加载中

    logo
    Renal outcomes with aliskiren in patients with type 2 diabetes: a prespecified secondary analysis of the ALTITUDE randomised controlled trial. Heerspink Hiddo J L,Persson Frederik,Brenner Barry M,Chaturvedi Nish,Brunel Patrick,McMurray John J,Desai Akshay S,Solomon Scott D,Pfeffer Marc A,Parving Hans-Henrik,de Zeeuw Dick The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology BACKGROUND:The primary results of the ALTITUDE trial showed no benefit of aliskiren on renal outcomes (doubling of serum creatinine and end-stage renal disease) when used as an adjunct to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease or cardiovascular disease. We did a prespecified analysis of the ALTITUDE trial to analyse the effects of aliskiren on surrogate renal outcomes in all patients and on primary renal outcomes in subgroups of patients. METHODS:In the double-blind, randomised, controlled ALTITUDE trial, 8561 patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease or cardiovascular disease were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive aliskiren 300 mg per day or placebo as an adjunct to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. Randomisation was stratified on the basis of baseline urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio and presence of cardiovascular disease history, and treatment assignments were masked to all patients and study staff. Patients were followed up for a median of 2·6 years (IQR 2·0-3·2). In our secondary analysis, we investigated prespecified intermediate renal outcomes of transitions in albuminuria stages (ie, transitions between normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria) and rate of change of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We investigated all outcomes in the intention-to-treat population. The primary composite renal outcome of ALTITUDE was defined as a sustained doubling of serum creatinine, end-stage renal disease, or renal death. The ALTITUDE trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00549757. FINDINGS:Aliskiren significantly decreased progression (hazard ratio [HR] 0·83, 95% CI 0·75-0·93) and increased regression (HR 1·29, 95% CI 1·19-1·39) of transitions in albuminuria classes. The annual rate of change of eGFR was -3·1 mL/min/1·73 m(2) per year (95% CI -2·9 to -3·3) in the aliskiren group and -3·0 mL/min/1·73 m(2) per year (-2·8 to -3·2) in the placebo group (p=0·52). eGFR change during the first 6 months was significantly larger with aliskiren than with placebo (-2·5 mL/min/1·73 m(2), 95% CI -2·9 to -2·2 vs -1·4 mL/min/1·73 m(2), 95% CI -1·7 to -1·0; p<0·0001). Subsequent eGFR change did not differ significantly between groups (-2·8 mL/min/1·73 m(2) per year, 95% CI -3·0 to -2·6 with aliskiren vs -3·1 mL/min/1·73 m(2) per year, 95% CI -3·3 to -2·8 with placebo; p=0·068). The absence of a benefit of aliskiren on the primary composite renal endpoint in the overall population was also seen in various subgroups. INTERPRETATION:Aliskiren showed no beneficial effect on hard renal outcomes in the overall population or in various subgroups, but delayed progression to microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria, and improved regression to microalbuminuria and normoalbuminuria. Whether the chosen intermediates are poor surrogates for clinical outcomes or whether off-target effects disrupt the association between the surrogate and clinical outcomes requires further study. FUNDING:Novartis. 10.1016/S2213-8587(15)00469-6
    The Effect of Erythropoietin-Stimulating Agents on Health-Related Quality of Life in Anemia of Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Collister David,Komenda Paul,Hiebert Brett,Gunasekara Ravindi,Xu Yang,Eng Fredrick,Lerner Blake,Macdonald Kerry,Rigatto Claudio,Tangri Navdeep Annals of internal medicine BACKGROUND:The efficacy of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs) for improving health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unclear. PURPOSE:To determine the effect of ESAs on HRQOL at different hemoglobin targets in adults with CKD who were receiving or not receiving dialysis. DATA SOURCES:Searches of PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception to 1 November 2015, supplemented with manual screening. STUDY SELECTION:Randomized, controlled trials that evaluated the treatment of anemia with ESAs, including erythropoietin and darbepoetin, targeted higher versus lower hemoglobin levels, and used validated HRQOL metrics. DATA EXTRACTION:Study characteristics, quality, and data were assessed independently by 2 reviewers. Outcome measures were scores on the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), Kidney Dialysis Questionnaire (KDQ), and other tools. DATA SYNTHESIS:Of 17 eligible studies, 13 reported SF-36 outcomes and 4 reported KDQ outcomes. Study populations consisted of patients not undergoing dialysis (n = 12), those undergoing dialysis (n = 4), or a mixed sample (n = 1). Only 4 studies had low risk of bias. Pooled analyses showed that higher hemoglobin targets resulted in no statistically or clinically significant differences in SF-36 or KDQ domains. Differences in HRQOL were further attenuated in studies at low risk of bias and in subgroups of dialysis recipients. LIMITATION:Statistically significant heterogeneity among studies, few good-quality studies, and possible publication bias. CONCLUSION:ESA treatment of anemia to obtain higher hemoglobin targets does not result in important differences in HRQOL in patients with CKD. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE:KRESCENT and Manitoba Health Research Council Establishment. 10.7326/M15-1839
    Global cardiovascular protection in chronic kidney disease. Ruiz-Hurtado Gema,Sarafidis Pantelis,Fernández-Alfonso María S,Waeber Bernard,Ruilope Luis M Nature reviews. Cardiology The development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and renal disorders are very closely related. In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), therapies proven to protect the cardiovascular and renal systems simultaneously are generally used only at low doses or not at all. In particular, patients with CKD who receive angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, or mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists (MRAs) often do not experience complete blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, primarily owing to the risk of hyperkalaemia. In this Review, we provide an overview of the available treatments required for adequate cardiorenal protection in patients with CKD. Drugs such as β-blockers that interfere with renin secretion will be discussed, in addition to agents that can prevent hyperkalaemia, such as potassium binders and nonsteroidal MRAs. Furthermore, the current literature on the role of statins, in addition to new compounds and dosing recommendations for the treatment of patients with CKD will also be reviewed. Further studies with these new compounds and doses are needed to ascertain whether these approaches can improve the long-term cardiovascular and renal prognosis in patients with CKD. 10.1038/nrcardio.2016.48
    Systematic review and meta-analysis of iron therapy in anaemic adults without chronic kidney disease: updated and abridged Cochrane review. Clevenger Ben,Gurusamy Kurinchi,Klein Andrew A,Murphy Gavin J,Anker Stefan D,Richards Toby European journal of heart failure AIMS:Anaemia is increasingly recognized as having an independent impact upon patient outcomes in cardiac disease. The role of novel iron therapies to treat anaemia is increasing. This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses the efficacy and safety of iron therapies for the treatment of adults with anaemia. METHODS AND RESULTS:Electronic databases and search engines were searched as per Cochrane methodology. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of iron vs. inactive control or placebo, as well as alternative formulations, doses, and routes in anaemic adults without chronic kidney disease or in the peri-partum period were eligible. The primary outcome of interest was mortality at 1 year. Secondary outcomes were blood transfusion, haemoglobin levels, quality of life, serious adverse events, and length of hospital stay. A total of 64 RCTs (including five studies of heart failure patients) comprising 9004 participants were included. None of the studies was at a low risk of bias. There were no statistically significant differences in mortality between iron and inactive control. Both oral and parenteral iron significantly reduced the proportion of patients requiring blood transfusion compared with inactive control [risk ratio (RR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.90; and RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.97, respectively]. Haemoglobin was increased more by both oral and parenteral iron compared with inactive control [mean difference (MD) 0.91 g/dL, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.35; and MD 1.04, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.57, respectively], and parenteral iron demonstrated a greater increase when compared with oral iron (MD 0.53 g/dL, 95% CI 0.31-0.75). In all comparisons, there were no differences in the results comparing patients with and without heart failure. CONCLUSION:Both oral and parenteral iron are shown to decrease the proportion of people who require blood transfusion and increase haemoglobin levels, without any benefit on mortality. Further trials at a low risk of bias, powered to measure clinically significant endpoints, are still required. 10.1002/ejhf.514
    A randomized controlled study of finerenone vs. eplerenone in patients with worsening chronic heart failure and diabetes mellitus and/or chronic kidney disease. Filippatos Gerasimos,Anker Stefan D,Böhm Michael,Gheorghiade Mihai,Køber Lars,Krum Henry,Maggioni Aldo P,Ponikowski Piotr,Voors Adriaan A,Zannad Faiez,Kim So-Young,Nowack Christina,Palombo Giovanni,Kolkhof Peter,Kimmeskamp-Kirschbaum Nina,Pieper Alexander,Pitt Bertram European heart journal AIMS:To evaluate oral doses of the non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist finerenone given for 90 days in patients with worsening heart failure and reduced ejection fraction and chronic kidney disease and/or diabetes mellitus. METHODS AND RESULTS:Miner Alocorticoid Receptor antagonist Tolerability Study-Heart Failure (ARTS-HF) was a randomized, double-blind, phase 2b multicentre study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01807221). Of 1286 screened patients, 1066 were randomized. Patients received oral, once-daily finerenone (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, or 15 mg, uptitrated to 5, 10, 15, 20, or 20 mg, respectively, on Day 30) or eplerenone (25 mg every other day, increased to 25 mg once daily on Day 30, and to 50 mg once daily on Day 60) for 90 days. The primary endpoint was the percentage of individuals with a decrease of >30% in plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) from baseline to Day 90. A key exploratory endpoint was a composite clinical endpoint of death from any cause, cardiovascular hospitalizations, or emergency presentation for worsening HF until Day 90. Mean age ranged from 69.2 to 72.5 years in different treatment groups (standard deviation 9.7-10.6 years). Decreases in NT-proBNP of >30% from baseline occurred in 37.2% of patients in the eplerenone group and 30.9, 32.5, 37.3, 38.8, and 34.2% in the 2.5→5, 5→10, 7.5→15, 10→20, and 15→20 mg finerenone groups, respectively (P = 0.42-0.88). Except for the 2.5→5 mg finerenone group, the composite clinical endpoint occurred numerically less frequently in finerenone-treated patients compared with eplerenone; this difference reached nominal statistical significance in the 10→20 mg group (hazard ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.35; 0.90; nominal P = 0.02), despite the fact that this phase 2 study was not designed to detect statistical significant differences. A potassium level increase to ≥5.6 mmol/L at any time point occurred in 4.3% of patients, with a balanced distribution among all treatment groups. CONCLUSION:Finerenone was well tolerated and induced a 30% or greater decrease in NT-proBNP levels in a similar proportion of patients to eplerenone. The finding of reduced clinical events in the finerenone 10→20 mg group should be further explored in a large outcomes trial. 10.1093/eurheartj/ehw132
    Factors affecting outcomes in patients reaching end-stage kidney disease worldwide: differences in access to renal replacement therapy, modality use, and haemodialysis practices. Robinson Bruce M,Akizawa Tadao,Jager Kitty J,Kerr Peter G,Saran Rajiv,Pisoni Ronald L Lancet (London, England) More than 2 million people worldwide are being treated for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). This Series paper provides an overview of incidence, modality use (in-centre haemodialysis, home dialysis, or transplantation), and mortality for patients with ESKD based on national registry data. We also present data from an international cohort study to highlight differences in haemodialysis practices that affect survival and the experience of patients who rely on this therapy, which is both life-sustaining and profoundly disruptive to their quality of life. Data illustrate disparities in access to renal replacement therapy of any kind and in the use of transplantation or home dialysis, both of which are widely considered preferable to in-centre haemodialysis for many patients with ESKD in settings where infrastructure permits. For most patients with ESKD worldwide who are treated with in-centre haemodialysis, overall survival is poor, but longer in some Asian countries than elsewhere in the world, and longer in Europe than in the USA, although this gap has reduced. Commendable haemodialysis practice includes exceptionally high use of surgical vascular access in Japan and in some European countries, and the use of longer or more frequent dialysis sessions in some countries, allowing for more effective volume management. Mortality is especially high soon after ESKD onset, and improved preparation for ESKD is needed including alignment of decision making with the wishes of patients and families. 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30448-2
    The next generation of therapeutics for chronic kidney disease. Breyer Matthew D,Susztak Katalin Nature reviews. Drug discovery Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents a leading cause of death in the United States. There is no cure for this disease, with current treatment strategies relying on blood pressure control through blockade of the renin-angiotensin system. Such approaches only delay the development of end-stage kidney disease and can be associated with serious side effects. Recent identification of several novel mechanisms contributing to CKD development - including vascular changes, loss of podocytes and renal epithelial cells, matrix deposition, inflammation and metabolic dysregulation - has revealed new potential therapeutic approaches for CKD. This Review assesses emerging strategies and agents for CKD treatment, highlighting the associated challenges in their clinical development. 10.1038/nrd.2016.67
    Insights into kidney diseases from genome-wide association studies. Wuttke Matthias,Köttgen Anna Nature reviews. Nephrology Over the past decade, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have considerably improved our understanding of the genetic basis of kidney function and disease. Population-based studies, used to investigate traits that define chronic kidney disease (CKD), have identified >50 genomic regions in which common genetic variants associate with estimated glomerular filtration rate or urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Case-control studies, used to study specific CKD aetiologies, have yielded risk loci for specific kidney diseases such as IgA nephropathy and membranous nephropathy. In this Review, we summarize important findings from GWAS and clinical and experimental follow-up studies. We also compare risk allele frequency, effect sizes, and specificity in GWAS of CKD-defining traits and GWAS of specific CKD aetiologies and the implications for study design. Genomic regions identified in GWAS of CKD-defining traits can contain causal genes for monogenic kidney diseases. Population-based research on kidney function traits can therefore generate insights into more severe forms of kidney diseases. Experimental follow-up studies have begun to identify causal genes and variants, which are potential therapeutic targets, and suggest mechanisms underlying the high allele frequency of causal variants. GWAS are thus a useful approach to advance knowledge in nephrology. 10.1038/nrneph.2016.107
    Impact of renal function on the effects of LDL cholesterol lowering with statin-based regimens: a meta-analysis of individual participant data from 28 randomised trials. ,Herrington William,Emberson Jonathan,Mihaylova Borislava,Blackwell Lisa,Reith Christina,Solbu Marit,Mark Patrick,Fellström Bengt,Jardine Alan,Wanner Christoph,Holdaas Hallvard,Fulcher Jordan,Haynes Richard,Landray Martin,Keech Anthony,Simes John,Collins Rory,Baigent Colin The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology BACKGROUND:Statin therapy is effective for the prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke in patients with mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease, but its effects in individuals with more advanced disease, particularly those undergoing dialysis, are uncertain. METHODS:We did a meta-analysis of individual participant data from 28 trials (n=183 419), examining effects of statin-based therapy on major vascular events (major coronary event [non-fatal myocardial infarction or coronary death], stroke, or coronary revascularisation) and cause-specific mortality. Participants were subdivided into categories of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline. Treatment effects were estimated with rate ratio (RR) per mmol/L reduction in LDL cholesterol. FINDINGS:Overall, statin-based therapy reduced the risk of a first major vascular event by 21% (RR 0·79, 95% CI 0·77-0·81; p<0·0001) per mmol/L reduction in LDL cholesterol. Smaller relative effects on major vascular events were observed as eGFR declined (p=0·008 for trend; RR 0·78, 99% CI 0·75-0·82 for eGFR ≥60 mL/min per 1·73 m(2); 0·76, 0·70-0·81 for eGFR 45 to <60 mL/min per 1·73 m(2); 0·85, 0·75-0·96 for eGFR 30 to <45 mL/min per 1·73 m(2); 0·85, 0·71-1·02 for eGFR <30 mL/min per 1·73 m(2) and not on dialysis; and 0·94, 0·79-1·11 for patients on dialysis). Analogous trends by baseline renal function were seen for major coronary events (p=0·01 for trend) and vascular mortality (p=0·03 for trend), but there was no significant trend for coronary revascularisation (p=0·90). Reducing LDL cholesterol with statin-based therapy had no effect on non-vascular mortality, irrespective of eGFR. INTERPRETATION:Even after allowing for the smaller reductions in LDL cholesterol achieved by patients with more advanced chronic kidney disease, and for differences in outcome definitions between dialysis trials, the relative reductions in major vascular events observed with statin-based treatment became smaller as eGFR declined, with little evidence of benefit in patients on dialysis. In patients with chronic kidney disease, statin-based regimens should be chosen to maximise the absolute reduction in LDL cholesterol to achieve the largest treatment benefits. FUNDING:UK Medical Research Council, British Heart Foundation, Cancer Research UK, European Community Biomed Programme, Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, Australian National Heart Foundation. 10.1016/S2213-8587(16)30156-5
    Efficacy of Folic Acid Therapy on the Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease: The Renal Substudy of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. Xu Xin,Qin Xianhui,Li Youbao,Sun Danhua,Wang Jun,Liang Min,Wang Binyan,Huo Yong,Hou Fan Fan, JAMA internal medicine Importance:The efficacy of folic acid therapy on renal outcomes has not been previously investigated in populations without folic acid fortification. Objective:To test whether treatment with enalapril and folic acid is more effective in slowing renal function decline than enalapril alone across a spectrum of renal function at baseline from normal to moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD) among Chinese adults with hypertension. Design, Setting, and Participants:In this substudy of eligible China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT), 15 104 participants with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 or greater, including 1671 patients with CKD, were recruited from 20 communities in Jiangsu province in China. Interventions:Participants were randomized to receive a single tablet daily containing 10 mg enalapril and 0.8 mg folic acid (n = 7545) or 10 mg enalapril alone (n = 7559). Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was the progression of CKD, defined as a decrease in eGFR of 30% or more and to a level of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 if the baseline eGFR was 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or more, or a decrease in eGFR of 50% or more if the baseline eGFR was less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2; or end-stage renal disease. Secondary outcomes included a composite of the primary outcome and all-cause death, rapid decline in renal function, and rate of eGFR decline. Results:Overall, 15 104 Chinese adults with a mean (range) age of 60 (45-75) years were recruited; median follow-up was 4.4 years. There were 164 and 132 primary events in the enalapril group and the enalapril-folic acid group, respectively. Compared with the enalapril group, the enalapril-folic acid group had a 21% reduction in the odds of the primary event (odds ratio [OR], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.62-1.00) and a slower rate of eGFR decline (1.28% vs 1.42% per year; P = .02). Among the participants with CKD at baseline, folic acid therapy resulted in a significant reduction in the risks for the primary event (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.26-0.75), rapid decline in renal function (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.47-0.96) and the composite event (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.43-0.90), and a 44% slower decline in renal function (0.96% vs 1.72% per year, P < .001). Among those without CKD at baseline, there was no between-group difference in the primary end point. Conclusions and Relevance:Enalapril-folic acid therapy, compared with enalapril alone, can significantly delay the progression of CKD among patients with mild-to-moderate CKD. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00794885. 10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.4687
    Renal Effects of DPP-4 Inhibitor Sitagliptin or GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Liraglutide in Overweight Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A 12-Week, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Tonneijck Lennart,Smits Mark M,Muskiet Marcel H A,Hoekstra Trynke,Kramer Mark H H,Danser A H Jan,Ter Wee Piet M,Diamant Michaela,Joles Jaap A,van Raalte Daniël H Diabetes care OBJECTIVE:To investigate effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4I) sitagliptin or glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist liraglutide treatment on renal hemodynamics, tubular functions, and markers of renal damage in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes without chronic kidney disease (CKD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:In this 12-week, randomized, double-blind trial, 55 insulin-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes (mean ± SEM: age 63 ± 7 years, BMI 31.8 ± 4.1 kg/m, glomerular filtration rate [GFR] 83 ± 16 mL/min/1.73 m; median [interquartile range]: albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) 1.09 mg/mmol [0.47-3.31]) received sitagliptin (100 mg/day), liraglutide (1.8 mg/day), or matching placebos. GFR (primary end point) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were determined by inulin and para-aminohippuric acid clearance, respectively. Intrarenal hemodynamic variables were estimated. Absolute and fractional excretions of sodium (FE), potassium, and urea (FE) and renal damage markers (ACR, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], and kidney injury molecule-1 [KIM-1]) were measured. Plasma renin concentration (PRC) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA) were assessed. At weeks 2 and 6, estimated GFR and fractional electrolyte excretions were determined. RESULTS:At week 12, GFR was not affected by sitagliptin (-6 mL/min/1.73 m [95% CI -14 to 3], P = 0.17) or liraglutide (+3 mL/min/1.73 m [-5 to 11], P = 0.46), compared with placebo. Sitagliptin modestly reduced estimated glomerular hydraulic pressure (P; P = 0.043). ERPF, other intrarenal hemodynamic variables, renal damage markers, and PRC did not change for both treatments. Both agents reduced HbA. Only at week 2, sitagliptin increased FE and FE (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS:Twelve-week treatment with sitagliptin or liraglutide does not affect measured renal hemodynamics. No sustained changes in tubular functions or alteration in renal damage markers were observed. The validity and clinical relevance of the slight sitagliptin-induced P reduction remains speculative. 10.2337/dc16-1371
    Semaglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Marso Steven P,Bain Stephen C,Consoli Agostino,Eliaschewitz Freddy G,Jódar Esteban,Leiter Lawrence A,Lingvay Ildiko,Rosenstock Julio,Seufert Jochen,Warren Mark L,Woo Vincent,Hansen Oluf,Holst Anders G,Pettersson Jonas,Vilsbøll Tina, The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Regulatory guidance specifies the need to establish cardiovascular safety of new diabetes therapies in patients with type 2 diabetes in order to rule out excess cardiovascular risk. The cardiovascular effects of semaglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue with an extended half-life of approximately 1 week, in type 2 diabetes are unknown. METHODS:We randomly assigned 3297 patients with type 2 diabetes who were on a standard-care regimen to receive once-weekly semaglutide (0.5 mg or 1.0 mg) or placebo for 104 weeks. The primary composite outcome was the first occurrence of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. We hypothesized that semaglutide would be noninferior to placebo for the primary outcome. The noninferiority margin was 1.8 for the upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval of the hazard ratio. RESULTS:At baseline, 2735 of the patients (83.0%) had established cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, or both. The primary outcome occurred in 108 of 1648 patients (6.6%) in the semaglutide group and in 146 of 1649 patients (8.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58 to 0.95; P<0.001 for noninferiority). Nonfatal myocardial infarction occurred in 2.9% of the patients receiving semaglutide and in 3.9% of those receiving placebo (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.51 to 1.08; P=0.12); nonfatal stroke occurred in 1.6% and 2.7%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.99; P=0.04). Rates of death from cardiovascular causes were similar in the two groups. Rates of new or worsening nephropathy were lower in the semaglutide group, but rates of retinopathy complications (vitreous hemorrhage, blindness, or conditions requiring treatment with an intravitreal agent or photocoagulation) were significantly higher (hazard ratio, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.78; P=0.02). Fewer serious adverse events occurred in the semaglutide group, although more patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events, mainly gastrointestinal. CONCLUSIONS:In patients with type 2 diabetes who were at high cardiovascular risk, the rate of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke was significantly lower among patients receiving semaglutide than among those receiving placebo, an outcome that confirmed the noninferiority of semaglutide. (Funded by Novo Nordisk; SUSTAIN-6 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01720446 .). 10.1056/NEJMoa1607141
    Fatty Liver and Chronic Kidney Disease: Novel Mechanistic Insights and Therapeutic Opportunities. Musso Giovanni,Cassader Maurizio,Cohney Solomon,De Michieli Franco,Pinach Silvia,Saba Francesca,Gambino Roberto Diabetes care Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). ESRD or CVD develop in a substantial proportion of patients with CKD receiving standard-of-care therapy, and mortality in CKD remains unchanged. These data suggest that key pathogenetic mechanisms underlying CKD progression go unaffected by current treatments. Growing evidence suggests that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and CKD share common pathogenetic mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets. Common nutritional conditions predisposing to both NAFLD and CKD include excessive fructose intake and vitamin D deficiency. Modulation of nuclear transcription factors regulating key pathways of lipid metabolism, inflammation, and fibrosis, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and farnesoid X receptor, is advancing to stage III clinical development. The relevance of epigenetic regulation in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and CKD is also emerging, and modulation of microRNA21 is a promising therapeutic target. Although single antioxidant supplementation has yielded variable results, modulation of key effectors of redox regulation and molecular sensors of intracellular energy, nutrient, or oxygen status show promising preclinical results. Other emerging therapeutic approaches target key mediators of inflammation, such as chemokines; fibrogenesis, such as galectin-3; or gut dysfunction through gut microbiota manipulation and incretin-based therapies. Furthermore, NAFLD per se affects CKD through lipoprotein metabolism and hepatokine secretion, and conversely, targeting the renal tubule by sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors can improve both CKD and NAFLD. Implications for the treatment of NAFLD and CKD are discussed in light of this new therapeutic armamentarium. 10.2337/dc15-1182
    Effect of Sitagliptin on Kidney Function and Respective Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes: Outcomes From TECOS. Cornel Jan H,Bakris George L,Stevens Susanna R,Alvarsson Michael,Bax Willem A,Chuang Lee-Ming,Engel Samuel S,Lopes Renato D,McGuire Darren K,Riefflin Axel,Rodbard Helena Wachslicht,Sinay Isaac,Tankova Tsvetalina,Wainstein Julio,Peterson Eric D,Holman Rury R, Diabetes care OBJECTIVE:To evaluate chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular outcomes in TECOS (Clinical trial reg. no. NCT00790205, clinicaltrials.gov) participants with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease treated with sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, according to baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We used data from 14,671 TECOS participants assigned in a double-blind design to receive sitagliptin or placebo added to existing therapy, while aiming for glycemic equipoise between groups. Cardiovascular and CKD outcomes were evaluated over a median period of 3 years, with participants categorized at baseline into eGFR stages 1, 2, 3a, and 3b (≥90, 60-89, 45-59, or 30-44 mL/min/1.73 m, respectively). RESULTS:Participants with eGFR stage 3b were older, were more often female, and had a longer duration of diabetes. Four-point major adverse cardiovascular event rates increased with lower baseline eGFR (3.52, 3.55, 5.74, and 7.34 events/100 patient-years for stages 1-3b, respectively). Corresponding adjusted hazard ratios for stages 2, 3a, and 3b versus stage 1 were 0.93 (95% CI 0.82-1.06), 1.28 (1.10-1.49), and 1.39 (1.13-1.72), respectively. Sitagliptin therapy was not associated with cardiovascular outcomes for any eGFR stage (interaction P values were all >0.44). Kidney function declined at the same rate in both treatment groups, with a marginally lower but constant eGFR difference (-1.3 mL/min/1.73 m) in those participants who were assigned to sitagliptin. Treatment differences in these eGFR values remained after adjustment for region, baseline eGFR, baseline HbA, time of assessment, and within-study HbA levels. CONCLUSIONS:Impaired kidney function is associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes. Sitagliptin has no clinically significant impact on cardiovascular or CKD outcomes, irrespective of baseline eGFR. 10.2337/dc16-1415
    The role of phosphate in kidney disease. Vervloet Marc G,Sezer Siren,Massy Ziad A,Johansson Lina,Cozzolino Mario,Fouque Denis, Nature reviews. Nephrology The importance of phosphate homeostasis in chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been recognized for decades, but novel insights - which are frequently relevant to everyday clinical practice - continue to emerge. Epidemiological data consistently indicate an association between hyperphosphataemia and poor clinical outcomes. Moreover, compelling evidence suggests direct toxicity of increased phosphate concentrations. Importantly, serum phosphate concentration has a circadian rhythm that must be considered when interpreting patient phosphate levels. Detailed understanding of dietary sources of phosphate, including food additives, can enable phosphate restriction without risking protein malnutrition. Dietary counselling provides an often underestimated opportunity to target the increasing exposure to dietary phosphate of both the general population and patients with CKD. In patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, bone can be an important source of serum phosphate, and adequate appreciation of this fact should impact treatment. Dietary and pharmotherapeutic interventions are efficacious strategies to lower phosphate intake and serum concentration. However, strong evidence that targeting serum phosphate improves patient outcomes is currently lacking. Future studies are, therefore, required to investigate the effects of modern dietary and pharmacological interventions on clinically meaningful end points. 10.1038/nrneph.2016.164
    Chronic Kidney Disease. Webster Angela C,Nagler Evi V,Morton Rachael L,Masson Philip Lancet (London, England) The definition and classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have evolved over time, but current international guidelines define this condition as decreased kidney function shown by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m, or markers of kidney damage, or both, of at least 3 months duration, regardless of the underlying cause. Diabetes and hypertension are the main causes of CKD in all high-income and middle-income countries, and also in many low-income countries. Incidence, prevalence, and progression of CKD also vary within countries by ethnicity and social determinants of health, possibly through epigenetic influence. Many people are asymptomatic or have non-specific symptoms such as lethargy, itch, or loss of appetite. Diagnosis is commonly made after chance findings from screening tests (urinary dipstick or blood tests), or when symptoms become severe. The best available indicator of overall kidney function is GFR, which is measured either via exogenous markers (eg, DTPA, iohexol), or estimated using equations. Presence of proteinuria is associated with increased risk of progression of CKD and death. Kidney biopsy samples can show definitive evidence of CKD, through common changes such as glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis. Complications include anaemia due to reduced production of erythropoietin by the kidney; reduced red blood cell survival and iron deficiency; and mineral bone disease caused by disturbed vitamin D, calcium, and phosphate metabolism. People with CKD are five to ten times more likely to die prematurely than they are to progress to end stage kidney disease. This increased risk of death rises exponentially as kidney function worsens and is largely attributable to death from cardiovascular disease, although cancer incidence and mortality are also increased. Health-related quality of life is substantially lower for people with CKD than for the general population, and falls as GFR declines. Interventions targeting specific symptoms, or aimed at supporting educational or lifestyle considerations, make a positive difference to people living with CKD. Inequity in access to services for this disease disproportionally affects disadvantaged populations, and health service provision to incentivise early intervention over provision of care only for advanced CKD is still evolving in many countries. 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)32064-5
    The global burden of chronic kidney disease: estimates, variability and pitfalls. Glassock Richard J,Warnock David G,Delanaye Pierre Nature reviews. Nephrology Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is currently defined by abnormalities of kidney structure or function assessed using a matrix of variables - including glomerular filtration rate (GFR), thresholds of albuminuria and duration of injury - and is considered by many to be a common disorder globally. However, estimates of CKD prevalence vary widely, both within and between countries. The reasons for these variations are manifold, and include true regional differences in CKD prevalence, vagaries of using estimated GFR (eGFR) for identifying CKD, issues relating to the use of set GFR thresholds to define CKD in elderly populations, and concerns regarding the use of one-off testing for assessment of eGFR or albuminuria to define the prevalence of CKD in large-scale epidemiological studies. Although CKD is common, the suggestion that its prevalence is increasing in many countries might not be correct. Here, we discuss the possible origins of differences in estimates of CKD prevalence, and present possible solutions for tackling the factors responsible for the reported variations in GFR measurements. The strategies we discuss include approaches to improve testing methodologies for more accurate assessment of GFR, to improve awareness of factors that can alter GFR readouts, and to more accurately stage CKD in certain populations, including the elderly. 10.1038/nrneph.2016.163
    Changes in the worldwide epidemiology of peritoneal dialysis. Li Philip Kam-Tao,Chow Kai Ming,Van de Luijtgaarden Moniek W M,Johnson David W,Jager Kitty J,Mehrotra Rajnish,Naicker Sarala,Pecoits-Filho Roberto,Yu Xue Qing,Lameire Norbert Nature reviews. Nephrology As the global burden of chronic kidney disease continues to increase, so does the need for a cost-effective renal replacement therapy. In many countries, patient outcomes with peritoneal dialysis are comparable to or better than those with haemodialysis, and peritoneal dialysis is also more cost-effective. These benefits have not, however, always led to increased utilization of peritoneal dialysis. Use of this therapy is increasing in some countries, including China, the USA and Thailand, but has proportionally decreased in parts of Europe and in Japan. The variable trends in peritoneal dialysis use reflect the multiple challenges in prescribing this therapy to patients. Key strategies for facilitating peritoneal dialysis utilization include implementation of policies and incentives that favour this modality, enabling the appropriate production and supply of peritoneal dialysis fluid at a low cost, and appropriate training for nephrologists to enable increased utilization of the therapy and to ensure that rates of technique failure continue to decline. Further growth in peritoneal dialysis use is required to enable this modality to become an integral part of renal replacement therapy programmes worldwide. 10.1038/nrneph.2016.181
    Clinical Outcomes of Metformin Use in Populations With Chronic Kidney Disease, Congestive Heart Failure, or Chronic Liver Disease: A Systematic Review. Crowley Matthew J,Diamantidis Clarissa J,McDuffie Jennifer R,Cameron C Blake,Stanifer John W,Mock Clare K,Wang Xianwei,Tang Shuang,Nagi Avishek,Kosinski Andrzej S,Williams John W Annals of internal medicine Background:Recent changes to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration boxed warning for metformin will increase its use in persons with historical contraindications or precautions. Prescribers must understand the clinical outcomes of metformin use in these populations. Purpose:To synthesize data addressing outcomes of metformin use in populations with type 2 diabetes and moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (CKD), congestive heart failure (CHF), or chronic liver disease (CLD) with hepatic impairment. Data Sources:MEDLINE (via PubMed) from January 1994 to September 2016, and Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts from January 1994 to November 2015. Study Selection:English-language studies that: 1) examined adults with type 2 diabetes and CKD (with estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2), CHF, or CLD with hepatic impairment; 2) compared diabetes regimens that included metformin with those that did not; and 3) reported all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events, and other outcomes of interest. Data Extraction:2 reviewers abstracted data and independently rated study quality and strength of evidence. Data Synthesis:On the basis of quantitative and qualitative syntheses involving 17 observational studies, metformin use is associated with reduced all-cause mortality in patients with CKD, CHF, or CLD with hepatic impairment, and with fewer heart failure readmissions in patients with CKD or CHF. Limitations:Strength of evidence was low, and data on multiple outcomes of interest were sparse. Available studies were observational and varied in follow-up duration. Conclusion:Metformin use in patients with moderate CKD, CHF, or CLD with hepatic impairment is associated with improvements in key clinical outcomes. Our findings support the recent changes in metformin labeling. Primary Funding Source:U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (PROSPERO: CRD42016027708). 10.7326/M16-1901
    Effect of Fish Oil Supplementation and Aspirin Use on Arteriovenous Fistula Failure in Patients Requiring Hemodialysis: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Irish Ashley B,Viecelli Andrea K,Hawley Carmel M,Hooi Lai-Seong,Pascoe Elaine M,Paul-Brent Peta-Anne,Badve Sunil V,Mori Trevor A,Cass Alan,Kerr Peter G,Voss David,Ong Loke-Meng,Polkinghorne Kevan R, JAMA internal medicine Importance:Vascular access dysfunction is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients requiring hemodialysis. Arteriovenous fistulae are preferred over synthetic grafts and central venous catheters due to superior long-term outcomes and lower health care costs, but increasing their use is limited by early thrombosis and maturation failure. ω-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish oils) have pleiotropic effects on vascular biology and inflammation and aspirin impairs platelet aggregation, which may reduce access failure. Objective:To determine whether fish oil supplementation (primary objective) or aspirin use (secondary objective) is effective in reducing arteriovenous fistula failure. Design, Setting, and Participants:The Omega-3 Fatty Acids (Fish Oils) and Aspirin in Vascular Access Outcomes in Renal Disease (FAVOURED) study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial that recruited participants with stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease from 2008 to 2014 at 35 dialysis centers in Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. Participants were observed for 12 months after arteriovenous fistula creation. Interventions:Participants were randomly allocated to receive fish oil (4 g/d) or matching placebo. A subset (n = 406) was also randomized to receive aspirin (100 mg/d) or matching placebo. Treatment started 1 day prior to surgery and continued for 12 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was fistula failure, a composite of fistula thrombosis and/or abandonment and/or cannulation failure, at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included the individual components of the primary outcome. Results:Of 1415 eligible participants, 567 were randomized (359 [63%] male, 298 [53%] white, 264 [47%] with diabetes; mean [SD] age, 54.8 [14.3] y). The same proportion of fistula failures occurred in the fish oil and placebo arms (128 of 270 [47%] vs 125 of 266 [47%]; relative risk [RR] adjusted for aspirin use, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.86-1.23; P = .78). Fish oil did not reduce fistula thrombosis (60 [22%] vs 61 [23%]; RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.72-1.34; P = .90), abandonment (51 [19%] vs 58 [22%]; RR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.62-1.22; P = .43), or cannulation failure (108 [40%] vs 104 [39%]; RR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.83-1.26; P = .81). The risk of fistula failure was similar between the aspirin and placebo arms (87 of 194 [45%] vs 83 of 194 [43%]; RR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.84-1.31; P = .68). Conclusions and Relevance:Neither fish oil supplementation nor aspirin use reduced failure of new arteriovenous fistulae within 12 months of surgery. Trial Registration:anzctr.org.au Identifier: CTRN12607000569404. 10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.8029
