (OR=1.36), and kidney cancers (OR=1.57). These positive associations were observed ≥10 years after diagnosis of cholelithiasis and were consistent across strata of age, sex, and body mass index. No relation was found with the other selected cancers. A meta-analysis including this and three other studies on the relation of cholelithiasis with small intestinal cancer gave a pooled relative risk of 2.35 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.82-3.03]. CONCLUSION:In subjects with cholelithiasis, we showed an appreciably increased risk of small intestinal cancer and suggested a moderate increased risk of prostate and kidney cancers. We found no material association with the other cancers considered.
Cholelithiasis, cholecystectomy and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis.
Guo Lingyun,Mao Jie,Li Yumin,Jiao Zuoyi,Guo Jiwu,Zhang Junqiang,Zhao Jun
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
Available evidence of the relationship between cholelithiasis, cholecystectomy, and risk of liver cancer and hence we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the relationships. PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched to identify all published cohort studies and case-control studies that evaluated the relationships of cholelithiasis, cholecystectomy and risk of liver cancer and single-cohort studies which evaluated the incidence of liver cancer among patients who understood cholecystectomy (up to February 2013). Comprehensive meta-analysis software was used for meta-analysis. A total of 11 observational studies (six cohort studies and five case-control studies) were included in this meta-analysis. The result from meta-analysis showed that cholecystectomy (risk ratio [RR]: 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-2.51, I2=72%) and cholecystolithiasis (RR: 5.40, 95% CI: 3.69-7.89, I2=93%) was associated with more liver cancer, especially for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) (cholecystectomy: RR: 3.51, 95% CI: 1.84-6.71, I2=26%; cholecystolithiasis: RR: 11.06, 95% CI: 6.99-17.52, I2=0%). The pooled standardized incidence rates (SIR) of liver cancer in patients who understood cholecystectomy showed cholecystectomy might increase the incidence of liver cancer (SIR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.13-2.20, I2=15%). Based on the results of the meta-analysis, cholecystectomy and cholecystolithiasis seemed to be involved in the development of liver cancer, especially for ICC. However, most available studies were case-control studies and short-term cohort studies, so the future studies should more long-term cohort studies should be well-conducted to evaluate the long-term relationship.
Patient-reported outcomes of symptomatic cholelithiasis patients following cholecystectomy after at least 5 years of follow-up: a long-term prospective cohort study.
Lamberts Mark P,Den Oudsten Brenda L,Keus Frederik,De Vries Jolanda,van Laarhoven Cornelis J H M,Westert Gert P,Drenth Joost P H,Roukema Jan A
BACKGROUND:Up to 41% of patients report pain after cholecystectomy and in most studies follow-up for these symptoms did not exceed 5 years. The episodic nature of abdominal pain associated with symptomatic cholelithiasis warrants long-term follow-up studies. We assessed which patient and surgical factors were associated with absence of pain and patient-reported success of surgery after ≥ 5 years of follow-up. METHODS:Patients of ≥ 18 years of age with symptomatic cholelithiasis, classified as ASA I or II, who had previously returned a preoperative questionnaire were sent a questionnaire consisting of the gastrointestinal quality of life index (GIQLI) and patient ratings of current versus presurgical abdominal symptoms and of surgery result. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine associations. RESULTS:Questionnaires were sent to 197 patients and returned by 126 (64.0%) patients (73.8 % female, mean age at surgery 47.5 ± 12.2 years) at a mean of 10.0 ± 1.0 years after cholecystectomy. Absence of abdominal pain was reported by 60.3% of the patients. Patients classified as ASA II as opposed to ASA I were less likely to report absence of pain (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.17-0.99). A positive rating of long-term postsurgical versus presurgical abdominal symptoms was given by 89.7% of the patients and 90.5% considered the cholecystectomy result to be good. No variables were significantly associated with these latter two outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS:We found a high patient-reported surgery success rate after >5 years of follow-up after cholecystectomy despite residual abdominal pain in some of these patients. None of the patient and surgery-related characteristics were consistently associated with all three outcome measures. This discrepancy between patient' outcomes highlights the need for realistic expectations prior to cholecystectomy.
[Specific features of impaired intestinal digestion, absorption, and microbiocenosis in patients with cholelithiasis].
Vakhrushev Ya M,Lukashevich A P
AIM:To perform a comprehensive study of intestinal digestion, absorption, and microbiocenosis in various stages of cholelithiasis (CL). SUBJECTS AND METHODS:A total of 76 patients with of CL, including 44 patients with its Stage I and 32 patients with Stage II, were examined. Mono-, di - and polysaccharide load tests and a scatological study were performed to evaluate the processes of digestion and absorption in the intestine. The hydrogen breath test using lactulose was carried out to study small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). The state of colon microbiocenosis was determined by plating feces onto various selective nutrient media. RESULTS:All digestive process stages in the small intestine were noted to be impaired in CL. In Stage I CL, cavitary digestion was mainly impaired; in Stage II, all digestive and absorptive processes were abnormal. Scatological examination in patients with Stage I CL revealed steatorrhea in 79.5%, creatorrhea in 75%, and amylorrhea in 36.4%. In Stage II CL, digestive and absorptive disorders progressed. SIBO was detected in 68.5% whereas in 70% of cases, it was located in the distal small intestine in the presence of insufficiency of the ileocecal sphincter apparatus. A regularity was found between the severity of SIBO and impaired small intestinal cavitary digestion. SIBO was more common in the pre-gallstone stage of CL than in its gallstone stage. Dysbiosis of the colon was detected in 100% of the examined patients with CL; moreover, as the latter progressed, dysbiosis worsened. CONCLUSION:There is new information about impaired intestinal digestion and microbiocenosis in patients with CL.
Review of the impact of antineoplastic therapies on the risk for cholelithiasis and acute cholecystitis.
Jayakrishnan Thejus T,Groeschl Ryan T,George Ben,Thomas James P,Clark Gamblin T,Turaga Kiran K
Annals of surgical oncology
BACKGROUND:Development of cholecystitis in patients with malignancies can potentially disrupt their treatment and alter prognosis. This review aims to identify antineoplastic interventions associated with increased risk of cholecystitis in cancer patients. METHODS:A comprehensive search strategy was developed to identify articles pertaining to risk factors and complications of cholecystitis in cancer patients. FDA-issued labels of novel antineoplastic drugs released after 2010 were hand-searched to identify more therapies associated with cholecystitis in nonpublished studies. RESULTS:Of an initial 2,932 articles, 124 were reviewed in the study. Postgastrectomy patients have a high (5-30 %) incidence of gallstone disease, and 1-7 % develop symptomatic disease. One randomized trial addressing the role of cholecystectomy concurrent with gastrectomy is currently underway. Among other risk groups, patients with neuroendocrine tumors treated with somatostatin analogs have a 15 % risk of cholelithiasis, and most are symptomatic. Hepatic artery based therapies carry a risk of cholecystitis (0.02-24 %), although the risk is reduced with selective catheterization. Myelosuppression related to chemotherapeutic agents (0.4 %), bone marrow transplantation, and treatment with novel multikinase inhibitors are associated with high risk of cholecystitis. CONCLUSIONS:There are several risk factors for gallbladder-related surgical emergencies in patients with advanced malignancies. Incidental cholecystectomy at index operation should be considered in patients planned for gastrectomy, and candidates for regional therapies to the liver or somatostatin analogs. While prophylactic cholecystectomy is currently recommended for patients with cholelithiasis receiving myeloablative therapy, this strategy may have value in patients treated with multikinase inhibitors, immunotherapy, and oncolytic viral therapy based on evolving evidence.
Cholesterol cholelithiasis: part of a systemic metabolic disease, prone to primary prevention.