    Effect of Etelcalcetide vs Placebo on Serum Parathyroid Hormone in Patients Receiving Hemodialysis With Secondary Hyperparathyroidism: Two Randomized Clinical Trials. Block Geoffrey A,Bushinsky David A,Cunningham John,Drueke Tilman B,Ketteler Markus,Kewalramani Reshma,Martin Kevin J,Mix T Christian,Moe Sharon M,Patel Uptal D,Silver Justin,Spiegel David M,Sterling Lulu,Walsh Liron,Chertow Glenn M JAMA Importance:Secondary hyperparathyroidism contributes to extraskeletal complications in chronic kidney disease. Objective:To evaluate the effect of the intravenous calcimimetic etelcalcetide on serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations in patients receiving hemodialysis. Design, Setting, and Participants:Two parallel, phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled treatment trials were conducted in 1023 patients receiving hemodialysis with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Trial A was conducted in 508 patients at 111 sites in the United States, Canada, Europe, Israel, Russia, and Australia from March 12, 2013, to June 12, 2014; trial B was conducted in 515 patients at 97 sites in the same countries from March 12, 2013, to May 12, 2014. Interventions:Intravenous administration of etelcalcetide (n = 503) or placebo (n = 513) after each hemodialysis session for 26 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary efficacy end point was the proportion of patients achieving greater than 30% reduction from baseline in mean PTH during weeks 20-27. A secondary efficacy end point was the proportion of patients achieving mean PTH of 300 pg/mL or lower. Results:The mean age of the 1023 patients was 58.2 (SD, 14.4) years and 60.4% were men. Mean PTH concentrations at baseline and during weeks 20-27 were 849 and 384 pg/mL vs 820 and 897 pg/mL in the etelcalcetide and placebo groups, respectively, in trial A; corresponding values were 845 and 363 pg/mL vs 852 and 960 pg/mL in trial B. Patients randomized to etelcalcetide were significantly more likely to achieve the primary efficacy end point: in trial A, 188 of 254 (74.0%) vs 21 of 254 (8.3%; P < .001), for a difference in proportions of 65.7% (95% CI, 59.4%-72.1%) and in trial B, 192 of 255 (75.3%) vs 25 of 260 (9.6%; P < .001), for a difference in proportions of 65.7% (95% CI, 59.3%-72.1%). Patients randomized to etelcalcetide were significantly more likely to achieve a PTH level of 300 pg/mL or lower: in trial A, 126 of 254 (49.6%) vs 13 of 254 (5.1%; P < .001), for a difference in proportions of 44.5% (95% CI, 37.8%-51.2%) and in trial B, 136 of 255 (53.3%) vs 12 of 260 (4.6%; P < .001), for a difference in proportions of 48.7% (95% CI, 42.1%-55.4%). In trials A and B, respectively, patients receiving etelcalcetide had more muscle spasms (12.0% and 11.1% vs 7.1% and 6.2% with placebo), nausea (12.4% and 9.1% vs 5.1% and 7.3%), and vomiting (10.4% and 7.5% vs 7.1% and 3.1%). Conclusions and Relevance:Among patients receiving hemodialysis with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism, use of etelcalcetide compared with placebo resulted in greater reduction in serum PTH over 26 weeks. Further studies are needed to assess clinical outcomes as well as longer-term efficacy and safety. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifiers: NCT01788046. 10.1001/jama.2016.19456
    Effect of Etelcalcetide vs Cinacalcet on Serum Parathyroid Hormone in Patients Receiving Hemodialysis With Secondary Hyperparathyroidism: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Block Geoffrey A,Bushinsky David A,Cheng Sunfa,Cunningham John,Dehmel Bastian,Drueke Tilman B,Ketteler Markus,Kewalramani Reshma,Martin Kevin J,Moe Sharon M,Patel Uptal D,Silver Justin,Sun Yan,Wang Hao,Chertow Glenn M JAMA Importance:Secondary hyperparathyroidism contributes to extraskeletal calcification and is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Control is suboptimal in the majority of patients receiving hemodialysis. An intravenously (IV) administered calcimimetic could improve adherence and reduce adverse gastrointestinal effects. Objective:To evaluate the relative efficacy and safety of the IV calcimimetic etelcalcetide and the oral calcimimetic cinacalcet. Design, Setting, and Participants:A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy active clinical trial was conducted comparing IV etelcalcetide vs oral placebo and oral cinacalcet vs IV placebo in 683 patients receiving hemodialysis with serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations higher than 500 pg/mL on active therapy at 164 sites in the United States, Canada, Europe, Russia, and New Zealand. Patients were enrolled from August 2013 to May 2014, with end of follow-up in January 2015. Interventions:Etelcalcetide intravenously and oral placebo (n = 340) or oral cinacalcet and IV placebo (n = 343) for 26 weeks. The IV study drug was administered 3 times weekly with hemodialysis; the oral study drug was administered daily. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary efficacy end point was noninferiority of etelcalcetide at achieving more than a 30% reduction from baseline in mean predialysis PTH concentrations during weeks 20-27 (noninferiority margin, 12.0%). Secondary end points included superiority in achieving biochemical end points (>50% and >30% reduction in PTH) and self-reported nausea or vomiting. Results:The mean (SD) age of the trial participants was 54.7 (14.1) years and 56.2% were men. Etelcalcetide was noninferior to cinacalcet on the primary end point. The estimated difference in proportions of patients achieving reduction in PTH concentrations of more than 30% between the 198 of 343 patients (57.7%) randomized to receive cinacalcet and the 232 of 340 patients (68.2%) randomized to receive etelcalcetide was -10.5% (95% CI, -17.5% to -3.5%, P for noninferiority, <.001; P for superiority, .004). One hundred seventy-eight patients (52.4%) randomized to etelcalcetide achieved more than 50% reduction in PTH concentrations compared with 138 patients (40.2%) randomized to cinacalcet (P = .001; difference in proportions, 12.2%; 95% CI, 4.7% to 19.5%). The most common adverse effect was decreased blood calcium (68.9% vs 59.8%). Conclusions and Relevance:Among patients receiving hemodialysis with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism, the use of etelcalcetide was not inferior to cinacalcet in reducing serum PTH concentrations over 26 weeks; it also met superiority criteria. Further studies are needed to assess clinical outcomes as well as longer-term efficacy and safety. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT1896232. 10.1001/jama.2016.19468
    Physical inactivity: a risk factor and target for intervention in renal care. Zelle Dorien M,Klaassen Gerald,van Adrichem Edwin,Bakker Stephan J L,Corpeleijn Eva,Navis Gerjan Nature reviews. Nephrology Regular physical activity is associated with an increased quality of life and reduced morbidity and mortality in the general population and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscle mass decrease even in the early stages of CKD, and continue to decrease with disease progression; notably, full recovery is generally not achieved with transplantation. The combined effects of uraemia and physical inactivity drive the loss of muscle mass. Regular physical activity benefits cardiometabolic, neuromuscular and cognitive function across all stages of CKD, and therefore provides an approach to address the multimorbidity of the CKD population. Interestingly, maintenance of muscle health is associated with renoprotective effects. Despite evidence of its benefits, physical activity and exercise management are not routinely addressed in the care of these patients. Although studies defining the optimum frequency, duration and intensity of physical activity are lacking, evidence from related fields can guide practical approaches to the care of patients with renal disease. Optimization of metabolic and nutritional status alongside promotion of physical activity is recommended. Behavioural approaches are now recognized as crucial in helping patients to adopt lifestyle changes and might prove valuable in integrating physical activity into renal care. 10.1038/nrneph.2016.187
    Association of Intensive Blood Pressure Control and Kidney Disease Progression in Nondiabetic Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Tsai Wan-Chuan,Wu Hon-Yen,Peng Yu-Sen,Yang Ju-Yeh,Chen Hung-Yuan,Chiu Yen-Ling,Hsu Shih-Ping,Ko Mei-Ju,Pai Mei-Fen,Tu Yu-Kang,Hung Kuan-Yu,Chien Kuo-Liong JAMA internal medicine Importance:The optimal blood pressure (BP) target remains debated in nondiabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objective:To compare intensive BP control (<130/80 mm Hg) with standard BP control (<140/90 mm Hg) on major renal outcomes in patients with CKD without diabetes. Data Sources:Searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library for publications up to March 24, 2016. Study Selection:Randomized clinical trials that compared an intensive vs a standard BP target in nondiabetic adults with CKD, reporting changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), doubling of serum creatinine level, 50% reduction in GFR, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or all-cause mortality. Data Extraction and Synthesis:Random-effects meta-analyses for pooling effect measures. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses for exploring heterogeneity. Main Outcomes and Measures:Differences in annual rate of change in GFR were expressed as mean differences with 95% CIs. Differences in doubling of serum creatinine or 50% reduction in GFR, ESRD, composite renal outcome, and all-cause mortality were expressed as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs. Results:We identified 9 trials with 8127 patients and a median follow-up of 3.3 years. Compared with standard BP control, intensive BP control did not show a significant difference on the annual rate of change in GFR (mean difference, 0.07; 95% CI, -0.16 to 0.29 mL/min/1.73 m2/y), doubling of serum creatinine level or 50% reduction in GFR (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.76-1.29), ESRD (RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.78-1.18), composite renal outcome (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.81-1.21), or all-cause mortality (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.66-1.37). Nonblacks and patients with higher levels of proteinuria showed a trend of lower risk of kidney disease progression with intensive BP control. Conclusions and Relevance:Targeting BP below the current standard did not provide additional benefit for renal outcomes compared with standard treatment during a follow-up of 3.3 years in patients with CKD without diabetes. However, nonblack patients or those with higher levels of proteinuria might benefit from the intensive BP-lowering treatments. 10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.0197
    Global kidney health 2017 and beyond: a roadmap for closing gaps in care, research, and policy. Levin Adeera,Tonelli Marcello,Bonventre Joseph,Coresh Josef,Donner Jo-Ann,Fogo Agnes B,Fox Caroline S,Gansevoort Ron T,Heerspink Hiddo J L,Jardine Meg,Kasiske Bertram,Köttgen Anna,Kretzler Matthias,Levey Andrew S,Luyckx Valerie A,Mehta Ravindra,Moe Orson,Obrador Gregorio,Pannu Neesh,Parikh Chirag R,Perkovic Vlado,Pollock Carol,Stenvinkel Peter,Tuttle Katherine R,Wheeler David C,Eckardt Kai-Uwe, Lancet (London, England) The global nephrology community recognises the need for a cohesive plan to address the problem of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In July, 2016, the International Society of Nephrology hosted a CKD summit of more than 85 people with diverse expertise and professional backgrounds from around the globe. The purpose was to identify and prioritise key activities for the next 5-10 years in the domains of clinical care, research, and advocacy and to create an action plan and performance framework based on ten themes: strengthen CKD surveillance; tackle major risk factors for CKD; reduce acute kidney injury-a special risk factor for CKD; enhance understanding of the genetic causes of CKD; establish better diagnostic methods in CKD; improve understanding of the natural course of CKD; assess and implement established treatment options in patients with CKD; improve management of symptoms and complications of CKD; develop novel therapeutic interventions to slow CKD progression and reduce CKD complications; and increase the quantity and quality of clinical trials in CKD. Each group produced a prioritised list of goals, activities, and a set of key deliverable objectives for each of the themes. The intended users of this action plan are clinicians, patients, scientists, industry partners, governments, and advocacy organisations. Implementation of this integrated comprehensive plan will benefit people who are at risk for or affected by CKD worldwide. 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30788-2
    The systemic nature of CKD. Zoccali Carmine,Vanholder Raymond,Massy Ziad A,Ortiz Alberto,Sarafidis Pantelis,Dekker Friedo W,Fliser Danilo,Fouque Denis,Heine Gunnar H,Jager Kitty J,Kanbay Mehmet,Mallamaci Francesca,Parati Gianfranco,Rossignol Patrick,Wiecek Andrzej,London Gerard, Nature reviews. Nephrology The accurate definition and staging of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the major achievements of modern nephrology. Intensive research is now being undertaken to unravel the risk factors and pathophysiologic underpinnings of this disease. In particular, the relationships between the kidney and other organs have been comprehensively investigated in experimental and clinical studies in the last two decades. Owing to technological and analytical limitations, these links have been studied with a reductionist approach focusing on two organs at a time, such as the heart and the kidney or the bone and the kidney. Here, we discuss studies that highlight the complex and systemic nature of CKD. Energy balance, innate immunity and neuroendocrine signalling are highly integrated biological phenomena. The diseased kidney disrupts such integration and generates a high-risk phenotype with a clinical profile encompassing inflammation, protein-energy wasting, altered function of the autonomic and central nervous systems and cardiopulmonary, vascular and bone diseases. A systems biology approach to CKD using omics techniques will hopefully enable in-depth study of the pathophysiology of this systemic disease, and has the potential to unravel critical pathways that can be targeted for CKD prevention and therapy. 10.1038/nrneph.2017.52
    Reducing the costs of chronic kidney disease while delivering quality health care: a call to action. Vanholder Raymond,Annemans Lieven,Brown Edwina,Gansevoort Ron,Gout-Zwart Judith J,Lameire Norbert,Morton Rachael L,Oberbauer Rainer,Postma Maarten J,Tonelli Marcello,Biesen Wim Van,Zoccali Carmine, Nature reviews. Nephrology The treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) imposes substantial societal costs. Expenditure is highest for renal replacement therapy (RRT), especially in-hospital haemodialysis. Redirection towards less expensive forms of RRT (peritoneal dialysis, home haemodialysis) or kidney transplantation should decrease financial pressure. However, costs for CKD are not limited to RRT, but also include nonrenal health-care costs, costs not related to health care, and costs for patients with CKD who are not yet receiving RRT. Even if patients with CKD or ESRD could be given the least expensive therapies, costs would decrease only marginally. We therefore propose a consistent and sustainable approach focusing on prevention. Before a preventive strategy is favoured, however, authorities should carefully analyse the cost to benefit ratio of each strategy. Primary prevention of CKD is more important than secondary prevention, as many other related chronic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, cancer, and pulmonary disorders could also be prevented. Primary prevention largely consists of lifestyle changes that will reduce global societal costs and, more importantly, result in a healthy, active, and long-lived population. Nephrologists need to collaborate closely with other sectors and governments, to reach these aims. 10.1038/nrneph.2017.63
    Identification of Novel Circulating Biomarkers Predicting Rapid Decline in Renal Function in Type 2 Diabetes: The Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II. Peters Kirsten E,Davis Wendy A,Ito Jun,Winfield Kaye,Stoll Thomas,Bringans Scott D,Lipscombe Richard J,Davis Timothy M E Diabetes care OBJECTIVE:To assess the ability of plasma apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV (apoA4), apo C-III, CD5 antigen-like (CD5L), complement C1q subcomponent subunit B (C1QB), complement factor H-related protein 2, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IBP3) to predict rapid decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Mass spectrometry was used to measure baseline biomarkers in 345 community-based patients (mean age 67.0 years, 51.9% males) from the Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II (FDS2). Multiple logistic regression was used to determine clinical predictors of rapid eGFR decline trajectory defined by semiparametric group-based modeling over a 4-year follow-up period. The incremental benefit of each biomarker was then assessed. Similar analyses were performed for a ≥30% eGFR fall, incident chronic kidney disease (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m), and eGFR decline of ≥5 mL/min/1.73 m/year. RESULTS:Based on eGFR trajectory analysis, 35 participants (10.1%) were defined as "rapid decliners" (mean decrease 2.9 mL/min/1.73 m/year). After adjustment for clinical predictors, apoA4, CD5L, and C1QB independently predicted rapid decline (odds ratio 2.40 [95% CI 1.24-4.61], 0.52 [0.29-0.93], and 2.41 [1.14-5.11], respectively) and improved model performance and fit ( < 0.001), discrimination (area under the curve 0.75-0.82, 0.039), and reclassification (net reclassification index 0.76 [0.63-0.89]; integrated discrimination improvement 6.3% [2.1-10.4%]). These biomarkers and IBP3 contributed to improved model performance in predicting other indices of rapid eGFR decline. CONCLUSIONS:The current study has identified novel plasma biomarkers (apoA4, CD5L, C1QB, and IBP3) that may improve the prediction of rapid decline in renal function independently of recognized clinical risk factors in type 2 diabetes. 10.2337/dc17-0911
    Liraglutide and Renal Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes. Mann Johannes F E,Ørsted David D,Brown-Frandsen Kirstine,Marso Steven P,Poulter Neil R,Rasmussen Søren,Tornøe Karen,Zinman Bernard,Buse John B, The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:In a randomized, controlled trial that compared liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue, with placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk who were receiving usual care, we found that liraglutide resulted in lower risks of the primary end point (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes) and death. However, the long-term effects of liraglutide on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes are unknown. METHODS:We report the prespecified secondary renal outcomes of that randomized, controlled trial in which patients were assigned to receive liraglutide or placebo. The secondary renal outcome was a composite of new-onset persistent macroalbuminuria, persistent doubling of the serum creatinine level, end-stage renal disease, or death due to renal disease. The risk of renal outcomes was determined with the use of time-to-event analyses with an intention-to-treat approach. Changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria were also analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 9340 patients underwent randomization, and the median follow-up of the patients was 3.84 years. The renal outcome occurred in fewer participants in the liraglutide group than in the placebo group (268 of 4668 patients vs. 337 of 4672; hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67 to 0.92; P=0.003). This result was driven primarily by the new onset of persistent macroalbuminuria, which occurred in fewer participants in the liraglutide group than in the placebo group (161 vs. 215 patients; hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.91; P=0.004). The rates of renal adverse events were similar in the liraglutide group and the placebo group (15.1 events and 16.5 events per 1000 patient-years), including the rate of acute kidney injury (7.1 and 6.2 events per 1000 patient-years, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:This prespecified secondary analysis shows that, when added to usual care, liraglutide resulted in lower rates of the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease than placebo. (Funded by Novo Nordisk and the National Institutes of Health; LEADER ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01179048 .). 10.1056/NEJMoa1616011
    Hypoparathyroidism. Mannstadt Michael,Bilezikian John P,Thakker Rajesh V,Hannan Fadil M,Clarke Bart L,Rejnmark Lars,Mitchell Deborah M,Vokes Tamara J,Winer Karen K,Shoback Dolores M Nature reviews. Disease primers Hypoparathyroidism is a disease characterized by inadequately low circulating concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH) resulting in low calcium levels and increased phosphate levels in the blood. Symptoms of the disease result from increased neuromuscular irritability caused by hypocalcaemia and include tingling, muscle cramps and seizures. The most common cause of the disease is inadvertent removal of, or injury to, the parathyroid glands during neck surgery, followed by genetic, idiopathic and autoimmune aetiologies. Conventional treatment includes activated vitamin D and/or calcium supplements, but this treatment does not fully replace the functions of PTH and can lead to short-term problems (such as hypocalcaemia, hypercalcaemia and increased urinary calcium excretion) and long-term complications (which include nephrocalcinosis, kidney stones and brain calcifications). PTH replacement has emerged as a new treatment option. Clinical trials using human PTH(1-34) and PTH(1-84) showed that this treatment was safe and effective in studies lasting up to 6 years. Recombinant human PTH(1-84) has been approved in the United States and Europe for the management of hypoparathyroidism; however, its effect on long-term complications is still being evaluated. Clinical practice guidelines, which describe the consensus of experts in the field, have been published and recognize the need for more research to optimize care. In this Primer, we summarize current knowledge of the prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical presentation and management of hypoparathyroidism. 10.1038/nrdp.2017.55
    Effects of Intensive Systolic Blood Pressure Control on Kidney and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Persons Without Kidney Disease: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Trial. Beddhu Srinivasan,Rocco Michael V,Toto Robert,Craven Timothy E,Greene Tom,Bhatt Udayan,Cheung Alfred K,Cohen Debbie,Freedman Barry I,Hawfield Amret T,Killeen Anthony A,Kimmel Paul L,Lash James,Papademetriou Vasilios,Rahman Mahboob,Rastogi Anjay,Servilla Karen,Townsend Raymond R,Wall Barry,Whelton Paul K, Annals of internal medicine Background:The public health significance of the reported higher incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering is unclear. Objective:To examine the effects of intensive SBP lowering on kidney and cardiovascular outcomes and contrast its apparent beneficial and adverse effects. Design:Subgroup analyses of SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial). (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01206062). Setting:Adults with high blood pressure and elevated cardiovascular risk. Participants:6662 participants with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of at least 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Intervention:Random assignment to an intensive or standard SBP goal (120 or 140 mm Hg, respectively). Measurements:Differences in mean eGFR during follow-up (estimated with a linear mixed-effects model), prespecified incident CKD (defined as a >30% decrease in eGFR to a value <60 mL/min/1.73 m2), and a composite of all-cause death or cardiovascular event, with surveillance every 3 months. Results:The difference in adjusted mean eGFR between the intensive and standard groups was -3.32 mL/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI, -3.90 to -2.74 mL/min/1.73 m2) at 6 months, was -4.50 mL/min/1.73 m2 (CI, -5.16 to -3.85 mL/min/1.73 m2) at 18 months, and remained relatively stable thereafter. An incident CKD event occurred in 3.7% of participants in the intensive group and 1.0% in the standard group at 3-year follow-up, with a hazard ratio of 3.54 (CI, 2.50 to 5.02). The corresponding percentages for the composite of death or cardiovascular event were 4.9% and 7.1% at 3-year follow-up, with a hazard ratio of 0.71 (CI, 0.59 to 0.86). Limitation:Long-term data were lacking. Conclusion:Intensive SBP lowering increased risk for incident CKD events, but this was outweighed by cardiovascular and all-cause mortality benefits. Primary Funding Source:National Institutes of Health. 10.7326/M16-2966
    Association Between More Intensive vs Less Intensive Blood Pressure Lowering and Risk of Mortality in Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 3 to 5: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Malhotra Rakesh,Nguyen Hoang Anh,Benavente Oscar,Mete Mihriye,Howard Barbara V,Mant Jonathan,Odden Michelle C,Peralta Carmen A,Cheung Alfred K,Nadkarni Girish N,Coleman Ruth L,Holman Rury R,Zanchetti Alberto,Peters Ruth,Beckett Nigel,Staessen Jan A,Ix Joachim H JAMA internal medicine Importance:Trials in patients with hypertension have demonstrated that intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality but may increase the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) incidence and progression. Whether intensive BP lowering is associated with a mortality benefit in patients with prevalent CKD remains unknown. Objectives:To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) to investigate if more intensive compared with less intensive BP control is associated with reduced mortality risk in persons with CKD stages 3 to 5. Data Sources:Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, Science Citation Index, Google Scholar, and clinicaltrials.gov electronic databases. Study Selection:All RCTs were included that compared 2 defined BP targets (either active BP treatment vs placebo or no treatment, or intensive vs less intensive BP control) and enrolled adults (≥18 years) with CKD stages 3 to 5 (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) exclusively or that included a CKD subgroup between January 1, 1950, and June 1, 2016. Data Extraction and Synthesis:Two of us independently evaluated study quality and extracted characteristics and mortality events among persons with CKD within the intervention phase for each trial. When outcomes within the CKD group had not previously been published, trial investigators were contacted to request data within the CKD subset of their original trials. Main Outcome and Measure:All-cause mortality during the active treatment phase of each trial. Results:This study identified 30 RCTs that potentially met the inclusion criteria. The CKD subset mortality data were extracted in 18 trials, among which there were 1293 deaths in 15 924 participants with CKD. The mean (SD) baseline systolic BP (SBP) was 148 (16) mm Hg in both the more intensive and less intensive arms. The mean SBP dropped by 16 mm Hg to 132 mm Hg in the more intensive arm and by 8 mm Hg to 140 mm Hg in the less intensive arm. More intensive vs less intensive BP control resulted in 14.0% lower risk of all-cause mortality (odds ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76-0.97; P = .01), a finding that was without significant heterogeneity and appeared consistent across multiple subgroups. Conclusions and Relevance:Randomization to more intensive BP control is associated with lower mortality risk among trial participants with hypertension and CKD. Further studies are required to define absolute BP targets for maximal benefit and minimal harm. 10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.4377
    Empagliflozin and Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Established Cardiovascular Disease, and Chronic Kidney Disease. Wanner Christoph,Lachin John M,Inzucchi Silvio E,Fitchett David,Mattheus Michaela,George Jyothis,Woerle Hans J,Broedl Uli C,von Eynatten Maximilian,Zinman Bernard, Circulation BACKGROUND:Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established cardiovascular disease in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial (Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients). Urinary glucose excretion with empagliflozin decreases with declining renal function, resulting in less potency for glucose lowering in patients with kidney disease. We investigated the effects of empagliflozin on clinical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, established cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. METHODS:Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, established cardiovascular disease, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥30 mL·min·1.73 m at screening were randomized to receive empagliflozin 10 mg, empagliflozin 25 mg, or placebo once daily in addition to standard of care. We analyzed cardiovascular death, hospitalization for heart failure, all-cause hospitalization, and all-cause mortality in patients with prevalent kidney disease (defined as eGFR <60 mL·min·1.73 m and/or urine albumin-creatinine ratio >300 mg/g) at baseline. Additional analyses were performed in subgroups by baseline eGFR (<45, 45-<60, 60-<90, ≥90 mL·min·1.73 m) and baseline urine albumin-creatinine ratio (>300, 30-≤300, <30 mg/g). RESULTS:Of 7020 patients treated, 2250 patients had prevalent kidney disease at baseline, of whom 67% had a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus for >10 years, 58% were receiving insulin, and 84% were taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. In patients with prevalent kidney disease at baseline, empagliflozin reduced the risk of cardiovascular death by 29% compared with placebo (hazard ratio [HR], 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52-0.98), the risk of all-cause mortality by 24% (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.59-0.99), the risk of hospitalization for heart failure by 39% (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.42-0.87), and the risk of all-cause hospitalization by 19% (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.72-0.92). Effects of empagliflozin on these outcomes were consistent across categories of eGFR and urine albumin-creatinine ratio at baseline and across the 2 doses studied. The adverse event profile of empagliflozin in patients with eGFR <60 mL·min·1.73 m was consistent with the overall trial population. CONCLUSIONS:Empagliflozin improved clinical outcomes and reduced mortality in vulnerable patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, established cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01131676. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.028268
    Bone and mineral disorders in chronic kidney disease: implications for cardiovascular health and ageing in the general population. Covic Adrian,Vervloet Marc,Massy Ziad A,Torres Pablo Ureña,Goldsmith David,Brandenburg Vincent,Mazzaferro Sandro,Evenepoel Pieter,Bover Jordi,Apetrii Mugurel,Cozzolino Mario The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology The patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents an extreme model for arteriosclerosis, vascular calcification, and bone disorders, all of which are also associated with ageing in the general population. These pathological features are also relevant to other common chronic health disorders such as diabetes, and chronic inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. Although management and interventions for these major risk factors are now incorporated into most public health guidelines (eg, smoking cessation and control of bodyweight and blood pressure, as well as glucose and cholesterol concentrations), some residual cardiovascular risk is not reduced by implementation of these interventions. CKD should be regarded as an atypical disease in which both traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors have effects on outcomes. But CKD can also be viewed conceptually as an accelerator of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Findings from research into mineral bone disorder associated with CKD (CKD-MBD) could help the medical community to better understand the vascular actions of certain molecules, such as phosphates, fibroblast growth factor 23, parathyroid hormone, sclerostin, or vitamin D and their relevance to the management of different pathologies in the general population. Importantly, these components, which are recognised in nephrology, could help to explain residual risk of cardiovascular events in the general population. Thus, achieving a better understanding of CKD-MBDs could provide substantial insight into future treatments for arteriosclerosis and osteoporosis, which are strongly associated with ageing and morbidity in the general population. 10.1016/S2213-8587(17)30310-8
    Mechanisms of Renal Fibrosis. Humphreys Benjamin D Annual review of physiology Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a chronic and progressive process affecting kidneys during aging and in chronic kidney disease (CKD), regardless of cause. CKD and renal fibrosis affect half of adults above age 70 and 10% of the world's population. Although no targeted therapy yet exists to slow renal fibrosis, a number of important recent advances have clarified the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the disease. In this review, I highlight these advances with a focus on cells and pathways that may be amenable to therapeutic targeting. I discuss pathologic changes regulating interstitial myofibroblast activation, including profibrotic and proinflammatory paracrine signals secreted by epithelial cells after either acute or chronic injury. I conclude by highlighting novel therapeutic targets and approaches with particular promise for development of new treatments for patients with fibrotic kidney disease. 10.1146/annurev-physiol-022516-034227
    Nutritional Management of Chronic Kidney Disease. Kalantar-Zadeh Kamyar,Fouque Denis The New England journal of medicine 10.1056/NEJMra1700312
    Chronic kidney disease. Romagnani Paola,Remuzzi Giuseppe,Glassock Richard,Levin Adeera,Jager Kitty J,Tonelli Marcello,Massy Ziad,Wanner Christoph,Anders Hans-Joachim Nature reviews. Disease primers Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined by persistent urine abnormalities, structural abnormalities or impaired excretory renal function suggestive of a loss of functional nephrons. The majority of patients with CKD are at risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease and death. For those who progress to end-stage renal disease, the limited accessibility to renal replacement therapy is a problem in many parts of the world. Risk factors for the development and progression of CKD include low nephron number at birth, nephron loss due to increasing age and acute or chronic kidney injuries caused by toxic exposures or diseases (for example, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus). The management of patients with CKD is focused on early detection or prevention, treatment of the underlying cause (if possible) to curb progression and attention to secondary processes that contribute to ongoing nephron loss. Blood pressure control, inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system and disease-specific interventions are the cornerstones of therapy. CKD complications such as anaemia, metabolic acidosis and secondary hyperparathyroidism affect cardiovascular health and quality of life, and require diagnosis and treatment. 10.1038/nrdp.2017.88
    Immunologic and endocrine functions of adipose tissue: implications for kidney disease. Zhu Qingzhang,Scherer Philipp E Nature reviews. Nephrology Excess adiposity can induce adverse sequelae in multiple cell types and organ systems. The transition from the lean to the obese state is characterized by fundamental cellular changes at the level of the adipocyte. These changes affect the local microenvironment within the respective adipose tissue but can also affect nonadipose systems. Adipocytes within fat pads respond to chronic nutrient excess through hyperplasia or hypertrophy, which can differentially affect interorgan crosstalk between various adipose depots and other organs. This crosstalk is dependent on the unique ability of the adipocyte to coordinate metabolic adjustments throughout the body and to integrate responses to maintain metabolic homeostasis. These actions occur through the release of free fatty acids and metabolites during times of energy need - a process that is altered in the obese state. In addition, adipocytes release a wide array of signalling molecules, such as sphingolipids, as well as inflammatory and hormonal factors (adipokines) that are critical for interorgan crosstalk. The interactions of adipose tissue with the kidney - referred to as the adipo-renal axis - are important for normal kidney function as well as the response of the kidney to injury. Here, we discuss the mechanistic basis of this interorgan crosstalk, which clearly has great therapeutic potential given the increasing rates of chronic kidney disease secondary to obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. 10.1038/nrneph.2017.157
    Cardiovascular Outcomes According to Urinary Albumin and Kidney Disease in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes at High Cardiovascular Risk: Observations From the SAVOR-TIMI 53 Trial. Scirica Benjamin M,Mosenzon Ofri,Bhatt Deepak L,Udell Jacob A,Steg Ph Gabriel,McGuire Darren K,Im KyungAh,Kanevsky Estella,Stahre Christina,Sjöstrand Mikaela,Raz Itamar,Braunwald Eugene JAMA cardiology Importance:An elevated level of urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) is a marker of renal dysfunction and predictor of kidney failure/death in patients with type 2 diabetes. The prognostic use of UACR in established cardiac biomarkers is not well described. Objective:To evaluate whether UACR offers incremental prognostic benefit beyond risk factors and established plasma cardiovascular biomarkers. Design, Setting, and Participants:The Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (SAVOR-TIMI) 53 study was performed from May 2010 to May 2013 and evaluated the safety of saxagliptin vs placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes with overt cardiovascular disease or multiple risk factors. Median follow-up was 2.1 years (interquartile range, 1.8-2.3 years). Interventions:Patients were randomized to saxagliptin vs placebo plus standard care. Main Outcomes and Measures:Baseline UACR was measured in 15 760 patients (95.6% of the trial population) and categorized into thresholds. Results:Of 15 760 patients, 5205 were female (33.0%). The distribution of UARC categories were: 5805 patients (36.8%) less than 10 mg/g, 3891 patients (24.7%) at 10 to 30 mg/g, 4426 patients (28.1%) at 30 to 300 mg/g, and 1638 patients (10.4%) at more than 300 mg/g. When evaluated without cardiac biomarkers, there was a stepwise increase with each higher UACR category in the incidence of the primary composite end point (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke) (3.9%, 6.9%, 9.2%, and 14.3%); cardiovascular death (1.4%, 2.6%, 4.1%, and 6.9%); and hospitalization for heart failure (1.5%, 2.5%, 4.0%, and 8.3%) (adjusted P < .001 for trend). The net reclassification improvement at the event rate for each end point was 0.081 (95% CI, 0.025 to 0.161), 0.129 (95% CI, 0.029 to 0.202), and 0.056 (95% CI, -0.005 to 0.141), respectively. The stepwise increased cardiovascular risk associated with a UACR of more than 10 mg/g was also present within each chronic kidney disease category. The UACR was associated with outcomes after including cardiac biomarkers. However, the improvement in discrimination and reclassification was attenuated; net reclassification improvement at the event rate was 0.022 (95% CI, -0.022 to 0.067), -0.008 (-0.034 to 0.053), and 0.043 (-0.030 to 0.052) for the primary end point, cardiovascular death, and hospitalization for heart failure, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance:In patients with type 2 diabetes, UACR was independently associated with increased risk for a spectrum of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, the incremental cardiovascular prognostic value of UACR was minimal when evaluated together with contemporary cardiac biomarkers. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01107886. 10.1001/jamacardio.2017.4228
    Diagnosis, Evaluation, Prevention, and Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder: Synopsis of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes 2017 Clinical Practice Guideline Update. Ketteler Markus,Block Geoffrey A,Evenepoel Pieter,Fukagawa Masafumi,Herzog Charles A,McCann Linda,Moe Sharon M,Shroff Rukshana,Tonelli Marcello A,Toussaint Nigel D,Vervloet Marc G,Leonard Mary B Annals of internal medicine Description:The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2017 Clinical Practice Guideline Update for the Diagnosis, Evaluation, Prevention, and Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) is a selective update of the prior CKD-MBD guideline published in 2009. The guideline update and the original publication are intended to assist practitioners caring for adults with CKD and those receiving long-term dialysis. Methods:Development of the guideline update followed an explicit process of evidence review and appraisal. The approach adopted by the Work Group and the evidence review team was based on systematic reviews of relevant trials, appraisal of the quality of the evidence, and rating of the strength of recommendations according to the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach. Searches of the English-language literature were conducted through September 2015 and were supplemented with targeted searches through February 2017. Final modification of the guidelines was informed by a public review process involving numerous stakeholders, including patients, subject matter experts, and industry and national organizations. Recommendations:The update process resulted in the revision of 15 recommendations. This synopsis focuses primarily on recommendations for diagnosis of and testing for CKD-MBD and treatment of CKD-MBD that emphasizes decreasing phosphate levels, maintaining calcium levels, and addressing elevated parathyroid hormone levels in adults with CKD stage G3a to G5 and those receiving dialysis. Key elements include basing treatment on trends in laboratory values rather than a single abnormal result and being cautious to avoid hypercalcemia when treating secondary hyperparathyroidism. 10.7326/M17-2640
    Serum potassium and adverse outcomes across the range of kidney function: a CKD Prognosis Consortium meta-analysis. Kovesdy Csaba P,Matsushita Kunihiro,Sang Yingying,Brunskill Nigel J,Carrero Juan J,Chodick Gabriel,Hasegawa Takeshi,Heerspink Hiddo L,Hirayama Atsushi,Landman Gijs W D,Levin Adeera,Nitsch Dorothea,Wheeler David C,Coresh Josef,Hallan Stein I,Shalev Varda,Grams Morgan E, European heart journal Aims:Both hypo- and hyperkalaemia can have immediate deleterious physiological effects, and less is known about long-term risks. The objective was to determine the risks of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and end-stage renal disease associated with potassium levels across the range of kidney function and evaluate for consistency across cohorts in a global consortium. Methods and results:We performed an individual-level data meta-analysis of 27 international cohorts [10 general population, 7 high cardiovascular risk, and 10 chronic kidney disease (CKD)] in the CKD Prognosis Consortium. We used Cox regression followed by random-effects meta-analysis to assess the relationship between baseline potassium and adverse outcomes, adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics, overall and across strata of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria. We included 1 217 986 participants followed up for a mean of 6.9 years. The average age was 55 ± 16 years, average eGFR was 83 ± 23 mL/min/1.73 m2, and 17% had moderate- to-severe increased albuminuria levels. The mean baseline potassium was 4.2 ± 0.4 mmol/L. The risk of serum potassium of >5.5 mmol/L was related to lower eGFR and higher albuminuria. The risk relationship between potassium levels and adverse outcomes was U-shaped, with the lowest risk at serum potassium of 4-4.5 mmol/L. Compared with a reference of 4.2 mmol/L, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 1.22 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.29] at 5.5 mmol/L and 1.49 (95% CI 1.26-1.76) at 3.0 mmol/L. Risks were similar by eGFR, albuminuria, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor use, and across cohorts. Conclusions:Outpatient potassium levels both above and below the normal range are consistently associated with adverse outcomes, with similar risk relationships across eGFR and albuminuria. 10.1093/eurheartj/ehy100
    Use of oral anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation and renal dysfunction. Potpara Tatjana S,Ferro Charles J,Lip Gregory Y H Nature reviews. Nephrology Atrial fibrillation (AF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are increasingly prevalent in the general population and share common risk factors such as older age, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The presence of CKD increases the risk of incident AF, and, likewise, AF increases the risk of CKD development and/or progression. Both conditions are associated with substantial thromboembolic risk, but patients with advanced CKD also exhibit a paradoxical increase in bleeding risk. In the landmark randomized clinical trials that compared non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) with warfarin for thromboprophylaxis in patients with AF, the efficacy and safety of NOACs in patients with mild-to-moderate CKD were similar to those in patients without CKD. Dose adjustment of NOACs as per the prescribing label is required in this population. Owing to limited trial data, evidence-based recommendations for the management of patients with AF and severe CKD or end-stage renal disease on dialysis are lacking. Observational cohort studies have reported conflicting results, and the management of these particularly vulnerable patients remains challenging and requires careful assessment of stroke and bleeding risk and, where appropriate, use of warfarin with good-quality anticoagulation control. 10.1038/nrneph.2018.19
    AGE Content of a Protein Load Is Responsible for Renal Performances: A Pilot Study. Normand Gabrielle,Lemoine Sandrine,Villien Marjorie,Le Bars Didier,Merida Ines,Irace Zacharie,Troalen Thomas,Costes Nicolas,Juillard Laurent Diabetes care OBJECTIVE:Chronic kidney disease is associated with higher morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. A low-protein diet is recommended to slow diabetic nephropathy progression because each protein load leads to renal hemodynamic variations. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether the advanced glycation end products (AGE) content of a protein load is responsible for the protein-induced renal hemodynamic variations in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Ten healthy subjects were assigned to a high-protein (1 g/kg) low-AGE (3,000 kU AGE) versus high-AGE (30,000 kU AGE) meal. Renal perfusion, oxygen consumption, and oxygen content were measured before and 120 min after each meal. RESULTS:Renal perfusion (3.2 ± 0.5 vs. 3.8 ± 0.4 mL/min/g; = 0.0002) and oxygen consumption (0.3 ± 0.04 vs. 0.4 ± 0.08 min; = 0.005) increased significantly after the high-AGE meal compared with the low-AGE meal. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that the AGE content of a protein load is responsible for renal hemodynamic modifications. Therefore, prevention of diabetic nephropathy progression could aim predominantly at reducing food AGE content. 10.2337/dc18-0131
    CKD in diabetes: diabetic kidney disease versus nondiabetic kidney disease. Anders Hans-Joachim,Huber Tobias B,Isermann Berend,Schiffer Mario Nature reviews. Nephrology The increasing global prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) has prompted research efforts to tackle the growing epidemic of diabetic kidney disease (DKD; also known as diabetic nephropathy). The limited success of much of this research might in part be due to the fact that not all patients diagnosed with DKD have renal dysfunction as a consequence of their diabetes mellitus. Patients who present with CKD and diabetes mellitus (type 1 or type 2) can have true DKD (wherein CKD is a direct consequence of their diabetes status), nondiabetic kidney disease (NDKD) coincident with diabetes mellitus, or a combination of both DKD and NDKD. Preclinical studies using models that more accurately mimic these three entities might improve the ability of animal models to predict clinical trial outcomes. Moreover, improved insights into the pathomechanisms that are shared by these entities - including sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) and renin-angiotensin system-driven glomerular hyperfiltration and tubular hyper-reabsorption - as well as those that are unique to individual entities might lead to the identification of new treatment targets. Acknowledging that the clinical entity of CKD plus diabetes mellitus encompasses NDKD as well as DKD could help solve some of the urgent unmet medical needs of patients affected by these conditions. 10.1038/s41581-018-0001-y
    The gut microbiota and the brain-gut-kidney axis in hypertension and chronic kidney disease. Yang Tao,Richards Elaine M,Pepine Carl J,Raizada Mohan K Nature reviews. Nephrology Crosstalk between the gut microbiota and the host has attracted considerable attention owing to its involvement in diverse diseases. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is commonly associated with hypertension and is characterized by immune dysregulation, metabolic disorder and sympathetic activation, which are all linked to gut dysbiosis and altered host-microbiota crosstalk. In this Review, we discuss the complex interplay between the brain, the gut, the microbiota and the kidney in CKD and hypertension and explain our brain-gut-kidney axis hypothesis for the pathogenesis of these diseases. Consideration of the role of the brain-gut-kidney axis in the maintenance of normal homeostasis and of dysregulation of this axis in CKD and hypertension could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets. In addition, the discovery of unique microbial communities and their associated metabolites and the elucidation of brain-gut-kidney signalling are likely to fill fundamental knowledge gaps leading to innovative research, clinical trials and treatments for CKD and hypertension. 10.1038/s41581-018-0018-2
    Effect of Coaching to Increase Water Intake on Kidney Function Decline in Adults With Chronic Kidney Disease: The CKD WIT Randomized Clinical Trial. Clark William F,Sontrop Jessica M,Huang Shih-Han,Gallo Kerri,Moist Louise,House Andrew A,Cuerden Meaghan S,Weir Matthew A,Bagga Amit,Brimble Scott,Burke Andrew,Muirhead Norman,Pandeya Sanjay,Garg Amit X JAMA Importance:In observational studies, increased water intake is associated with better kidney function. Objective:To determine the effect of coaching to increase water intake on kidney function in adults with chronic kidney disease. Design, Setting, and Participants:The CKD WIT (Chronic Kidney Disease Water Intake Trial) randomized clinical trial was conducted in 9 centers in Ontario, Canada, from 2013 until 2017 (last day of follow-up, May 25, 2017). Patients had stage 3 chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria) and a 24-hour urine volume of less than 3.0 L. Interventions:Patients in the hydration group (n = 316) were coached to drink more water, and those in the control group (n = 315) were coached to maintain usual intake. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was change in kidney function (eGFR from baseline to 12 months). Secondary outcomes included 1-year change in plasma copeptin concentration, creatinine clearance, 24-hour urine albumin, and patient-reported overall quality of health (0 [worst possible] to 10 [best possible]). Results:Of 631 randomized patients (mean age, 65.0 years; men, 63.4%; mean eGFR, 43 mL/min/1.73 m2; median urine albumin, 123 mg/d), 12 died (hydration group [n = 5]; control group [n = 7]). Among 590 survivors with 1-year follow-up measurements (95% of 619), the mean change in 24-hour urine volume was 0.6 L per day higher in the hydration group (95% CI, 0.5 to 0.7; P < .001). The mean change in eGFR was -2.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 in the hydration group and -1.9 mL/min/1.73 m2 in the control group (adjusted between-group difference, -0.3 mL/min/1.73 m2 [95% CI, -1.8 to 1.2; P = .74]). The mean between-group differences (hydration vs control) in secondary outcomes were as follows: plasma copeptin, -2.2 pmol/L (95% CI, -3.9 to -0.5; P = .01); creatinine clearance, 3.6 mL/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI, 0.8 to 6.4; P = .01); urine albumin, 7 mg per day (95% CI, -4 to 51; P = .11); and quality of health, 0.2 points (95% CI, -0.3 to 0.3; P = .22). Conclusions and Relevance:Among adults with chronic kidney disease, coaching to increase water intake compared with coaching to maintain the same water intake did not significantly slow the decline in kidney function after 1 year. However, the study may have been underpowered to detect a clinically important difference. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01766687. 10.1001/jama.2018.4930
    Effects of Sacubitril/Valsartan Versus Irbesartan in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease. Haynes Richard,Judge Parminder K,Staplin Natalie,Herrington William G,Storey Benjamin C,Bethel Angelyn,Bowman Louise,Brunskill Nigel,Cockwell Paul,Hill Michael,Kalra Philip A,McMurray John J V,Taal Maarten,Wheeler David C,Landray Martin J,Baigent Colin Circulation BACKGROUND:Sacubitril/valsartan reduces the risk of cardiovascular mortality among patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, but its effects on kidney function and cardiac biomarkers in people with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease are unknown. METHODS:The UK HARP-III trial (United Kingdom Heart and Renal Protection-III), a randomized double-blind trial, included 414 participants with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 20 to 60 mL/min/1.73 m who were randomly assigned to sacubitril/valsartan 97/103 mg twice daily versus irbesartan 300 mg once daily. The primary outcome was measured GFR at 12 months using ANCOVA with adjustment for each individual's baseline measured GFR. All analyses were by intention to treat. RESULTS:In total, 207 participants were assigned to sacubitril/valsartan and 207 to irbesartan. Baseline measured GFR was 34.0 (SE, 0.8) and 34.7 (SE, 0.8) mL/min/1.73 m, respectively. At 12 months, there was no difference in measured GFR: 29.8 (SE 0.5) among those assigned sacubitril/valsartan versus 29.9 (SE, 0.5) mL/min/1.73 m among those assigned irbesartan; difference, -0.1 (0.7) mL/min/1.73 m. Effects were similar in all prespecified subgroups. There was also no significant difference in estimated GFR at 3, 6, 9, or 12 months and no clear difference in urinary albumin:creatinine ratio between treatment arms (study average difference, -9%; 95% CI, -18 to 1). However, compared with irbesartan, allocation to sacubitril/valsartan reduced study average systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 5.4 (95% CI, 3.4-7.4) and 2.1 (95% CI, 1.0-3.3) mm Hg and levels of troponin I and N terminal of prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (tertiary end points) by 16% (95% CI, 8-23) and 18% (95% CI, 11-25), respectively. The incidence of serious adverse events (29.5% versus 28.5%; rate ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.75-1.53), nonserious adverse reactions (36.7% versus 28.0%; rate ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 0.96-1.90), and potassium ≥5.5 mmol/L (32% versus 24%, P=0.10) was not significantly different between randomized groups. CONCLUSIONS:Over 12 months, sacubitril/valsartan has similar effects on kidney function and albuminuria to irbesartan, but it has the additional effect of lowering blood pressure and cardiac biomarkers in people with chronic kidney disease. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: http://www.isrctn.com . Unique identifier: ISRCTN11958993. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.034818
    Kidney Damage Biomarkers and Incident Chronic Kidney Disease During Blood Pressure Reduction: A Case-Control Study. Zhang William R,Craven Timothy E,Malhotra Rakesh,Cheung Alfred K,Chonchol Michel,Drawz Paul,Sarnak Mark J,Parikh Chirag R,Shlipak Michael G,Ix Joachim H, Annals of internal medicine Background:Whether the increased incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) during intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering is accompanied by intrinsic kidney injury is unknown. Objective:To compare changes in kidney damage biomarkers between incident CKD case participants and matched control participants as well as between case participants in the intensive (<120 mm Hg) versus the standard (<140 mm Hg) SBP management groups of SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial). Design:Nested case-control study within SPRINT. Setting:Adults with hypertension without baseline kidney disease. Participants:Case participants (n = 162), who developed incident CKD during trial follow-up (128 in the intensive and 34 in the standard group), and control participants (n = 162) without incident CKD, who were matched on age, sex, race, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, and randomization group. Measurements:9 urinary biomarkers of kidney damage were measured at baseline and at 1 year. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate 1-year biomarker changes. Results:Higher concentrations of urinary albumin, kidney injury molecule-1, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 at baseline were significantly associated with greater odds of incident CKD (adjusted odds ratio per doubling: 1.50 [95% CI, 1.14 to 1.98], 1.51 [CI, 1.05 to 2.17], and 1.70 [CI, 1.13 to 2.56], respectively). After 1 year of blood pressure intervention, incident CKD case participants in the intensive group had significantly greater decreases in albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR), interleukin-18, anti-chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40), and uromodulin than the matched control participants. Compared with case participants in the standard group, those in the intensive group had significantly greater decreases in ACR, β2-microglobulin, α1-microglobulin, YKL-40, and uromodulin. Limitation:Biomarker measurements were available only at baseline and 1 year. Conclusion:Incident CKD in the setting of intensive SBP lowering was accompanied by decreases, rather than elevations, in levels of kidney damage biomarkers and thus may reflect benign changes in renal blood flow rather than intrinsic injury. Primary Funding Source:National Institute for Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. 10.7326/M18-1037
    Lipid management in patients with chronic kidney disease. Ferro Charles J,Mark Patrick B,Kanbay Mehmet,Sarafidis Pantelis,Heine Gunnar H,Rossignol Patrick,Massy Ziad A,Mallamaci Francesca,Valdivielso Jose M,Malyszko Jolanta,Verhaar Marianne C,Ekart Robert,Vanholder Raymond,London Gerard,Ortiz Alberto,Zoccali Carmine Nature reviews. Nephrology An increased risk of cardiovascular disease, independent of conventional risk factors, is present even at minor levels of renal impairment and is highest in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis. Renal dysfunction changes the level, composition and quality of blood lipids in favour of a more atherogenic profile. Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) or ESRD have a characteristic lipid pattern of hypertriglyceridaemia and low HDL cholesterol levels but normal LDL cholesterol levels. In the general population, a clear relationship exists between LDL cholesterol and major atherosclerotic events. However, in patients with ESRD, LDL cholesterol shows a negative association with these outcomes at below average LDL cholesterol levels and a flat or weakly positive association with mortality at higher LDL cholesterol levels. Overall, the available data suggest that lowering of LDL cholesterol is beneficial for prevention of major atherosclerotic events in patients with CKD and in kidney transplant recipients but is not beneficial in patients requiring dialysis. The 2013 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Clinical Practice Guideline for Lipid Management in CKD provides simple recommendations for the management of dyslipidaemia in patients with CKD and ESRD. However, emerging data and novel lipid-lowering therapies warrant some reappraisal of these recommendations. 10.1038/s41581-018-0072-9
    Intravenous Iron in Patients Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis. Macdougall Iain C,White Claire,Anker Stefan D,Bhandari Sunil,Farrington Kenneth,Kalra Philip A,McMurray John J V,Murray Heather,Tomson Charles R V,Wheeler David C,Winearls Christopher G,Ford Ian, The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Intravenous iron is a standard treatment for patients undergoing hemodialysis, but comparative data regarding clinically effective regimens are limited. METHODS:In a multicenter, open-label trial with blinded end-point evaluation, we randomly assigned adults undergoing maintenance hemodialysis to receive either high-dose iron sucrose, administered intravenously in a proactive fashion (400 mg monthly, unless the ferritin concentration was >700 μg per liter or the transferrin saturation was ≥40%), or low-dose iron sucrose, administered intravenously in a reactive fashion (0 to 400 mg monthly, with a ferritin concentration of <200 μg per liter or a transferrin saturation of <20% being a trigger for iron administration). The primary end point was the composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for heart failure, or death, assessed in a time-to-first-event analysis. These end points were also analyzed as recurrent events. Other secondary end points included death, infection rate, and dose of an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent. Noninferiority of the high-dose group to the low-dose group would be established if the upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval for the hazard ratio for the primary end point did not cross 1.25. RESULTS:A total of 2141 patients underwent randomization (1093 patients to the high-dose group and 1048 to the low-dose group). The median follow-up was 2.1 years. Patients in the high-dose group received a median monthly iron dose of 264 mg (interquartile range [25th to 75th percentile], 200 to 336), as compared with 145 mg (interquartile range, 100 to 190) in the low-dose group. The median monthly dose of an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent was 29,757 IU in the high-dose group and 38,805 IU in the low-dose group (median difference, -7539 IU; 95% confidence interval [CI], -9485 to -5582). A total of 320 patients (29.3%) in the high-dose group had a primary end-point event, as compared with 338 (32.3%) in the low-dose group (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.00; P<0.001 for noninferiority; P=0.04 for superiority). In an analysis that used a recurrent-events approach, there were 429 events in the high-dose group and 507 in the low-dose group (rate ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.92). The infection rate was the same in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS:Among patients undergoing hemodialysis, a high-dose intravenous iron regimen administered proactively was superior to a low-dose regimen administered reactively and resulted in lower doses of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent being administered. (Funded by Kidney Research UK; PIVOTAL EudraCT number, 2013-002267-25 .). 10.1056/NEJMoa1810742
    Efficacy of a novel inhibitor of vascular adhesion protein-1 in reducing albuminuria in patients with diabetic kidney disease (ALBUM): a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. de Zeeuw Dick,Renfurm Ronny W,Bakris George,Rossing Peter,Perkovic Vlado,Hou Fan Fan,Nangaku Masaomi,Sharma Kumar,Heerspink Hiddo J L,Garcia-Hernandez Alberto,Larsson Tobias E The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology BACKGROUND:Many patients with diabetic kidney disease have residual albuminuria and are at risk of disease progression. The ALBUM trial investigated the efficacy of a novel, orally active inhibitor of vascular adhesion protein-1, ASP8232, compared with placebo for reducing albuminuria in individuals with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. METHODS:In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial, we randomly assigned individuals (aged 18-85 years) from 64 clinical sites in nine European countries to receive ASP8232 40 mg or placebo orally once daily for 12 weeks using a web-based randomisation schedule (block size 4), stratified by country. Eligible patients had a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) of 200-3000 mg/g, an estimated glomerular filtration rate of at least 25 mL/min per 1·73 m but lower than 75 mL/min per 1·73 m, HbA less than 11·0% (97 mmol/mol), and stable treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers and antidiabetic medication for 3 months or more. The primary endpoint was mean change from baseline to week 12 in log-transformed first morning void UACR, which was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug and had at least one post-baseline UACR measurement (full analysis set). Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. Participants and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02358096. FINDINGS:125 participants were randomly assigned to receive ASP8232 (n=64) or placebo (n=61), of whom 120 (60 in each group) were included in the full analysis set; all participants were assessed for safety endpoints. At 12 weeks, UACR decreased by 17·7% (95% CI 5·0 to 28·6) in the ASP8232 group and increased by 2·3% (-11·4 to 18·1) in the placebo group; the placebo-adjusted difference between groups was -19·5% (95% CI -34·0 to -1·8; p=0·033). 39 (61%) patients in the ASP8232 group and 34 (56%) patients in the placebo group had a treatment-emergent adverse event, of which 16 in the ASP8232 group and four in the placebo group were drug-related. The most frequently reported adverse events that were possibly drug-related in the ASP8232 group were renal impairment (five patients) and decreased eGFR (three patients); in the placebo group, no single drug-related treatment-emergent adverse event was reported by more than one participant. INTERPRETATION:ASP8232 is effective in reducing albuminuria in patients with diabetic kidney disease and is safe and well tolerated. These findings warrant further research to ascertain the effect of ASP8232 on delaying progression of diabetic kidney disease. FUNDING:Astellas. 10.1016/S2213-8587(18)30289-4
    Effect of Linagliptin vs Placebo on Major Cardiovascular Events in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes and High Cardiovascular and Renal Risk: The CARMELINA Randomized Clinical Trial. Rosenstock Julio,Perkovic Vlado,Johansen Odd Erik,Cooper Mark E,Kahn Steven E,Marx Nikolaus,Alexander John H,Pencina Michael,Toto Robert D,Wanner Christoph,Zinman Bernard,Woerle Hans Juergen,Baanstra David,Pfarr Egon,Schnaidt Sven,Meinicke Thomas,George Jyothis T,von Eynatten Maximilian,McGuire Darren K, JAMA Importance:Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. Prior trials have demonstrated CV safety of 3 dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors but have included limited numbers of patients with high CV risk and chronic kidney disease. Objective:To evaluate the effect of linagliptin, a selective DPP-4 inhibitor, on CV outcomes and kidney outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk of CV and kidney events. Design, Setting, and Participants:Randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter noninferiority trial conducted from August 2013 to August 2016 at 605 clinic sites in 27 countries among adults with type 2 diabetes, hemoglobin A1c of 6.5% to 10.0%, high CV risk (history of vascular disease and urine-albumin creatinine ratio [UACR] >200 mg/g), and high renal risk (reduced eGFR and micro- or macroalbuminuria). Participants with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were excluded. Final follow-up occurred on January 18, 2018. Interventions:Patients were randomized to receive linagliptin, 5 mg once daily (n = 3494), or placebo once daily (n = 3485) added to usual care. Other glucose-lowering medications or insulin could be added based on clinical need and local clinical guidelines. Main Outcomes and Measures:Primary outcome was time to first occurrence of the composite of CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. Criteria for noninferiority of linagliptin vs placebo was defined by the upper limit of the 2-sided 95% CI for the hazard ratio (HR) of linagliptin relative to placebo being less than 1.3. Secondary outcome was time to first occurrence of adjudicated death due to renal failure, ESRD, or sustained 40% or higher decrease in eGFR from baseline. Results:Of 6991 enrollees, 6979 (mean age, 65.9 years; eGFR, 54.6 mL/min/1.73 m2; 80.1% with UACR >30 mg/g) received at least 1 dose of study medication and 98.7% completed the study. During a median follow-up of 2.2 years, the primary outcome occurred in 434 of 3494 (12.4%) and 420 of 3485 (12.1%) in the linagliptin and placebo groups, respectively, (absolute incidence rate difference, 0.13 [95% CI, -0.63 to 0.90] per 100 person-years) (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.89-1.17; P < .001 for noninferiority). The kidney outcome occurred in 327 of 3494 (9.4%) and 306 of 3485 (8.8%), respectively (absolute incidence rate difference, 0.22 [95% CI, -0.52 to 0.97] per 100 person-years) (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.89-1.22; P = .62). Adverse events occurred in 2697 (77.2%) and 2723 (78.1%) patients in the linagliptin and placebo groups; 1036 (29.7%) and 1024 (29.4%) had 1 or more episodes of hypoglycemia; and there were 9 (0.3%) vs 5 (0.1%) events of adjudication-confirmed acute pancreatitis. Conclusions and Relevance:Among adults with type 2 diabetes and high CV and renal risk, linagliptin added to usual care compared with placebo added to usual care resulted in a noninferior risk of a composite CV outcome over a median 2.2 years. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01897532. 10.1001/jama.2018.18269
    SGLT2 inhibitors for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cardiovascular outcome trials. Zelniker Thomas A,Wiviott Stephen D,Raz Itamar,Im Kyungah,Goodrich Erica L,Bonaca Marc P,Mosenzon Ofri,Kato Eri T,Cahn Avivit,Furtado Remo H M,Bhatt Deepak L,Leiter Lawrence A,McGuire Darren K,Wilding John P H,Sabatine Marc S Lancet (London, England) BACKGROUND:The magnitude of effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) on specific cardiovascular and renal outcomes and whether heterogeneity is based on key baseline characteristics remains undefined. METHODS:We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised, placebo-controlled, cardiovascular outcome trials of SGLT2i in patients with type 2 diabetes. We searched PubMed and Embase for trials published up to Sept 24, 2018. Data search and extraction were completed with a standardised data form and any discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Efficacy outcomes included major adverse cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death), the composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalisation for heart failure, and progression of renal disease. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs were pooled across trials, and efficacy outcomes were stratified by baseline presence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and degree of renal function. FINDINGS:We included data from three identified trials and 34 322 patients (60·2% with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease), with 3342 major adverse cardiovascular events, 2028 cardiovascular deaths or hospitalisation sfor heart failure events, and 766 renal composite outcomes. SGLT2i reduced major adverse cardiovascular events by 11% (HR 0·89 [95% CI 0·83-0·96], p=0·0014), with benefit only seen in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (0·86 [0·80-0·93]) and not in those without (1·00 [0·87-1·16], p for interaction=0·0501). SGLT2i reduced the risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalisation for heart failure by 23% (0·77 [0·71-0·84], p<0·0001), with a similar benefit in patients with and without atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and with and without a history of heart failure. SGLT2i reduced the risk of progression of renal disease by 45% (0·55 [0·48-0·64], p<0·0001), with a similar benefit in those with and without atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The magnitude of benefit of SGLT2i varied with baseline renal function, with greater reductions in hospitalisations for heart failure (p for interaction=0·0073) and lesser reductions in progression of renal disease (p for interaction=0·0258) in patients with more severe kidney disease at baseline. INTERPRETATION:SGLT2i have moderate benefits on atherosclerotic major adverse cardiovascular events that seem confined to patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, they have robust benefits on reducing hospitalisation for heart failure and progression of renal disease regardless of existing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or a history of heart failure. FUNDING:None. 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32590-X
    Estimated GFR: time for a critical appraisal. Porrini Esteban,Ruggenenti Piero,Luis-Lima Sergio,Carrara Fabiola,Jiménez Alejandro,de Vries Aiko P J,Torres Armando,Gaspari Flavio,Remuzzi Giuseppe Nature reviews. Nephrology Since 1957, over 70 equations based on creatinine and/or cystatin C levels have been developed to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). However, whether these equations accurately reflect renal function is debated. In this Perspectives article, we discuss >70 studies that compared estimated GFR (eGFR) with measured GFR (mGFR), involving ~40,000 renal transplant recipients and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), type 2 diabetes mellitus or polycystic kidney disease. Their results show that eGFR often differed from mGFR by ±30% or more, that eGFR values incorrectly staged CKD in 30-60% of patients, and that eGFR and mGFR gave different rates of GFR decline. Errors were unpredictable, and comparable for equations based on creatinine and/or cystatin C. We argue, therefore, that the persistence of these errors (despite intensive research) suggests that the problem lies with using creatinine and/or cystatin C as markers of renal function, rather than with the mathematical methods used for GFR estimation. 10.1038/s41581-018-0080-9
    Effect of Oral Alfacalcidol on Clinical Outcomes in Patients Without Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Receiving Maintenance Hemodialysis: The J-DAVID Randomized Clinical Trial. ,Shoji Tetsuo,Inaba Masaaki,Fukagawa Masafumi,Ando Ryoichi,Emoto Masanori,Fujii Hisako,Fujimori Akira,Fukui Mitsuru,Hase Hiroki,Hashimoto Tetsuya,Hirakata Hideki,Honda Hirokazu,Hosoya Tatsuo,Ikari Yuji,Inaguma Daijo,Inoue Toru,Isaka Yoshitaka,Iseki Kunitoshi,Ishimura Eiji,Itami Noritomo,Ito Chiharu,Kakuta Toshitaka,Kawai Toru,Kawanishi Hideki,Kobayashi Shuzo,Kumagai Junko,Maekawa Kiyoshi,Masakane Ikuto,Minakuchi Jun,Mitsuiki Koji,Mizuguchi Takashi,Morimoto Satoshi,Murohara Toyoaki,Nakatani Tatsuya,Negi Shigeo,Nishi Shinichi,Nishikawa Mitsushige,Ogawa Tetsuya,Ohta Kazumichi,Ohtake Takayasu,Okamura Mikio,Okuno Senji,Shigematsu Takashi,Sugimoto Toshitsugu,Suzuki Masashi,Tahara Hideki,Takemoto Yoshiaki,Tanaka Kenji,Tominaga Yoshihiro,Tsubakihara Yoshiharu,Tsujimoto Yoshihiro,Tsuruya Kazuhiko,Ueda Shinichiro,Watanabe Yuzo,Yamagata Kunihiro,Yamakawa Tomoyuki,Yano Shozo,Yokoyama Keitaro,Yorioka Noriaki,Yoshiyama Minoru,Nishizawa Yoshiki JAMA Importance:Patients with chronic kidney disease have impaired vitamin D activation and elevated cardiovascular risk. Observational studies in patients treated with hemodialysis showed that the use of active vitamin D sterols was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality, regardless of parathyroid hormone levels. Objective:To determine whether vitamin D receptor activators reduce cardiovascular events and mortality in patients without secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing hemodialysis. Design, Setting, and Participants:Randomized, open-label, blinded end point multicenter study of 1289 patients in 207 dialysis centers in Japan. The study included 976 patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis with serum intact parathyroid hormone levels less than or equal to 180 pg/mL. The first and last participants were enrolled on August 18, 2008, and January 26, 2011, respectively. The final date of follow-up was April 4, 2015. Interventions:Treatment with 0.5 μg of oral alfacalcidol per day (intervention group; n = 495) vs treatment without vitamin D receptor activators (control group; n = 481). Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was a composite measure of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarctions, hospitalizations for congestive heart failure, stroke, aortic dissection/rupture, amputation of lower limb due to ischemia, and cardiac sudden death; coronary revascularization; and leg artery revascularization during 48 months of follow-up. The secondary outcome was all-cause death. Results:Among 976 patients who were randomized from 108 dialysis centers, 964 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis (median age, 65 years; 386 women [40.0%]), and 944 (97.9%) completed the trial. During follow-up (median, 4.0 years), the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular events occurred in 103 of 488 patients (21.1%) in the intervention group and 85 of 476 patients (17.9%) in the control group (absolute difference, 3.25% [95% CI, -1.75% to 8.24%]; hazard ratio, 1.25 [95% CI, 0.94-1.67]; P = .13). There was no significant difference in the secondary outcome of all-cause mortality between the groups (18.2% vs 16.8%, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.12 [95% CI, 0.83-1.52]; P = .46). Of the 488 participants in the intervention group, 199 (40.8%) experienced serious adverse events that were classified as cardiovascular, 64 (13.1%) experienced adverse events classified as infection, and 22 (4.5%) experienced malignancy-related serious adverse events. Of 476 participants in the control group, 191 (40.1%) experienced cardiovascular-related serious adverse events, 63 (13.2%) experienced infection-related serious adverse events, and 21 (4.4%) experienced malignancy-related adverse events. Conclusions and Relevance:Among patients without secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing maintenance hemodialysis, oral alfacalcidol compared with usual care did not reduce the risk of a composite measure of select cardiovascular events. These findings do not support the use of vitamin D receptor activators for patients such as these. Trial Registration:UMIN-CTR Identifier: UMIN000001194. 10.1001/jama.2018.17749
    Effects of Liraglutide Versus Placebo on Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Chronic Kidney Disease. Mann Johannes F E,Fonseca Vivian,Mosenzon Ofri,Raz Itamar,Goldman Bryan,Idorn Thomas,von Scholten Bernt Johan,Poulter Neil R Circulation BACKGROUND:LEADER trial (Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of CV Outcome Results) results demonstrated cardiovascular benefits for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at high cardiovascular risk on standard of care randomized to liraglutide versus placebo. The effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide on cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease is unknown. Liraglutide's treatment effects in patients with and without kidney disease were analyzed post hoc. METHODS:Patients were randomized (1:1) to liraglutide or placebo, both in addition to standard of care. These analyses assessed outcomes stratified by baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; <60 versus ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m) and baseline albuminuria. The primary outcome (composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke) and secondary outcomes, including all-cause mortality and individual components of the primary composite outcome, were analyzed using Cox regression. RESULTS:Overall, 2158 and 7182 patients had baseline eGFR <60 or ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m, respectively. In patients with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m, risk reduction for the primary composite cardiovascular outcome with liraglutide was greater (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.85) versus those with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.83-1.07; interaction P=0.01). There was no consistent effect modification with liraglutide across finer eGFR subgroups (interaction P=0.13) and when analyzing eGFR as a continuous variable (interaction P=0.61). Risk reductions in those with eGFR <60 versus ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m were as follows: for nonfatal myocardial infarction, HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.55-0.99 versus HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.77-1.13; for nonfatal stroke, HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.33-0.80 versus HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.84-1.37; for cardiovascular death, HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.50-0.90 versus HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.67-1.05; for all-cause mortality, HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60-0.92 versus HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.75-1.07. Risk reduction for the primary composite cardiovascular outcome was not different for those with versus without baseline albuminuria (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71-0.97; and HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.79-1.07, respectively; interaction P=0.36). CONCLUSIONS:Liraglutide added to standard of care reduced the risk for major cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease. These results appear to apply across the chronic kidney disease spectrum enrolled. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ . Unique identifier: NCT01179048. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.036418
    New pharmacological strategies for protecting kidney function in type 2 diabetes. Muskiet Marcel H A,Wheeler David C,Heerspink Hiddo J L The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology Type 2 diabetes is the leading cause of impaired kidney function, albuminuria, and renal replacement therapy globally, thus placing a large burden on health-care systems. Current treatment strategies rely on intensive glucose lowering as well as strict blood pressure control through blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Such approaches might slow decline in kidney function, but many patients progress to end-stage kidney failure despite optimal therapy. In recent clinical trials, new-generation glucose-lowering drug classes, the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors and agents that target the incretin pathway, have been shown to improve kidney outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. Other new approaches, which have been developed on the basis of an improved understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to kidney damage in the context of diabetes, include use of drugs that block endothelin receptors (eg, atrasentan) and non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptors (eg, finerenone). In this Review, we provide an overview of recent clinical data relevant to these new therapeutic approaches for management of kidney disease in the context of type 2 diabetes. 10.1016/S2213-8587(18)30263-8
    Linagliptin Effects on Heart Failure and Related Outcomes in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at High Cardiovascular and Renal Risk in CARMELINA. McGuire Darren K,Alexander John H,Johansen Odd Erik,Perkovic Vlado,Rosenstock Julio,Cooper Mark E,Wanner Christoph,Kahn Steven E,Toto Robert D,Zinman Bernard,Baanstra David,Pfarr Egon,Schnaidt Sven,Meinicke Thomas,George Jyothis T,von Eynatten Maximilian,Marx Nikolaus, Circulation BACKGROUND:Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at increased risk for heart failure (HF), particularly those with coexisting atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and/or kidney disease. Some but not all dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors have been associated with increased HF risk. We performed secondary analyses of HF and related outcomes with the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin versus placebo in CARMELINA (The Cardiovascular and Renal Microvascular Outcome Study With Linagliptin), a cardiovascular outcomes trial that enrolled participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and/or kidney disease. METHODS:Participants in 27 countries with type 2 diabetes mellitus and concomitant atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and/or kidney disease were randomized 1:1 to receive once daily oral linagliptin 5 mg or placebo, on top of standard of care. All hospitalization for HF (hHF), cardiovascular outcomes, and deaths were prospectively captured and centrally adjudicated. In prespecified and post hoc analyses of HF and related events, Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for region and baseline history of HF were used. Recurrent hHF events were analyzed using a negative binomial model. In a subset of participants with left ventricular ejection fraction captured within the year before randomization, HF-related outcomes were assessed in subgroups stratified by left ventricular ejection fraction > or ≤50%. RESULTS:CARMELINA enrolled 6979 participants (mean age, 65.9 years; estimated glomerular filtration rate, mL/min per 1.73m; hemoglobin A1c, 8.0%; 62.9% men; diabetes mellitus duration, 14.8 years), including 1873 (26.8%) with a history of HF at baseline. Median follow-up was 2.2 years. Linagliptin versus placebo did not affect the incidence of hHF (209/3494 [6.0%] versus 226/3485 [6.5%], respectively; hazard ratio [HR], 0.90; 95% CI, 0.74-1.08), the composite of cardiovascular death/hHF (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.82-1.08), or risk for recurrent hHF events (326 versus 359 events, respectively; rate ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.75-1.20). There was no heterogeneity of linagliptin effects on hHF by history of HF at baseline, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate or urine albumin-creatinine ratio, or prerandomization left ventricular ejection fraction. CONCLUSIONS:In a large, international cardiovascular outcome trial in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and concomitant atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and/or kidney disease, linagliptin did not affect the risk of hHF or other selected HF-related outcomes, including among participants with and without a history of HF, across the spectrum of kidney disease, and independent of previous left ventricular ejection fraction. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01897532. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.038352
    Endothelium structure and function in kidney health and disease. Jourde-Chiche Noemie,Fakhouri Fadi,Dou Laetitia,Bellien Jeremy,Burtey Stéphane,Frimat Marie,Jarrot Pierre-André,Kaplanski Gilles,Le Quintrec Moglie,Pernin Vincent,Rigothier Claire,Sallée Marion,Fremeaux-Bacchi Veronique,Guerrot Dominique,Roumenina Lubka T Nature reviews. Nephrology The kidney harbours different types of endothelia, each with specific structural and functional characteristics. The glomerular endothelium, which is highly fenestrated and covered by a rich glycocalyx, participates in the sieving properties of the glomerular filtration barrier and in the maintenance of podocyte structure. The microvascular endothelium in peritubular capillaries, which is also fenestrated, transports reabsorbed components and participates in epithelial cell function. The endothelium of large and small vessels supports the renal vasculature. These renal endothelia are protected by regulators of thrombosis, inflammation and complement, but endothelial injury (for example, induced by toxins, antibodies, immune cells or inflammatory cytokines) or defects in factors that provide endothelial protection (for example, regulators of complement or angiogenesis) can lead to acute or chronic renal injury. Moreover, renal endothelial cells can transition towards a mesenchymal phenotype, favouring renal fibrosis and the development of chronic kidney disease. Thus, the renal endothelium is both a target and a driver of kidney and systemic cardiovascular complications. Emerging therapeutic strategies that target the renal endothelium may lead to improved outcomes for both rare and common renal diseases. 10.1038/s41581-018-0098-z