Di Ciaula Agostino,Wang David Q-H,Portincasa Piero
Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology
INTRODUCTION:Cholesterol gallstone disease have relationships with various conditions linked with insulin resistance, but also with heart disease, atherosclerosis, and cancer. These associations derive from mechanisms active at a local (i.e. gallbladder, bile) and a systemic level and are involved in inflammation, hormones, nuclear receptors, signaling molecules, epigenetic modulation of gene expression, and gut microbiota. Despite advanced knowledge of these pathways, the available therapeutic options for symptomatic gallstone patients remain limited. Therapy includes oral litholysis by the bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in a small subgroup of patients at high risk of postdissolution recurrence, or laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which is the therapeutic radical gold standard treatment. Cholecystectomy, however, may not be a neutral event, and potentially generates health problems, including the metabolic syndrome. Areas covered: Several studies on risk factors and pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstone disease, acting at a systemic level have been reviewed through a PubMed search. Authors have focused on primary prevention and novel potential therapeutic strategies. Expert commentary: The ultimate goal appears to target the manageable systemic mechanisms responsible for gallstone occurrence, pointing to primary prevention measures. Changes must target lifestyles, as well as experimenting innovative pharmacological tools in subgroups of patients at high risk of developing gallstones.
[Features of vegetative dysfunction development in patients with cholelithiasis before and after cholecystectomy].
Taiutina T V,Bagmet A D,Ruban A P,Nedoruba E A,Kobzar' O N
Eksperimental'naia i klinicheskaia gastroenterologiia = Experimental & clinical gastroenterology
UNLABELLED:The aim of the present study was a comprehensive study of the features autonomic nervous system in cholelithiasis before and after cholecystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS:88 patients aged 40 to 60 years. 55 patients with cholelithiasis before and after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CE). Control group consisted of 33 patients of similar age and gender. To investigate the function of the autonomic nervous system were evaluated themes complaint history, physical examination data, and used less Tod mathematical analysis of cardiac rhythm by Baevsky RM using the author's computer-related programs "Korveg" with the definition of heart rate variability and table--Solovevoj Wayne. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:The study of autonomic provision in rest and during exercise were increased sympathetic activity, exceeding those in the control group. Studies indicate a tendency to sympathicotonia patients with gall stones before and after cholecystectomy, which is enhanced adaptive compensatory mechanisms to maintain homeostasis in the body. Identify logical connections between clinical and autonomic indicators will predict flow pattern cholelithiasis before and after cholecystectomy, as well as pick individual therapy for each patient taking into account the autonomic features that can be widely used in practical medicine--not.
Evaluation of leptin and insulin resistance in patients with cholelithiasis.
Atamer Aytaç,Ovünç Ayşe Oya Kurdaş,Yeşil Atakan,Atamer Yildiz
Indian journal of biochemistry & biophysics
The association between insulin resistance, lipoproteins and leptin was evaluated in cholelithiasis. The study group included 55 women (68.8%) and 25 men (31.3%) with a mean age and SD of 50.56 +/- 14.28 yrs. The control group included 25 women (62.5%) and 15 men (37.5%) with a mean age of 50.93 +/- 11.73 yrs. Serum leptin levels were measured by the enzyme immunoassay method. HOMA-IR was determined by using fasting glucose and insulin levels. Insulin, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, HOMA-IR (p < 0.01) and leptin (p < 0.001) were significantly higher in the cholelithiasis group, compared to the controls. In patients with a HOMA-IR >2.2, age, body mass index (BMI), glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG), TC and leptin levels were higher than in patients with a HOMA-IR < 2.2. In patients with glucose levels >100 mg/dl, mean BMI, HOMA-IR, insulin, TG, TC and leptin levels were significantly higher than in patients with glucose levels <100 mg/dl. In patients with TG levels >150 mg/dl, mean age, BMI, glucose, insulin, TC, leptin and HOMA-IR were significantly higher than in patients with TG levels < 150 mg/dl. In patients with BMI > 25 kg/m2, mean age, glucose, insulin, TG, TC, leptin, HOMA-IR were significantly higher than in patients with BMI < 25. In cholelithiasis group, there was a positive correlation between leptin and age, BMI, glucose, insulin, TG, TC, LDL-C or HOMA-IR. In conclusion, we found a positive association between increased leptin levels and abnormal lipoprotein metabolism in cholelithiasis. Cholelithiasis subjects with insulin resistance showed higher cardiometabolic risk factors than those without it.
Cholelithiasis and risk of pancreatic cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 observational studies.
Gong Yuanfeng,Li Siying,Tang Yunqiang,Mai Cong,Ba Mingchen,Jiang Peng,Tang Hui
Cancer causes & control : CCC
PURPOSE:To investigate the association between cholelithiasis and risk of pancreatic cancer (PaC). METHODS:We identified eligible studies in MEDLINE and EMBASE up to August 1, 2013 and the reference lists of original studies and review articles on this topic. Summary relative risks (SRRs) with their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with a random-effects model. RESULTS:Twenty-one studies (15 case-control studies, 6 cohort studies) met eligibility criteria. The current data suggest that cholelithiasis is associated with a 25 % excess risk of PaC (SRRs = 1.25, 95 % CI 1.10-1.41; test for heterogeneity p = 0.006, I (2) = 47.6 %). In subgroup analysis of timing of exposure, seven of eight studies in patients whose diagnosis of cholelithiasis made more than specified year (5, 3, 2, or 1 year) prior to cancer diagnosis showed no association for PaC, while all three studies in patients diagnosed less than specified year before cancer diagnosis showed a positive association. There was no publication bias in the present meta-analysis. CONCLUSION:This meta-analysis supports the hypothesis that a history of cholelithiasis may significantly increase PaC risk, particularly in Asian countries. However, the positive association disappeared over time, suggesting that cholelithiasis may be the early symptoms of PaC.
Symptomatic cholelithiasis and functional disorders of the biliary tract.
Cafasso Danielle E,Smith Richard R
The Surgical clinics of North America
Symptomatic cholelithiasis and functional disorders of the biliary tract present with similar signs and symptoms. The functional disorders of the biliary tract include functional gallbladder disorder, dyskinesia, and the sphincter of Oddi disorders. Although the diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis are relatively straightforward, the diagnosis and treatment of functional disorders can be much more challenging. Many aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of functional disorders are in need of further study. This article discusses uncomplicated gallstone disease and the functional disorders of the biliary tract to emphasize and update the essential components of diagnosis and management.
Total bilirubin trend as a predictor of common bile duct stones in acute cholecystitis and symptomatic cholelithiasis.
Gillaspie Devin B,Davis Kimberly A,Schuster Kevin M
American journal of surgery
BACKGROUND:We hypothesized that trends in total bilirubin in the context of cholecystitis and symptomatic cholelithiasis could be used to guide testing for the presence of common bile duct stones (CBDS). METHODS:A review of adult patients with acute cholecystitis or biliary colic with elevated total bilirubin and at least two levels drawn prior to procedural intervention was performed. Trends of total bilirubin and other serum makers were examined to predict the presence of CBDS. RESULTS:The total bilirubin level at presentation, average over 24 h and average over 48 h (3.74 mg/dl vs. 2.29 mg/dl, p = 0.005; 3.72 mg/dl vs. 2.40 mg/dl, p = 0.009; 2.41 mg/dl vs. 1.47 mg/dl, p < 0.001) respectively, were all higher in those with CBDS. However, prediction was not improved by following levels over time. CONCLUSION:Patients presenting with elevated serum bilirubin, should undergo immediate imaging or procedural intervention rather than obtaining follow-up bilirubin levels.
Cholelithiasis and the risk of liver cancer: results from cohort studies of 134,546 Chinese men and women.
Vogtmann Emily,Shu Xiao-Ou,Li Hong-Lan,Chow Wong-Ho,Yang Gong,Ji Bu-Tian,Cai Hui,Yu Chang,Gao Yu-Tang,Zheng Wei,Xiang Yong-Bing
Journal of epidemiology and community health
BACKGROUND:Cholelithiasis and cholecystectomy have been proposed as risk factors for liver cancer, but findings have been inconsistent. We assessed this association using data from the Shanghai Women's and Men's Health Studies. METHODS:History of cholelithiasis and cholecystectomy were reported at baseline and follow-up interviews, and liver cancer diagnoses were ascertained from the Shanghai Cancer Registry and Vital Statistics Unit. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% CIs were calculated after adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS:A history of cholelithiasis and cholecystectomy was reported by 9.5% and 3.6% of participants at baseline, respectively. After a total of 859,882 person-years of follow-up for women and 391,093 for men, incident liver cancer was detected in 160 women and 252 men. A positive association was observed between a history of cholelithiasis or cholecystectomy and liver cancer in men (aHR 1.46; 95% CI 1.02 to 2.07) and women (aHR 1.55; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.26). Similar results were observed for cholelithiasis only, but cholecystectomy did not reach statistical significance. There was no strong evidence for detection bias of liver cancer due to cholelithiasis or cholecystectomy. CONCLUSIONS:Our study suggests that cholelithiasis and possibly cholecystectomy may increase the risk of liver cancer.
Evaluation of daily energy expenditure and health-related physical fitness parameters in patients with cholelithiasis.
Celikagi Cemil,Genc Abdurrahman,Bal Ahmet,Ucok Kagan,Turamanlar Ozan,Ozkececi Z Taner,Yalcinkaya Hatice,Coban Necip F,Yorulmaz Sueda
European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to investigate the daily energy expenditure; resting metabolic rate (RMR); health-related physical fitness parameters such as maximal aerobic capacity, muscle strength, and flexibility; pulmonary function tests (PFTs); and body composition and body fat distribution changes in patients with cholelithiasis, and to compare them with healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Thirty female patients with cholelithiasis and 30 controls were included in this study. Daily physical activity was monitored using a metabolic Holter and the maximal aerobic capacity was estimated using the Astrand submaximal exercise protocol. The body composition was established with a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. RMR, PFTs, strength, flexibility, circumference, and skinfold measurements were also carried out. RESULTS:Maximal aerobic capacity, trunk flexibility, daily moderate activity duration, daily vigorous activity duration, total energy expenditure, RMR, PFT, lean body mass, adiposity, and body fat distribution values were not significantly different between the patients and the controls. The cholelithiasis patients had lower daily step numbers, handgrip strength, and back-leg strength values, whereas their higher daily sleep duration values were comparable with those of the controls. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that daily physical activity and muscle strength were impaired in female cholelithiasis patients when compared with the healthy controls. We suggest that using daily exercises, including not only aerobic but also strength training as lifestyle modifications in cholelithiasis patients, might be helpful for the development of more beneficial illness management strategies.
Long-term risk of pancreatitis and diabetes after cholecystectomy in patients with cholelithiasis but no pancreatitis history: a 13-year follow-up study.
Tsai Ming-Shian,Lin Cheng-Li,Hsu Yao-Chun,Lee Hui-Ming,Kao Chia-Hung
European journal of internal medicine
BACKGROUND & AIM:Patients with biliary pancreatitis are suggested to undergo cholecystectomy to prevent the recurrence of pancreatitis. However, it remains controversial whether cholecystectomy is associated with reduced risks of pancreatitis and diabetes in patients with cholelithiasis and no history of pancreatitis. METHODS:From Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified the following cohorts and analyzed the long-term risks of pancreatitis and diabetes in each cohort: 1) cholecystectomy cohort: cholelithiasis patients who had no history of pancreatitis and diabetes and underwent cholecystectomy; and 2) comparison cohort: cholelithiasis patients who had no history of pancreatitis and diabetes and did not undergo cholecystectomy. RESULTS:The cholecystectomy group and the comparison group had similar distributions of age, sex, and comorbidities, except for hyperlipidemia. The proportion of patients in the cholecystectomy group who underwent endoscopic cholangiographic procedures was higher than that in the comparison group. Cholecystectomy was associated with a reduced risk of pancreatitis (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-0.68). Age-specific analyses showed that pancreatitis risk was decreased in patients younger than 50 and older than 65years. Both men and women exhibited reduced risks of pancreatitis after cholecystectomy. However, cholecystectomy was not associated with changes in the risk for diabetes. CONCLUSION:Cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis is associated with a reduced risk of pancreatitis, but not of diabetes, in patients without previous history of pancreatitis and diabetes.
Familial risks in and between stone diseases: sialolithiasis, urolithiasis and cholelithiasis in the population of Sweden.
Hemminki Kari,Hemminki Otto,Koskinen Anni I M,Försti Asta,Sundquist Kristina,Sundquist Jan,Li Xinjun
BACKGROUND:According to the literature the three stone diseases, sialolithiasis (SL), urolithiasis (UL) and cholelithiasis (CL) share comorbidities. We assess familial and spouse risks between these stone disease and compare them to familial risks for concordant (same) stone disease. METHODS:Study population including familiar relationships was obtained from the Swedish Multigeneration Register and stone disease patients were identified from nation-wide medical records. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for 0-83 year old offspring when their first-degree relatives were diagnosed with stone disease and the rates were compared to individuals without a family history of stone disease. Numbers of offspring with SL were 7906, for UL they were 170,757 and for CL they were 204,369. RESULTS:SIRs for concordant familial risks were 2.06 for SL, 1.94 for UL and 1.82 for CL. SIRs for SL and UL were slightly higher for women than for men. Familial risks between stone diseases were modest. The highest risk of 1.17 was for UL when family members were diagnosed with CL, or vice versa. The SIR for UL was 1.15 when family members were diagnosed with SL. Familial risks among spouses were increased only for UL-CL pairs (1.10). CONCLUSIONS:Familial risks for concordant SL were 2.06 and marginally lower for the other diseases. Familial risks between stone diseases were low but higher than risks between spouses. The data show that familial clustering is unique to each individual stone disease which would imply distinct disease mechanisms. The results cast doubt on the reported comorbidities between these diseases.
The risk of depression in patients with cholelithiasis before and after cholecystectomy: a population-based cohort study.
Shen Te-Chun,Lai Hsueh-Chou,Huang Yu-Jhen,Lin Cheng-Li,Sung Fung-Chang,Kao Chia-Hung
The association between cholelithiasis and depression remains unclear. We examined the risk of depression in patients with cholelithiasis. From the National Health Insurance population claims data of Taiwan, we identified 14071 newly diagnosed cholelithiasis patients (4969 symptomatic and 9102 asymptomatic) from 2000 to 2010. For each cholelithiasis patient, 4 persons without cholelithiasis were randomly selected in the control cohort from the general population frequency matched by age, sex, and diagnosis year. Both cohorts were followed up until the end of 2011 to monitor the occurrence of depression. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of depression were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model after controlling for age, sex and comorbidities. The overall incidence rates of depression were 1.87- and 1.83-fold greater in the symptomatic and asymptomatic cholelithiasis subcohorts than in the control cohort (incidence, 10.1 and 9.96 vs 5.43 per 1000 person-years, respectively). The multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed higher variable-specific aHRs in women than in men, in younger patients than in older patients, and in those without comorbidities than in those with any comorbidity. Cholecystectomy reduced the hazard of developing depression with aHRs of 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62-0.99) for symptomatic cholelithiasis patients and 0.76 (95% CI 0.60-0.96) for asymptomatic patients. Patients with cholelithiasis are at a higher risk of developing depression than the general population. Patients could be benefited from cholecystectomy and have the hazard of developing depression significantly reduced.