    Adiposity and risk of decline in glomerular filtration rate: meta-analysis of individual participant data in a global consortium. Chang Alex R,Grams Morgan E,Ballew Shoshana H,Bilo Henk,Correa Adolfo,Evans Marie,Gutierrez Orlando M,Hosseinpanah Farhad,Iseki Kunitoshi,Kenealy Timothy,Klein Barbara,Kronenberg Florian,Lee Brian J,Li Yuanying,Miura Katsuyuki,Navaneethan Sankar D,Roderick Paul J,Valdivielso Jose M,Visseren Frank L J,Zhang Luxia,Gansevoort Ron T,Hallan Stein I,Levey Andrew S,Matsushita Kunihiro,Shalev Varda,Woodward Mark, BMJ (Clinical research ed.) OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the associations between adiposity measures (body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio) with decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and with all cause mortality. DESIGN:Individual participant data meta-analysis. SETTING:Cohorts from 40 countries with data collected between 1970 and 2017. PARTICIPANTS:Adults in 39 general population cohorts (n=5 459 014), of which 21 (n=594 496) had data on waist circumference; six cohorts with high cardiovascular risk (n=84 417); and 18 cohorts with chronic kidney disease (n=91 607). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:GFR decline (estimated GFR decline ≥40%, initiation of kidney replacement therapy or estimated GFR <10 mL/min/1.73 m) and all cause mortality. RESULTS:Over a mean follow-up of eight years, 246 607 (5.6%) individuals in the general population cohorts had GFR decline (18 118 (0.4%) end stage kidney disease events) and 782 329 (14.7%) died. Adjusting for age, sex, race, and current smoking, the hazard ratios for GFR decline comparing body mass indices 30, 35, and 40 with body mass index 25 were 1.18 (95% confidence interval 1.09 to 1.27), 1.69 (1.51 to 1.89), and 2.02 (1.80 to 2.27), respectively. Results were similar in all subgroups of estimated GFR. Associations weakened after adjustment for additional comorbidities, with respective hazard ratios of 1.03 (0.95 to 1.11), 1.28 (1.14 to 1.44), and 1.46 (1.28 to 1.67). The association between body mass index and death was J shaped, with the lowest risk at body mass index of 25. In the cohorts with high cardiovascular risk and chronic kidney disease (mean follow-up of six and four years, respectively), risk associations between higher body mass index and GFR decline were weaker than in the general population, and the association between body mass index and death was also J shaped, with the lowest risk between body mass index 25 and 30. In all cohort types, associations between higher waist circumference and higher waist-to-height ratio with GFR decline were similar to that of body mass index; however, increased risk of death was not associated with lower waist circumference or waist-to-height ratio, as was seen with body mass index. CONCLUSIONS:Elevated body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio are independent risk factors for GFR decline and death in individuals who have normal or reduced levels of estimated GFR. 10.1136/bmj.k5301
    Change in albuminuria and subsequent risk of end-stage kidney disease: an individual participant-level consortium meta-analysis of observational studies. Coresh Josef,Heerspink Hiddo J L,Sang Yingying,Matsushita Kunihiro,Arnlov Johan,Astor Brad C,Black Corri,Brunskill Nigel J,Carrero Juan-Jesus,Feldman Harold I,Fox Caroline S,Inker Lesley A,Ishani Areef,Ito Sadayoshi,Jassal Simerjot,Konta Tsuneo,Polkinghorne Kevan,Romundstad Solfrid,Solbu Marit D,Stempniewicz Nikita,Stengel Benedicte,Tonelli Marcello,Umesawa Mitsumasa,Waikar Sushrut S,Wen Chi-Pang,Wetzels Jack F M,Woodward Mark,Grams Morgan E,Kovesdy Csaba P,Levey Andrew S,Gansevoort Ron T, The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology BACKGROUND:Change in albuminuria as a surrogate endpoint for progression of chronic kidney disease is strongly supported by biological plausibility, but empirical evidence to support its validity in epidemiological studies is lacking. We aimed to assess the consistency of the association between change in albuminuria and risk of end-stage kidney disease in a large individual participant-level meta-analysis of observational studies. METHODS:In this meta-analysis, we collected individual-level data from eligible cohorts in the Chronic Kidney Disease Prognosis Consortium (CKD-PC) with data on serum creatinine and change in albuminuria and more than 50 events on outcomes of interest. Cohort data were eligible if participants were aged 18 years or older, they had a repeated measure of albuminuria during an elapsed period of 8 months to 4 years, subsequent end-stage kidney disease or mortality follow-up data, and the cohort was active during this consortium phase. We extracted participant-level data and quantified percentage change in albuminuria, measured as change in urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) or urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (PCR), during baseline periods of 1, 2, and 3 years. Our primary outcome of interest was development of end-stage kidney disease after a baseline period of 2 years. We defined an end-stage kidney disease event as initiation of kidney replacement therapy. We quantified associations of percentage change in albuminuria with subsequent end-stage kidney disease using Cox regression in each cohort, followed by random-effects meta-analysis. We further adjusted for regression dilution to account for imprecision in the estimation of albuminuria at the participant level. We did multiple subgroup analyses, and also repeated our analyses using participant-level data from 14 clinical trials, including nine clinical trials not in CKD-PC. FINDINGS:Between July, 2015, and June, 2018, we transferred and analysed data from 28 cohorts in the CKD-PC, which included 693 816 individuals (557 583 [80%] with diabetes). Data for 675 904 individuals and 7461 end-stage kidney disease events were available for our primary outcome analysis. Change in ACR was consistently associated with subsequent risk of end-stage kidney disease. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for end-stage kidney disease after a 30% decrease in ACR during a baseline period of 2 years was 0·83 (95% CI 0·74-0·94), decreasing to 0·78 (0·66-0·92) after further adjustment for regression dilution. Adjusted HRs were fairly consistent across cohorts and subgroups (ie, estimated glomerular filtration rate, diabetes, and sex), but the association was somewhat stronger among participants with higher baseline ACR than among those with lower baseline ACR (p<0·0001). In individuals with baseline ACR of 300 mg/g or higher, a 30% decrease in ACR over 2 years was estimated to confer a more than 1% absolute reduction in 10-year risk of end-stage kidney disease, even at early stages of chronic kidney disease. Results were generally similar when we used change in PCR and when study populations from clinical trials were assessed. INTERPRETATION:Change in albuminuria was consistently associated with subsequent risk of end-stage kidney disease across a range of cohorts, lending support to the use of change in albuminuria as a surrogate endpoint for end-stage kidney disease in clinical trials of progression of chronic kidney disease in the setting of increased albuminuria. FUNDING:US National Kidney Foundation and US National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. 10.1016/S2213-8587(18)30313-9
    Change in albuminuria as a surrogate endpoint for progression of kidney disease: a meta-analysis of treatment effects in randomised clinical trials. Heerspink Hiddo J L,Greene Tom,Tighiouart Hocine,Gansevoort Ron T,Coresh Josef,Simon Andrew L,Chan Tak Mao,Hou Fan Fan,Lewis Julia B,Locatelli Francesco,Praga Manuel,Schena Francesco Paolo,Levey Andrew S,Inker Lesley A, The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology BACKGROUND:Change in albuminuria has strong biological plausibility as a surrogate endpoint for progression of chronic kidney disease, but empirical evidence to support its validity is lacking. We aimed to determine the association between treatment effects on early changes in albuminuria and treatment effects on clinical endpoints and surrograte endpoints, to inform the use of albuminuria as a surrogate endpoint in future randomised controlled trials. METHODS:In this meta-analysis, we searched PubMed for publications in English from Jan 1, 1946, to Dec 15, 2016, using search terms including "chronic kidney disease", "chronic renal insufficiency", "albuminuria", "proteinuria", and "randomized controlled trial"; key inclusion criteria were quantifiable measurements of albuminuria or proteinuria at baseline and within 12 months of follow-up and information on the incidence of end-stage kidney disease. We requested use of individual patient data from the authors of eligible studies. For all studies that the authors agreed to participate and that had sufficient data, we estimated treatment effects on 6-month change in albuminuria and the composite clinical endpoint of treated end-stage kidney disease, estimated glomerular filtration rate of less than 15 mL/min per 1·73 m, or doubling of serum creatinine. We used a Bayesian mixed-effects meta-regression analysis to relate the treatment effects on albuminuria to those on the clinical endpoint across studies and developed a prediction model for the treatment effect on the clinical endpoint on the basis of the treatment effect on albuminuria. FINDINGS:We identified 41 eligible treatment comparisons from randomised trials (referred to as studies) that provided sufficient patient-level data on 29 979 participants (21 206 [71%] with diabetes). Over a median follow-up of 3·4 years (IQR 2·3-4·2), 3935 (13%) participants reached the composite clinical endpoint. Across all studies, with a meta-regression slope of 0·89 (95% Bayesian credible interval [BCI] 0·13-1·70), each 30% decrease in geometric mean albuminuria by the treatment relative to the control was associated with an average 27% lower hazard for the clinical endpoint (95% BCI 5-45%; median R 0·47, 95% BCI 0·02-0·96). The association strengthened after restricting analyses to patients with baseline albuminuria of more than 30 mg/g (ie, 3·4 mg/mmol; R 0·72, 0·05-0·99]). For future trials, the model predicts that treatments that decrease the geometric mean albuminuria to 0·7 (ie, 30% decrease in albuminuria) relative to the control will provide an average hazard ratio (HR) for the clinical endpoint of 0·68, and 95% of sufficiently large studies would have HRs between 0·47 and 0·95. INTERPRETATION:Our results support a role for change in albuminuria as a surrogate endpoint for the progression of chronic kidney disease, particularly in patients with high baseline albuminuria; for patients with low baseline levels of albuminuria this association is less certain. FUNDING:US National Kidney Foundation. 10.1016/S2213-8587(18)30314-0
    Evolving concepts in the pathogenesis of uraemic cardiomyopathy. Wang Xiaoliang,Shapiro Joseph I Nature reviews. Nephrology The term uraemic cardiomyopathy refers to the cardiac abnormalities that are seen in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Historically, this term was used to describe a severe cardiomyopathy that was associated with end-stage renal disease and characterized by severe functional abnormalities that could be reversed following renal transplantation. In a modern context, uraemic cardiomyopathy describes the clinical phenotype of cardiac disease that accompanies CKD and is perhaps best characterized as diastolic dysfunction seen in conjunction with left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis. A multitude of factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of uraemic cardiomyopathy, and current treatments only modestly improve outcomes. In this Review, we focus on evolving concepts regarding the roles of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), inflammation and systemic oxidant stress and their interactions with more established mechanisms such as pressure and volume overload resulting from hypertension and anaemia, respectively, activation of the renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous systems, activation of the transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) pathway, abnormal mineral metabolism and increased levels of endogenous cardiotonic steroids. 10.1038/s41581-018-0101-8
    Kidney disease in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Fraser Simon D S,Roderick Paul J Nature reviews. Nephrology 10.1038/s41581-019-0120-0
    Uraemic syndrome of chronic kidney disease: altered remote sensing and signalling. Nigam Sanjay K,Bush Kevin T Nature reviews. Nephrology Uraemic syndrome (also known as uremic syndrome) in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease involves the accumulation in plasma of small-molecule uraemic solutes and uraemic toxins (also known as uremic toxins), dysfunction of multiple organs and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota. As such, uraemic syndrome can be viewed as a disease of perturbed inter-organ and inter-organism (host-microbiota) communication. Multiple biological pathways are affected, including those controlled by solute carrier (SLC) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and drug-metabolizing enzymes, many of which are also involved in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME). The remote sensing and signalling hypothesis identifies SLC and ABC transporter-mediated communication between organs and/or between the host and gut microbiota as key to the homeostasis of metabolites, antioxidants, signalling molecules, microbiota-derived products and dietary components in body tissues and fluid compartments. Thus, this hypothesis provides a useful perspective on the pathobiology of uraemic syndrome. Pathways considered central to drug ADME might be particularly important for the body's attempts to restore homeostasis, including the correction of disturbances due to kidney injury and the accumulation of uraemic solutes and toxins. This Review discusses how the remote sensing and signalling hypothesis helps to provide a systems-level understanding of aspects of uraemia that could lead to novel approaches to its treatment. 10.1038/s41581-019-0111-1
    Biomarkers of Acute and Chronic Kidney Disease. Zhang William R,Parikh Chirag R Annual review of physiology The current unidimensional paradigm of kidney disease detection is incompatible with the complexity and heterogeneity of renal pathology. The diagnosis of kidney disease has largely focused on glomerular filtration, while assessment of kidney tubular health has notably been absent. Following insult, the kidney tubular cells undergo a cascade of cellular responses that result in the production and accumulation of low-molecular-weight proteins in the urine and systemic circulation. Modern advancements in molecular analysis and proteomics have allowed the identification and quantification of these proteins as biomarkers for assessing and characterizing kidney diseases. In this review, we highlight promising biomarkers of kidney tubular health that have strong underpinnings in the pathophysiology of kidney disease. These biomarkers have been applied to various specific clinical settings from the spectrum of acute to chronic kidney diseases, demonstrating the potential to improve patient care. 10.1146/annurev-physiol-020518-114605
    Comparison of the Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide Receptor Agonists and Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for Prevention of Major Adverse Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Zelniker Thomas A,Wiviott Stephen D,Raz Itamar,Im KyungAh,Goodrich Erica L,Furtado Remo H M,Bonaca Marc P,Mosenzon Ofri,Kato Eri T,Cahn Avivit,Bhatt Deepak L,Leiter Lawrence A,McGuire Darren K,Wilding John P H,Sabatine Marc S Circulation BACKGROUND:Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP1-RA) and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) have emerged as 2 new classes of antihyperglycemic agents that also reduce cardiovascular risk. The relative benefits in patients with and without established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease for different outcomes with these classes of drugs remain undefined. METHODS:We performed a systematic review and trial-level meta-analysis of GLP1-RA and SGLT2i cardiovascular outcomes trials using the PubMed and EMBASE databases (Excerpta Medica Database). The primary outcomes were the composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death (MACE); hospitalization for heart failure; and progression of kidney disease. RESULTS:In total, data from 8 trials and 77 242 patients, 42 920 (55.6%) in GLP1-RA trials, and 34 322 (44.4%) in SGLT2i trials, were included. Both drug classes reduced MACE in a similar magnitude with GLP1-RA reducing the risk by 12% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.88; 95% CI, 0.84-0.94; P<0.001) and SGLT2i by 11% (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83-0.96; P=0.001). For both drug classes, this treatment effect was restricted to a 14% reduction in those with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.80-0.93; P=0.002), whereas no effect was seen in patients without established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.87-1.19; P=0.81; P interaction, 0.028). SGLT2i reduced hospitalization for heart failure by 31% (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.61-0.79; P<0.001), whereas GLP1-RA did not have a significant effect (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.83-1.04; P=0.20). Both GLP1-RA (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.75-0.89; P<0.001) and SGLT2i (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.58-0.67; P<0.001) reduced the risk of progression of kidney disease including macroalbuminuria, but only SGLT2i reduced the risk of worsening estimated glomerular filtration rate, end-stage kidney disease, or renal death (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.48-0.64; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:In trials reported to date, GLP1-RA and SGLT2i reduce atherosclerotic MACE to a similar degree in patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, whereas SGLT2i have a more marked effect on preventing hospitalization for heart failure and progression of kidney disease. Their distinct clinical benefit profiles should be considered in the decision-making process when treating patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.038868
    Comparative Efficacy of Therapies for Treatment of Depression for Patients Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Mehrotra Rajnish,Cukor Daniel,Unruh Mark,Rue Tessa,Heagerty Patrick,Cohen Scott D,Dember Laura M,Diaz-Linhart Yaminette,Dubovsky Amelia,Greene Tom,Grote Nancy,Kutner Nancy,Trivedi Madhukar H,Quinn Davin K,Ver Halen Nisha,Weisbord Steven D,Young Bessie A,Kimmel Paul L,Hedayati S Susan Annals of internal medicine Background:Although depression is common among patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis, data on their acceptance of treatment and on the comparative efficacy of various therapies are limited. Objective:To determine the effect of an engagement interview on treatment acceptance (phase 1) and to compare the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus sertraline (phase 2) for treating depression in patients receiving hemodialysis. Design:Multicenter, parallel-group, open-label, randomized controlled trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02358343). Setting:41 dialysis facilities in 3 U.S. metropolitan areas. Participants:Patients who had been receiving hemodialysis for at least 3 months and had a Beck Depression Inventory-II score of 15 or greater; 184 patients participated in phase 1, and 120 subsequently participated in phase 2. Intervention:Engagement interview versus control visit (phase 1) and 12 weeks of CBT delivered in the dialysis facility versus sertraline treatment (phase 2). Measurements:The primary outcome for phase 1 was the proportion of participants who started depression treatment within 28 days. For phase 2, the primary outcome was depressive symptoms measured by the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms-Clinician-Rated (QIDS-C) at 12 weeks. Results:The proportion of participants who initiated treatment after the engagement or control visit did not differ (66% vs. 64%, respectively; P = 0.77; estimated risk difference, 2.1 [95% CI, -12.1 to 16.4]). Compared with CBT, sertraline treatment resulted in lower QIDS-C depression scores at 12 weeks (effect estimate, -1.84 [CI, -3.54 to -0.13]; P = 0.035). Adverse events were more frequent in the sertraline than the CBT group. Limitation:No randomized comparison was made with no treatment, and persistence of treatment effect was not assessed. Conclusion:An engagement interview with patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis had no effect on their acceptance of treatment for depression. After 12 weeks of treatment, depression scores were modestly better with sertraline treatment than with CBT. Primary Funding Source:Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, Dialysis Clinic, Kidney Research Institute, and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. 10.7326/M18-2229
    Association of Urinary Oxalate Excretion With the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease Progression. Waikar Sushrut S,Srivastava Anand,Palsson Ragnar,Shafi Tariq,Hsu Chi-Yuan,Sharma Kumar,Lash James P,Chen Jing,He Jiang,Lieske John,Xie Dawei,Zhang Xiaoming,Feldman Harold I,Curhan Gary C, JAMA internal medicine Importance:Oxalate is a potentially toxic terminal metabolite that is eliminated primarily by the kidneys. Oxalate nephropathy is a well-known complication of rare genetic disorders and enteric hyperoxaluria, but oxalate has not been investigated as a potential contributor to more common forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objective:To assess whether urinary oxalate excretion is a risk factor for more rapid progression of CKD toward kidney failure. Design, Setting, and Participants:This prospective cohort study assessed 3123 participants with stages 2 to 4 CKD who enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study from June 1, 2003, to September 30, 2008. Data analysis was performed from October 24, 2017, to June 17, 2018. Exposures:Twenty-four-hour urinary oxalate excretion. Main Outcomes and Measures:A 50% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Results:This study included 3123 participants (mean [SD] age, 59.1 [10.6] years; 1414 [45.3%] female; 1423 [45.6%] white). Mean (SD) eGFR at the time of 24-hour urine collection was 42.9 (16.8) mL/min/1.73 m2. Median urinary excretion of oxalate was 18.6 mg/24 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 12.9-25.7 mg/24 hours) and was correlated inversely with eGFR (r = -0.13, P < .001) and positively with 24-hour proteinuria (r = 0.22, P < .001). During 22 318 person-years of follow-up, 752 individuals reached ESRD, and 940 individuals reached the composite end point of ESRD or 50% decline in eGFR (CKD progression). Higher oxalate excretion was independently associated with greater risks of both CKD progression and ESRD: compared with quintile 1 (oxalate excretion, <11.5 mg/24 hours) those in quintile 5 (oxalate excretion, ≥27.8 mg/24 hours) had a 33% higher risk of CKD progression (hazard ratio [HR], 1.33; 95% CI, 1.04-1.70) and a 45% higher risk of ESRD (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.09-1.93). The association between oxalate excretion and CKD progression and ESRD was nonlinear and exhibited a threshold effect at quintiles 3 to 5 vs quintiles 1 and 2. Higher vs lower oxalate excretion (at the 40th percentile) was associated with a 32% higher risk of CKD progression (HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.13-1.53) and 37% higher risk of ESRD (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.15-1.63). Results were similar when treating death as a competing event. Conclusions and Relevance:Higher 24-hour urinary oxalate excretion may be a risk factor for CKD progression and ESRD in individuals with CKD stages 2 to 4. 10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.7980
    Veverimer versus placebo in patients with metabolic acidosis associated with chronic kidney disease: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, controlled, phase 3 trial. Wesson Donald E,Mathur Vandana,Tangri Navdeep,Stasiv Yuri,Parsell Dawn,Li Elizabeth,Klaerner Gerrit,Bushinsky David A Lancet (London, England) BACKGROUND:Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease lose the capacity to fully excrete endogenous acid, resulting in chronic metabolic acidosis that increases the risk of disease progression and causes muscle catabolism and bone resorption. Veverimer, a non-absorbed, counterion-free, polymeric drug, selectively binds and removes hydrochloric acid from the gastrointestinal lumen, unlike current oral sodium bicarbonate therapy for metabolic acidosis that only neutralises accumulated acid. We assessed the efficacy and safety of veverimer as a treatment for metabolic acidosis in patients with chronic kidney disease. METHODS:We did a multicentre, parallel, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study at 37 sites (hospitals and specialty clinics) in Bulgaria, Croatia, Georgia, Hungary, Serbia, Slovenia, Ukraine, and the USA. Eligible participants were patients aged 18-85 years with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate of 20-40 mL/min per 1·73 m) and metabolic acidosis (serum bicarbonate concentration of 12-20 mmol/L). Patients were randomly assigned (4:3) to veverimer 6 g/day or placebo for 12 weeks while they consumed their typical diet. Both drugs were taken as oral suspensions in water with lunch. Randomisation was done by study site personnel with a computer-generated randomisation code with balanced permuted blocks (block size of seven) and stratified by baseline bicarbonate (≤18 mmol/L vs >18 mmol/L). Patients and investigators were masked to treatment allocation; however, because the appearance of placebo differed from veverimer, a non-masked site staff member who had no other role in the study dispensed, prepared, and supervised dosing of the study drugs. The composite primary efficacy endpoint was the difference (veverimer-placebo) in the proportion of patients achieving at week 12 either an increase of 4 mmol/L or more from baseline in serum bicarbonate concentration or serum bicarbonate in the normal range of 22-29 mmol/L, assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population (all patients with a baseline and at least one post-baseline serum bicarbonate value). Patients fasted for at least 4 h (consuming only water) before measurements of bicarbonate. Safety was assessed in all patients who received any amount of study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03317444. FINDINGS:Between Sept 26, 2017, and Feb 9, 2018, we randomly assigned 124 participants to veverimer and 93 to placebo. The composite primary endpoint was met by 71 (59%) of 120 patients in the veverimer group versus 20 (22%) of 89 patients in the placebo group (a difference of 37%, 95% CI 23-49; p<0·0001). The most common body system in which adverse events in the veverimer group occurred was gastrointestinal; of these, non-treatment limiting diarrhoea was the most common event (11 [9%] vs three [3%] in the veverimer and placebo groups, respectively). The most common treatment-related adverse events were gastrointestinal (diarrhoea, flatulence, nausea, and constipation) occurring in 16 (13%) patients with veverimer and five (5%) patients with placebo. Two deaths occurred during the study, both in the placebo group (unstable angina and pneumonia). INTERPRETATION:Veverimer effectively and safely corrected metabolic acidosis. Longer-term studies are warranted to assess the effects of veverimer on physical functioning and to assess other deleterious consequences of metabolic acidosis including progression of chronic kidney disease and bone health. FUNDING:Tricida. 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32562-5
    Canagliflozin and Renal Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes and Nephropathy. Perkovic Vlado,Jardine Meg J,Neal Bruce,Bompoint Severine,Heerspink Hiddo J L,Charytan David M,Edwards Robert,Agarwal Rajiv,Bakris George,Bull Scott,Cannon Christopher P,Capuano George,Chu Pei-Ling,de Zeeuw Dick,Greene Tom,Levin Adeera,Pollock Carol,Wheeler David C,Yavin Yshai,Zhang Hong,Zinman Bernard,Meininger Gary,Brenner Barry M,Mahaffey Kenneth W, The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of kidney failure worldwide, but few effective long-term treatments are available. In cardiovascular trials of inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), exploratory results have suggested that such drugs may improve renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS:In this double-blind, randomized trial, we assigned patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuric chronic kidney disease to receive canagliflozin, an oral SGLT2 inhibitor, at a dose of 100 mg daily or placebo. All the patients had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 30 to <90 ml per minute per 1.73 m of body-surface area and albuminuria (ratio of albumin [mg] to creatinine [g], >300 to 5000) and were treated with renin-angiotensin system blockade. The primary outcome was a composite of end-stage kidney disease (dialysis, transplantation, or a sustained estimated GFR of <15 ml per minute per 1.73 m), a doubling of the serum creatinine level, or death from renal or cardiovascular causes. Prespecified secondary outcomes were tested hierarchically. RESULTS:The trial was stopped early after a planned interim analysis on the recommendation of the data and safety monitoring committee. At that time, 4401 patients had undergone randomization, with a median follow-up of 2.62 years. The relative risk of the primary outcome was 30% lower in the canagliflozin group than in the placebo group, with event rates of 43.2 and 61.2 per 1000 patient-years, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59 to 0.82; P = 0.00001). The relative risk of the renal-specific composite of end-stage kidney disease, a doubling of the creatinine level, or death from renal causes was lower by 34% (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.81; P<0.001), and the relative risk of end-stage kidney disease was lower by 32% (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.86; P = 0.002). The canagliflozin group also had a lower risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.95; P = 0.01) and hospitalization for heart failure (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.80; P<0.001). There were no significant differences in rates of amputation or fracture. CONCLUSIONS:In patients with type 2 diabetes and kidney disease, the risk of kidney failure and cardiovascular events was lower in the canagliflozin group than in the placebo group at a median follow-up of 2.62 years. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; CREDENCE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02065791.). 10.1056/NEJMoa1811744
    Albuminuria-lowering effect of dapagliflozin alone and in combination with saxagliptin and effect of dapagliflozin and saxagliptin on glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (DELIGHT): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pollock Carol,Stefánsson Bergur,Reyner Daniel,Rossing Peter,Sjöström C David,Wheeler David C,Langkilde Anna Maria,Heerspink Hiddo J L The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology BACKGROUND:In patients with type 2 diabetes, intensive glucose control can be renoprotective and albuminuria-lowering treatments can slow the deterioration of kidney function. We assessed the albuminuria-lowering effect of the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor dapagliflozin with and without the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor saxagliptin, and the effect of dapagliflozin-saxagliptin on glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes and moderate-to-severe chronic kidney disease. METHODS:In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (DELIGHT), we enrolled patients at 116 research centres in Australia, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, South Africa, Spain, Taiwan, and the USA. We included patients with a known history of type 2 diabetes, increased albuminuria (urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio [UACR] 30-3500 mg/g), an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 25-75 mL/min per 1·73 m, and an HbA of 7·0-11·0% (53-97 mmol/mol), who had been receiving stable doses of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker therapy and glucose-lowering treatment for at least 12 weeks. After a 4-week, single-blind placebo run-in period, participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1; via an interactive voice-web response system) to receive dapagliflozin (10 mg) only, dapagliflozin (10 mg) and saxagliptin (2·5 mg), or placebo once-daily for 24 weeks. Primary endpoints were change from baseline in UACR (dapagliflozin and dapagliflozin-saxagliptin groups) and HbA (dapagliflozin-saxagliptin group) at week 24 in all randomly allocated patients with available data (full analysis set). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02547935 and is completed. FINDINGS:The study took place between July 14, 2015, and May 18, 2018. 1187 patients were screened, of whom 461 were randomly assigned: 145 to the dapagliflozin group, 155 to the dapagliflozin-saxagliptin group, and 148 to the placebo group (13 patients were excluded because of data integrity issues). Dapagliflozin and dapagliflozin-saxagliptin reduced UACR versus placebo throughout the study period. At week 24, the difference (vs placebo; n=134 patients with available data) in mean UACR change from baseline was -21·0% (95% CI -34·1 to -5·2; p=0·011) for dapagliflozin (n=132) and -38·0% (-48·2 to -25·8; p<0·0001) for dapagliflozin-saxagliptin (n=139). HbA was reduced in the dapagliflozin-saxagliptin group (n=137) compared with the placebo group (n=118) at week 24 (-0·58% [-0·80 to -0·37; p<0·0001]). The numbers of patients with adverse events (79 [54%] in the dapagliflozin group, 104 [68%] in the dapagliflozin-saxagliptin group, and 81 [55%] in the placebo group) or serious adverse events (12 [8%], 12 [8%], and 16 [11%], respectively) were similar across groups. There were no new drug-related safety signals. INTERPRETATION:Dapagliflozin with or without saxagliptin, given in addition to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker treatment, is a potentially attractive option to slow the progression of kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and moderate-to-severe chronic kidney disease. FUNDING:AstraZeneca. 10.1016/S2213-8587(19)30086-5
    Atrasentan and renal events in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (SONAR): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Heerspink Hiddo J L,Parving Hans-Henrik,Andress Dennis L,Bakris George,Correa-Rotter Ricardo,Hou Fan-Fan,Kitzman Dalane W,Kohan Donald,Makino Hirofumi,McMurray John J V,Melnick Joel Z,Miller Michael G,Pergola Pablo E,Perkovic Vlado,Tobe Sheldon,Yi Tingting,Wigderson Melissa,de Zeeuw Dick, Lancet (London, England) BACKGROUND:Short-term treatment for people with type 2 diabetes using a low dose of the selective endothelin A receptor antagonist atrasentan reduces albuminuria without causing significant sodium retention. We report the long-term effects of treatment with atrasentan on major renal outcomes. METHODS:We did this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial at 689 sites in 41 countries. We enrolled adults aged 18-85 years with type 2 diabetes, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 25-75 mL/min per 1·73 m of body surface area, and a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) of 300-5000 mg/g who had received maximum labelled or tolerated renin-angiotensin system inhibition for at least 4 weeks. Participants were given atrasentan 0·75 mg orally daily during an enrichment period before random group assignment. Those with a UACR decrease of at least 30% with no substantial fluid retention during the enrichment period (responders) were included in the double-blind treatment period. Responders were randomly assigned to receive either atrasentan 0·75 mg orally daily or placebo. All patients and investigators were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was a composite of doubling of serum creatinine (sustained for ≥30 days) or end-stage kidney disease (eGFR <15 mL/min per 1·73 m sustained for ≥90 days, chronic dialysis for ≥90 days, kidney transplantation, or death from kidney failure) in the intention-to-treat population of all responders. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of their assigned study treatment. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01858532. FINDINGS:Between May 17, 2013, and July 13, 2017, 11 087 patients were screened; 5117 entered the enrichment period, and 4711 completed the enrichment period. Of these, 2648 patients were responders and were randomly assigned to the atrasentan group (n=1325) or placebo group (n=1323). Median follow-up was 2·2 years (IQR 1·4-2·9). 79 (6·0%) of 1325 patients in the atrasentan group and 105 (7·9%) of 1323 in the placebo group had a primary composite renal endpoint event (hazard ratio [HR] 0·65 [95% CI 0·49-0·88]; p=0·0047). Fluid retention and anaemia adverse events, which have been previously attributed to endothelin receptor antagonists, were more frequent in the atrasentan group than in the placebo group. Hospital admission for heart failure occurred in 47 (3·5%) of 1325 patients in the atrasentan group and 34 (2·6%) of 1323 patients in the placebo group (HR 1·33 [95% CI 0·85-2·07]; p=0·208). 58 (4·4%) patients in the atrasentan group and 52 (3·9%) in the placebo group died (HR 1·09 [95% CI 0·75-1·59]; p=0·65). INTERPRETATION:Atrasentan reduced the risk of renal events in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease who were selected to optimise efficacy and safety. These data support a potential role for selective endothelin receptor antagonists in protecting renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk of developing end-stage kidney disease. FUNDING:AbbVie. 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30772-X
    Possible Mechanism of Hematocrit Elevation by Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors and Associated Beneficial Renal and Cardiovascular Effects. Sano Motoaki,Goto Shinichi Circulation 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.038881
    Cardiovascular Outcomes of Calcium-Free vs Calcium-Based Phosphate Binders in Patients 65 Years or Older With End-stage Renal Disease Requiring Hemodialysis. Spoendlin Julia,Paik Julie M,Tsacogianis T,Kim Seoyoung C,Schneeweiss Sebastian,Desai Rishi J JAMA internal medicine Importance:Guidelines restricting use of calcium-based phosphate binders in all patients with end-stage renal disease owing to their potential contribution to increased cardiovascular risk shifted prescribing from calcium acetate toward the costlier sevelamer carbonate products. Objective:To compare cardiovascular events and mortality between patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis receiving sevelamer vs calcium acetate in real-world practice. Design, Setting, and Participants:An observational cohort study was conducted using the United States Renal Data System linked to Medicare claims data (May 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013). Data analysis was performed from October 2017 to September 2018. Participants included patients 65 years or older with ESRD within 180 days after starting hemodialysis (sevelamer, 2647; calcium acetate, 2074). Exposures:New use of sevelamer (calcium-free phosphate binder) vs calcium acetate (calcium-based phosphate binder). Main Outcomes and Measures:Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs were estimated for fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke: primary outcome) and all-cause mortality (secondary outcome) using Cox proportional hazards regression with fine stratification on the propensity score to control for potential confounders, including phosphorus and calcium levels. Results:After propensity score weighting, 2639 patients initiating sevelamer treatment (1184 men [44.9%]; mean [SD] age, 75.6 [6.9] years) and 2065 patients initiating calcium acetate treatment (930 men [45.0%]; mean [SD] age, 75.5 [7.1] years) were included in the analysis. Crude incidence rates (IRs) for cardiovascular events of 458 per 1000 person-years for sevelamer and 464 per 1000 person-years for calcium acetate were observed. After propensity score fine-stratification weighting, HRs of 0.96 (95% CI, 0.84-1.10) for cardiovascular events were observed. Results were consistent within subgroups of age (<75 y: primary outcome, HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.85-1.24; vs ≥75 years: primary outcome, HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69-1.01) and sex (primary outcome in men: HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.83-1.26). Conclusions and Relevance:The results of the study do not suggest increased cardiovascular safety of sevelamer in the routine clinical practice of patients with ESRD compared with calcium acetate; this study's findings suggest that well-designed, long-term, randomized clinical trials are needed. 10.1001/jamainternmed.2019.0045
    Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Cause in Agricultural Communities. Johnson Richard J,Wesseling Catharina,Newman Lee S The New England journal of medicine 10.1056/NEJMra1813869
    Rivaroxaban Plus Aspirin in Patients With Vascular Disease and Renal Dysfunction: From the COMPASS Trial. Fox Keith A A,Eikelboom John W,Shestakovska Olga,Connolly Stuart J,Metsarinne Kaj P,Yusuf Salim Journal of the American College of Cardiology BACKGROUND:Chronic kidney disease is associated with an increased risk of both bleeding and ischemic cardiovascular events. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to determine the balance of risks and benefits from the dual pathway antithrombotic regimen (rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily [bd] plus aspirin, compared with aspirin) in vascular patients with or without moderate renal dysfunction. METHODS:This was a secondary analysis of the COMPASS (Cardiovascular OutcoMes for People using Anticoagulation StrategieS) trial involving 27,395 patients with chronic coronary or peripheral artery disease. RESULTS:In COMPASS, 21,111 patients had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at baseline of ≥60 ml/min, 6,276 had a GRF of <60 ml/min. Both the primary efficacy outcome (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) and major bleeding were more frequent in those with renal dysfunction, and the frequency of these outcome events was inversely related to GFR. However, the primary outcome was consistently reduced with rivaroxaban 2.5 mg bd plus aspirin, irrespective of GFR category (GFR ≥60 ml/min, 3.5% rivaroxaban plus aspirin, 4.5% aspirin alone, hazard ratio [HR]: 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64 to 0.90; GFR <60 ml/min, 6.4% rivaroxaban plus aspirin, 8.4% aspirin alone, HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.60 to 0.94). Major bleeding was more frequent with rivaroxaban 2.5 mg plus aspirin versus aspirin alone in those with GFR ≥60 ml/min (2.9% rivaroxaban plus aspirin, 1.6% aspirin alone, HR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.44 to 2.28) and similarly in those with GFR <60 ml/min (3.9% rivaroxaban plus aspirin, 2.7% aspirin alone, HR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.05 to 2.07). CONCLUSIONS:The benefits of the dual pathway COMPASS regimen (rivaroxaban 2.5 mg bd plus aspirin), versus aspirin alone, are preserved in patients with moderate renal dysfunction without evidence of an excess hazard of bleeding. 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.02.048
    Clinical Guidelines and PTH Measurement: Does Assay Generation Matter? Smit Marjon A,van Kinschot Caroline M J,van der Linden Joke,van Noord Charlotte,Kos Snježana Endocrine reviews PTH is an important regulator of calcium and phosphate homeostasis and bone remodeling. It is metabolized into PTH fragments, which are measured to a different extent by PTH assays of different generations because of differences in fragments recognized and lack of assay standardization. PTH is measured in the workup of several conditions, and clinical guidelines provide recommendations concerning these measurements. This review provides an overview of the impact of differences between PTH assays, applying distinct clinical guidelines for primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism and perioperative use of PTH measurements. Guidelines deal with PTH measurement in different ways, recommending either trend monitoring, the use of a fold increase of the upper reference limit, or an absolute PTH cutoff value. For classic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), the type of PTH assay used will not affect diagnosis or management because the precise concentration of PTH is less relevant. In chronic kidney disease, the guideline recommends treating secondary hyperparathyroidism above a twofold to ninefold PTH increase, which will result in different clinical decisions depending on the assay used. For patients after bariatric surgery, guidelines state absolute cutoff values for PTH, but the impact of different generation assays is unknown because direct comparison of PTH assays has never been performed. During parathyroid surgery, PTH measurements with a third-generation assay reflect treatment success more rapidly than second-generation assays. Increased awareness among clinicians regarding the complexity of PTH measurements is warranted because it can affect clinical decisions. 10.1210/er.2018-00220