[Psychoemotional and autonomic states in patients with cholelithiasis].
Vakhrushev Ya M,Khokhlacheva N A,Sergeeva N N
AIM:To investigate the psychoemotional and autonomic states of patients with biliary system diseases and to determine their significance in the development of cholelithiasis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:A total of 396 patients with stage 1 cholelithiasis were examined. The results of hepatobiliary ultrasonography, multifractional duodenal probing, followed by macroscopic, microscopic, and biochemical examinations of bile (the total concentration of bile acids and cholesterol, by subsequently calculating the cholate-cholesterol ratio) were used to verify the diagnosis. The functional state of the hepatobiliary system was evaluated by dynamic echocholecystography and dynamic hepatobiliscintigraphy. To characterize the emotional state, the investigators applied indicators of the motivational sphere and orientation of an individual and his/her mental state, such as reactive anxiety, personal anxiety, the levels of depression and neuroticism, and intra-, extraversion. The autonomic state was determined from autonomic tone, autonomic reactivity, and autonomic support. RESULTS:Biliary lithogenesis was found to be related to psychoemotional and autonomic states. In cholelithiasis, there was an increase in reactive and personal anxiety and a predominance of diminished parasympathetic and perverted sympathetic autonomic reactivity. The signs of emotional instability and autonomic dystonia were shown to increase with age and the degree of an autonomic response depended on the severity of mental and emotional disorders. CONCLUSION:The results of these comprehensive studies can reveal new pathophysiological patterns of lithogenic bile formation and enhance our understanding of the pathogenesis of cholelithiasis.
Leptin levels and lipoprotein profiles in patients with cholelithiasis.
Saraç Serdar,Atamer Aytaç,Atamer Yildiz,Can Ahmet Selçuk,Bilici Aslan,Taçyildiz İbrahim,Koçyiğit Yüksel,Yenice Necati
The Journal of international medical research
OBJECTIVE:To determine the relationships between serum leptin and levels of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) in patients with cholelithiasis. METHODS:Patients with ultrasound-confirmed cholelithiasis and controls frequency-matched for age, sex, body mass index, fasting blood glucose and haemoglobin A1c levels were recruited. Fasting blood samples from all study participants were assayed for glucose, haemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride. Serum Lp(a), ApoA-1 and ApoB levels were measured using nephelometric assays; serum leptin was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS:A total of 90 patients with cholelithiasis and 50 controls were included in the study. Serum levels of leptin, Lp(a), total cholesterol, triglyceride and ApoB were significantly increased, and levels of ApoA-1 and HDL-C were significantly decreased, in patients with cholelithiasis compared with controls. Serum leptin in patients with cholelithiasis were significantly positively correlated with Lp(a) and ApoB and negatively correlated with ApoA-1. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with cholelithiasis have higher leptin levels and an altered lipoprotein profile compared with controls, with increased leptin levels being associated with increased Lp(a) and ApoB levels, and decreased ApoA-1 levels, in those with cholelithiasis.
Pathophysiology and risk factors for cholelithiasis in patients with Crohn's disease.
Sturdik I,Krajcovicova A,Jalali Y,Adamcova M,Tkacik M,Sekac J,Koller T,Huorka M,Payer J,Hlavaty T
Cholelithiasis is more common in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) than in the healthy population. The aim here was to examine risk factors for cholelithiasis in a cohort of CD patients and to compare the prevalence of cholelithiasis in a cohort of CD patients with that in a control group. This was a single-center retrospective case-control study. The cohort comprised all consecutive CD patients who underwent abdominal ultrasound from January 2007 to January 2018. The control group comprised age- and gender-matched non-CD patients referred for upper gastrointestinal tract dyspepsia. The study included 238 CD patients and 238 controls. The prevalence of cholelithiasis in the CD and control groups was 12.6 % and 9.2 %, respectively (risk ratio (RR), 1.36; p=0.24). Univariate analysis revealed that cholelithiasis was associated with multiple risk factors. Multivariate analysis identified age (OR, 1.077; 95 % CI, 1.043-1.112; p<0.001) and receipt of parenteral nutrition (OR, 1.812; 95 % CI, 1.131-2.903; p=0.013) as independent risk factors for cholelithiasis in CD patients. The prevalence of cholelithiasis in CD patients was higher than that in the control group; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Age and receipt of parenteral nutrition were independent risk factors for cholelithiasis in CD patients.
Cancer risk in patients with cholelithiasis and after cholecystectomy: a nationwide cohort study.
Chen Yen-Kung,Yeh Jiann-Horng,Lin Cheng-Li,Peng Chiao-Ling,Sung Fung-Chang,Hwang Ing-Ming,Kao Chia-Hung
Journal of gastroenterology
BACKGROUND:This study examined the association of cholelithiasis post-cholecystectomy with subsequent cancers and evaluated the risk of cancer in patients with both cholelithiasis and cholecystectomy. METHODS:The Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database was used to identify 15545 newly diagnosed cholelithiasis patients from 2000 to 2010, and 62180 frequency-matched non-cholelithiasis patients. A total of 5850 (37.6 %) with cholelithiasis patients received a cholecystectomy. The risk of developing cancer after cholecystectomy was measured using the Cox proportional-hazards model. RESULTS:The incidence of developing cancer in the cholelithiasis cohort was 1.52-fold higher than that in the comparison cohort (p < 0.001). Compared with patients aged 20-34 years, patients in older age groups had a higher risk of developing cancer. The hazard ratio (HR) for developing gallbladder, extrahepatic bile duct, pancreatic, liver, stomach, and colorectal cancer was 59.3, 10.7, 3.12, 1.90, 1.71, and 1.36-fold higher for patients with cholelithiasis, respectively. After a cholecystectomy, the HR for developing stomach and colorectal cancer was 1.81-fold and 1.56-fold, respectively. The incidence rate ratio was higher for the first 5 years and over 5 years (5.05 and 4.46, respectively) (95 % confidence interval 4.73-5.39 and 4.11-4.84, respectively) in proximal colon and stomach cancer patients with cholecystectomies. CONCLUSIONS:Cholelithiasis patients have a higher risk of gastrointestinal cancer, particularly of gallbladder and extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Post-cholecystectomy patients have a risk of colorectal and stomach cancer within the first 5 years and persisting after 5 years, respectively. This paper proposes strategies for preventing gastrointestinal cancer.
Sex differences in prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic cholelithiasis in Korean health screening examinee: A retrospective analysis of a multicenter study.
Kim Sung Bum,Kim Kook Hyun,Kim Tae Nyeun,Heo Jun,Jung Min Kyu,Cho Chang Min,Lee Yoon Suk,Cho Kwang Bum,Lee Dong Wook,Han Ji Min,Kim Ho Gak,Kim Hyun Soo
The aim of this study was to evaluate sex difference in the prevalence and risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in Korean health screening examinees.Examinees who underwent examination through health promotion center at 5 hospitals of Daegu-Gyeongbuk province in 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. All examinees were checked for height, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure, and underwent laboratory tests and abdominal ultrasound. Diagnosis of cholelithiasis was made by ultrasound.Of the total of 30,544 examinees, mean age was 47.3 ± 10.9 years and male to female ratio was 1.4:1. Asymptomatic cholelithiasis was diagnosed in 1268 examinees with overall prevalence of 4.2%. In age below 40 years, females showed higher prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis than males (2.7% vs. 1.9%, P = 0.020), whereas prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis was higher in males than females older than 50 years (6.2% vs. 5.1%, P = 0.012). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed age (≥50 years), obesity, and high blood pressure as risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in males and age, obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and chronic hepatitis B infection in females (P < 0.05).Overall prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis was 4.2% in Korean health screening examinees. Females showed higher prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis than males younger than 40 years, whereas it was higher in males older than 50 years. Age and obesity were risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in both sexes. Males had additional risk factors of high blood pressure and females had hypertriglyceridemia and chronic hepatitis B infection.
Association of Statin Therapy and Risks of Cholelithiasis, Biliary Tract Diseases, and Gallbladder Procedures: Retrospective Cohort Analysis of a US Population.
Martin Donald,Schmidt Robert,Mortensen Eric M,Mansi Ishak
The Annals of pharmacotherapy
BACKGROUND:Gallstone disease is a leading cause of morbidity in Western countries and carries a high economic burden. Statin medications decrease hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis and may, therefore, lower the risk of cholesterol cholelithiasis by reducing the cholesterol concentration in the bile. Population-based evidence, however, is sparse. OBJECTIVE:To assess the risk of gallbladder diseases among statin users compared with nonusers in an American patient cohort. METHODS:We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients enrolled in the San Antonio Tricare health system using data between October 2003 and March 2012. We defined 2 groups: statin users (use for 90 days or greater) and nonusers (no prior statin). A propensity score based on 82 variables was generated to match statin users and nonusers 1:1. Outcomes included incidence of cholelithiasis, biliary tract diseases, and gallbladder procedures. RESULTS:A total of 43 438 patients were identified; 13 626 (31.4%) were statin users, and 29 812 (68.6%) were nonusers. We matched 6342 pairs of statin users and nonusers based on propensity score. The odds ratios (ORs) in statin users in comparison to nonusers were similar for cholelithiasis (OR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.73, 1.02), biliary tract disease (OR = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.67-1.08), and gall bladder procedures (OR = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.69, 1.04). CONCLUSIONS:Statin use was not significantly associated with either an increased or decreased risk of cholelithiasis or gallbladder disease.
Association between Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Cholelithiasis: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.
Chen Chien-Hua,Lin Cheng-Li,Kao Chia-Hung
International journal of environmental research and public health
We assessed the subsequent risk of cholelithiasis development in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) such as Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). We identified 8186 patients who aged ≥20 years and were diagnosed with IBD between 2000 and 2010 as the study cohort. A total of 8186 patients without IBD were selected by frequency-matching according to age, sex, comorbidities, and the index date of diagnosis, and they were identified as the control cohort. To measure the incidence of cholelithiasis, all patients were followed up until the end of 2011. The risk of developing cholelithiasis, either gallbladder stone disease (GSD; adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.34-2.61) or common bile duct (CBD) stones and intrahepatic stones (IHSs; aHR = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.18-6.51), was higher for the CD cohort than for the non-IBD cohort after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities of hyperlipidemia, diabetes, liver cirrhosis, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, coronary artery disease, and hepatitis C virus infection. However, UC was related to the development of GSD (aHR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.19-1.75) but not to CBD stones and IHSs (aHR = 1.70, 95% CI = 0.99-2.91). Our population-based cohort study demonstrated that CD is related to the development of cholelithiasis, including GSD alone and non-GSD-associated cholelithiasis. However, UC is only related to the development of GSD alone.
Association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and cholelithiasis: a retrospective cohort study in Taiwan.
Chen Chien-Hua,Lin Cheng-Li,Kao Chia-Hung
OBJECTIVE:To investigate the relation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) to cholelithiasis and cholecystectomy in a retrospective population-based study. SETTING:Cohort study. PARTICIPANTS:We identified 1268 patients aged ≥20 years with HT between 2000 and 2010 as the study cohort. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Patients without HT were randomly selected from a database and propensity-matched with the study cohort at a 1:4 ratio according to age, sex, comorbidities and year of the index date to measure the incidence of cholelithiasis and cholecystectomy. RESULTS:The cumulative incidence of cholelithiasis was higher in the HT cohort than that in the non-HT cohort (log-rank test, p<0.001), with a 1.91-fold higher risk of choleithiasis (95% CI 1.58 to 2.33) after adjustment for comorbidities. The age-specific relative risk of cholelithiasis in the HT cohort was higher than that in the non-HT cohort for patients aged ≥50 years (adjusted HR (aHR)=2.59, 95% CI 1.33 to 5.03). The sex-specific relative risk of cholelithiasis in the HT cohort was higher than that in the non-HT cohort for women (aHR=1.99, 95% CI 1.63 to 2.44). Compared with those in the non-HT cohort, patients with HT without (aHR=1.95, 95% CI 1.53 to 2.49) and with (aHR=1.94, 95% CI 1.51 to 2.49) thyroxine treatment were associated with a higher risk of cholelithiasis. Compared with those in the non-HT cohort, patients with HT had a higher risk of cholecystectomy (aHR=1.28, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.61). CONCLUSIONS:Inability to obtain information on several potential confounding factors and misclassification of important covariates are the major limitations of the study. Our study indicates HT per se was associated with the development of cholelithiasis, which has been validated by the association between cholecystectomy and HT. Surveys and health education on cholelithiasis in women aged ≥50 years with HT should be considered by clinicians, and further prospective research should be done on this topic.
[Intestinal dysbiosis and atherogenic dyslipidemia].
Samsonova N G,Zvenigorodskaia L A,Cherkashova E A,Lazebnik L B
Eksperimental'naia i klinicheskaia gastroenterologiia = Experimental & clinical gastroenterology
Numerous studies in recent years had proved pathogenetic correlation of the intestinal ecological community, not only with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract but also with diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension, urolithiasis and pyelonephritis, gallstones and hepatitis. In its role in maintaining homeostasis an intestinal microflora isn't inferior to any other vital organs. All this allowed to distinguish it as an independent body. Recently, as one of the most important factors for the development of dyslipidemia scientists consider breaking the functional state of the liver, as well as changes in blood lipid spectrum and disturbance of cholesterol metabolism begins at the level of the hepatocyte. However, in 2001, Carneiro de Moura proposed a theory of violation of the microbial community in the colon as one of the ways to lipid metabolism. By reducing the detoxification function of intestinal microflora associated with Microecological disorders of various origins, the first "hit" is to the host liver--is on one side. On the other--the vast majority of microorganisms are characterized by a pronounced ability of bile acids deconjugation, and therefore the increased reproduction in the ileum of bacteria (especially anaerobic, with enhanced activity against deconjugation activity to related bile acids) and the formation of toxic endogenous bile salts, acids are important prerequisites for the occurrence of violations of all functions of the liver, including the activities of Kupffer cells and the whole system of mononuclear macrophages. In this regard, the formation and progression of dyslipidemia, regardless of the target organ must be closely linked with the digestive tract by micro. Schematically it can be represented as follows: violation of microecology intestine --> accumulation of endotoxin in the gut --> entry of endotoxins in portal vein to the liver --> RES of liver cell damage --> strengthening the pathological effects of toxicants other (non-microbial) origin --> dysfunction of hepatocytes --> dislipoproteidemiya.
Lifestyle and gallstone disease: scope for primary prevention.
Sachdeva Sandeep,Khan Zulfia,Ansari M Athar,Khalique Najam,Anees Afzal
Indian journal of community medicine : official publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine
OBJECTIVE:To study the antecedent risk factors in the causation of gallstone disease in a hospital-based case control study. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Cases (n = 150) from all age groups and both sexes with sonographically proven gallstones were recruited over a duration of 3 months from the surgical wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Modes of presentation were also noted among cases. Age- and sex-matched controls (n = 150) were chosen from among ward inmates admitted for other reasons. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for selected sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle-related variables. RESULTS:Females had a higher prevalence of gallstone disease than males (P < 0.01). Among males, the geriatric age group (<60 years) was relatively more susceptible (28%). Prepubertal age group was least afflicted (3.3%). Univariate analysis revealed multiparity, high fat, refined sugar, and low fiber intakes to be significantly associated with gallstones. Sedentary habits, recent stress, and hypertension were also among the significant lifestyle-related factors. High body mass index and waist hip ratios, again representing unhealthy lifestyles, were the significant anthropometric covariates. However, only three of these, viz., physical inactivity, high saturated fats, and high waist hip ratio emerged as significant predictors on stepwise logistic regression analysis (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION:Gallstone disease is frequent among females and elderly males. Significant predictor variables are abdominal adiposity, inadequate physical activity, and high intake of saturated fats; thus representing high risk lifestyles and yet amenable to primary prevention.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with benign gastrointestinal disorders.