    The role of inflammasomes in kidney disease. Komada Takanori,Muruve Daniel A Nature reviews. Nephrology Inflammasomes are multiprotein innate immune complexes that regulate caspase-dependent inflammation and cell death. Pattern recognition receptors, such as nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors and absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2)-like receptors, sense danger signals or cellular events to activate canonical inflammasomes, resulting in caspase 1 activation, pyroptosis and the secretion of IL-1β and IL-18. Non-canonical inflammasomes can be activated by intracellular lipopolysaccharides, toxins and some cell signalling pathways. These inflammasomes regulate the activation of alternative caspases (caspase 4, caspase 5, caspase 11 and caspase 8) that lead to pyroptosis, apoptosis and the regulation of other cellular pathways. Many inflammasome-related genes and proteins have been implicated in animal models of kidney disease. In particular, the NLRP3 (NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing 3) inflammasome has been shown to contribute to a wide range of acute and chronic microbial and non-microbial kidney diseases via canonical and non-canonical mechanisms that regulate inflammation, pyroptosis, apoptosis and fibrosis. In patients with chronic kidney disease, immunomodulation therapies targeting IL-1β such as canakinumab have been shown to prevent cardiovascular events. Moreover, findings in experimental models of kidney disease suggest that small-molecule inhibitors targeting NLRP3 and other inflammasome components are promising therapeutic agents. 10.1038/s41581-019-0158-z
    Mechanisms of phosphate transport. Levi Moshe,Gratton Enrico,Forster Ian C,Hernando Nati,Wagner Carsten A,Biber Juerg,Sorribas Victor,Murer Heini Nature reviews. Nephrology Over the past 25 years, successive cloning of SLC34A1, SLC34A2 and SLC34A3, which encode the sodium-dependent inorganic phosphate (P) cotransport proteins 2a-2c, has facilitated the identification of molecular mechanisms that underlie the regulation of renal and intestinal P transport. P and various hormones, including parathyroid hormone and phosphatonins, such as fibroblast growth factor 23, regulate the activity of these P transporters through transcriptional, translational and post-translational mechanisms involving interactions with PDZ domain-containing proteins, lipid microdomains and acute trafficking of the transporters via endocytosis and exocytosis. In humans and rodents, mutations in any of the three transporters lead to dysregulation of epithelial P transport with effects on serum P levels and can cause cardiovascular and musculoskeletal damage, illustrating the importance of these transporters in the maintenance of local and systemic P homeostasis. Functional and structural studies have provided insights into the mechanism by which these proteins transport P, whereas in vivo and ex vivo cell culture studies have identified several small molecules that can modify their transport function. These small molecules represent potential new drugs to help maintain P homeostasis in patients with chronic kidney disease - a condition that is associated with hyperphosphataemia and severe cardiovascular and skeletal consequences. 10.1038/s41581-019-0159-y
    Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir for 12 weeks in hepatitis C virus-infected patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis. Borgia Sergio M,Dearden Janet,Yoshida Eric M,Shafran Stephen D,Brown Ashley,Ben-Ari Ziv,Cramp Matthew E,Cooper Curtis,Foxton Matthew,Rodriguez Conrado Fernandez,Esteban Rafael,Hyland Robert,Lu Sophia,Kirby Brian J,Meng Amy,Markova Svetlana,Dvory-Sobol Hadas,Osinusi Anu O,Bruck Rafael,Ampuero Javier,Ryder Stephen D,Agarwal Kosh,Fox Raymond,Shaw David,Haider Shariq,Willems Bernard,Lurie Yoav,Calleja Jose Luis,Gane Edward J Journal of hepatology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Although off-label use of sofosbuvir-containing regimens occurs regularly in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection undergoing dialysis for severe renal impairment or end-stage renal disease (ESRD), these regimens are not licensed for this indication, and there is an absence of dosing recommendations in this population. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir/velpatasvir in patients with HCV infection with ESRD undergoing dialysis. METHODS:In this phase II, single-arm study, 59 patients with genotype 1-6 HCV infection with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis received open-label sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (400 mg/100 mg) once daily for 12 weeks. Patients were HCV treatment naive or treatment experienced without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis. Patients previously treated with any HCV NS5A inhibitor were not eligible. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving sustained virologic response (SVR) 12 weeks after discontinuation of treatment (SVR12). The primary safety endpoint was the proportion of patients who discontinued study drug due to adverse events. RESULTS:Overall, 56 of 59 patients achieved SVR12 (95%; 95% CI 86-99%). Of the 3 patients who did not achieve SVR12, 2 patients had virologic relapse determined at post-treatment Week 4 (including 1 who prematurely discontinued study treatment), and 1 patient died from suicide after achieving SVR through post-treatment Week 4. The most common adverse events were headache (17%), fatigue (14%), nausea (14%), and vomiting (14%). Serious adverse events were reported for 11 patients (19%), and all were deemed to be unrelated to sofosbuvir/velpatasvir. CONCLUSIONS:Treatment with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir for 12 weeks was safe and effective in patients with ESRD undergoing dialysis. LAY SUMMARY:Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir is a combination direct-acting antiviral that is approved for treatment of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Despite the lack of dosing recommendations, sofosbuvir-containing regimens (including sofosbuvir/velpatasvir) are frequently used for HCV-infected patients undergoing dialysis. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir/velpatasvir for 12 weeks in patients with HCV infection who were undergoing dialysis. Treatment with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir was safe and well tolerated, resulting in a cure rate of 95% in patients with HCV infection and end-stage renal disease. Clinical Trial Number: NCT03036852. 10.1016/j.jhep.2019.05.028
    Efficacy and Safety of Evolocumab in Chronic Kidney Disease in the FOURIER Trial. Charytan David M,Sabatine Marc S,Pedersen Terje R,Im KyungAh,Park Jeong-Gun,Pineda Armando Lira,Wasserman Scott M,Deedwania Prakash,Olsson Anders G,Sever Peter S,Keech Anthony C,Giugliano Robert P, Journal of the American College of Cardiology BACKGROUND:Data on PCSK9 inhibition in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is limited. OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes with evolocumab and placebo according to kidney function. METHODS:The FOURIER (Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk) trial randomized individuals with clinically evident atherosclerosis and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥70 mg/dl or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥100 mg/dl to evolocumab or placebo. The primary endpoint (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina, or coronary revascularization), key secondary endpoint (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke), and safety were analyzed according to chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage estimated from CKD-epidemiology estimated glomerular filtration rate. RESULTS:There were 8,077 patients with preserved kidney function, 15,034 with stage 2 CKD, and 4,443 with ≥stage 3 CKD. LDL-C reduction with evolocumab compared with placebo at 48 weeks was similar across CKD groups at 59%, 59%, and 58%, respectively. Relative risk reduction for the primary endpoint was similar for preserved function (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.71 to 0.94), stage 2 (HR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.77 to 0.94), and stage ≥3 CKD (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.76 to 1.05); p = 0.77. Relative risk reduction for the secondary endpoint was similar across CKD stages (p = 0.75)-preserved function (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.62 to 0.90), stage 2 (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.93), stage ≥3 (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.65 to 0.95). Absolute RRs at 30 months for the secondary endpoint were -2.5% (95% CI: -0.4% to -4.7%) for stage ≥3 CKD compared with -1.7% (95% CI: 0.5% to -2.8%) with preserved kidney function. Adverse events, including estimated glomerular filtration rate decline, were infrequent and similar regardless of CKD stage. CONCLUSIONS:LDL-C lowering and relative clinical efficacy and safety of evolocumab versus placebo were consistent across CKD groups. Absolute reduction in the composite of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke with evolocumab was numerically greater with more advanced CKD. (Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research With PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects With Elevated Risk [FOURIER]; NCT01764633). 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.03.513
    Intestinal microbiome and fitness in kidney disease. Meijers Björn,Evenepoel Pieter,Anders Hans-Joachim Nature reviews. Nephrology Environmental changes can induce diversity shifts within ecosystems that affect interactions between species. Similarly, the development of kidney disease induces shifts within the ecosystem of the intestinal microbiome, affecting host physiology and fitness. Renal failure itself, together with related changes in diet and medication, alters the microbiota and its secretome of micronutrients, nutrients and regulatory metabolites towards a phenotype characterized by the production of uraemic toxins, hence contributing to the clinical syndrome of uraemia and its complications. These alterations are associated with structural changes in the intestinal wall that impair barrier function and cause leakage of bacterial metabolites, bacterial wall products and live bacteria into the circulation. Thus, the intestinal microbiota represents a new therapeutic target to improve outcomes of chronic kidney disease (CKD), including symptoms of uraemia, metabolic changes, cardiovascular complications, aberrant immunity and disease progression. Initial interventional studies have shown promising effects of unselective probiotic preparations on kidney inflammation and uraemia in patients with CKD but longer-term studies are needed. Here, we take an ecological approach to understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in determining survival fitness in kidney disease. 10.1038/s41581-019-0172-1
    Long-term safety and efficacy of veverimer in patients with metabolic acidosis in chronic kidney disease: a multicentre, randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled, 40-week extension. Wesson Donald E,Mathur Vandana,Tangri Navdeep,Stasiv Yuri,Parsell Dawn,Li Elizabeth,Klaerner Gerrit,Bushinsky David A Lancet (London, England) BACKGROUND:Metabolic acidosis, a complication of chronic kidney disease, causes protein catabolism and bone demineralisation and is associated with adverse kidney outcomes and mortality. Veverimer, a non-absorbed, counterion-free, polymeric drug candidate selectively binds and removes hydrochloric acid from the gastrointestinal lumen. METHODS:We did a multicentre, randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled, 40-week extension of a 12-week parent study at 29 sites (hospitals and specialty clinics) in seven countries (Bulgaria, Georgia, Hungary, Serbia, Slovenia, Ukraine, and the USA). Eligible patients were those with chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate 20-40 mL/min per 1·73 m) and metabolic acidosis (serum bicarbonate 12-20 mmol/L), who had completed the 12-week parent study, for which they were randomly assigned (4:3) to veverimer (6 g/day) or placebo as oral suspensions in water with food. Participants in the extension continued with the same treatment assignment as in the parent study. The primary endpoint was safety; the four secondary endpoints assessed the long-term effects of veverimer on serum bicarbonate concentration and physical functioning. The safety analysis set was defined as all patients who received any amount of study drug. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03390842, and has now completed. FINDINGS:Participants entered the study between Dec 20, 2017, and May 4, 2018. Of the 217 patients randomly assigned to treatment in the parent study (124 to veverimer and 93 to placebo), 196 patients (114 veverimer and 82 placebo) continued on their blinded randomised treatment assignment into this 40-week extension study. Compared with placebo, fewer patients on veverimer discontinued treatment prematurely (3% vs 10%, respectively), and no patients on veverimer discontinued because of an adverse event. Serious adverse events occurred in 2% of veverimer-treated patients and in 5% of placebo patients (two of whom died). Renal system adverse events were reported in 8% and 15% in the veverimer and placebo groups, respectively. More patients on veverimer than placebo had an increase in bicarbonate (≥4 mmol/L or normalisation) at week 52 (63% vs 38%, p=0·0015) and higher bicarbonate concentrations were observed with veverimer than placebo at all timepoints starting at week 1 (p<0·001). Veverimer resulted in improved patient-reported physical functioning (Kidney Disease and Quality of Life-Physical Function Domain) versus placebo with a mean placebo-subtracted change at end of treatment of 12·1 points (SE 3·3; p<0·0001). Time to do the repeat chair stand test improved by 4·3 s (1·2) on veverimer versus 1·4 s (1·2) on placebo (p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION:In patients with chronic kidney disease and metabolic acidosis, veverimer safely and effectively corrected metabolic acidosis and improved subjective and objective measures of physical function. FUNDING:Tricida. 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31388-1
    Markers of kidney tubule function and risk of cardiovascular disease events and mortality in the SPRINT trial. Garimella Pranav S,Lee Alexandra K,Ambrosius Walter T,Bhatt Udayan,Cheung Alfred K,Chonchol Michel,Craven Timothy,Hawfield Amret T,Jotwani Vasantha,Killeen Anthony,Punzi Henry,Sarnak Mark J,Wall Barry M,Ix Joachim H,Shlipak Michael G European heart journal AIMS:Biomarkers of kidney tubule injury, inflammation and fibrosis have been studied extensively and established as risk markers of adverse kidney and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes. However, associations of markers of kidney tubular function with adverse clinical events have not been well studied, especially in persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS AND RESULTS:Using a sample of 2377 persons with CKD at the baseline Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) visit, we evaluated the association of three urine tubular function markers, alpha-1 microglobulin (α1m), beta-2 microglobulin (β2m), and uromodulin, with a composite CVD endpoint (myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, stroke, acute decompensated heart failure, or death from cardiovascular causes) and mortality using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albuminuria, and CVD risk factors. In unadjusted analysis, over a median follow-up of 3.8 years, α1m and β2m had positive associations with composite CVD events and mortality, whereas uromodulin had an inverse association with risk for both outcomes. In multivariable analysis including eGFR and albuminuria, a two-fold higher baseline concentration of α1m was associated with higher risk of CVD [hazard ratio (HR) 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.45] and mortality (HR 1.25; 95% CI: 1.10-1.46), whereas β2m had no association with either outcome. A two-fold higher uromodulin concentration was associated with lower CVD risk (HR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.68-0.90) but not mortality (HR 0.86; 95% CI: 0.73-1.01) after adjusting for similar confounders. CONCLUSION:Among non-diabetic persons with CKD, biomarkers of tubular function are associated with CVD events and mortality independent of glomerular function and albuminuria. 10.1093/eurheartj/ehz392
    Canagliflozin and Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Chronic Kidney Disease in Primary and Secondary Cardiovascular Prevention Groups. Mahaffey Kenneth W,Jardine Meg J,Bompoint Severine,Cannon Christopher P,Neal Bruce,Heerspink Hiddo J L,Charytan David M,Edwards Robert,Agarwal Rajiv,Bakris George,Bull Scott,Capuano George,de Zeeuw Dick,Greene Tom,Levin Adeera,Pollock Carol,Sun Tao,Wheeler David C,Yavin Yshai,Zhang Hong,Zinman Bernard,Rosenthal Norman,Brenner Barry M,Perkovic Vlado Circulation BACKGROUND:Canagliflozin reduces the risk of kidney failure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, but effects on specific cardiovascular outcomes are uncertain, as are effects in people without previous cardiovascular disease (primary prevention). METHODS:In CREDENCE (Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes With Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation), 4401 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease were randomly assigned to canagliflozin or placebo on a background of optimized standard of care. RESULTS:Primary prevention participants (n=2181, 49.6%) were younger (61 versus 65 years), were more often female (37% versus 31%), and had shorter duration of diabetes mellitus (15 years versus 16 years) compared with secondary prevention participants (n=2220, 50.4%). Canagliflozin reduced the risk of major cardiovascular events overall (hazard ratio [HR], 0.80 [95% CI, 0.67-0.95]; P=0.01), with consistent reductions in both the primary (HR, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.49-0.94]) and secondary (HR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.69-1.06]) prevention groups (P for interaction=0.25). Effects were also similar for the components of the composite including cardiovascular death (HR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.61-1.00]), nonfatal myocardial infarction (HR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.59-1.10]), and nonfatal stroke (HR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.56-1.15]). The risk of the primary composite renal outcome and the composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure were also consistently reduced in both the primary and secondary prevention groups (P for interaction >0.5 for each outcome). CONCLUSIONS:Canagliflozin significantly reduced major cardiovascular events and kidney failure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, including in participants who did not have previous cardiovascular disease. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02065791. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.042007
    The case for uric acid-lowering treatment in patients with hyperuricaemia and CKD. Sato Yuka,Feig Daniel I,Stack Austin G,Kang Duk-Hee,Lanaspa Miguel A,Ejaz A Ahsan,Sánchez-Lozada L Gabriela,Kuwabara Masanari,Borghi Claudio,Johnson Richard J Nature reviews. Nephrology Hyperuricaemia is common among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and increases in severity with the deterioration of kidney function. Although existing guidelines for CKD management do not recommend testing for or treatment of hyperuricaemia in the absence of a diagnosis of gout or urate nephrolithiasis, an emerging body of evidence supports a direct causal relationship between serum urate levels and the development of CKD. Here, we review randomized clinical trials that have evaluated the effect of urate-lowering therapy (ULT) on the rate of CKD progression. Among trials in which individuals in the control arm experienced progressive deterioration of kidney function (which we define as ≥4 ml/min/1.73 m² over the course of the study - typically 6 months to 2 years), treatment with ULT conferred consistent clinical benefits. In contrast, among trials where clinical progression was not observed in the control arm, treatment with ULT was ineffective, but this finding should not be used as an argument against the use of uric acid-lowering therapy. Although additional studies are needed to identify threshold values of serum urate for treatment initiation and to confirm optimal target levels, we believe that sufficient evidence exists to recommend routine measurement of serum urate levels in patients with CKD and consider initiation of ULT among those who are hyperuricaemic with evidence of deteriorating renal function, unless specific contraindications exist. 10.1038/s41581-019-0174-z
    Benefits and Harms of Oral Anticoagulant Therapy in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Ha Jeffrey T,Neuen Brendon L,Cheng Lap P,Jun Min,Toyama Tadashi,Gallagher Martin P,Jardine Meg J,Sood Manish M,Garg Amit X,Palmer Suetonia C,Mark Patrick B,Wheeler David C,Jha Vivekanand,Freedman Ben,Johnson David W,Perkovic Vlado,Badve Sunil V Annals of internal medicine Background:Effects of oral anticoagulation in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are uncertain. Purpose:To evaluate the benefits and harms of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in adults with CKD stages 3 to 5, including those with dialysis-dependent end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Data Sources:English-language searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases (inception to February 2019); review bibliographies; and ClinicalTrials.gov (25 February 2019). Study Selection:Randomized controlled trials evaluating VKAs or NOACs for any indication in patients with CKD that reported efficacy or bleeding outcomes. Data Extraction:Two authors independently extracted data, assessed risk of bias, and rated certainty of evidence. Data Synthesis:Forty-five trials involving 34 082 participants who received anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation (AF) (11 trials), venous thromboembolism (VTE) (11 trials), thromboprophylaxis (6 trials), prevention of dialysis access thrombosis (8 trials), and cardiovascular disease other than AF (9 trials) were included. All but the 8 trials involving patients with ESKD excluded participants with creatinine clearance less than 20 mL/min or estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 15 mL/min/1.73 m2. In AF, compared with VKAs, NOACs reduced risks for stroke or systemic embolism (risk ratio [RR], 0.79 [95% CI, 0.66 to 0.93]; high-certainty evidence) and hemorrhagic stroke (RR, 0.48 [CI, 0.30 to 0.76]; moderate-certainty evidence). Compared with VKAs, the effects of NOACs on recurrent VTE or VTE-related death were uncertain (RR, 0.72 [CI, 0.44 to 1.17]; low-certainty evidence). In all trials combined, NOACs seemingly reduced major bleeding risk compared with VKAs (RR, 0.75 [CI, 0.56 to 1.01]; low-certainty evidence). Limitation:Scant evidence for advanced CKD or ESKD; data mostly from subgroups of large trials. Conclusion:In early-stage CKD, NOACs had a benefit-risk profile superior to that of VKAs. For advanced CKD or ESKD, there was insufficient evidence to establish benefits or harms of VKAs or NOACs. Primary Funding Source:None. (PROSPERO: CRD42017079709). 10.7326/M19-0087
    Roxadustat for Anemia in Patients with Kidney Disease Not Receiving Dialysis. Chen Nan,Hao Chuanming,Peng Xiaomei,Lin Hongli,Yin Aiping,Hao Li,Tao Ye,Liang Xinling,Liu Zhengrong,Xing Changying,Chen Jianghua,Luo Laimin,Zuo Li,Liao Yunhua,Liu Bi-Cheng,Leong Robert,Wang Chunrong,Liu Cameron,Neff Thomas,Szczech Lynda,Yu Kin-Hung P The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Roxadustat (FG-4592) is an oral inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase that stimulates erythropoiesis and regulates iron metabolism. In phase 2 studies involving patients with chronic kidney disease, roxadustat increased levels of endogenous erythropoietin to within or near the physiologic range, along with increasing hemoglobin levels and improving iron homeostasis. Additional data are needed regarding the efficacy and safety of roxadustat for the treatment of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease who are not undergoing dialysis. METHODS:In this phase 3 trial conducted at 29 sites in China, we randomly assigned 154 patients with chronic kidney disease in a 2:1 ratio to receive roxadustat or placebo three times a week for 8 weeks in a double-blind manner. All the patients had a hemoglobin level of 7.0 to 10.0 g per deciliter at baseline. The randomized phase of the trial was followed by an 18-week open-label period in which all the patients received roxadustat; parenteral iron was withheld. The primary end point was the mean change from baseline in the hemoglobin level, averaged over weeks 7 through 9. RESULTS:During the primary-analysis period, the mean (±SD) change from baseline in the hemoglobin level was an increase of 1.9±1.2 g per deciliter in the roxadustat group and a decrease of 0.4±0.8 g per deciliter in the placebo group (P<0.001). The mean reduction from baseline in the hepcidin level (associated with greater iron availability) was 56.14±63.40 ng per milliliter in the roxadustat group and 15.10±48.06 ng per milliliter in the placebo group. The reduction from baseline in the total cholesterol level was 40.6 mg per deciliter in the roxadustat group and 7.7 mg per deciliter in the placebo group. Hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis occurred more frequently in the roxadustat group than in the placebo group. The efficacy of roxadustat in hemoglobin correction and maintenance was maintained during the 18-week open-label period. CONCLUSIONS:In Chinese patients with chronic kidney disease who were not undergoing dialysis, those in the roxadustat group had a higher mean hemoglobin level than those in the placebo group after 8 weeks. During the 18-week open-label phase of the trial, roxadustat was associated with continued efficacy. (Funded by FibroGen and FibroGen [China] Medical Technology Development; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02652819.). 10.1056/NEJMoa1813599
    Roxadustat Treatment for Anemia in Patients Undergoing Long-Term Dialysis. Chen Nan,Hao Chuanming,Liu Bi-Cheng,Lin Hongli,Wang Caili,Xing Changying,Liang Xinling,Jiang Gengru,Liu Zhengrong,Li Xuemei,Zuo Li,Luo Laimin,Wang Jianqin,Zhao Ming-Hui,Liu Zhihong,Cai Guang-Yan,Hao Li,Leong Robert,Wang Chunrong,Liu Cameron,Neff Thomas,Szczech Lynda,Yu Kin-Hung P The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Roxadustat is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor that stimulates erythropoiesis and regulates iron metabolism. Additional data are needed regarding the effectiveness and safety of roxadustat as compared with standard therapy (epoetin alfa) for the treatment of anemia in patients undergoing dialysis. METHODS:In a trial conducted in China, we randomly assigned (in a 2:1 ratio) patients who had been undergoing dialysis and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent therapy with epoetin alfa for at least 6 weeks to receive roxadustat or epoetin alfa three times per week for 26 weeks. Parenteral iron was withheld except as rescue therapy. The primary end point was the mean change in hemoglobin level from baseline to the average level during weeks 23 through 27. Noninferiority of roxadustat would be established if the lower boundary of the two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference between the values in the roxadustat group and epoetin alfa group was greater than or equal to -1.0 g per deciliter. Patients in each group had doses adjusted to reach a hemoglobin level of 10.0 to 12.0 g per deciliter. Safety was assessed by analysis of adverse events and clinical laboratory values. RESULTS:A total of 305 patients underwent randomization (204 in the roxadustat group and 101 in the epoetin alfa group), and 256 patients (162 and 94, respectively) completed the 26-week treatment period. The mean baseline hemoglobin level was 10.4 g per deciliter. Roxadustat led to a numerically greater mean (±SD) change in hemoglobin level from baseline to weeks 23 through 27 (0.7±1.1 g per deciliter) than epoetin alfa (0.5±1.0 g per deciliter) and was statistically noninferior (difference, 0.2±1.2 g per deciliter; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.02 to 0.5). As compared with epoetin alfa, roxadustat increased the transferrin level (difference, 0.43 g per liter; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.53), maintained the serum iron level (difference, 25 μg per deciliter; 95% CI, 17 to 33), and attenuated decreases in the transferrin saturation (difference, 4.2 percentage points; 95% CI, 1.5 to 6.9). At week 27, the decrease in total cholesterol was greater with roxadustat than with epoetin alfa (difference, -22 mg per deciliter; 95% CI, -29 to -16), as was the decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (difference, -18 mg per deciliter; 95% CI, -23 to -13). Roxadustat was associated with a mean reduction in hepcidin of 30.2 ng per milliliter (95% CI, -64.8 to -13.6), as compared with 2.3 ng per milliliter (95% CI, -51.6 to 6.2) in the epoetin alfa group. Hyperkalemia and upper respiratory infection occurred at a higher frequency in the roxadustat group, and hypertension occurred at a higher frequency in the epoetin alfa group. CONCLUSIONS:Oral roxadustat was noninferior to parenteral epoetin alfa as therapy for anemia in Chinese patients undergoing dialysis. (Funded by FibroGen and FibroGen [China] Medical Technology Development; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02652806.). 10.1056/NEJMoa1901713
    Metformin Use and Clinical Outcomes Among Patients With Diabetes Mellitus With or Without Heart Failure or Kidney Dysfunction: Observations From the SAVOR-TIMI 53 Trial. Bergmark Brian A,Bhatt Deepak L,McGuire Darren K,Cahn Avivit,Mosenzon Ofri,Steg Ph Gabriel,Im KyungAh,Kanevsky Estella,Gurmu Yared,Raz Itamar,Braunwald Eugene,Scirica Benjamin M, Circulation BACKGROUND:Metformin is first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus, although its effects on the cardiovascular system are unproved. METHODS:In this post hoc analysis, patients in SAVOR-TIMI 53 (Saxagliptin and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus) with baseline biomarker samples (n=12 156) were classified as ever versus never taking metformin during the trial period. Associations between metformin exposure and outcomes were estimated with inverse probability of treatment weighting Cox modeling for the composite end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke, as well as cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality, with biomarkers included as covariates. Additional sensitivity analyses included propensity score matching and Cox multivariable models. RESULTS:Of the 12 156 patients with baseline biomarker samples, 8971 (74%) had metformin exposure, 1611 (13%) had prior heart failure, and 1332 (11%) had at least moderate chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤45 mL·min·1.73 m). Metformin use was associated with no difference in risk for the composite end point (hazard ratio for inverse probability of treatment weighting, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.76-1.11]) but lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio for inverse probability of treatment weighting, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.59-0.95]). There was no significant relationship between metformin use and these end points in patients with prior heart failure or moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. CONCLUSIONS:In a cohort of 12 156 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high cardiovascular risk, metformin use was associated with lower rates of all-cause mortality, including after adjustment for clinical variables and biomarkers, but not lower rates of the composite end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke. This association was most apparent in patients without prior heart failure or moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01107886. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.040144
    Mapping eGFR loci to the renal transcriptome and phenome in the VA Million Veteran Program. Hellwege Jacklyn N,Velez Edwards Digna R,Giri Ayush,Qiu Chengxiang,Park Jihwan,Torstenson Eric S,Keaton Jacob M,Wilson O D,Robinson-Cohen Cassianne,Chung Cecilia P,Roumie Christianne L,Klarin Derek,Damrauer Scott M,DuVall Scott L,Siew Edward,Akwo Elvis A,Wuttke Matthias,Gorski Mathias,Li Man,Li Yong,Gaziano J Michael,Wilson Peter W F,Tsao Philip S,O'Donnell Christopher J,Kovesdy Csaba P,Pattaro Cristian,Köttgen Anna,Susztak Katalin,Edwards Todd L,Hung Adriana M Nature communications Chronic kidney disease (CKD), defined by low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), contributes to global morbidity and mortality. Here we conduct a transethnic Genome-Wide Association Study of eGFR in 280,722 participants of the Million Veteran Program (MVP), with replication in 765,289 participants from the Chronic Kidney Disease Genetics (CKDGen) Consortium. We identify 82 previously unreported variants, confirm 54 loci, and report interesting findings including association of the sickle cell allele of betaglobin among non-Hispanic blacks. Our transcriptome-wide association study of kidney function in healthy kidney tissue identifies 36 previously unreported and nine known genes, and maps gene expression to renal cell types. In a Phenome-Wide Association Study in 192,868 MVP participants using a weighted genetic score we detect associations with CKD stages and complications and kidney stones. This investigation reinterprets the genetic architecture of kidney function to identify the gene, tissue, and anatomical context of renal homeostasis and the clinical consequences of dysregulation. 10.1038/s41467-019-11704-w
    SGLT2 inhibitors for the prevention of kidney failure in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuen Brendon L,Young Tamara,Heerspink Hiddo J L,Neal Bruce,Perkovic Vlado,Billot Laurent,Mahaffey Kenneth W,Charytan David M,Wheeler David C,Arnott Clare,Bompoint Severine,Levin Adeera,Jardine Meg J The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology BACKGROUND:The effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on kidney failure, particularly the need for dialysis or transplantation or death due to kidney disease, is uncertain. Additionally, previous studies have been underpowered to robustly assess heterogeneity of effects on kidney outcomes by different levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria. We aimed to do a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on major kidney outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and to determine the consistency of effect size across trials and different levels of eGFR and albuminuria. METHODS:We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised, controlled, cardiovascular or kidney outcome trials of SGLT2 inhibitors that reported effects on major kidney outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes. We searched MEDLINE and Embase from database inception to June 14, 2019, to identify eligible trials. The primary outcome was a composite of dialysis, transplantation, or death due to kidney disease. We used random-effects models to obtain summary relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs and random-effects meta-regression to explore effect modification by subgroups of baseline eGFR, albuminuria, and use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade. This review is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42019131774). FINDINGS:From 2085 records identified, four studies met our inclusion criteria, assessing three SGLT2 inhibitors: empagliflozin (EMPA-REG OUTCOME), canagliflozin (CANVAS Program and CREDENCE), and dapagliflozin (DECLARE-TIMI 58). From a total of 38 723 participants, 252 required dialysis or transplantation or died of kidney disease, 335 developed end-stage kidney disease, and 943 had acute kidney injury. SGLT2 inhibitors substantially reduced the risk of dialysis, transplantation, or death due to kidney disease (RR 0·67, 95% CI 0·52-0·86, p=0·0019), an effect consistent across studies (I=0%, p=0·53). SGLT2 inhibitors also reduced end-stage kidney disease (0·65, 0·53-0·81, p<0·0001), and acute kidney injury (0·75, 0·66-0·85, p<0·0001), with consistent benefits across studies. Although we identified some evidence that the proportional effect of SGLT2 inhibitors might attenuate with declining kidney function (p=0·073), there was clear, separate evidence of benefit for all eGFR subgroups, including for participants with a baseline eGFR 30-45 mL/min per 1·73 m (RR 0·70, 95% CI 0·54-0·91, p=0·0080). Renoprotection was also consistent across studies irrespective of baseline albuminuria (p=0·66) and use of RAS blockade (p=0·31). INTERPRETATION:SGLT2 inhibitors reduced the risk of dialysis, transplantation, or death due to kidney disease in individuals with type 2 diabetes and provided protection against acute kidney injury. These data provide substantive evidence supporting the use of SGLT2 inhibitors to prevent major kidney outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes. FUNDING:None. 10.1016/S2213-8587(19)30256-6
    Measured and estimated glomerular filtration rate: current status and future directions. Levey Andrew S,Coresh Josef,Tighiouart Hocine,Greene Tom,Inker Lesley A Nature reviews. Nephrology Evaluation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is central to the assessment of kidney function in medical practice, research and public health. Measured GFR (mGFR) remains the reference standard, but the past 20 years have seen major advances in estimated GFR (eGFR). Both eGFR and mGFR are associated with error compared with true GFR. eGFR is now recommended by clinical practice guidelines, regulatory agencies and public health agencies for the initial evaluation of GFR, with measured GFR (mGFR) typically considered an important confirmatory test, depending on how accurate the assessment of GFR needs to be for application to the clinical, research or public health setting. Our approach is to use initial and confirmatory tests as needed to develop a final assessment of true GFR. We suggest that GFR evaluation might be improved by more complete implementation of current recommendations and by further research to improve the accuracy of mGFR and eGFR. 10.1038/s41581-019-0191-y
    Patiromer versus placebo to enable spironolactone use in patients with resistant hypertension and chronic kidney disease (AMBER): a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Agarwal Rajiv,Rossignol Patrick,Romero Alain,Garza Dahlia,Mayo Martha R,Warren Suzette,Ma Jia,White William B,Williams Bryan Lancet (London, England) BACKGROUND:Spironolactone is effective at reducing blood pressure in patients with uncontrolled resistant hypertension. However, the use of spironolactone in patients with chronic kidney disease can be restricted by hyperkalaemia. We evaluated use of the potassium binder patiromer to allow more persistent use of spironolactone in patients with chronic kidney disease and resistant hypertension. METHODS:In this phase 2 multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we enrolled participants aged 18 years and older with chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate 25 to ≤45 mL/min per 1·73 m) and uncontrolled resistant hypertension from 62 outpatient centres in ten countries (Bulgaria, Croatia, Georgia, Hungary, Ukraine, France, Germany, South Africa, the UK, and the USA). Patients meeting all eligibility criteria at the final screening visit were stratified by local serum potassium measurement (4·3 to <4·7 mmol/L vs 4·7 to 5·1 mmol/L) and history of diabetes. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) with an interactive web response system to receive either placebo or patiromer (8·4 g once daily), in addition to open-label spironolactone (starting at 25 mg once daily) and their baseline blood pressure medications. Participants, the study team that administered treatments and measured blood pressure, and the investigators were masked to assigned treatment groups. Dose titrations were permitted after 1 week (patiromer) and 3 weeks (spironolactone). The primary endpoint was the between-group difference at week 12 in the proportion of patients on spironolactone. Efficacy endpoints and safety were assessed in all randomised patients (intention to treat). The study was registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03071263. FINDINGS:Between Feb 13, 2017, and Aug 20, 2018, we screened 574 patients. 295 (51%) of 574 patients met all inclusion criteria and were randomly assigned to spironolactone in addition to double-blind treatment with either placebo (n=148) or patiromer (n=147). At week 12, 98 (66%) of 148 patients in the placebo group and 126 (86%) of 147 patients in the patiromer group remained on spironolactone (between-group difference 19·5%, 95% CI 10·0-29·0; p<0·0001). Adverse events were mostly mild or moderate in severity and occurred in 79 (53%) of 148 patients in the placebo group and 82 (56%) of 147 patients in the patiromer group. INTERPRETATION:In patients with resistant hypertension and chronic kidney disease, patiromer enabled more patients to continue treatment with spironolactone with less hyperkalaemia. Persistent spironolactone enablement in this population of patients has clinical relevance for the treatment of resistant hypertension. FUNDING:Relypsa, a Vifor Pharma Group Company. 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32135-X
    Prevention, Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Chronic Kidney Disease: Synopsis of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes 2018 Clinical Practice Guideline. Gordon Craig E,Berenguer Marina C,Doss Wahid,Fabrizi Fabrizio,Izopet Jacques,Jha Vivekanand,Kamar Nassim,Kasiske Bertram L,Lai Ching-Lung,Morales José M,Patel Priti R,Pol Stanislas,Silva Marcelo O,Balk Ethan M,Earley Amy,Di Mengyang,Cheung Michael,Jadoul Michel,Martin Paul Annals of internal medicine This article has been corrected. The original version (PDF) is appended to this article as a Supplement. Description:The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2018 clinical practice guideline for the prevention, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an extensive update of KDIGO's 2008 guideline on HCV infection in CKD. This update reflects the major advances since the introduction of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in the management of HCV infection in the CKD population. Methods:The KDIGO work group tasked with developing the HCV and CKD guideline defined the scope of the guideline, gathered evidence, determined topics for systematic review, and graded the quality of evidence previously summarized by the evidence review team. The GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach was used to appraise the quality of evidence and rate the strength of the recommendations. Searches of the English-language literature were conducted through May 2017 and were supplemented with targeted searches for studies of DAA treatment and with abstracts from nephrology, hepatology, and transplantation conferences. A review process involving many stakeholders, subject matter experts, and industry and national organizations informed the guideline's final modification. Recommendation:The updated guideline comprises 66 recommendations. This synopsis focuses on 32 key recommendations pertinent to the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and management of HCV infection in adult CKD populations. 10.7326/M19-1539