Reddy Srinevas K,Zhan Min,Alexander H Richard,El-Kamary Samer S
World journal of gastroenterology
AIM:To explore associations between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and benign gastrointestinal and pancreato-biliary disorders. METHODS:Patient demographics, diagnoses, and hospital outcomes from the 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample were analyzed. Chronic liver diseases were identified using International Classification of Diseases, the 9(th) Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Patients with NAFLD were compared to those with other chronic liver diseases for the endpoints of total hospital charges, disease severity, and hospital mortality. Multivariable stepwise logistic regression analyses to assess for the independent association of demographic, comorbidity, and diagnosis variables with the event of NAFLD (vs other chronic liver diseases) were also performed. RESULTS:Of 7800441 discharge records, 32347 (0.4%) and 271049 (3.5%) included diagnoses of NAFLD and other chronic liver diseases, respectively. NAFLD patients were younger (average 52.3 years vs 55.3 years), more often female (58.8% vs 41.6%), less often black (9.6% vs 18.6%), and were from higher income areas (23.7% vs 17.7%) compared to counterparts with other chronic liver diseases (all P < 0.0001). Diabetes mellitus (43.4% vs 28.9%), hypertension (56.9% vs 47.6%), morbid obesity (36.9% vs 8.0%), dyslipidemia (37.9% vs 15.6%), and the metabolic syndrome (28.75% vs 8.8%) were all more common among NAFLD patients (all P < 0.0001). The average total hospital charge ($39607 vs $51665), disease severity scores, and intra-hospital mortality (0.9% vs 6.0%) were lower among NALFD patients compared to those with other chronic liver diseases (all P < 0.0001).Compared with other chronic liver diseases, NAFLD was significantly associated with diverticular disorders [OR = 4.26 (3.89-4.67)], inflammatory bowel diseases [OR = 3.64 (3.10-4.28)], gallstone related diseases [OR = 3.59 (3.40-3.79)], and benign pancreatitis [OR = 2.95 (2.79-3.12)] on multivariable logistic regression (all P < 0.0001) when the latter disorders were the principal diagnoses on hospital discharge. Similar relationships were observed when the latter disorders were associated diagnoses on hospital discharge. CONCLUSION:NAFLD is associated with diverticular, inflammatory bowel, gallstone, and benign pancreatitis disorders. Compared with other liver diseases, patients with NAFLD have lower hospital charges and mortality.
Associations of common chronic non-communicable diseases and medical conditions with sleep-related problems in a population-based health examination study.
Basnet Syaron,Merikanto Ilona,Lahti Tuuli,Männistö Satu,Laatikainen Tiina,Vartiainen Erkki,Partonen Timo
Sleep science (Sao Paulo, Brazil)
A cross-sectional population-based survey, the National FINRISK 2012 Study, designed to monitor chronic diseases and their risk factors in Finland. A random sample of 10,000 adults aged 25-74 years, and of them, 64% (n=6424) participated the study. Participants subjectively reported the total durations for sleep and naps (n=6238), sleep quality (n=5878), bedtimes and wake-up times separately for working days and weekends yielding the amount of sleep debt (n=5878), and the seasonal variation in sleep duration (n=4852). The participants were asked whether they were diagnosed or treated for common chronic diseases in the past 12 months. Logistic regression models were adopted to analysis and adjusted for a range of covariates as potential confounding factors. Total sleep duration and nap duration prolonged in depression and other mental disorder (p<.001 for all). Seasonal variation in sleep duration was associated with depression (p=.014), hypertension (p=.018) and angina pectoris (p=.024). Participants with gallstones, cardiac insufficiency, depression, or degenerative arthritis had poor sleep quality (odds ratios of 1.6-6.3, p=.001 or less for each). Those with degenerative arthritis had sleep debt less (p<.05) and those with angina pectoris more (p<.05) than individuals without these medical conditions. Depression is significantly associated with sleep problems, albeit no sleep debt. Cardiovascular diseases, degenerative arthritis, and gallstones had significant associations with one or more sleep problems. There is therefore a need for more successful management of sleep problems in chronic diseases to improve the quality of life, to reduce treatment relapses, and to increase health and longevity in a population.
Cholelithiasis and markers of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with metabolic risk factors.
Koller Tomas,Kollerova Jana,Hlavaty Tibor,Huorka Martin,Payer Juraj
Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology
Cholelithiasis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) share the same risk factors. The aim of our study was to explore the relationship between these two conditions and to identify independent predictors of both diseases in a cohort of patients with metabolic risk factors. Consecutive patients with metabolic risk factors referred to the outpatient clinic during a one-year period were included. Cholelithiasis was defined by the presence of gallstones on abdominal ultrasound examination at inclusion or previously performed cholecystectomy. NAFLD was defined by the presence of at least one surrogate marker such as elevated alanine aminotransferase and/or gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and/or ultrasound signs of fatty liver. Other common liver diseases were thoroughly excluded. The prevalence of cholelithiasis among patients with and without NAFLD was determined and clinical and laboratory parameters were identified as predictors of NAFLD by multivariate logistic regression. In total, 482 consecutive patients were included: mean age 61 years; 61% were women; 52% of patients had more than 2 metabolic risk factors (obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, or low HDL cholesterol). NAFLD and cholelithiasis were present in 41% and 34% of all patients, respectively. Significantly higher prevalence of cholelithiasis was found among patients with NAFLD compared with patients without NAFLD (47% vs. 26%, respectively; p < 0.0001). In multivariate logistic regression model, type 2 diabetes (odds ratio (OR) = 1.99), BMI above 25 kg/m(2) (OR = 1.78), and cholelithiasis (OR = 1.77) were identified as independent predictors of NAFLD. Fifty six percent of patients with cholelithiasis had NAFLD compared with 33% of patients without cholelithiasis (p < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression identified age above 50 years (OR = 3.46), NAFLD (OR = 1.92), triglycerides above 1.7 mmol/l (OR = 1.91), BMI above 25 kg/m(2) (OR = 1.84), and total cholesterol concentration (OR = 0.711) as independent predictors of cholelithiasis. In conclusion, patients with metabolic risk factors and cholelithiasis suffer significantly more often from NAFLD compared with the reference group. Cholelithiasis represents an independent risk factor of NAFLD in addition to metabolic risk factors and could be regarded as an additional risk factor of liver damage in patients with NAFLD. Furthermore, NAFLD is an independent risk factor for cholelithiasis and might represent a pathogenetic link between the metabolic syndrome and cholelithiasis.
Gallstone disease and the risk of stroke: a nationwide population-based study.
Wei Cheng-Yu,Chung Tieh-Chi,Chen Chien-Hua,Lin Che-Chen,Sung Fung-Chang,Chung Wen Ting,Kung Woon-Man,Hsu Chung Y,Yeh Yung-Hsiang
Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association
BACKGROUND:Gallstone disease (GD) and stroke share a number of risk factors including diabetes and hyperlipidemia. This nationwide population-based study was designed to estimate the risk of stroke after a diagnosis of GD. METHODS:Data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 135,512 patients with a diagnosis of GD and 271,024 age- and gender-matched non-GD control patients were included to assess the risk of stroke using Cox proportional hazard regression. RESULTS:During the study period (2000-2003), 12,234 (153.67/10,000 person-years) strokes occurred among the GD patients, and 20,680 (114.83/10,000 person-years) among the controls. The diagnosis of GD carried a higher risk of developing ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.28 and 1.33 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-1.31 and 1.25-1.41, both P < .0001), respectively. Stroke risk was increased in both genders but at a higher rate in younger age. The GD group had significantly higher prevalence rate of comorbidities that are known stroke risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease. Stroke risk was higher in the GD group with or without any of these comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS:In this population-based longitudinal follow-up study, GD carried a significantly higher stroke risk, particularly for younger age with or without stroke risk factors. Stroke preventive measures maybe needed for patients with GD, especially those of younger age and with stroke risk factor(s).
Impact of obesity and associated diseases on outcome after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Paajanen Hannu,Käkelä Pirjo,Suuronen Satu,Paajanen Juuso,Juvonen Petri,Pihlajamäki Jussi
Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
Obesity is a risk factor for operative treatment. This study examined the impact of obesity and associated comorbidities on complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Altogether, 1581 consecutive patients with symptomatic gallstones underwent LC between the years 1995 and 2008. Preoperative data and operative outcome of the 437 obese patients [302 with body mass index (BMI) 30 to 35 kg/m² and 135 with BMI ≥ 35.1 kg/m²] and 1144 nonobese controls (BMI ≤ 29.9 kg/m²) undergoing LC were compared. The impact of obesity, diabetes, cholecystitis, coronary heart disease, pulmonary disease, hypertension, and renal insufficiency on the postoperative outcome was analyzed by using multiple logistic regression analysis. The percentage of obese patients undergoing LC did not change during the study period. Over half of obese patients (63%) had 1 or multiple comorbidities, but only 15% of the patients had an acute surgery because of cholecystitis. Conversion to open surgery was required in 11.7% of the obese patients compared with 6.1% in the nonobese controls (P=0.0003). Acute cholecystitis increased the conversions in class II and III obese patients (50%) compared with elective surgery (8.7%, P<0.001). Mortality rate was 0 in obese patients and the rate of complications, except surgical site infections, comparable with nonobese patients. In multivariate analysis, obesity or any of the comorbidities did not associate with an elevated risk for postoperative complications. In symptomatic gallstone disease, obesity and related comorbidities increased the conversion rate, but not the operative risks of LC.
Insulin resistance as a risk factor for gallbladder stone formation in Korean postmenopausal women.
Kim Sang Soo,Lee Jeong Gyu,Kim Dong Wok,Kim Bo Hyun,Jeon Yun Kyung,Kim Mi Ra,Huh Jeong Eun,Mok Ji Young,Kim Seong-Jang,Kim Yong Ki,Kim In Joo
The Korean journal of internal medicine
BACKGROUND/AIMS:The objective of this study was to determine whether insulin resistance is associated with gallbladder stone formation in Korean women based on menopausal status. METHODS:The study included 4,125 consecutive Korean subjects (30-79 years of age). Subjects who had a medical history of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, other cardiovascular disorders, or hormone replacement therapy were excluded. The women were subdivided into two groups according to their menopausal status. RESULTS:Analysis of premenopausal women showed no significant differences in the homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index between the two groups in terms of gallstone disease. The associations between the occurrence of gallbladder stones and age, obesity, abdominal obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and high HOMA-IR index were statistically significant in the analysis with postmenopausal women. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol was an independent predictor of gallbladder stone formation in premenopausal women. However, the multiple logistic regression analysis also showed that age and HOMA-IR were significantly associated with gallbladder stone formation in postmenopausal women. In an additional analysis stratified by obesity, insulin resistance was a significant risk factor for gallbladder stone formation only in the abdominally obese premenopausal group. CONCLUSIONS:Insulin resistance may be associated with gallbladder stone formation in Korean postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity.
Association between cholecystectomy for gallstone disease and risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
Chavez-Tapia Norberto C,Kinney-Novelo Ileana Mac,Sifuentes-Rentería Sergio E,Torres-Zavala Maximiliano,Castro-Gastelum Gildardo,Sánchez-Lara Karla,Paulin-Saucedo Carla,Uribe Misael,Méndez-Sánchez Nahum
Annals of hepatology
OBJECTIVE:Gallbladder disease and cardiovascular disease share risk factors. Both have a great impact on the economics of health systems. There is evidence suggesting an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with gallbladder disease, but the association of gallbladder disease with other risk factors for cardiovascular disease is unclear. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between cholecystectomy for gallstone disease and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This is a case-control study comparing subjects undergoing cholecystectomy with controls without gallbladder disease or cholecystectomy. Demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical data were recorded and risk factors for cardiovascular disease were assessed. The data were analysed with chi square test, student t test and logistic regression (univariate and multivariate). RESULTS:Seven hundred and ninety-eight subjects were included. The multivariate analyses demonstrated that, compared with controls, cases had an increased prevalence of metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease (odds ratio (OR) 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-4.8, p = 0.001), including type 2 diabetes mellitus (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.5, p = 0.018), high blood pressure (OR 5.1, 95% CI 2.6-10.1, p = 0.001), and high cholesterol levels (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.5, p = 0.004). No differences were observed in the incidence of cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSION:Patients undergoing cholecystectomy had an increased prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, independent of age, sex, or body mass index.
Gallstone disease and increased risk of mortality: Two large prospective studies in US men and women.
Zheng Yan,Xu Min,Heianza Yoriko,Ma Wenjie,Wang Tiange,Sun Dianjianyi,Albert Christine M,Hu Frank B,Rexrode Kathryn M,Manson JoAnn E,Qi Lu
Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
BACKGROUND AND AIM:Gallstone disease has been related to a higher prevalence and incidence of chronic conditions, such as dyslipidemia, obesity, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, limited data are available regarding whether gallstone disease is related to mortality. METHODS:We examined the relationship of a history of gallstone disease and risk of death, using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, among 86 030 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 43 949 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. RESULTS:During the up-to 32 years of follow-up, 34 011 all-cause deaths were confirmed, of which 8138 were CVD deaths and 12 173 were cancer deaths. For the participants with a history of gallstone disease compared with those without, the hazard ratio of total mortality was 1.16 (95% confidence interval 1.13, 1.20), of CVD mortality 1.11 (1.05, 1.17), of cancer mortality 1.15 (1.09, 1.20), and of other mortality 1.19 (1.14, 1.25) from a pooled-analysis of women and men (all P < 0.001). The multi-adjusted associations between gallstone disease and total mortality persisted among women and men, and among participants with various risk profiles including the different status of body mass index, hormone therapy use, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia (all P for interaction ≥ 0.09). CONCLUSION:These data suggest that gallstone disease is associated with a higher risk of total mortality and disease-specific mortality, including CVD and cancer mortality, independent of various traditional risk factors.
Incidence and Risk Factors for Cholelithiasis After Bariatric Surgery.