    The multifaceted role of iron in renal health and disease. van Swelm Rachel P L,Wetzels Jack F M,Swinkels Dorine W Nature reviews. Nephrology Iron is an essential element that is indispensable for life. The delicate physiological body iron balance is maintained by both systemic and cellular regulatory mechanisms. The iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin assures maintenance of adequate systemic iron levels and is regulated by circulating and stored iron levels, inflammation and erythropoiesis. The kidney has an important role in preventing iron loss from the body by means of reabsorption. Cellular iron levels are dependent on iron import, storage, utilization and export, which are mainly regulated by the iron response element-iron regulatory protein (IRE-IRP) system. In the kidney, iron transport mechanisms independent of the IRE-IRP system have been identified, suggesting additional mechanisms for iron handling in this organ. Yet, knowledge gaps on renal iron handling remain in terms of redundancy in transport mechanisms, the roles of the different tubular segments and related regulatory processes. Disturbances in cellular and systemic iron balance are recognized as causes and consequences of kidney injury. Consequently, iron metabolism has become a focus for novel therapeutic interventions for acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease, which has fuelled interest in the molecular mechanisms of renal iron handling and renal injury, as well as the complex dynamics between systemic and local cellular iron regulation. 10.1038/s41581-019-0197-5
    Chronic Kidney Disease Diagnosis and Management: A Review. Chen Teresa K,Knicely Daphne H,Grams Morgan E JAMA Importance:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the 16th leading cause of years of life lost worldwide. Appropriate screening, diagnosis, and management by primary care clinicians are necessary to prevent adverse CKD-associated outcomes, including cardiovascular disease, end-stage kidney disease, and death. Observations:Defined as a persistent abnormality in kidney structure or function (eg, glomerular filtration rate [GFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or albuminuria ≥30 mg per 24 hours) for more than 3 months, CKD affects 8% to 16% of the population worldwide. In developed countries, CKD is most commonly attributed to diabetes and hypertension. However, less than 5% of patients with early CKD report awareness of their disease. Among individuals diagnosed as having CKD, staging and new risk assessment tools that incorporate GFR and albuminuria can help guide treatment, monitoring, and referral strategies. Optimal management of CKD includes cardiovascular risk reduction (eg, statins and blood pressure management), treatment of albuminuria (eg, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers), avoidance of potential nephrotoxins (eg, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), and adjustments to drug dosing (eg, many antibiotics and oral hypoglycemic agents). Patients also require monitoring for complications of CKD, such as hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and anemia. Those at high risk of CKD progression (eg, estimated GFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2, albuminuria ≥300 mg per 24 hours, or rapid decline in estimated GFR) should be promptly referred to a nephrologist. Conclusions and Relevance:Diagnosis, staging, and appropriate referral of CKD by primary care clinicians are important in reducing the burden of CKD worldwide. 10.1001/jama.2019.14745
    A Phase 3 Trial of Difelikefalin in Hemodialysis Patients with Pruritus. Fishbane Steven,Jamal Aamir,Munera Catherine,Wen Warren,Menzaghi Frédérique, The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Difelikefalin is a peripherally restricted and selective agonist of kappa opioid receptors that are considered to be important in modulating pruritus in conditions such as chronic kidney disease. METHODS:In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients undergoing hemodialysis who had moderate-to-severe pruritus to receive either intravenous difelikefalin (at a dose of 0.5 μg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo three times per week for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients with an improvement (decrease) of at least 3 points from baseline at week 12 in the weekly mean score on the 24-hour Worst Itching Intensity Numerical Rating Scale (WI-NRS; scores range from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating greater itch intensity). The secondary outcomes included the change from baseline in itch-related quality-of-life measures, the percentage of patients with an improvement of at least 4 points in the WI-NRS score at week 12, and safety. RESULTS:A total of 378 patients underwent randomization. A total of 82 of 158 patients (51.9%) in the difelikefalin group had a decrease of at least 3 points in the WI-NRS score (primary outcome), as compared with 51 of 165 (30.9%) in the placebo group. The imputed percentage of patients with a decrease of at least 3 points in the WI-NRS score was 49.1% in the difelikefalin group, as compared with 27.9% in the placebo group (P<0.001). Difelikefalin also resulted in a significant improvement from baseline to week 12 in itch-related quality of life as measured by the 5-D itch scale and the Skindex-10 scale. The imputed percentage of patients with a decrease of at least 4 points in the WI-NRS score at week 12 was significantly greater in the difelikefalin group than in the placebo group (37.1% [observed data: 64 of 158 patients] vs. 17.9% [observed data: 35 of 165 patients], P<0.001). Diarrhea, dizziness, and vomiting were more common in the difelikefalin group than in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS:Patients treated with difelikefalin had a significant reduction in itch intensity and improved itch-related quality of life as compared with those who received placebo. (Funded by Cara Therapeutics; KALM-1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03422653.). 10.1056/NEJMoa1912770
    Effect of Vitamin D and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Kidney Function in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial. de Boer Ian H,Zelnick Leila R,Ruzinski John,Friedenberg Georgina,Duszlak Julie,Bubes Vadim Y,Hoofnagle Andrew N,Thadhani Ravi,Glynn Robert J,Buring Julie E,Sesso Howard D,Manson JoAnn E JAMA Importance:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common complication of type 2 diabetes that can lead to end-stage kidney disease and is associated with high cardiovascular risk. Few treatments are available to prevent CKD in type 2 diabetes. Objective:To test whether supplementation with vitamin D3 or omega-3 fatty acids prevents development or progression of CKD in type 2 diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants:Randomized clinical trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design conducted among 1312 adults with type 2 diabetes recruited between November 2011 and March 2014 from all 50 US states as an ancillary study to the Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial (VITAL), coordinated by a single center in Massachusetts. Follow-up was completed in December 2017. Interventions:Participants were randomized to receive vitamin D3 (2000 IU/d) and omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid; 1 g/d) (n = 370), vitamin D3 and placebo (n = 333), placebo and omega-3 fatty acids (n = 289), or 2 placebos (n = 320) for 5 years. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was change in glomerular filtration rate estimated from serum creatinine and cystatin C (eGFR) from baseline to year 5. Results:Among 1312 participants randomized (mean age, 67.6 years; 46% women; 31% of racial or ethnic minority), 934 (71%) completed the study. Baseline mean eGFR was 85.8 (SD, 22.1) mL/min/1.73 m2. Mean change in eGFR from baseline to year 5 was -12.3 (95% CI, -13.4 to -11.2) mL/min/1.73 m2 with vitamin D3 vs -13.1 (95% CI, -14.2 to -11.9) mL/min/1.73 m2 with placebo (difference, 0.9 [95% CI, -0.7 to 2.5] mL/min/1.73 m2). Mean change in eGFR was -12.2 (95% CI, -13.3 to -11.1) mL/min/1.73 m2 with omega-3 fatty acids vs -13.1 (95% CI, -14.2 to -12.0) mL/min/1.73 m2 with placebo (difference, 0.9 [95% CI, -0.7 to 2.6] mL/min/1.73 m2). There was no significant interaction between the 2 interventions. Kidney stones occurred among 58 participants (n = 32 receiving vitamin D3 and n = 26 receiving placebo) and gastrointestinal bleeding among 45 (n = 28 receiving omega-3 fatty acids and n = 17 receiving placebo). Conclusions and Relevance:Among adults with type 2 diabetes, supplementation with vitamin D3 or omega-3 fatty acids, compared with placebo, resulted in no significant difference in change in eGFR at 5 years. The findings do not support the use of vitamin D or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for preserving kidney function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01684722. 10.1001/jama.2019.17380
    Evaluating the Effects of Canagliflozin on Cardiovascular and Renal Events in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Chronic Kidney Disease According to Baseline HbA1c, Including Those With HbA1c <7%: Results From the CREDENCE Trial. Cannon Christopher P,Perkovic Vlado,Agarwal Rajiv,Baldassarre James,Bakris George,Charytan David M,de Zeeuw Dick,Edwards Robert,Greene Tom,Heerspink Hiddo J L,Jardine Meg J,Levin Adeera,Li Jing-Wei,Neal Bruce,Pollock Carol,Wheeler David C,Zhang Hong,Zinman Bernard,Mahaffey Kenneth W Circulation 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.044359
    Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction, Left Ventricular Remodeling, and Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Impairment. Bajaj Navkaranbir S,Singh Amitoj,Zhou Wunan,Gupta Ankur,Fujikura Kana,Byrne Christina,Harms Hendrik J,Osborne Michael T,Bravo Paco,Andrikopolou Efstathia,Divakaran Sanjay,Bibbo Courtney F,Hainer Jon,Skali Hicham,Taqueti Viviany,Steigner Michael,Dorbala Sharmila,Charytan David M,Prabhu Sumanth D,Blankstein Ron,Deo Rahul C,Solomon Scott D,Di Carli Marcelo F Circulation BACKGROUND:Cardiac dysfunction and cardiovascular events are prevalent among patients with chronic kidney disease without overt obstructive coronary artery disease, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Coronary microvascular dysfunction has been proposed as a link between abnormal renal function and impairment of cardiac function and cardiovascular events. We aimed to investigate the relations between chronic kidney disease, coronary microvascular dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction, and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS:Patients undergoing cardiac stress positron emission tomography, echocardiogram, and renal function ascertainment at Brigham and Women's Hospital were studied longitudinally. Patients free of overt coronary (summed stress score <3 and without a history of ischemic heart disease), valvular, and end-organ disease were followed up for the adverse composite outcome of death or hospitalization for myocardial infarction or heart failure. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) was determined from positron emission tomography. Echocardiograms were used to measure cardiac mechanics: diastolic (lateral and septal E/e') and systolic (global longitudinal, radial, and circumferential strain). Image analyses and event adjudication were blinded. The associations between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), CFR, diastolic and systolic indices, and adverse cardiovascular outcomes were assessed in adjusted models and mediation analyses. RESULTS:Of the 352 patients (median age, 65 years; 63% female; 22% black) studied, 35% had an eGFR <60 mL·min·1.73 m, a median left ventricular ejection fraction of 62%, and a median CFR of 1.8. eGFR and CFR were associated with diastolic and systolic indices, as well as future cardiovascular events (all <0.05). In multivariable models, CFR, but not eGFR, was independently associated with cardiac mechanics and cardiovascular events. The associations between eGFR, cardiac mechanics, and cardiovascular events were partly mediated via CFR. CONCLUSIONS:Coronary microvascular dysfunction, but not eGFR, was independently associated with abnormal cardiac mechanics and an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Coronary microvascular dysfunction may mediate the effect of chronic kidney disease on abnormal cardiac function and cardiovascular events in those without overt coronary artery disease. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.043916
    The landscape of diabetic kidney disease transformed. Tuttle Katherine R Nature reviews. Nephrology 10.1038/s41581-019-0240-6
    Kidney outcomes associated with use of SGLT2 inhibitors in real-world clinical practice (CVD-REAL 3): a multinational observational cohort study. Heerspink Hiddo J L,Karasik Avraham,Thuresson Marcus,Melzer-Cohen Cheli,Chodick Gabriel,Khunti Kamlesh,Wilding John P H,Garcia Rodriguez Luis Alberto,Cea-Soriano Lucia,Kohsaka Shun,Nicolucci Antonio,Lucisano Giuseppe,Lin Fang-Ju,Wang Chih-Yuan,Wittbrodt Eric,Fenici Peter,Kosiborod Mikhail The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology BACKGROUND:Cardiovascular and kidney outcome trials have shown that sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors slow progression of chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes with or without chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to assess whether these benefits extend to patients with type 2 diabetes treated in routine clinical practice. METHODS:CVD-REAL 3 was a multinational observational cohort study in which new users of SGLT2 inhibitors and other glucose-lowering drugs with measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) before and after (within 180 days) initiation were identified via claims, medical records, and national registries in Israel, Italy, Japan, Taiwan, and the UK. Propensity scores for SGLT2 inhibitor initiation were developed in each country, with 1:1 matching with initiators of other glucose-lowering drugs. Propensity score included (in addition to other clinical and demographic variables) baseline eGFR and eGFR slope before SGLT2 inhibitor or other glucose-lowering drug initiation. The main outcome measure was rate of eGFR decline (slope) calculated with a linear mixed regression model. Differences in eGFR slope between SGLT2 inhibitors and other glucose-lowering drugs were calculated and pooled. We also assessed a composite outcome of 50% eGFR decline or end-stage kidney disease. FINDINGS:After propensity matching, there were 35 561 episodes of treatment initiation in each group, from 65 231 individual patients. Dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, canagliflozin, ipragliflozin, tofogliflozin, and luseogliflozin accounted for 57·9%, 34·1%, 5·7%, 1·4%, 0·5%, and 0·4% of SGLT2 inhibitor initiation episodes, respectively. At baseline, 29 363 (41·3%) of 71 122 initiations were in women, mean age was 61·3 years, mean HbA was 72 mmol/mol (8·71%), and mean eGFR was 90·7 mL/min per 1·73 m. During follow-up, SGLT2 inhibitor initiation was associated with reduced eGFR decline (difference in slope for SGLT2 inhibitors vs other glucose-lowering drugs 1·53 mL/min per 1·73 m per year, 95% CI 1·34-1·72, p<0·0001). During a mean follow-up of 14·9 months, 351 composite kidney outcomes occurred: 114 (3·0 events per 10 000 patient-years) among initiators of SGLT2 inhibitors and 237 (6·3 events per 10 000 patient-years) among initiators of other glucose-lowering drugs (hazard ratio 0·49, 95% CI 0·35-0·67; p<0·0001). These findings were consistent across countries (p 0·10) and prespecified subgroups. INTERPRETATION:In this large, international, real-world study of patients with type 2 diabetes, initiation of SGLT2 inhibitor therapy was associated with a slower rate of kidney function decline and lower risk of major kidney events compared with initiation of other glucose-lowering drugs. These data suggest that the benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors on kidney function identified in clinical trials seem to be largely generalisable to clinical practice. FUNDING:AstraZeneca. 10.1016/S2213-8587(19)30384-5
    Mechanisms of Cardiorenal Effects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors: JACC State-of-the-Art Review. Zelniker Thomas A,Braunwald Eugene Journal of the American College of Cardiology Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), a new drug class approved for treatment of diabetes, have been shown to possess a favorable metabolic profile and to significantly reduce atherosclerotic events, hospitalization for heart failure, cardiovascular and total mortality, and progression of chronic kidney disease. Although initially considered to be only glucose-lowering agents, the effects of SGLT2i have expanded far beyond that, and their use is now being studied in the treatment of heart failure and chronic kidney disease, even in patients without diabetes. It is therefore critical for cardiologists, diabetologists, nephrologists, and primary care physicians to be familiar with this drug class. This first part of this 2-part review provides an overview of the current understanding of the mechanisms of the cardio-metabolic-renal benefits of SGLT2i. The second part summarizes the recent clinical trials of SGLT2i. 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.11.031
    Clinical Benefit of Cardiorenal Effects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors: JACC State-of-the-Art Review. Zelniker Thomas A,Braunwald Eugene Journal of the American College of Cardiology Changes in the regulatory guidelines by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Medical Agency requiring large-scale trials that study the cardiovascular safety of new glucose-lowering drugs have improved our understanding of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Unexpectedly, these trials demonstrated that sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors reduce adverse cardiovascular outcomes. This second part of this 2-part review summarizes the findings of recent clinical trials and their clinical implications and describes ongoing trials and future areas of research. 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.11.036
    Strategies to prevent kidney disease and its progression. Kalantar-Zadeh Kamyar,Li Philip K-T Nature reviews. Nephrology 10.1038/s41581-020-0253-1
    Targeting the progression of chronic kidney disease. Ruiz-Ortega Marta,Rayego-Mateos Sandra,Lamas Santiago,Ortiz Alberto,Rodrigues-Diez Raul R Nature reviews. Nephrology Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a devastating condition that is reaching epidemic levels owing to the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity, as well as ageing of the population. Regardless of the underlying aetiology, CKD is slowly progressive and leads to irreversible nephron loss, end-stage renal disease and/or premature death. Factors that contribute to CKD progression include parenchymal cell loss, chronic inflammation, fibrosis and reduced regenerative capacity of the kidney. Current therapies have limited effectiveness and only delay disease progression, underscoring the need to develop novel therapeutic approaches to either stop or reverse progression. Preclinical studies have identified several approaches that reduce fibrosis in experimental models, including targeting cytokines, transcription factors, developmental and signalling pathways and epigenetic modulators, particularly microRNAs. Some of these nephroprotective strategies are now being tested in clinical trials. Lessons learned from the failure of clinical studies of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) blockade underscore the need for alternative approaches to CKD therapy, as strategies that target a single pathogenic process may result in unexpected negative effects on simultaneously occurring processes. Additional promising avenues include preventing tubular cell injury and anti-fibrotic therapies that target activated myofibroblasts, the main collagen-producing cells. 10.1038/s41581-019-0248-y
    The Long-term Effects of Metformin on Patients With Type 2 Diabetic Kidney Disease. Kwon Soie,Kim Yong Chul,Park Jae Yoon,Lee Jeonghwan,An Jung Nam,Kim Clara Tammy,Oh Sohee,Park Seokwoo,Kim Dong Ki,Oh Yun Kyu,Kim Yon Su,Lim Chun Soo,Lee Jung Pyo Diabetes care OBJECTIVE:Metformin is the first pharmacological option for treating type 2 diabetes. However, the use of this drug is not recommended in individuals with impaired kidney function because of the perceived risk of lactic acidosis. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of metformin in patients with type 2 diabetic kidney disease (DKD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study of 10,426 patients with type 2 DKD from two tertiary hospitals. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) progression. The secondary outcome was metformin-associated lactic acidosis. Taking into account the possibility that patients with less severe disease were prescribed metformin, propensity score matching (PSM) was conducted. RESULTS:All-cause mortality and incident ESRD were lower in the metformin group according to the multivariate Cox analysis. Because the two groups had significantly different baseline characteristics, PSM was performed. After matching, metformin usage was still associated with lower all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.65; 95% CI 0.57-0.73; < 0.001) and ESRD progression (aHR 0.67; 95% CI 0.58-0.77; < 0.001). Only one event of metformin-associated lactic acidosis was recorded. In both the original and PSM groups, metformin usage did not increase the risk of lactic acidosis events from all causes (aHR 0.92; 95% CI 0.668-1.276; = 0.629). CONCLUSIONS:In the present retrospective study, metformin usage in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, especially those with CKD 3B, decreased the risk of all-cause mortality and incident ESRD. Additionally, metformin did not increase the risk of lactic acidosis. However, considering the remaining biases even after PSM, further randomized controlled trials are needed to change real-world practice. 10.2337/dc19-0936
    Intravenous iron: a framework for changing the management of iron deficiency. Auerbach Michael,Gafter-Gvili Anat,Macdougall Iain C The Lancet. Haematology For decades intravenous iron was considered dangerous. Newer formulations with carbohydrate cores binding elemental iron more tightly allow complete iron replacement within 15-60 min in one visit. Meta-analyses and prospective comparisons of different formulations support equivalent safety to placebo with less toxicity than oral iron. Of the available formulations, the preponderance of published evidence supports equal safety and efficacy. In this Viewpoint, we report evidence supporting repositioning of intravenous iron to the frontline in multiple disorders with iron deficiency, which include heart failure, chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease, patient blood management in the perioperative period, and obstetrics and gynaecology. We have also highlighted neonatal evidence supporting the inadequacy of oral iron in late pregnancy, a critical period of iron need for normal foetal brain development. Physicians should consider prioritising the use of intravenous iron rather than oral iron as a treatment for iron deficiency in some of these clinical scenarios. 10.1016/S2352-3026(19)30264-9
    2019 Update of the Joint European League Against Rheumatism and European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (EULAR/ERA-EDTA) recommendations for the management of lupus nephritis. Fanouriakis Antonis,Kostopoulou Myrto,Cheema Kim,Anders Hans-Joachim,Aringer Martin,Bajema Ingeborg,Boletis John,Frangou Eleni,Houssiau Frederic A,Hollis Jane,Karras Adexandre,Marchiori Francesca,Marks Stephen D,Moroni Gabriella,Mosca Marta,Parodis Ioannis,Praga Manuel,Schneider Matthias,Smolen Josef S,Tesar Vladimir,Trachana Maria,van Vollenhoven Ronald F,Voskuyl Alexandre E,Teng Y K Onno,van Leew Bernadette,Bertsias George,Jayne David,Boumpas Dimitrios T Annals of the rheumatic diseases OBJECTIVE:To update the 2012 EULAR/ERA-EDTA recommendations for the management of lupus nephritis (LN). METHODS:Following the EULAR standardised operating procedures, a systematic literature review was performed. Members of a multidisciplinary Task Force voted independently on their level of agreeement with the formed statements. RESULTS:The changes include recommendations for treatment targets, use of glucocorticoids and calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and management of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). The target of therapy is complete response (proteinuria <0.5-0.7 g/24 hours with (near-)normal glomerular filtration rate) by 12 months, but this can be extended in patients with baseline nephrotic-range proteinuria. Hydroxychloroquine is recommended with regular ophthalmological monitoring. In active proliferative LN, initial (induction) treatment with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF 2-3 g/day or mycophenolic acid (MPA) at equivalent dose) or low-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide (CY; 500 mg × 6 biweekly doses), both combined with glucocorticoids (pulses of intravenous methylprednisolone, then oral prednisone 0.3-0.5 mg/kg/day) is recommended. MMF/CNI (especially tacrolimus) combination and high-dose CY are alternatives, for patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria and adverse prognostic factors. Subsequent long-term maintenance treatment with MMF or azathioprine should follow, with no or low-dose (<7.5 mg/day) glucocorticoids. The choice of agent depends on the initial regimen and plans for pregnancy. In non-responding disease, switch of induction regimens or rituximab are recommended. In pure membranous LN with nephrotic-range proteinuria or proteinuria >1 g/24 hours despite renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade, MMF in combination with glucocorticoids is preferred. Assessment for kidney and extra-renal disease activity, and management of comorbidities is lifelong with repeat kidney biopsy in cases of incomplete response or nephritic flares. In ESKD, transplantation is the preferred kidney replacement option with immunosuppression guided by transplant protocols and/or extra-renal manifestations. Treatment of LN in children follows the same principles as adult disease. CONCLUSIONS:We have updated the EULAR recommendations for the management of LN to facilitate homogenization of patient care. 10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-216924
    Mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction in CKD. Viggiano Davide,Wagner Carsten A,Martino Gianvito,Nedergaard Maiken,Zoccali Carmine,Unwin Robert,Capasso Giovambattista Nature reviews. Nephrology Cognitive impairment is an increasingly recognized major cause of chronic disability and is commonly found in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Knowledge of the relationship between kidney dysfunction and impaired cognition may improve our understanding of other forms of cognitive dysfunction. Patients with CKD are at an increased risk (compared with the general population) of both dementia and its prodrome, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which are characterized by deficits in executive functions, memory and attention. Brain imaging in patients with CKD has revealed damage to white matter in the prefrontal cortex and, in animal models, in the subcortical monoaminergic and cholinergic systems, accompanied by widespread macrovascular and microvascular damage. Unfortunately, current interventions that target cardiovascular risk factors (such as anti-hypertensive drugs, anti-platelet agents and statins) seem to have little or no effect on CKD-associated MCI, suggesting that the accumulation of uraemic neurotoxins may be more important than disturbed haemodynamic factors or lipid metabolism in MCI pathogenesis. Experimental models show that the brain monoaminergic system is susceptible to uraemic neurotoxins and that this system is responsible for the altered sleep pattern commonly observed in patients with CKD. Neural progenitor cells and the glymphatic system, which are important in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis, may also be involved in CKD-associated MCI. More detailed study of CKD-associated MCI is needed to fully understand its clinical relevance, underlying pathophysiology, possible means of early diagnosis and prevention, and whether there may be novel approaches and potential therapies with wider application to this and other forms of cognitive decline. 10.1038/s41581-020-0266-9
    Cardiovascular Risk Reduction With Liraglutide: An Exploratory Mediation Analysis of the LEADER Trial. Buse John B,Bain Stephen C,Mann Johannes F E,Nauck Michael A,Nissen Steven E,Pocock Stuart,Poulter Neil R,Pratley Richard E,Linder Martin,Monk Fries Tea,Ørsted David D,Zinman Bernard, Diabetes care OBJECTIVE:The Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results (LEADER) trial (ClinicalTrials.gov reg. no. NCT01179048) demonstrated a reduced risk of cardiovascular (CV) events for patients with type 2 diabetes who received the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist liraglutide versus placebo. The mechanisms behind this CV benefit remain unclear. We aimed to identify potential mediators for the CV benefit observed with liraglutide in the LEADER trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We performed exploratory analyses to identify potential mediators of the effect of liraglutide on major adverse CV events (MACE; composite of CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke) from the following candidates: glycated hemoglobin (HbA), body weight, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), confirmed hypoglycemia, sulfonylurea use, insulin use, systolic blood pressure, and LDL cholesterol. These candidates were selected as CV risk factors on which liraglutide had an effect in LEADER such that a reduction in CV risk might result. We used two methods based on a Cox proportional hazards model and the new Vansteelandt method designed to use all available information from the mediator and to control for confounding factors. RESULTS:Analyses using the Cox methods and Vansteelandt method indicated potential mediation by HbA (up to 41% and 83% mediation, respectively) and UACR (up to 29% and 33% mediation, respectively) on the effect of liraglutide on MACE. Mediation effects were small for other candidates. CONCLUSIONS:These analyses identify HbA and, to a lesser extent, UACR as potential mediators of the CV effects of liraglutide. Whether either is a marker of an unmeasured factor or a true mediator remains a key question that invites further investigation. 10.2337/dc19-2251
    Integrated multi-omics approaches to improve classification of chronic kidney disease. Eddy Sean,Mariani Laura H,Kretzler Matthias Nature reviews. Nephrology Chronic kidney diseases (CKDs) are currently classified according to their clinical features, associated comorbidities and pattern of injury on biopsy. Even within a given classification, considerable variation exists in disease presentation, progression and response to therapy, highlighting heterogeneity in the underlying biological mechanisms. As a result, patients and clinicians experience uncertainty when considering optimal treatment approaches and risk projection. Technological advances now enable large-scale datasets, including DNA and RNA sequence data, proteomics and metabolomics data, to be captured from individuals and groups of patients along the genotype-phenotype continuum of CKD. The ability to combine these high-dimensional datasets, in which the number of variables exceeds the number of clinical outcome observations, using computational approaches such as machine learning, provides an opportunity to re-classify patients into molecularly defined subgroups that better reflect underlying disease mechanisms. Patients with CKD are uniquely poised to benefit from these integrative, multi-omics approaches since the kidney biopsy, blood and urine samples used to generate these different types of molecular data are frequently obtained during routine clinical care. The ultimate goal of developing an integrated molecular classification is to improve diagnostic classification, risk stratification and assignment of molecular, disease-specific therapies to improve the care of patients with CKD. 10.1038/s41581-020-0286-5
    Effects of Linagliptin on Cardiovascular and Kidney Outcomes in People With Normal and Reduced Kidney Function: Secondary Analysis of the CARMELINA Randomized Trial. Perkovic Vlado,Toto Robert,Cooper Mark E,Mann Johannes F E,Rosenstock Julio,McGuire Darren K,Kahn Steven E,Marx Nikolaus,Alexander John H,Zinman Bernard,Pfarr Egon,Schnaidt Sven,Meinicke Thomas,von Eynatten Maximillian,George Jyothis T,Johansen Odd Erik,Wanner Christoph, Diabetes care OBJECTIVE:Type 2 diabetes is a leading cause of kidney failure, but few outcome trials proactively enrolled individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We performed secondary analyses of cardiovascular (CV) and kidney outcomes across baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) categories (≥60, 45 to <60, 30 to <45, and <30 mL/min/1.73 m) in Cardiovascular and Renal Microvascular Outcome Study With Linagliptin (CARMELINA), a cardiorenal placebo-controlled outcome trial of the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor linagliptin (NCT01897532). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Participants with CV disease and/or CKD were included. The primary outcome was time to first occurrence of CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke (three-point major adverse CV event [3P-MACE]), with a secondary outcome of renal death, end-stage kidney disease, or sustained ≥40% decrease in eGFR from baseline. Other end points included progression of albuminuria, change in HbA, and adverse events (AEs) including hypoglycemia. RESULTS:A total of 6,979 subjects (mean age 65.9 years; eGFR 54.6 mL/min/1.73 m; 80.1% albuminuria) were followed for 2.2 years. Across eGFR categories, linagliptin as compared with placebo did not affect the risk for 3P-MACE (hazard ratio 1.02 [95% CI 0.89, 1.17]) or the secondary kidney outcome (1.04 [0.89, 1.22]) (interaction values >0.05). Regardless of eGFR, albuminuria progression was reduced with linagliptin, as was HbA, without increasing risk for hypoglycemia. AEs were balanced among groups overall and across eGFR categories. CONCLUSIONS:Across all GFR categories, in participants with type 2 diabetes and CKD and/or CV disease, there was no difference in risk for linagliptin versus placebo on CV and kidney events. Significant reductions in risk for albuminuria progression and HbA and no difference in AEs were observed. 10.2337/dc20-0279
    Long-term outcome of a randomised controlled trial comparing tacrolimus with mycophenolate mofetil as induction therapy for active lupus nephritis. Mok Chi Chiu,Ho Ling Yin,Ying Shirley King Yee,Leung Man Chi,To Chi Hung,Ng Woon Leung Annals of the rheumatic diseases OBJECTIVES:To report the 10-year outcome of lupus nephritis (LN) treated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or tacrolimus (TAC) induction in a randomised controlled trial. METHODS:Patients with active LN were treated with MMF or TAC combined with high-dose prednisolone. Responders were switched to azathioprine (AZA) at month 6. Clinical outcomes at 10 years (renal flares, renal function decline and mortality) were assessed. Factors affecting prognosis were studied by Cox regression. Urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (uPCr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at different time points were evaluated for their prediction of a poor prognosis by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. RESULTS:150 patients were studied (age 35.5±12.8 years). Complete renal response rate was similar between MMF (59%) and TAC-treated patients (62%; p=0.71). AZA maintenance was given to 79% patients. After 118.2±42 months, proteinuric and nephritic renal flares occurred in 34% and 37% of the MMF, and 53% and 30% of the TAC groups of patients, respectively (p=0.49). The cumulative incidence of a composite outcome of ↓eGFR ≥30%, chronic kidney disease stage 4/5 or death at 10 years was 33% in both groups (p=0.90). Factors independently associated with a poor renal prognosis were first-time LN (HR 0.12 (0.031 to 0.39); p=0.01), eGFR (HR 0.98 (0.96 to 0.99); p=0.008) and no response at month 6 (HR 5.18 (1.40 to 19.1); p=0.01). ROC analysis revealed an uPCr >0.75 and eGFR of <80 mL/min at month 18 best predicted a poor renal prognosis. CONCLUSIONS:Long-term data confirmed non-inferiority of TAC to MMF as induction therapy of LN. An uPCr≤0.75 and eGFR of ≥80 mL/min at month 18 best predicted a favourable 10-year outcome and may be suitable targets for induction/consolidation therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT00371319. 10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-217178
    Patiromer versus placebo to enable spironolactone use in patients with resistant hypertension and chronic kidney disease (AMBER): results in the pre-specified subgroup with heart failure. Rossignol Patrick,Williams Bryan,Mayo Martha R,Warren Suzette,Arthur Susan,Ackourey Gail,White William B,Agarwal Rajiv European journal of heart failure AIMS:The AMBER trial demonstrated that concomitant use of patiromer enabled the more persistent use of spironolactone by reducing the risk of hyperkalaemia in patients with resistant hypertension and advanced chronic kidney disease. We report herein the pre-specified subgroup analysis in patients with heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS:Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either placebo or patiromer (8.4 g once daily), in addition to open-label spironolactone (starting at 25 mg once daily) and their baseline blood pressure medications. Dose titrations were permitted after 1 week for patiromer/placebo and after 3 weeks for spironolactone. The primary endpoint was the between-group difference at week 12 in the proportion of patients on spironolactone. Efficacy endpoints and safety were assessed in all randomized patients (intention to treat). A total of 295 patients were enrolled, of whom 132 (45%) had HF. In the HF subgroup, 68.1% of patients receiving placebo remained on spironolactone at week 12, compared with 84.1% of patients receiving patiromer (P = 0.0504). The reason for discontinuation from spironolactone use was hyperkalaemia in the majority of both groups. There was no significant interaction between the subgroups with HF and without HF (P = 0.8085) for the primary endpoint. CONCLUSIONS:Consistent with the overall AMBER trial results, this pre-specified subgroup analysis in patients with HF, resistant hypertension and advanced chronic kidney disease demonstrated that patiromer enabled more persistent use of spironolactone by reducing the risk of hyperkalaemia. 10.1002/ejhf.1860
    Glycemic Monitoring and Management in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease. Galindo Rodolfo J,Beck Roy W,Scioscia Maria F,Umpierrez Guillermo E,Tuttle Katherine R Endocrine reviews Glucose and insulin metabolism in patients with diabetes are profoundly altered by advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Risk of hypoglycemia is increased by failure of kidney gluconeogenesis, impaired insulin clearance by the kidney, defective insulin degradation due to uremia, increased erythrocyte glucose uptake during hemodialysis, impaired counterregulatory hormone responses (cortisol, growth hormone), nutritional deprivation, and variability of exposure to oral antihyperglycemic agents and exogenous insulin. Patients with end-stage kidney disease frequently experience wide glycemic excursions, with common occurrences of both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Assessment of glycemia by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is hampered by a variety of CKD-associated conditions that can bias the measure either to the low or high range. Alternative glycemic biomarkers, such as glycated albumin or fructosamine, are not fully validated. Therefore, HbA1c remains the preferred glycemic biomarker despite its limitations. Based on observational data for associations with mortality and risks of hypoglycemia with intensive glycemic control regimens in advanced CKD, an HbA1c range of 7% to 8% appears to be the most favorable. Emerging data on the use of continuous glucose monitoring in this population suggest promise for more precise monitoring and treatment adjustments to permit fine-tuning of glycemic management in patients with diabetes and advanced CKD. 10.1210/endrev/bnaa017
    Plant-based diets to manage the risks and complications of chronic kidney disease. Carrero Juan J,González-Ortiz Ailema,Avesani Carla M,Bakker Stephan J L,Bellizzi Vincenzo,Chauveau Philippe,Clase Catherine M,Cupisti Adamasco,Espinosa-Cuevas Angeles,Molina Pablo,Moreau Karine,Piccoli Giorgina B,Post Adrian,Sezer Siren,Fouque Denis Nature reviews. Nephrology Traditional dietary recommendations for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) focus on the quantity of nutrients consumed. Without appropriate dietary counselling, these restrictions can result in a low intake of fruits and vegetables and a lack of diversity in the diet. Plant nutrients and plant-based diets could have beneficial effects in patients with CKD: increased fibre intake shifts the gut microbiota towards reduced production of uraemic toxins; plant fats, particularly olive oil, have anti-atherogenic effects; plant anions might mitigate metabolic acidosis and slow CKD progression; and as plant phosphorus has a lower bioavailability than animal phosphorus, plant-based diets might enable better control of hyperphosphataemia. Current evidence suggests that promoting the adoption of plant-based diets has few risks but potential benefits for the primary prevention of CKD, as well as for delaying progression in patients with CKD G3-5. These diets might also help to manage and prevent some of the symptoms and metabolic complications of CKD. We suggest that restriction of plant foods as a strategy to prevent hyperkalaemia or undernutrition should be individualized to avoid depriving patients with CKD of these potential beneficial effects of plant-based diets. However, research is needed to address knowledge gaps, particularly regarding the relevance and extent of diet-induced hyperkalaemia in patients undergoing dialysis. 10.1038/s41581-020-0297-2
    Sofosbuvir plus ribavirin and sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir in patients with genotype 1 or 3 hepatitis C virus and severe renal impairment: a multicentre, phase 2b, non-randomised, open-label study. Lawitz Eric,Landis Charles S,Flamm Steven L,Bonacini Maurizio,Ortiz-Lasanta Grisell,Huang Jonathan,Zhang Jie,Kirby Brian J,De-Oertel Shampa,Hyland Robert H,Osinusi Anu O,Brainard Diana M,Robson Richard,Maliakkal Benedict J,Gordon Stuart C,Gane Edward J The lancet. Gastroenterology & hepatology BACKGROUND:There is a medical need for highly effective, safe, and well tolerated treatments for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) with severe renal impairment. We investigated the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir with ribavirin or ledipasvir combined with sofosbuvir in a prospective study of patients with genotype 1 or 3 HCV infection and stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease (creatinine clearance by Cockcroft-Gault ≤30 mL/min) who were not on dialysis. METHODS:This phase 2b, open-label, non-randomised, multicentre study in the USA and New Zealand investigated three sequentially enrolled cohorts of patients. Patients were recruited from ten hospitals and clinical research centres and were included if they had genotype 1 or 3 HCV infection, a creatinine clearance less than or equal to 30 mL/min, and were not on dialysis. In cohorts 1 and 2, patients received sofosbuvir (200 mg in cohort 1 and 400 mg in cohort 2) plus ribavirin 200 mg once per day for 24 weeks. In cohort 3, 18 patients received ledipasvir combined with sofosbuvir (90 mg ledipasvir and 400 mg sofosbuvir) once per day for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving sustained virological response 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12). Safety and pharmacokinetic data were also collected. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01958281, and is completed. FINDINGS:This study was done between Oct 7, 2013, and Oct 29, 2017. In the sofosbuvir plus ribavirin cohorts, 32 patients were screened, of whom 20 were enrolled and assessed for efficacy and safety (ten patients in each cohort). In the ledipasvir plus sofosbuvir cohort, 33 patients were screened, of whom 18 were enrolled and assessed for treatment efficacy and safety. Four (40%, 95% CI 12-74) of ten patients in cohort 1 and six (60%, 26-88) of ten patients in cohort 2 achieved SVR12. All 18 (100%, 82-100) patients in cohort 3 achieved SVR12. Adverse events were mostly mild or moderate in severity. The most commonly reported adverse events overall were headache (eight [21%] of 38 patients), anaemia (seven [18%] of 38 patients), and fatigue (six [16%] of 38 patients). Eight patients had serious adverse events, none of which were treatment related. There were no treatment-related cardiac events or clinically significant changes in echocardiographic parameters or creatinine clearance by Cockcroft-Gault. INTERPRETATION:In this phase 2b study, ledipasvir combined with sofosbuvir for 12 weeks was safe and effective in patients with genotype 1 HCV infection and stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease who were not on dialysis. FUNDING:Gilead Sciences. 10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30417-0