Guzmán Hernán M,Sepúlveda Matías,Rosso Nicolás,San Martin Andrés,Guzmán Felipe,Guzmán Hernán C
BACKGROUND:Obesity and rapid weight loss after bariatric surgery (BS) are independent risk factors for development of cholelithiasis (CL), a prevalent disease in the Chilean population. This study aimed to determine the incidence of CL in obese Chilean patients 12 months after BS and identify risk factors for development of gallstones. METHODS:Retrospective study of patients who underwent BS in 2014. Patients with preoperative negative abdominal ultrasound (US) for CL and follow-up for at least than 12 months were included. Patients underwent US at 6 months and 12 months. We analyzed sex, age, hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, body mass index (BMI), surgical procedure, percentage of excess BMI loss (%EBMIL) at 6 months, and BMI at 6 months. RESULTS:Of 279 patients who underwent bariatric surgery during 2014, 66 had previous gallbladder disease and 176 met the inclusion criteria (82.6%), while 54.6% were female. The mean age was 37.8 ± 10.5 years and preoperative BMI was 37.5 kg/m. BMI and %EBMIL at 6 months were 27.8 ± 3.3 kg/m and 77.9 ± 33.6%, respectively. At 12 months after BS, CL was found in 65 patients (36.9%). Hypertension turned out to be protective against occurrence of gallstones at 1 year with an OR 0.241. CONCLUSIONS:Incidence of CL was up to one-third of the patients followed up for 12 months after BS. Excessive weight loss and other variables studied did not increase risk. Hypertension seems to be protective against gallstone formation, but this result needs further analysis.
Inflammatory bowel disease on the risk of acute pancreatitis: A population-based cohort study.
Chen Yu-Tso,Su Jiann-Sheng,Tseng Chih-Wei,Chen Chia-Chang,Lin Cheng-Li,Kao Chia-Hung
Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:To determine whether inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) influences the risk of acute pancreatitis. METHODS:We identified 11,909 patients diagnosed with IBD between 2000 and 2010 from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database as the study cohort. A comparison cohort comprised 47,636 age-matched patients without IBD. Both cohorts were followed-up until the end of 2010 or until being censored. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to study the effects of IBD on the risks of acute pancreatitis. RESULTS:The overall incidence of acute pancreatitis was 3.56-fold higher in the study cohort than in the comparison cohort (31.8 vs 8.91 per 10,000 person-years, crude hazard ratio [HR] = 3.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.96-4.28). After adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities, namely alcohol-related disease, biliary stone, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, obesity, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, hypertriglyceridemia, cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and hypercalcemia, the adjusted HR for acute pancreatitis was 2.93-fold higher (95% CI = 2.40-3.58) in the study cohort than in the comparison cohort. CONCLUSIONS:IBD is a risk factor for acute pancreatitis.
[Metabolic profile of patients with cholesterol gallstone disease].
Cojocaru Clementina,Pandele G I
Revista medico-chirurgicala a Societatii de Medici si Naturalisti din Iasi
UNLABELLED:Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors as well as associated co morbidities, including cholesterol gallstones disease.The aim of our study is to prove the association between metabolic syndrome and cholesterol gallstones, to identify the main risk factors for this association and to trace the particularities of the metabolic syndrome in such patients. MATERIAL AND METHOD:Our cohort study enrolled 449 subjects, 312 patients diagnosed with metabolic syndrome and gallstones or cholecystectomy (group 1) and 137 patients diagnosed only with metabolic syndrome (group 2), hospitalized in the Respiratory Rehabilitation Medical Clinic between 2007-2009. RESULTS:85.25% of the patients with metabolic syndrome and cholesterol gallstones and 79.92% of the patients with metabolic syndrome alone had a body mass index (BMI) > or = 25 Kg/m2. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to calculate the risk of gallstone disease associated with different metabolic syndrome variables. Waist circumference, BMI, fasting glycemia, insulinemia and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) registered statistical significant differences between the two study groups and were significantly associated with a higher risk of cholesterol gallstone as well as were blood pressure values > or = 130/85 mmHg. The presence of 4 or 5 components of the metabolic syndrome increased the risk of gallstone disease by 3 times (OR = 3.3, p < 0.001) compared to a 2 times higher risk (OR = 2.1, p = 0.02) in case of increased insulin resistance; there was no statistical significance for any of the lipid parameters. CONCLUSION:In our study, cholesterol gallstones appeared strongly associated with anthropometric measurements, fasting glycemia and insulin resistance index, as well as with the presence of metabolic syndrome as defined by the new clinical definition, despite the negative results for the lipidic components. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathogenesis and that cholesterol gallstone disease belong to metabolic syndrome.
Bidirectional association between gallstones and renal stones: Two longitudinal follow-up studies using a national sample cohort.
Kim So Young,Song Chang Myeon,Lim Hyun,Lim Man Sup,Bang Woojin,Choi Hyo Geun
The present study evaluated the associations between gallstones and renal stones using a national sample cohort of the Korean population. The Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort was collected from 2002 to 2013. We designed two different longitudinal follow-up studies. In study I, we extracted gallstone patients (n = 20,711) and 1:4-matched control I subjects (n = 82,844) and analyzed the occurrence of renal stones. In study II, we extracted renal stone patients (n = 23,615) and 1:4-matched control II subjects (n = 94,460) and analyzed the occurrence of gallstones. Matching was performed for age, sex, income, region of residence, and history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model, and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Subgroup analyses were performed according to age and sex. The adjusted HR of renal stones was 1.93 (95% CI = 1.75-2.14) in the gallstone group (P < 0.001). The adjusted HR of gallstones was 1.97 (95% CI = 1.81-2.15) in the renal stone group (P < 0.001). The results were consistent in all subgroup analyses. Gallstones increased the risk of renal stones, and renal stones increased the risk of gallstones.
Does diabetes mellitus with or without gallstones increase the risk of gallbladder cancer? Results from a population-based cohort study.
Lai Hsueh-Chou,Chang Shih-Ni,Lin Che-Chen,Chen Ching-Chou,Chou Jen-Wei,Peng Cheng-Yuan,Lai Shih-Wei,Sung Fung-Chang,Li Yu-Fen
Journal of gastroenterology
BACKGROUND:Previous studies have suggested that diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for gallbladder cancer; however, it remains unclear whether DM with or without gallstones increases the risk of gallbladder cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for gallbladder cancer, including sex, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, gallstones, and DM. METHODS:The study cohort consisted of 214,179 subjects newly diagnosed with diabetes (cases) collected from the claims data of the Health Insurance Program of Taiwan from 2000 to 2001 who were retrospectively enrolled. The control group consisted of 206,860 subjects without diabetes, matched with the cases for sex, age, and index year. The subjects were followed up until the end of 2008. The effects of the risk factors on the incidence of gallbladder cancer were evaluated with Cox's proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS:The risk of gallbladder cancer was higher in the DM group than in the non-DM group, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.53 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.22-1.90]. Gallstones were also a risk factor for gallbladder cancer, with an HR of 2.52 (95 % CI 1.11-5.73). DM and gallstones were synergistic risk factors for gallbladder cancer (p < 0.0001), with an HR of 5.37 (95 % CI 3.17-9.10) for subjects with both diseases in relation to those with neither of these conditions. CONCLUSIONS:In the present long-term cohort study, DM with or without gallstones increased the risk of gallbladder cancer. Gallstones were independently related to gallbladder cancer, and DM and gallstones were synergistic risk factors for gallbladder cancer.
[Basic risk factors and quality of a life at gallstone disease patients].
Grigor'eva I N,Romanova T I
Eksperimental'naia i klinicheskaia gastroenterologiia = Experimental & clinical gastroenterology
THE AIM:to investigate possible associations between quality of a life (QoL) and basic risk factors of the Gallstone disease--GSD--sex, age, adiposity, diabetes mellitus, an arterial hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS:QoL at 142 GSD patients by means of questionnaire MOS SF-36 and a specific questionnaire to GSD patients "Gallstone Impact Checklist" (GIC) has been estimated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:among GSD patients a male (on a pain scale of GIS), age (on scales PF, RP, RE of SF-36), obesity (on all scales of questionnaire GIC, except a dyspepsia scale, and on scale PF of SF-36) and a diabetes mellitus (on scales of emotions, a food and eating an overall account of GIC) associated with considerable decrease in the QoL indices, but the presence of arterial hypertension does not influence.