    Global epidemiology of gout: prevalence, incidence, treatment patterns and risk factors. Dehlin Mats,Jacobsson Lennart,Roddy Edward Nature reviews. Rheumatology Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis and occurs when hyperuricaemia, sustained elevation of serum urate levels resulting in supersaturation of body tissues with urate, leads to the formation and deposition of monosodium urate crystals in and around the joints. Recent reports of the prevalence and incidence of gout vary widely according to the population studied and methods employed but range from a prevalence of <1% to 6.8% and an incidence of 0.58-2.89 per 1,000 person-years. Gout is more prevalent in men than in women, with increasing age, and in some ethnic groups. Despite rising prevalence and incidence, suboptimal management of gout continues in many countries. Typically, only a third to half of patients with gout receive urate-lowering therapy, which is a definitive, curative treatment, and fewer than a half of patients adhere to treatment. Many gout risk factors exist, including obesity, dietary factors and comorbid conditions. As well as a firmly established increased risk of cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease in those with gout, novel associations of gout with other comorbidities have been reported, including erectile dysfunction, atrial fibrillation, obstructive sleep apnoea, osteoporosis and venous thromboembolism. Discrete patterns of comorbidity clustering in individuals with gout have been described. Increasing prevalence and incidence of obesity and comorbidities are likely to contribute substantially to the rising burden of gout. 10.1038/s41584-020-0441-1
    Effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin on proteinuria in non-diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (DIAMOND): a randomised, double-blind, crossover trial. Cherney David Z I,Dekkers Claire C J,Barbour Sean J,Cattran Daniel,Abdul Gafor Abdul Halim,Greasley Peter J,Laverman Gozewijn D,Lim Soo Kun,Di Tanna Gian Luca,Reich Heather N,Vervloet Marc G,Wong Muh Geot,Gansevoort Ron T,Heerspink Hiddo J L, The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology BACKGROUND:SGLT2 inhibition decreases albuminuria and reduces the risk of kidney disease progression in patients with type 2 diabetes. These benefits are unlikely to be mediated by improvements in glycaemic control alone. Therefore, we aimed to examine the kidney effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin in patients with proteinuric kidney disease without diabetes. METHODS:DIAMOND was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial done at six hospitals in Canada, Malaysia, and the Netherlands. Eligible participants were adult patients (aged 18-75 years) with chronic kidney disease, without a diagnosis of diabetes, with a 24-h urinary protein excretion greater than 500 mg and less than or equal to 3500 mg and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of at least 25 mL/min per 1·73 m, and who were on stable renin-angiotensin system blockade. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive placebo and then dapagliflozin 10 mg per day or vice versa. Each treatment period lasted 6 weeks with a 6-week washout period in between. Participants, investigators, and study personnel were masked to assignment throughout the trial and analysis. The primary outcome was percentage change from baseline in 24-h proteinuria during dapagliflozin treatment relative to placebo. Secondary outcomes were changes in measured GFR (mGFR; via iohexol clearance), bodyweight, blood pressure, and concentrations of neurohormonal biomarkers. Analyses were done in accordance with the intention-to-treat principle. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03190694. FINDINGS:Between Nov 22, 2017, and April 5, 2019, 58 patients were screened, of whom 53 (mean age 51 years [SD 13]; 32% women) were randomly assigned (27 received dapagliflozin then placebo and 26 received placebo then dapagliflozin). One patient discontinued during the first treatment period. All patients were included in the analysis. Mean baseline mGFR was 58·3 mL/min per 1·73 m (SD 23), median proteinuria was 1110 mg per 24 h (IQR 730-1560), and mean HbA was 5·6% (SD 0·4). The difference in mean proteinuria change from baseline between dapagliflozin and placebo was 0·9% (95% CI -16·6 to 22·1; p=0·93). Compared with placebo, mGFR was changed with dapagliflozin treatment by -6·6 mL/min per 1·73 m (-9·0 to -4·2; p<0·0001) at week 6. This reduction was fully reversible within 6 weeks after dapagliflozin discontinuation. Compared with placebo, bodyweight was reduced by 1·5 kg (0·03-3·0; p=0·046) with dapagliflozin; changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and concentrations of neurohormonal biomarkers did not differ significantly between dapagliflozin and placebo treatment. The numbers of patients who had one or more adverse events during dapagliflozin treatment (17 [32%] of 53) and during placebo treatment (13 [25%] of 52) were similar. No hypoglycaemic events were reported and no deaths occurred. INTERPRETATION:6-week treatment with dapagliflozin did not affect proteinuria in patients with chronic kidney disease without diabetes, but did induce an acute and reversible decline in mGFR and a reduction in bodyweight. Long-term clinical trials are underway to determine whether SGLT2 inhibitors can safely reduce the rate of major clinical kidney outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease with and without diabetes. FUNDING:AstraZeneca. 10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30162-5
    Effects of Allopurinol on the Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease. Badve Sunil V,Pascoe Elaine M,Tiku Anushree,Boudville Neil,Brown Fiona G,Cass Alan,Clarke Philip,Dalbeth Nicola,Day Richard O,de Zoysa Janak R,Douglas Bettina,Faull Randall,Harris David C,Hawley Carmel M,Jones Graham R D,Kanellis John,Palmer Suetonia C,Perkovic Vlado,Rangan Gopala K,Reidlinger Donna,Robison Laura,Walker Robert J,Walters Giles,Johnson David W, The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Elevated serum urate levels are associated with progression of chronic kidney disease. Whether urate-lowering treatment with allopurinol can attenuate the decline of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with chronic kidney disease who are at risk for progression is not known. METHODS:In this randomized, controlled trial, we randomly assigned adults with stage 3 or 4 chronic kidney disease and no history of gout who had a urinary albumin:creatinine ratio of 265 or higher (with albumin measured in milligrams and creatinine in grams) or an eGFR decrease of at least 3.0 ml per minute per 1.73 m of body-surface area in the preceding year to receive allopurinol (100 to 300 mg daily) or placebo. The primary outcome was the change in eGFR from randomization to week 104, calculated with the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation. RESULTS:Enrollment was stopped because of slow recruitment after 369 of 620 intended patients were randomly assigned to receive allopurinol (185 patients) or placebo (184 patients). Three patients per group withdrew immediately after randomization. The remaining 363 patients (mean eGFR, 31.7 ml per minute per 1.73 m; median urine albumin:creatinine ratio, 716.9; mean serum urate level, 8.2 mg per deciliter) were included in the assessment of the primary outcome. The change in eGFR did not differ significantly between the allopurinol group and the placebo group (-3.33 ml per minute per 1.73 m per year [95% confidence interval {CI}, -4.11 to -2.55] and -3.23 ml per minute per 1.73 m per year [95% CI, -3.98 to -2.47], respectively; mean difference, -0.10 ml per minute per 1.73 m per year [95% CI, -1.18 to 0.97]; P = 0.85). Serious adverse events were reported in 84 of 182 patients (46%) in the allopurinol group and in 79 of 181 patients (44%) in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS:In patients with chronic kidney disease and a high risk of progression, urate-lowering treatment with allopurinol did not slow the decline in eGFR as compared with placebo. (Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia and the Health Research Council of New Zealand; CKD-FIX Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12611000791932.). 10.1056/NEJMoa1915833
    Conversion of Urine Protein-Creatinine Ratio or Urine Dipstick Protein to Urine Albumin-Creatinine Ratio for Use in Chronic Kidney Disease Screening and Prognosis : An Individual Participant-Based Meta-analysis. Sumida Keiichi,Nadkarni Girish N,Grams Morgan E,Sang Yingying,Ballew Shoshana H,Coresh Josef,Matsushita Kunihiro,Surapaneni Aditya,Brunskill Nigel,Chadban Steve J,Chang Alex R,Cirillo Massimo,Daratha Kenn B,Gansevoort Ron T,Garg Amit X,Iacoviello Licia,Kayama Takamasa,Konta Tsuneo,Kovesdy Csaba P,Lash James,Lee Brian J,Major Rupert W,Metzger Marie,Miura Katsuyuki,Naimark David M J,Nelson Robert G,Sawhney Simon,Stempniewicz Nikita,Tang Mila,Townsend Raymond R,Traynor Jamie P,Valdivielso José M,Wetzels Jack,Polkinghorne Kevan R,Heerspink Hiddo J L, Annals of internal medicine BACKGROUND:Although measuring albuminuria is the preferred method for defining and staging chronic kidney disease (CKD), total urine protein or dipstick protein is often measured instead. OBJECTIVE:To develop equations for converting urine protein-creatinine ratio (PCR) and dipstick protein to urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) and to test their diagnostic accuracy in CKD screening and staging. DESIGN:Individual participant-based meta-analysis. SETTING:12 research and 21 clinical cohorts. PARTICIPANTS:919 383 adults with same-day measures of ACR and PCR or dipstick protein. MEASUREMENTS:Equations to convert urine PCR and dipstick protein to ACR were developed and tested for purposes of CKD screening (ACR ≥30 mg/g) and staging (stage A2: ACR of 30 to 299 mg/g; stage A3: ACR ≥300 mg/g). RESULTS:Median ACR was 14 mg/g (25th to 75th percentile of cohorts, 5 to 25 mg/g). The association between PCR and ACR was inconsistent for PCR values less than 50 mg/g. For higher PCR values, the PCR conversion equations demonstrated moderate sensitivity (91%, 75%, and 87%) and specificity (87%, 89%, and 98%) for screening (ACR >30 mg/g) and classification into stages A2 and A3, respectively. Urine dipstick categories of trace or greater, trace to +, and ++ for screening for ACR values greater than 30 mg/g and classification into stages A2 and A3, respectively, had moderate sensitivity (62%, 36%, and 78%) and high specificity (88%, 88%, and 98%). For individual risk prediction, the estimated 2-year 4-variable kidney failure risk equation using predicted ACR from PCR had discrimination similar to that of using observed ACR. LIMITATION:Diverse methods of ACR and PCR quantification were used; measurements were not always performed in the same urine sample. CONCLUSION:Urine ACR is the preferred measure of albuminuria; however, if ACR is not available, predicted ACR from PCR or urine dipstick protein may help in CKD screening, staging, and prognosis. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE:National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and National Kidney Foundation. 10.7326/M20-0529
    Long-Term Kidney Function After the Fontan Operation: JACC Review Topic of the Week. Zafar Faizeen,Lubert Adam M,Katz David A,Hill Garick D,Opotowsky Alexander R,Alten Jeffrey A,Goldstein Stuart L,Alsaied Tarek Journal of the American College of Cardiology The Fontan procedure has improved survival and quality of life for patients with single ventricle physiology. Along with extended life expectancy comes a growing population that is experiencing long-term multiorgan adverse effects. Whereas cardiorenal interactions have been extensively studied in patients with a structurally normal heart, these are less well understood in patients with a single ventricle. Several studies have investigated the prevalence of reduced glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria in the Fontan population; however, the long-term implication of renal dysfunction is not well established in this population. This paper provides a concise review of the published reports on the pathophysiology and spectrum of Fontan-associated renal disease. It also identifies gaps in currently available evidence that can guide ongoing and future research. 10.1016/j.jacc.2020.05.042
    Autophagy in kidney homeostasis and disease. Tang Chengyuan,Livingston Man J,Liu Zhiwen,Dong Zheng Nature reviews. Nephrology Autophagy is a conserved lysosomal pathway for the degradation of cytoplasmic components. Basal autophagy in kidney cells is essential for the maintenance of kidney homeostasis, structure and function. Under stress conditions, autophagy is altered as part of the adaptive response of kidney cells, in a process that is tightly regulated by signalling pathways that can modulate the cellular autophagic flux - mammalian target of rapamycin, AMP-activated protein kinase and sirtuins are key regulators of autophagy. Dysregulated autophagy contributes to the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury, to incomplete kidney repair after acute kidney injury and to chronic kidney disease of varied aetiologies, including diabetic kidney disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and polycystic kidney disease. Autophagy also has a role in kidney ageing. However, questions remain about whether autophagy has a protective or a pathological role in kidney fibrosis, and about the precise mechanisms and signalling pathways underlying the autophagy response in different types of kidney cells and across the spectrum of kidney diseases. Further research is needed to gain insights into the regulation of autophagy in the kidneys and to enable the discovery of pathway-specific and kidney-selective therapies for kidney diseases and anti-ageing strategies. 10.1038/s41581-020-0309-2
    Bariatric surgery for the treatment of chronic kidney disease in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Docherty Neil G,le Roux Carel W Nature reviews. Nephrology Bariatric surgery is an effective therapy for obesity, hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus that is refractory to maximal medical therapy. Results of long-term cohort studies and emerging evidence from randomized clinical trials have revealed that, in addition to its beneficial effects on weight reduction, blood pressure and metabolic control, bariatric surgery might reduce the incidence and long-term progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Preclinical studies have provided experimental verification that bariatric surgery improves key parameters of kidney injury at the functional, structural and ultrastructural levels, and effects a programme of transcriptomic change in the kidney that is coherent with injury resolution. Multiple mechanisms explain these observations, ranging from predictable aspects of risk-factor reduction to some novel and unforeseen renoprotective benefits of surgery. Current evidence therefore supports the judicious use of bariatric surgery to treat patients with obesity, diabetes and CKD. Optimizing the benefits of surgery requires careful patient selection and consideration of how to identify and mitigate some of the challenges associated with these surgical procedures. 10.1038/s41581-020-0323-4
    Effect of alirocumab on major adverse cardiovascular events according to renal function in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome: prespecified analysis from the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES randomized clinical trial. Tuñón José,Steg Philippe Gabriel,Bhatt Deepak L,Bittner Vera A,Díaz Rafael,Goodman Shaun G,Jukema J Wouter,Kim Yong-Un,Li Qian H,Mueller Christian,Parkhomenko Alexander,Pordy Robert,Sritara Piyamitr,Szarek Michael,White Harvey D,Zeiher Andreas M,Schwartz Gregory G, European heart journal AIMS:Statins reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and normal-to-moderately impaired renal function. It is not known whether proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors provide similar benefit across a range of renal function. We determined whether effects of the PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab to reduce cardiovascular events and death after ACS are influenced by renal function. METHODS AND RESULTS:ODYSSEY OUTCOMES compared alirocumab with placebo in patients with recent ACS and dyslipidaemia despite intensive statin treatment. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 was exclusionary. In 18 918 patients, baseline eGFR was 82.8 ± 17.6 mL/min/1.73 m2, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was 92 ± 31 mg/dL. At 36 months, alirocumab decreased LDL-C by 48.5% vs. placebo but did not affect eGFR (P = 0.65). Overall, alirocumab reduced risk of the primary outcome (coronary heart disease death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization) with fewer deaths. There was no interaction between continuous eGFR and treatment on the primary outcome or death (P = 0.14 and 0.59, respectively). Alirocumab reduced primary outcomes in patients with eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2 (n = 7470; hazard ratio 0.784, 95% confidence interval 0.670-0.919; P = 0.003) and 60 to <90 (n = 9326; 0.833, 0.731-0.949; P = 0.006), but not in those with eGFR < 60 (n = 2122; 0.974, 0.805-1.178; P = 0.784). Adverse events other than local injection-site reactions were similar in both groups across all categories of eGFR. CONCLUSIONS:In patients with recent ACS, alirocumab was associated with fewer cardiovascular events and deaths across the range of renal function studied, with larger relative risk reductions in those with eGFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. 10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa498
    Sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Scheen André J Nature reviews. Endocrinology The management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is becoming increasingly complex. Sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) are the newest antidiabetic agents for T2DM. By targeting the kidney, they have a unique mechanism of action, which results in enhanced glucosuria, osmotic diuresis and natriuresis, thereby improving glucose control with a limited risk of hypoglycaemia and exerting additional positive effects such as weight loss and the lowering of blood pressure. Several outcome studies with canagliflozin, dapagliflozin or empagliflozin reported a statistically significant reduction in major cardiovascular events, hospitalization for heart failure and progression to advanced renal disease in patients with T2DM who have established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, several cardiovascular risk factors, albuminuric mild to moderate chronic kidney disease or heart failure. Current guidelines proposed a new paradigm in the management of T2DM, with a preferential place for SGLT2is, after metformin, in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heart failure and progressive kidney disease. Ongoing trials might extend the therapeutic potential of SGLT2is in patients with, but also without, T2DM. This Review provides an update of the current knowledge on SGLT2is, moving from their use as glucose-lowering medications to their new positioning as cardiovascular and renal protective agents. 10.1038/s41574-020-0392-2
    Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes with Empagliflozin in Heart Failure. Packer Milton,Anker Stefan D,Butler Javed,Filippatos Gerasimos,Pocock Stuart J,Carson Peter,Januzzi James,Verma Subodh,Tsutsui Hiroyuki,Brueckmann Martina,Jamal Waheed,Kimura Karen,Schnee Janet,Zeller Cordula,Cotton Daniel,Bocchi Edimar,Böhm Michael,Choi Dong-Ju,Chopra Vijay,Chuquiure Eduardo,Giannetti Nadia,Janssens Stefan,Zhang Jian,Gonzalez Juanatey Jose R,Kaul Sanjay,Brunner-La Rocca Hans-Peter,Merkely Bela,Nicholls Stephen J,Perrone Sergio,Pina Ileana,Ponikowski Piotr,Sattar Naveed,Senni Michele,Seronde Marie-France,Spinar Jindrich,Squire Iain,Taddei Stefano,Wanner Christoph,Zannad Faiez, The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in patients regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. More evidence is needed regarding the effects of these drugs in patients across the broad spectrum of heart failure, including those with a markedly reduced ejection fraction. METHODS:In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 3730 patients with class II, III, or IV heart failure and an ejection fraction of 40% or less to receive empagliflozin (10 mg once daily) or placebo, in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for worsening heart failure. RESULTS:During a median of 16 months, a primary outcome event occurred in 361 of 1863 patients (19.4%) in the empagliflozin group and in 462 of 1867 patients (24.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio for cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.86; P<0.001). The effect of empagliflozin on the primary outcome was consistent in patients regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. The total number of hospitalizations for heart failure was lower in the empagliflozin group than in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.85; P<0.001). The annual rate of decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate was slower in the empagliflozin group than in the placebo group (-0.55 vs. -2.28 ml per minute per 1.73 m of body-surface area per year, P<0.001), and empagliflozin-treated patients had a lower risk of serious renal outcomes. Uncomplicated genital tract infection was reported more frequently with empagliflozin. CONCLUSIONS:Among patients receiving recommended therapy for heart failure, those in the empagliflozin group had a lower risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure than those in the placebo group, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. (Funded by Boehringer Ingelheim and Eli Lilly; EMPEROR-Reduced ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03057977.). 10.1056/NEJMoa2022190
    Targeting and therapeutic peptide-based strategies for polycystic kidney disease. Wang Jonathan,Tripathy Nirmalya,Chung Eun Ji Advanced drug delivery reviews Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is characterized by progressive cyst growth and is a leading cause of renal failure worldwide. Currently, there are limited therapeutic options available to PKD patients, and only one drug, tolvaptan, has been FDA-approved to slow cyst progression. Similar to other small molecule drugs, however, tolvaptan is costly, only moderately effective, and causes adverse events leading to high patient dropout rates. Peptides may mitigate many drawbacks of small molecule drugs, as they can be highly tissue-specific, biocompatible, and economically scaled-up. Peptides can function as targeting ligands that direct therapies to diseased renal tissue, or be potent as therapeutic agents themselves. This review discusses various aberrant signaling pathways in PKD and renal receptors that can be potential targets of peptide-mediated strategies. Additionally, peptides utilized in other kidney applications, but may prove useful in the context of PKD, are highlighted. Insights into novel peptide-based solutions that have potential to improve clinical management of PKD are provided. 10.1016/j.addr.2020.08.011
    Profibrotic Circulating Proteins and Risk of Early Progressive Renal Decline in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes With and Without Albuminuria. Ihara Katsuhito,Skupien Jan,Kobayashi Hiroki,Md Dom Zaipul I,Wilson Jonathan M,O'Neil Kristina,Badger Hannah S,Bowsman Lenden M,Satake Eiichiro,Breyer Matthew D,Duffin Kevin L,Krolewski Andrzej S Diabetes care OBJECTIVE:The role of fibrosis in early progressive renal decline in type 2 diabetes is unknown. Circulating WFDC2 (WAP four-disulfide core domain protein 2) and matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP-7; Matrilysin) are postulated to be biomarkers of renal fibrosis. This study examined an association of circulating levels of these proteins with early progressive renal decline. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Individuals with type 2 diabetes enrolled in the Joslin Kidney Study with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m were monitored for 6-12 years to ascertain fast early progressive renal decline, defined as eGFR loss ≥5 mL/min/1.73 m/year. RESULTS:A total of 1,181 individuals were studied: 681 without and 500 with albuminuria. Median eGFR and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) at baseline were 97 mL/min/1.73 m and 24 mg/g, respectively. During follow-up, 152 individuals experienced fast early progressive renal decline: 6.9% in those with normoalbuminuria and 21% with albuminuria. In both subgroups, the risk of renal decline increased with increasing baseline levels of WFDC2 ( < 0.0001) and MMP-7 ( < 0.0001). After adjustment for relevant clinical characteristics and known biomarkers, an increase by one quartile in the fibrosis index (combination of levels of WFDC2 and MMP-7) was associated with higher risk of renal decline (odds ratio 1.63; 95% CI 1.30-2.04). The association was similar and statistically significant among patients with and without albuminuria. CONCLUSIONS:Elevation of circulating profibrotic proteins is associated with the development of early progressive renal decline in type 2 diabetes. This association is independent from albuminuria status and points to the importance of the fibrotic process in the development of early renal decline. 10.2337/dc20-0630
    Comparative Effectiveness of SGLT2 Inhibitors, GLP-1 Receptor Agonists, DPP-4 Inhibitors, and Sulfonylureas on Risk of Kidney Outcomes: Emulation of a Target Trial Using Health Care Databases. Xie Yan,Bowe Benjamin,Gibson Andrew K,McGill Janet B,Maddukuri Geetha,Yan Yan,Al-Aly Ziyad Diabetes care OBJECTIVE:To examine the comparative effectiveness of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP-4), and sulfonylureas on risk of kidney outcomes among people with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:U.S. veterans initiated on SGLT2i ( = 18,544), GLP-1 ( = 23,711), DPP-4 ( = 39,399), or sulfonylureas ( = 134,904) were followed for up to 3 years to evaluate the risk of the composite outcome of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline >50%, end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), or all-cause mortality. Risks were estimated using survival models adjusted for predefined covariates as well as covariates identified by a high-dimensional variable selection algorithm through application of generalized propensity scores. RESULTS:Compared with those treated with sulfonylureas, treatment with SGLT2i, GLP-1, and DPP-4 was associated with a lower risk of the composite outcome (hazard ratio 0.68 [95% CI 0.63, 0.74], 0.72 [0.67, 0.77], and 0.90 [0.86, 0.95], respectively). While we did not observe a statistically significant difference in risk between the SGLT2i and GLP-1 arms (0.95 [0.87, 1.04]), both SGLT2i and GLP-1 had a lower risk of the composite outcome than DPP-4 (0.76 [0.70, 0.82] and 0.79 [0.74, 0.85], respectively). Analyses by eGFR category suggested that compared with the sulfonylurea arm, those in the SGLT2i and GLP-1 arms exhibited a lower risk of the composite outcome in all eGFR categories, including eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m. Compared with DPP-4, both SGLT2i and GLP-1 exhibited a reduced risk of the composite outcome in eGFR <90 to ≥60, <60 to ≥45, and <45 mL/min/1.73 m. CONCLUSIONS:In type 2 diabetes, treatment with SGLT2i or GLP-1 compared with DPP-4 or sulfonylureas was associated with a lower risk of adverse kidney outcomes. 10.2337/dc20-1890
    Impact of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement on Severity of Chronic Kidney Disease. Cubeddu Robert J,Asher Craig R,Lowry Ashley M,Blackstone Eugene H,Kapadia Samir R,Alu Maria C,Thourani Vinod H,Mack Michael J,Kodali Susheel K,Herrmann Howard C,Forcillo Jessica,Babaliaros Vasilis C,Devireddy Chandan M,Malaisrie S Chris,Davidson Charles J,Jaber Wael A,Leon Martin B,Svensson Lars G, Journal of the American College of Cardiology BACKGROUND:The effect of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) on kidney function stage in patients with aortic stenosis remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that in some patients, TAVR results in improved kidney function by alleviating cardiorenal syndrome. OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to assess change in chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage following TAVR, identify variables associated with pre- and post-TAVR estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and assess association of post-TAVR eGFR with mortality. METHODS:Patients (n = 5,190) receiving TAVR in the PARTNER (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves) 1, 2, and PARTNER 2 S3 trials between April 2007 and October 2014 were included. Pre-TAVR and procedural variables associated with post-TAVR eGFR, change in CKD stage at ≤7 days post-TAVR, and association of post-TAVR eGFR on intermediate-term mortality were assessed. RESULTS:At baseline, CKD stage ≥2 was present in 91% of patients. CKD stage either improved or was unchanged following TAVR in the majority of patients (77% stage 1, 90% stage 2, 89% stage 3A, 94% stage 3B, and 99% stage 4). Progression to CKD stage 5 occurred in 1 (0.035%) of 2,892 patients within 7 days post-TAVR. Of 3,546 patients in whom data were available, 70 (2.0%) underwent post-TAVR dialysis. Higher pre-TAVR eGFR and transfemoral approach were strongly associated with higher post-TAVR eGFR. Lower baseline and longitudinal post-TAVR eGFR were associated with lower intermediate-term survival. CONCLUSIONS:In patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing TAVR, even with baseline impaired eGFR, CKD stage is more likely to stay the same or improve than worsen. Aortic stenosis may contribute to cardiorenal syndrome that improves with TAVR. 10.1016/j.jacc.2020.07.048
    Food as medicine: targeting the uraemic phenotype in chronic kidney disease. Mafra Denise,Borges Natalia A,Lindholm Bengt,Shiels Paul G,Evenepoel Pieter,Stenvinkel Peter Nature reviews. Nephrology The observation that unhealthy diets (those that are low in whole grains, fruits and vegetables, and high in sugar, salt, saturated fat and ultra-processed foods) are a major risk factor for poor health outcomes has boosted interest in the concept of 'food as medicine'. This concept is especially relevant to metabolic diseases, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), in which dietary approaches are already used to ameliorate metabolic and nutritional complications. Increased awareness that toxic uraemic metabolites originate not only from intermediary metabolism but also from gut microbial metabolism, which is directly influenced by diet, has fuelled interest in the potential of 'food as medicine' approaches in CKD beyond the current strategies of protein, sodium and phosphate restriction. Bioactive nutrients can alter the composition and metabolism of the microbiota, act as modulators of transcription factors involved in inflammation and oxidative stress, mitigate mitochondrial dysfunction, act as senolytics and impact the epigenome by altering one-carbon metabolism. As gut dysbiosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, premature ageing and epigenetic changes are common features of CKD, these findings suggest that tailored, healthy diets that include bioactive nutrients as part of the foodome could potentially be used to prevent and treat CKD and its complications. 10.1038/s41581-020-00345-8
    Dapagliflozin in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. Heerspink Hiddo J L,Stefánsson Bergur V,Correa-Rotter Ricardo,Chertow Glenn M,Greene Tom,Hou Fan-Fan,Mann Johannes F E,McMurray John J V,Lindberg Magnus,Rossing Peter,Sjöström C David,Toto Roberto D,Langkilde Anna-Maria,Wheeler David C, The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Patients with chronic kidney disease have a high risk of adverse kidney and cardiovascular outcomes. The effect of dapagliflozin in patients with chronic kidney disease, with or without type 2 diabetes, is not known. METHODS:We randomly assigned 4304 participants with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 25 to 75 ml per minute per 1.73 m of body-surface area and a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (with albumin measured in milligrams and creatinine measured in grams) of 200 to 5000 to receive dapagliflozin (10 mg once daily) or placebo. The primary outcome was a composite of a sustained decline in the estimated GFR of at least 50%, end-stage kidney disease, or death from renal or cardiovascular causes. RESULTS:The independent data monitoring committee recommended stopping the trial because of efficacy. Over a median of 2.4 years, a primary outcome event occurred in 197 of 2152 participants (9.2%) in the dapagliflozin group and 312 of 2152 participants (14.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51 to 0.72; P<0.001; number needed to treat to prevent one primary outcome event, 19 [95% CI, 15 to 27]). The hazard ratio for the composite of a sustained decline in the estimated GFR of at least 50%, end-stage kidney disease, or death from renal causes was 0.56 (95% CI, 0.45 to 0.68; P<0.001), and the hazard ratio for the composite of death from cardiovascular causes or hospitalization for heart failure was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.55 to 0.92; P = 0.009). Death occurred in 101 participants (4.7%) in the dapagliflozin group and 146 participants (6.8%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.88; P = 0.004). The effects of dapagliflozin were similar in participants with type 2 diabetes and in those without type 2 diabetes. The known safety profile of dapagliflozin was confirmed. CONCLUSIONS:Among patients with chronic kidney disease, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes, the risk of a composite of a sustained decline in the estimated GFR of at least 50%, end-stage kidney disease, or death from renal or cardiovascular causes was significantly lower with dapagliflozin than with placebo. (Funded by AstraZeneca; DAPA-CKD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03036150.). 10.1056/NEJMoa2024816
    Effects of once-weekly subcutaneous semaglutide on kidney function and safety in patients with type 2 diabetes: a post-hoc analysis of the SUSTAIN 1-7 randomised controlled trials. Mann Johannes F E,Hansen Thomas,Idorn Thomas,Leiter Lawrence A,Marso Steven P,Rossing Peter,Seufert Jochen,Tadayon Sayeh,Vilsbøll Tina The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology BACKGROUND:Patients with type 2 diabetes have a high risk of developing chronic kidney disease. We examined the effects of semaglutide on kidney function and safety in a large, broad type 2 diabetes population. METHODS:We did a post-hoc analysis of 8416 patients with type 2 diabetes enrolled in the SUSTAIN 1-5 and SUSTAIN 7 randomised controlled trials, and the SUSTAIN 6 cardiovascular outcomes trial, to examine the effects of once-weekly subcutaneous semaglutide 0·5 mg and 1·0 mg versus comparators (active treatments or placebo) on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), and kidney adverse events. Data from SUSTAIN 1-5 and SUSTAIN 7 were pooled. eGFR and UACR were also analysed by kidney function and albuminuria status. FINDINGS:In SUSTAIN 1-5 and SUSTAIN 7, eGFR decreased from baseline to week 12 with all active treatments; estimated treatment differences (ETDs) versus placebo were -2·15 (95% CI -3·47 to -0·83) mL/min per 1·73 m with semaglutide 0·5 mg and -3·00 (-4·31 to -1·68) mL/min per 1·73 m with semaglutide 1·0 mg; after week 12, eGFR plateaued. In SUSTAIN 1-5 and SUSTAIN 7, from baseline to end of treatment the decline in eGFR was greater with semaglutide than with placebo (ETD -1·58 [95% CI -2·92 to -0·25] mL/min per 1·73 m with semaglutide 0·5 mg and -2·02 [-3·35 to -0·68] mL/min per 1·73 m with semaglutide 1·0 mg). In SUSTAIN 6, the decline in eGFR was greater with semaglutide than with placebo from baseline to week 16 (ETD -1·29 [95% CI -2·07 to -0·51] mL/min per 1·73 m with semaglutide 0·5 mg and -1·56 [-2·33 to -0·78] mL/min per 1·73 m with semaglutide 1·0 mg), but not from week 16 to week 104 (1·29 [0·30 to 2·28] mL/min per 1·73 m with semaglutide 0·5 mg and 2·44 [1·45 to 3·44] mL/min per 1·73 m with semaglutide 1·0 mg). Overall (ie, from baseline to week 104), the eGFR decline in SUSTAIN 6 was similar between semaglutide and placebo (ETD 0·07 [95% CI -0·92 to 1·07] mL/min per 1·73 m with semaglutide 0·5 mg and 0·97 [-0·03 to 1·97] mL/min per 1·73 m with semaglutide 1·0 mg). In SUSTAIN 1-5, UACR ratios at end of treatment to baseline were 0·917 with semaglutide 0·5 mg, 0·836 with semaglutide 1·0 mg, and 1·239 with placebo; at end of treatment, greater reductions in UACR were observed with semaglutide versus placebo (estimated treatment ratios 0·74 [95% CI 0·64 to 0·85] for semaglutide 0·5 mg and 0·68 [0·59 to 0·78] for semaglutide 1·0 mg). In SUSTAIN 6, UACR ratios at end of treatment (week 104) to baseline were 0·973 with semaglutide 0·5 mg, 0·858 with semaglutide 1·0 mg, and 1·302 with placebo; at week 104, greater reductions in UACR were observed with semaglutide versus placebo (estimated treatment ratios 0·75 [95% CI 0·66 to 0·85] for semaglutide 0·5 mg and 0·66 [0·58 to 0·75] for semaglutide 1·0 mg). In SUSTAIN 1-7, eGFR initially declined in patients with normal kidney function (and in those with mild kidney impairment with semaglutide 1·0 mg in SUSTAIN 6), but overall (ie, by week 30 for SUSTAIN 1-5 and SUSTAIN 7, and week 104 for SUSTAIN 6), eGFR did not differ between semaglutide and placebo. In SUSTAIN 1-6, UACR decreased in patients with pre-existing microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria at baseline; it did not change or increased in those with normoalbuminuria at baseline. Kidney adverse events were balanced between treatment groups. INTERPRETATION:Across the SUSTAIN 1-7 trials, semaglutide was associated with initial reductions in eGFR that plateaued, and marked reductions in UACR. This post-hoc analysis suggests no increase in the risk of kidney adverse events with semaglutide versus the active comparators used across SUSTAIN 1-7. FUNDING:Novo Nordisk. 10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30313-2
    WNT-β-catenin signalling - a versatile player in kidney injury and repair. Schunk Stefan J,Floege Jürgen,Fliser Danilo,Speer Thimoteus Nature reviews. Nephrology The WNT-β-catenin system is an evolutionary conserved signalling pathway that is of particular importance for morphogenesis and cell organization during embryogenesis. The system is usually suppressed in adulthood; however, it can be re-activated in organ injury and regeneration. WNT-deficient mice display severe kidney defects at birth. Transient WNT-β-catenin activation stimulates tissue regeneration after acute kidney injury, whereas sustained (uncontrolled) WNT-β-catenin signalling promotes kidney fibrosis in chronic kidney disease (CKD), podocyte injury and proteinuria, persistent tissue damage during acute kidney injury and cystic kidney diseases. Additionally, WNT-β-catenin signalling is involved in CKD-associated vascular calcification and mineral bone disease. The WNT-β-catenin pathway is tightly regulated, for example, by proteins of the Dickkopf (DKK) family. In particular, DKK3 is released by 'stressed' tubular epithelial cells; DKK3 drives kidney fibrosis and is associated with short-term risk of CKD progression and acute kidney injury. Thus, targeting the WNT-β-catenin pathway might represent a promising therapeutic strategy in kidney injury and associated complications. 10.1038/s41581-020-00343-w
    Challenges of access to kidney care for children in low-resource settings. McCulloch Mignon,Luyckx Valerie A,Cullis Brett,Davies Simon J,Finkelstein Fredric O,Yap Hui Kim,Feehally John,Smoyer William E Nature reviews. Nephrology Kidney disease is a global public health concern across the age spectrum, including in children. However, our understanding of the true burden of kidney disease in low-resource areas is often hampered by a lack of disease awareness and access to diagnosis. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in low-resource settings poses multiple challenges, including late diagnosis, the need for ongoing access to care and the frequent unavailability of costly therapies such as dialysis and transplantation. Moreover, children in such settings are at particular risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) owing to preventable and/or reversible causes - many children likely die from potentially reversible kidney disease because they lack access to appropriate care. Acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an important low-cost treatment option. Initiatives, such as the Saving Young Lives programme, to train local medical staff from low-resource areas to provide care for AKI, including acute PD, have already saved hundreds of children. Future priorities include capacity building for both educational purposes and to provide further resources for AKI management. As local knowledge and confidence increase, CKD management strategies should also develop. Increased awareness and advocacy at both the local government and international levels will be required to continue to improve the diagnosis and treatment of AKI and CKD in children worldwide. 10.1038/s41581-020-00338-7
    Organ protection by SGLT2 inhibitors: role of metabolic energy and water conservation. Marton Adriana,Kaneko Tatsuroh,Kovalik Jean-Paul,Yasui Atsutaka,Nishiyama Akira,Kitada Kento,Titze Jens Nature reviews. Nephrology Therapeutic inhibition of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) leads to substantial loss of energy (in the form of glucose) and additional solutes (in the form of Na and its accompanying anions) in urine. However, despite the continuously elevated solute excretion, long-term osmotic diuresis does not occur in humans with SGLT2 inhibition. Rather, patients on SGLT2 inhibitor therapy adjust to the reduction in energy availability and conserve water. The metabolic adaptations that are induced by SGLT2 inhibition are similar to those observed in aestivation - an evolutionarily conserved survival strategy that enables physiological adaptation to energy and water shortage. Aestivators exploit amino acids from muscle to produce glucose and fatty acid fuels. This endogenous energy supply chain is coupled with nitrogen transfer for organic osmolyte production, which allows parallel water conservation. Moreover, this process is often accompanied by a reduction in metabolic rate. By comparing aestivation metabolism with the fuel switches that occur during therapeutic SGLT2 inhibition, we suggest that SGLT2 inhibitors induce aestivation-like metabolic patterns, which may contribute to the improvements in cardiac and renal function observed with this class of therapeutics. 10.1038/s41581-020-00350-x
    Effects of canagliflozin on anaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease: a post-hoc analysis from the CREDENCE trial. Oshima Megumi,Neuen Brendon L,Jardine Meg J,Bakris George,Edwards Robert,Levin Adeera,Mahaffey Kenneth W,Neal Bruce,Pollock Carol,Rosenthal Norman,Wada Takashi,Wheeler David C,Perkovic Vlado,Heerspink Hiddo J L The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology BACKGROUND:Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors might enhance erythropoiesis and increase red blood cell mass. We assessed the long-term effects of canagliflozin on anaemia-related outcomes. METHODS:In a post-hoc analysis of the Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE) trial, we included patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease who were randomly assigned to treatment with canagliflozin or placebo at 690 sites in 34 countries. We assessed the effects of canagliflozin versus matched placebo on haemoglobin and haematocrit using linear mixed-effects models. The primary outcome of this post-hoc analysis was a composite outcome of investigator-reported anaemia or treatment for anaemia, which was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression models. All analyses were done by intention to treat. FINDINGS:Between March 24, 2014, and May 5, 2017, 4401 participants were randomly assigned to receive canagliflozin (100 mg; n=2202) or placebo (n=2199). At baseline, mean haemoglobin concentration was 132·0 g/L (SD 17·7), 1599 (36%) of 4401 participants had anaemia (defined as haemoglobin <130 g/L in men or <120 g/L in women), and 33 (<1%) of 4401 participants used erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. During a median follow-up period of 2·6 years (IQR 2·1-3·1), mean haemoglobin concentration was 7·1 g/L (95% CI 6·4-7·8) higher and haematocrit was 2·4% (2·2-2·6) higher in the canagliflozin group than the placebo group. Overall, 573 of 4401 participants had either an investigator-reported anaemia event or initiation of treatment for anaemia: 358 (8%) of 4401 participants reported anaemia events, 343 (8%) initiated iron preparations, 141 (3%) initiated erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, and 114 (2%) received blood transfusion. The risk of the composite outcome of anaemia events or initiation of treatment for anaemia was lower in the canagliflozin group than the placebo group (hazard ratio 0·65, 95% CI 0·55-0·77; p<0·0001). Compared with the placebo group, participants in the canagliflozin group also had lower risks of anaemia events alone (0·58, 0·47-0·72; p<0·0001), initiation of iron preparations (0·64, 0·52-0·80; p<0·0001), and need for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (0·65, 0·46-0·91; p=0·012). INTERPRETATION:These data suggest that canagliflozin reduces the risk of anaemia-associated outcomes, including the need for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, among patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. FUNDING:Janssen Research and Development. 10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30300-4
    Steroidal and non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in cardiorenal medicine. Agarwal Rajiv,Kolkhof Peter,Bakris George,Bauersachs Johann,Haller Hermann,Wada Takashi,Zannad Faiez European heart journal This review covers the last 80 years of remarkable progress in the development of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists (MRAs) from synthesis of the first mineralocorticoid to trials of nonsteroidal MRAs. The MR is a nuclear receptor expressed in many tissues/cell types including the kidney, heart, immune cells, and fibroblasts. The MR directly affects target gene expression-primarily fluid, electrolyte and haemodynamic homeostasis, and also, but less appreciated, tissue remodelling. Pathophysiological overactivation of the MR leads to inflammation and fibrosis in cardiorenal disease. We discuss the mechanisms of action of nonsteroidal MRAs and how they differ from steroidal MRAs. Nonsteroidal MRAs have demonstrated important differences in their distribution, binding mode to the MR and subsequent gene expression. For example, the novel nonsteroidal MRA finerenone has a balanced distribution between the heart and kidney compared with spironolactone, which is preferentially concentrated in the kidneys. Compared with eplerenone, equinatriuretic doses of finerenone show more potent anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects on the kidney in rodent models. Overall, nonsteroidal MRAs appear to demonstrate a better benefit-risk ratio than steroidal MRAs, where risk is measured as the propensity for hyperkalaemia. Among patients with Type 2 diabetes, several Phase II studies of finerenone show promising results, supporting benefits on the heart and kidneys. Furthermore, finerenone significantly reduced the combined primary endpoint (chronic kidney disease progression, kidney failure, or kidney death) vs. placebo when added to the standard of care in a large Phase III trial. 10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa736
    Guideline recommendations and the positioning of newer drugs in type 2 diabetes care. Marx Nikolaus,Davies Melanie J,Grant Peter J,Mathieu Chantal,Petrie John R,Cosentino Francesco,Buse John B The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology Cardiovascular outcome trials in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk have led to remarkable advances in our understanding of the effectiveness of GLP-1 receptor agonists and SGLT2 inhibitors to reduce cardiorenal events. In 2019, the American Diabetes Association (ADA), European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD), and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) published updated recommendations for the management of such patients. We are concerned that ongoing discussions focusing on the differences between the endocrinologists' consensus report from the ADA and EASD and cardiologists' guidelines from the ESC are contributing to clinical inertia, thereby effectively denying evidence-based treatments advocated by both groups to patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiorenal disease. A subset of members from the writing groups of the ADA-EASD consensus report and the ESC guidelines was convened to emphasise where commonalities exist and to propose an integrated framework that encompasses the views incorporated in management approaches proposed by the ESC and the ADA and EASD. Coordinated action is required to ensure that people with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, or chronic kidney disease are treated appropriately with an SGLT2 inhibitor or GLP-1 receptor agonist. In our opinion, this course should be initiated independent of background therapy, current glycaemic control, or individualised treatment goals. 10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30343-0
    Diabetes Management in Chronic Kidney Disease: Synopsis of the 2020 KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline. Navaneethan Sankar D,Zoungas Sophia,Caramori M Luiza,Chan Juliana C N,Heerspink Hiddo J L,Hurst Clint,Liew Adrian,Michos Erin D,Olowu Wasiu A,Sadusky Tami,Tandon Nikhil,Tuttle Katherine R,Wanner Christoph,Wilkens Katy G,Lytvyn Lyubov,Craig Jonathan C,Tunnicliffe David J,Howell Martin,Tonelli Marcello,Cheung Michael,Earley Amy,Rossing Peter,de Boer Ian H,Khunti Kamlesh Annals of internal medicine DESCRIPTION:The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) organization developed a clinical practice guideline in 2020 for the management of patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS:The KDIGO Work Group (WG) was tasked with developing the guideline for diabetes management in CKD. It defined the scope of the guideline, gathered evidence, determined systematic review topics, and graded evidence that had been summarized by an evidence review team. The English-language literature searches, which were initially done through October 2018, were updated in February 2020. The WG used the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach to appraise evidence and rate the strength of the recommendations. Expert judgment was used to develop consensus practice points supplementary to the evidence-based graded recommendations. The guideline document underwent open public review. Comments from various stakeholders, subject matter experts, and industry and national organizations were considered before the document was finalized. RECOMMENDATIONS:The guideline includes 12 recommendations and 48 practice points for clinicians caring for patients with diabetes and CKD. This synopsis focuses on the key recommendations pertinent to the following issues: comprehensive care needs, glycemic monitoring and targets, lifestyle interventions, antihyperglycemic therapies, and educational and integrated care approaches. 10.7326/M20-5938
    Sustainable Development Goals relevant to kidney health: an update on progress. Luyckx Valerie A,Al-Aly Ziyad,Bello Aminu K,Bellorin-Font Ezequiel,Carlini Raul G,Fabian June,Garcia-Garcia Guillermo,Iyengar Arpana,Sekkarie Mohammed,van Biesen Wim,Ulasi Ifeoma,Yeates Karen,Stanifer John Nature reviews. Nephrology Globally, more than 5 million people die annually from lack of access to critical treatments for kidney disease - by 2040, chronic kidney disease is projected to be the fifth leading cause of death worldwide. Kidney diseases are particularly challenging to tackle because they are pathologically diverse and are often asymptomatic. As such, kidney disease is often diagnosed late, and the global burden of kidney disease continues to be underappreciated. When kidney disease is not detected and treated early, patient care requires specialized resources that drive up cost, place many people at risk of catastrophic health expenditure and pose high opportunity costs for health systems. Prevention of kidney disease is highly cost-effective but requires a multisectoral holistic approach. Each Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) has the potential to impact kidney disease risk or improve early diagnosis and treatment, and thus reduce the need for high-cost care. All countries have agreed to strive to achieve the SDGs, but progress is disjointed and uneven among and within countries. The six SDG Transformations framework can be used to examine SDGs with relevance to kidney health that require attention and reveal inter-linkages among the SDGs that should accelerate progress. 10.1038/s41581-020-00363-6
    Sotagliflozin in Patients with Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease. Bhatt Deepak L,Szarek Michael,Pitt Bertram,Cannon Christopher P,Leiter Lawrence A,McGuire Darren K,Lewis Julia B,Riddle Matthew C,Inzucchi Silvio E,Kosiborod Mikhail N,Cherney David Z I,Dwyer Jamie P,Scirica Benjamin M,Bailey Clifford J,Díaz Rafael,Ray Kausik K,Udell Jacob A,Lopes Renato D,Lapuerta Pablo,Steg P Gabriel, The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:The efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors such as sotagliflozin in preventing cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes with chronic kidney disease with or without albuminuria have not been well studied. METHODS:We conducted a multicenter, double-blind trial in which patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (glycated hemoglobin level, ≥7%), chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate, 25 to 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m of body-surface area), and risks for cardiovascular disease were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive sotagliflozin or placebo. The primary end point was changed during the trial to the composite of the total number of deaths from cardiovascular causes, hospitalizations for heart failure, and urgent visits for heart failure. The trial ended early owing to loss of funding. RESULTS:Of 19,188 patients screened, 10,584 were enrolled, with 5292 assigned to the sotagliflozin group and 5292 assigned to the placebo group, and followed for a median of 16 months. The rate of primary end-point events was 5.6 events per 100 patient-years in the sotagliflozin group and 7.5 events per 100 patient-years in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63 to 0.88; P<0.001). The rate of deaths from cardiovascular causes per 100 patient-years was 2.2 with sotagliflozin and 2.4 with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.12; P = 0.35). For the original coprimary end point of the first occurrence of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke, the hazard ratio was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.99); for the original coprimary end point of the first occurrence of death from cardiovascular causes or hospitalization for heart failure, the hazard ratio was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.91). Diarrhea, genital mycotic infections, volume depletion, and diabetic ketoacidosis were more common with sotagliflozin than with placebo. CONCLUSIONS:In patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease, with or without albuminuria, sotagliflozin resulted in a lower risk of the composite of deaths from cardiovascular causes, hospitalizations for heart failure, and urgent visits for heart failure than placebo but was associated with adverse events. (Funded by Sanofi and Lexicon Pharmaceuticals; SCORED ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03315143.). 10.1056/NEJMoa2030186
    Incretin drugs in diabetic kidney disease: biological mechanisms and clinical evidence. Alicic Radica Z,Cox Emily J,Neumiller Joshua J,Tuttle Katherine R Nature reviews. Nephrology As the prevalence of diabetes continues to climb, the number of individuals living with diabetic complications will reach an unprecedented magnitude. The emergence of new glucose-lowering agents - sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and incretin therapies - has markedly changed the treatment landscape of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition to effectively lowering glucose, incretin drugs, which include glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R) agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors, can also reduce blood pressure, body weight, the risk of developing or worsening chronic kidney disease and/or atherosclerotic cardiovascular events, and the risk of death. Although kidney disease events have thus far been secondary outcomes in clinical trials, an ongoing phase III trial in patients with diabetic kidney disease will test the effect of a GLP1R agonist on a primary kidney disease outcome. Experimental data have identified the modulation of innate immunity and inflammation as plausible biological mechanisms underpinning the kidney-protective effects of incretin-based agents. These drugs block the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of kidney damage, including the activation of resident mononuclear phagocytes, tissue infiltration by non-resident inflammatory cells, and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules. GLP1R agonists and DPP4 inhibitors might also attenuate oxidative stress, fibrosis and cellular apoptosis in the kidney. 10.1038/s41581-020-00367-2
    Mitochondrial quality control in kidney injury and repair. Tang Chengyuan,Cai Juan,Yin Xiao-Ming,Weinberg Joel M,Venkatachalam Manjeri A,Dong Zheng Nature reviews. Nephrology Mitochondria are essential for the activity, function and viability of eukaryotic cells and mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease, as well as in abnormal kidney repair after AKI. Multiple quality control mechanisms, including antioxidant defence, protein quality control, mitochondrial DNA repair, mitochondrial dynamics, mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis, have evolved to preserve mitochondrial homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions. Loss of these mechanisms may induce mitochondrial damage and dysfunction, leading to cell death, tissue injury and, potentially, organ failure. Accumulating evidence suggests a role of disturbances in mitochondrial quality control in the pathogenesis of AKI, incomplete or maladaptive kidney repair and chronic kidney disease. Moreover, specific interventions that target mitochondrial quality control mechanisms to preserve and restore mitochondrial function have emerged as promising therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat kidney injury and accelerate kidney repair. However, clinical translation of these findings is challenging owing to potential adverse effects, unclear mechanisms of action and a lack of knowledge of the specific roles and regulation of mitochondrial quality control mechanisms in kidney resident and circulating cell types during injury and repair of the kidney. 10.1038/s41581-020-00369-0
    The COVID-19 pandemic: consequences for nephrology. Bruchfeld Annette Nature reviews. Nephrology 10.1038/s41581-020-00381-4
    SGLT2 inhibitors in people with and without T2DM. Khunti Kamlesh Nature reviews. Endocrinology 10.1038/s41574-020-00453-2
    Effects of dapagliflozin on major adverse kidney and cardiovascular events in patients with diabetic and non-diabetic chronic kidney disease: a prespecified analysis from the DAPA-CKD trial. Wheeler David C,Stefánsson Bergur V,Jongs Niels,Chertow Glenn M,Greene Tom,Hou Fan Fan,McMurray John J V,Correa-Rotter Ricardo,Rossing Peter,Toto Robert D,Sjöström C David,Langkilde Anna Maria,Heerspink Hiddo J L, The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology BACKGROUND:Dapagliflozin reduces the risk of kidney failure and heart failure in patients with chronic kidney disease. We aimed to investigate the effects of dapagliflozin on kidney, cardiovascular, and mortality outcomes according to presence or absence of type 2 diabetes and according to underlying cause of chronic kidney disease, reported as diabetic nephropathy, chronic glomerulonephritides, ischaemic or hypertensive chronic kidney disease, or chronic kidney disease of other or unknown cause. METHODS:DAPA-CKD was a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial done at 386 study sites in 21 countries, in which participants with a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 200-5000 mg/g and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 25-75 mL/min per 1·73m were randomly assigned (1:1) to dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily or matching placebo, as an adjunct to standard care. The primary outcome was a composite of sustained decline in eGFR of at least 50%, end-stage kidney disease, or kidney-related or cardiovascular death. Secondary efficacy outcomes were a kidney-specific composite (the same as the primary outcome but excluding cardiovascular death), a composite of cardiovascular death or hospital admission for heart failure, and all-cause mortality. In this study, we conducted a prespecified subgroup analysis of the DAPA-CKD primary and secondary endpoints by presence or absence of type 2 diabetes and by aetiology of chronic kidney disease. DAPA-CKD is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03036150. FINDINGS:The study took place between Feb 2, 2017, and June 12, 2020. 4304 participants were randomly assigned (2152 to dapagliflozin and 2152 to placebo) and were followed up for a median of 2·4 years (IQR 2·0-2·7). Overall, 2906 (68%) participants had a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, of whom 396 (14%) had chronic kidney disease ascribed to causes other than diabetic nephropathy. The relative risk reduction for the primary composite outcome with dapagliflozin was consistent in participants with type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 0·64, 95% CI 0·52-0·79) and those without diabetes (0·50, 0·35-0·72; p=0·24). Similar findings were seen for the secondary outcomes: kidney-specific composite outcome (0·57 [0·45-0·73] vs 0·51 [0·34-0·75]; P=0·57), cardiovascular death or hospital admission for heart failure (0·70 [0·53-0·92] vs 0·79 [0·40-1·55]; P=0·78), and all-cause mortality (0·74 [0·56-0·98] vs 0·52 [0·29-0·93]; P=0·25). The effect of dapagliflozin on the primary outcome was also consistent among patients with diabetic nephropathy (n=2510; HR 0·63, 95% CI 0·51-0·78), glomerulonephritides (n=695; 0·43, 0·26-0·71), ischaemic or hypertensive chronic kidney disease (n=687; 0·75, 0·44-1·26), and chronic kidney disease of other or unknown cause (n=412; 0·58, 0·29-1·19; P=0·53), with similar consistency seen across the secondary outcomes. The proportions of participants in the dapagliflozin and placebo groups who had serious adverse events or discontinued study drug due to adverse events did not vary between those with and those without type 2 diabetes. INTERPRETATION:Dapagliflozin reduces the risks of major adverse kidney and cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in patients with diabetic and non-diabetic chronic kidney disease. FUNDING:AstraZeneca. 10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30369-7
    Sodium-glucose cotransporter protein-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists for type 2 diabetes: systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Palmer Suetonia C,Tendal Britta,Mustafa Reem A,Vandvik Per Olav,Li Sheyu,Hao Qiukui,Tunnicliffe David,Ruospo Marinella,Natale Patrizia,Saglimbene Valeria,Nicolucci Antonio,Johnson David W,Tonelli Marcello,Rossi Maria Chiara,Badve Sunil V,Cho Yeoungjee,Nadeau-Fredette Annie-Claire,Burke Michael,Faruque Labib I,Lloyd Anita,Ahmad Nasreen,Liu Yuanchen,Tiv Sophanny,Millard Tanya,Gagliardi Lucia,Kolanu Nithin,Barmanray Rahul D,McMorrow Rita,Raygoza Cortez Ana Karina,White Heath,Chen Xiangyang,Zhou Xu,Liu Jiali,Rodríguez Andrea Flores,González-Colmenero Alejandro Díaz,Wang Yang,Li Ling,Sutanto Surya,Solis Ricardo Cesar,Díaz González-Colmenero Fernando,Rodriguez-Gutierrez René,Walsh Michael,Guyatt Gordon,Strippoli Giovanni F M BMJ (Clinical research ed.) OBJECTIVE:To evaluate sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists in patients with type 2 diabetes at varying cardiovascular and renal risk. DESIGN:Network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES:Medline, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL up to 11 August 2020. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES:Randomised controlled trials comparing SGLT-2 inhibitors or GLP-1 receptor agonists with placebo, standard care, or other glucose lowering treatment in adults with type 2 diabetes with follow up of 24 weeks or longer. Studies were screened independently by two reviewers for eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Frequentist random effects network meta-analysis was carried out and GRADE (grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation) used to assess evidence certainty. Results included estimated absolute effects of treatment per 1000 patients treated for five years for patients at very low risk (no cardiovascular risk factors), low risk (three or more cardiovascular risk factors), moderate risk (cardiovascular disease), high risk (chronic kidney disease), and very high risk (cardiovascular disease and kidney disease). A guideline panel provided oversight of the systematic review. RESULTS:764 trials including 421 346 patients proved eligible. All results refer to the addition of SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists to existing diabetes treatment. Both classes of drugs lowered all cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and kidney failure (high certainty evidence). Notable differences were found between the two agents: SGLT-2 inhibitors reduced mortality and admission to hospital for heart failure more than GLP-1 receptor agonists, and GLP-1 receptor agonists reduced non-fatal stroke more than SGLT-2 inhibitors (which appeared to have no effect). SGLT-2 inhibitors caused genital infection (high certainty), whereas GLP-1 receptor agonists might cause severe gastrointestinal events (low certainty). Low certainty evidence suggested that SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists might lower body weight. Little or no evidence was found for the effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors or GLP-1 receptor agonists on limb amputation, blindness, eye disease, neuropathic pain, or health related quality of life. The absolute benefits of these drugs vary substantially across patients from low to very high risk of cardiovascular and renal outcomes (eg, SGLT-2 inhibitors resulted in 5 to 48 fewer deaths in 1000 patients over five years; see interactive decision support tool (https://magicevidence.org/match-it/200820dist/#!/) for all outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:In patients with type 2 diabetes, SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists reduced cardiovascular and renal outcomes, with notable differences in benefits and harms. Absolute benefits are determined by individual risk profiles of patients, with clear implications for clinical practice, as reflected in the Rapid Recommendations directly informed by this systematic review. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION:PROSPERO CRD42019153180. 10.1136/bmj.m4573
    The cardiovascular-dialysis nexus: the transition to dialysis is a treacherous time for the heart. Chan Kevin,Moe Sharon M,Saran Rajiv,Libby Peter European heart journal Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients require dialysis to manage the progressive complications of uraemia. Yet, many physicians and patients do not recognize that dialysis initiation, although often necessary, subjects patients to substantial risk for cardiovascular (CV) death. While most recognize CV mortality risk approximately doubles with CKD the new data presented here show that this risk spikes to >20 times higher than the US population average at the initiation of chronic renal replacement therapy, and this elevated CV risk continues through the first 4 months of dialysis. Moreover, this peak reflects how dialysis itself changes the pathophysiology of CV disease and transforms its presentation, progression, and prognosis. This article reviews how dialysis initiation modifies the interpretation of circulating biomarkers, alters the accuracy of CV imaging, and worsens prognosis. We advocate a multidisciplinary approach and outline the issues practitioners should consider to optimize CV care for this unique and vulnerable population during a perilous passage. 10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa1049
    Pharmacological treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. Taylor Simeon I,Yazdi Zhinous Shahidzadeh,Beitelshees Amber L The Journal of clinical investigation Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem, affecting about 10% of the population. Pharmacotherapy aims to protect against microvascular complications, including blindness, end-stage kidney disease, and amputations. Landmark clinical trials have demonstrated that intensive glycemic control slows progression of microvascular complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy). Long-term follow-up has demonstrated that intensive glycemic control also decreases risk of macrovascular disease, albeit rigorous evidence of macrovascular benefit did not emerge for over a decade. The US FDA's recent requirement for dedicated cardiovascular outcome trials ushered in a golden age for understanding the clinical profiles of new type 2 diabetes drugs. Some clinical trials with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) receptor agonists reported data demonstrating cardiovascular benefit (decreased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and hospitalization for heart failure) and slower progression of diabetic kidney disease. This Review discusses current guidelines for use of the 12 classes of drugs approved to promote glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. The Review also anticipates future developments with potential to improve the standard of care: availability of generic dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors and SGLT2 inhibitors; precision medicine to identify the best drugs for individual patients; and new therapies to protect against chronic complications of diabetes. 10.1172/JCI142243
    Prevention of heart failure events with sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors across a spectrum of cardio-renal-metabolic risk. Bhatia Kirtipal,Jain Vardhmaan,Gupta Kartik,Bansal Agam,Fox Arieh,Qamar Arman,Damman Kevin,Vaduganathan Muthiah European journal of heart failure AIMS:Trials have tested the safety and efficacy of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) across various disease states. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to estimate the relative and absolute effects of SGLT2i in the prevention of heart failure (HF) events across different risk groups. METHODS AND RESULTS:We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of large, placebo-controlled RCTs with >1000 participants evaluating HF hospitalization and the composite of cardiovascular (CV) death or HF hospitalization. Due to varying durations of therapeutic exposure and follow-up, absolute risk reductions and number needed to treat were calculated based on incidence rates (per 100 patient-years). Across 71 553 patients enrolled in 10 late-phase RCTs, SGLT2i reduced the risk of HF hospitalization by 31% [hazard ratio (HR) 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-0.74; I  = 0%] and the composite outcome of CV death or HF hospitalization by 24% (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.72-0.80; I  = 1.4%) compared with placebo. The number of patient-years of treatment exposure needed to prevent one CV death or HF hospitalization ranged from 19-26 (established HF) to 72-125 (chronic kidney disease) to 96-400 (high-risk type 2 diabetes). In mixed-effects meta-regression analyses, the benefits of SGLT2i on HF hospitalizations or the composite outcome (CV death or HF hospitalization) were not influenced by age, sex, or change in intermediate markers (glycated haemoglobin, systolic blood pressure, and body weight) (all P ≥ 0.10). CONCLUSION:Despite wide variation in baseline risks and disease states evaluated, SGLT2i demonstrated comparable relative risk reductions in preventing HF events. Patients at highest baseline risk derived the greatest absolute benefits in preventing HF events. These composite estimates may help guide targeted implementation of SGLT2i for the prevention of HF events in type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease and in the treatment of HF. 10.1002/ejhf.2135
    A kidney perspective on the mechanism of action of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors. Sen Taha,Heerspink Hiddo J L Cell metabolism Sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors reduce the risk of kidney failure in patients with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although the precise underlying mechanisms for these nephroprotective effects are incompletely understood, various hypotheses have been proposed including reductions in intraglomerular pressure through restoration of tubuloglomerular feedback, blood pressure reduction and favorable effects on vascular function, reduction in tubular workload and hypoxia, and metabolic effects resulting in increased autophagy. Here, we review these mechanisms, which may also explain the beneficial effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on kidney function in patients without T2D. 10.1016/j.cmet.2021.02.016
    A Personalized Approach to Chronic Kidney Disease and Cardiovascular Disease: JACC Review Topic of the Week. Lai Ashton C,Bienstock Solomon W,Sharma Raman,Skorecki Karl,Beerkens Frans,Samtani Rajeev,Coyle Andrew,Kim Tonia,Baber Usman,Camaj Anton,Power David,Fuster Valentin,Goldman Martin E Journal of the American College of Cardiology Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The initiation of dialysis for treatment of ESRD exacerbates chronic electrolyte and hemodynamic perturbations. Rapid large shifts in effective intravascular volume and electrolyte concentrations ultimately lead to subendocardial ischemia, increased left ventricular wall mass, and diastolic dysfunction, and can precipitate serious arrhythmias through a complex pathophysiological process. These factors, unique to advanced kidney disease and its treatment, increase the overall incidence of acute coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. To date, risk prediction models largely fail to incorporate the observed cardiovascular mortality in the CKD population; however, multimodality imaging may provide an additional prognostication and risk stratification. This comprehensive review discusses the cardiovascular risks associated with hemodialysis, and explores the pathophysiology and the novel utilization of multimodality imaging in CKD to promote a personalized approach for these patients with implications for future research. 10.1016/j.jacc.2021.01.028
    Uraemic solutes as therapeutic targets in CKD-associated cardiovascular disease. Ravid Jonathan D,Kamel Mohamed Hassan,Chitalia Vipul C Nature reviews. Nephrology Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by the retention of a myriad of solutes termed uraemic (or uremic) toxins, which inflict damage to several organs, including the cardiovascular system. Uraemic toxins can induce hallmarks of cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as atherothrombosis, heart failure, dysrhythmias, vessel calcification and dysregulated angiogenesis. CVD is an important driver of mortality in patients with CKD; however, reliance on conventional approaches to managing CVD risk is insufficient in these patients, underscoring a need to target risk factors that are specific to CKD. Mounting evidence suggests that targeting uraemic toxins and/or pathways induced by uraemic toxins, including tryptophan metabolites and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), can lower the risk of CVD in patients with CKD. Although tangible therapies resulting from our growing knowledge of uraemic toxicity are yet to materialize, a number of pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches have the potential to abrogate the effects of uraemic toxins, for example, by decreasing the production of uraemic toxins, by modifying metabolic pathways induced by uraemic toxins such as those controlled by aryl hydrocarbon receptor signalling and by augmenting the clearance of uraemic toxins. 10.1038/s41581-021-00408-4
    Effects of dapagliflozin on mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease: a pre-specified analysis from the DAPA-CKD randomized controlled trial. Heerspink Hiddo J L,Sjöström C David,Jongs Niels,Chertow Glenn M,Kosiborod Mikhail,Hou Fan Fan,McMurray John J V,Rossing Peter,Correa-Rotter Ricardo,Kurlyandskaya Raisa,Stefansson Bergur V,Toto Robert D,Langkilde Anna Maria,Wheeler David C, European heart journal AIMS:Mortality rates from chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased in the last decade. In this pre-specified analysis of the DAPA-CKD trial, we determined the effects of dapagliflozin on cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes of death. METHODS AND RESULTS:DAPA-CKD was an international, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with a median of 2.4 years of follow-up. Eligible participants were adult patients with CKD, defined as a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) 200-5000 mg/g and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 25-75 mL/min/1.73 m2. All-cause mortality was a key secondary endpoint. Cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular death was adjudicated by an independent clinical events committee. The DAPA-CKD trial randomized participants to dapagliflozin 10 mg/day (n = 2152) or placebo (n = 2152). The mean age was 62 years, 33% were women, the mean eGFR was 43.1 mL/min/1.73 m2, and the median UACR was 949 mg/g. During follow-up, 247 (5.7%) patients died, of whom 91 (36.8%) died due to cardiovascular causes, 102 (41.3%) due to non-cardiovascular causes, and in 54 (21.9%) patients, the cause of death was undetermined. The relative risk reduction for all-cause mortality with dapagliflozin (31%, hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval (CI)] 0.69 [0.53, 0.88]; P = 0.003) was consistent across pre-specified subgroups. The effect on all-cause mortality was driven largely by a 46% relative risk reduction of non-cardiovascular death (HR [95% CI] 0.54 [0.36, 0.82]). Deaths due to infections and malignancies were the most frequently occurring causes of non-cardiovascular deaths and were reduced with dapagliflozin vs. placebo. CONCLUSION:In patients with CKD, dapagliflozin prolonged survival irrespective of baseline patient characteristics. The benefits were driven largely by reductions in non-cardiovascular death. 10.1093/eurheartj/ehab094
    Gout. Dalbeth Nicola,Gosling Anna L,Gaffo Angelo,Abhishek Abhishek Lancet (London, England) Gout is a common and treatable disease caused by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in articular and non-articular structures. Increased concentration of serum urate (hyperuricaemia) is the most important risk factor for the development of gout. Serum urate is regulated by urate transporters in the kidney and gut, particularly GLUT9 (SLC2A9), URAT1 (SLC22A12), and ABCG2. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by monosodium urate crystals with release of IL-1β plays a major role in the initiation of the gout flare; aggregated neutrophil extracellular traps are important in the resolution phase. Although presenting as an intermittent flaring condition, gout is a chronic disease. Long-term urate lowering therapy (eg, allopurinol) leads to the dissolution of monosodium urate crystals, ultimately resulting in the prevention of gout flares and tophi and in improved quality of life. Strategies such as nurse-led care are effective in delivering high-quality gout care and lead to major improvements in patient outcomes. 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00569-9
    Insights into Glomerular Filtration and Albuminuria. Benzing Thomas,Salant David The New England journal of medicine 10.1056/NEJMra1808786
    Vadadustat in Patients with Anemia and Non-Dialysis-Dependent CKD. Chertow Glenn M,Pergola Pablo E,Farag Youssef M K,Agarwal Rajiv,Arnold Susan,Bako Gabriel,Block Geoffrey A,Burke Steven,Castillo Fausto P,Jardine Alan G,Khawaja Zeeshan,Koury Mark J,Lewis Eldrin F,Lin Tim,Luo Wenli,Maroni Bradley J,Matsushita Kunihiro,McCullough Peter A,Parfrey Patrick S,Roy-Chaudhury Prabir,Sarnak Mark J,Sharma Amit,Spinowitz Bruce,Tseng Carol,Tumlin James,Vargo Dennis L,Walters Kimberly A,Winkelmayer Wolfgang C,Wittes Janet,Eckardt Kai-Uwe, The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Vadadustat is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, a class of drugs that stabilize HIF and stimulate erythropoietin and red-cell production. METHODS:In two phase 3, randomized, open-label, active-controlled, noninferiority trials, we compared vadadustat with the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) darbepoetin alfa in patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) not previously treated with an ESA who had a hemoglobin concentration of less than 10 g per deciliter and in patients with ESA-treated NDD-CKD and a hemoglobin concentration of 8 to 11 g per deciliter (in the United States) or 9 to 12 g per deciliter (in other countries). The primary safety end point, assessed in a time-to-event analysis, was the first major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE; a composite of death from any cause, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke), pooled across the two trials. Secondary safety end points included expanded MACE (MACE plus hospitalization for either heart failure or a thromboembolic event). The primary and key secondary efficacy end points in each trial were the mean change in hemoglobin concentration from baseline during two evaluation periods: weeks 24 through 36 and weeks 40 through 52. RESULTS:A total of 1751 patients with ESA-untreated NDD-CKD and 1725 with ESA-treated NDD-CKD underwent randomization in the two trials. In the pooled analysis, in which 1739 patients received vadadustat and 1732 received darbepoetin alfa, the hazard ratio for MACE was 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.36), which did not meet the prespecified noninferiority margin of 1.25. The mean between-group differences in the change in the hemoglobin concentration at weeks 24 through 36 were 0.05 g per deciliter (95% CI, -0.04 to 0.15) in the trial involving ESA-untreated patients and -0.01 g per deciliter (95% CI, -0.09 to 0.07) in the trial involving ESA-treated patients, which met the prespecified noninferiority margin of -0.75 g per deciliter. CONCLUSIONS:Vadadustat, as compared with darbepoetin alfa, met the prespecified noninferiority criterion for hematologic efficacy but not the prespecified noninferiority criterion for cardiovascular safety in patients with NDD-CKD. (Funded by Akebia Therapeutics and Otsuka Pharmaceutical; PROTECT ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT02648347 and NCT02680574.). 10.1056/NEJMoa2035938
    Safety and Efficacy of Vadadustat for Anemia in Patients Undergoing Dialysis. Eckardt Kai-Uwe,Agarwal Rajiv,Aswad Ahmad,Awad Ahmed,Block Geoffrey A,Bacci Marcelo R,Farag Youssef M K,Fishbane Steven,Hubert Harold,Jardine Alan,Khawaja Zeeshan,Koury Mark J,Maroni Bradley J,Matsushita Kunihiro,McCullough Peter A,Lewis Eldrin F,Luo Wenli,Parfrey Patrick S,Pergola Pablo,Sarnak Mark J,Spinowitz Bruce,Tumlin James,Vargo Dennis L,Walters Kimberly A,Winkelmayer Wolfgang C,Wittes Janet,Zwiech Rafal,Chertow Glenn M The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Vadadustat is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, a class of compounds that stimulate endogenous erythropoietin production. METHODS:We conducted two randomized, open-label, noninferiority phase 3 trials to evaluate the safety and efficacy of vadadustat, as compared with darbepoetin alfa, in patients with anemia and incident or prevalent dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (DD-CKD). The primary safety end point, assessed in a time-to-event analysis, was the first occurrence of a major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE, a composite of death from any cause, a nonfatal myocardial infarction, or a nonfatal stroke), pooled across the trials (noninferiority margin, 1.25). A key secondary safety end point was the first occurrence of a MACE plus hospitalization for either heart failure or a thromboembolic event. The primary and key secondary efficacy end points were the mean change in hemoglobin from baseline to weeks 24 to 36 and from baseline to weeks 40 to 52, respectively, in each trial (noninferiority margin, -0.75 g per deciliter). RESULTS:A total of 3923 patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive vadadustat or darbepoetin alfa: 369 in the incident DD-CKD trial and 3554 in the prevalent DD-CKD trial. In the pooled analysis, a first MACE occurred in 355 patients (18.2%) in the vadadustat group and in 377 patients (19.3%) in the darbepoetin alfa group (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 1.11). The mean differences between the groups in the change in hemoglobin concentration were -0.31 g per deciliter (95% CI, -0.53 to -0.10) at weeks 24 to 36 and -0.07 g per deciliter (95% CI, -0.34 to 0.19) at weeks 40 to 52 in the incident DD-CKD trial and -0.17 g per deciliter (95% CI, -0.23 to -0.10) and -0.18 g per deciliter (95% CI, -0.25 to -0.12), respectively, in the prevalent DD-CKD trial. The incidence of serious adverse events in the vadadustat group was 49.7% in the incident DD-CKD trial and 55.0% in the prevalent DD-CKD trial, and the incidences in the darbepoetin alfa group were 56.5% and 58.3%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Among patients with anemia and CKD who were undergoing dialysis, vadadustat was noninferior to darbepoetin alfa with respect to cardiovascular safety and correction and maintenance of hemoglobin concentrations. (Funded by Akebia Therapeutics and Otsuka Pharmaceutical; INNOVATE ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT02865850 and NCT02892149.). 10.1056/NEJMoa2025956
    Lipoproteins and fatty acids in chronic kidney disease: molecular and metabolic alterations. Noels Heidi,Lehrke Michael,Vanholder Raymond,Jankowski Joachim Nature reviews. Nephrology Chronic kidney disease (CKD) induces modifications in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and homeostasis. These modifications can promote, modulate and/or accelerate CKD and secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities - involving triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, LDL and/or HDL - not only involve changes in concentration but also changes in molecular structure, including protein composition, incorporation of small molecules and post-translational modifications. These alterations modify the function of lipoproteins and can trigger pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic processes, as well as oxidative stress. Serum fatty acid levels are also often altered in patients with CKD and lead to changes in fatty acid metabolism - a key process in intracellular energy production - that induce mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular damage. These fatty acid changes might not only have a negative impact on the heart, but also contribute to the progression of kidney damage. The presence of these lipoprotein alterations within a biological environment characterized by increased inflammation and oxidative stress, as well as the competing risk of non-atherosclerotic cardiovascular death as kidney function declines, has important therapeutic implications. Additional research is needed to clarify the pathophysiological link between lipid and lipoprotein modifications, and kidney dysfunction, as well as the genesis and/or progression of CVD in patients with kidney disease. 10.1038/s41581-021-00423-5
    SGLT-2 inhibitors or GLP-1 receptor agonists for adults with type 2 diabetes: a clinical practice guideline. Li Sheyu,Vandvik Per Olav,Lytvyn Lyubov,Guyatt Gordon H,Palmer Suetonia C,Rodriguez-Gutierrez René,Foroutan Farid,Agoritsas Thomas,Siemieniuk Reed A C,Walsh Michael,Frere Lawrie,Tunnicliffe David J,Nagler Evi V,Manja Veena,Åsvold Bjørn Olav,Jha Vivekanand,Vermandere Mieke,Gariani Karim,Zhao Qian,Ren Yan,Cartwright Emma Jane,Gee Patrick,Wickes Alan,Ferns Linda,Wright Robin,Li Ling,Hao Qiukui,Mustafa Reem A BMJ (Clinical research ed.) CLINICAL QUESTION:What are the benefits and harms of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists when added to usual care (lifestyle interventions and/or other diabetes drugs) in adults with type 2 diabetes at different risk for cardiovascular and kidney outcomes? CURRENT PRACTICE:Clinical decisions about treatment of type 2 diabetes have been led by glycaemic control for decades. SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists are traditionally used in people with elevated glucose level after metformin treatment. This has changed through trials demonstrating atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) benefits independent of medications' glucose-lowering potential. RECOMMENDATIONS:The guideline panel issued risk-stratified recommendations concerning the use of SGLT-2 inhibitors or GLP-1 receptor agonists in adults with type 2 diabetes• Three or fewer cardiovascular risk factors without established CVD or CKD: Weak recommendation against starting SGLT-2 inhibitors or GLP-1 receptor agonists.• More than three cardiovascular risk factors without established CVD or CKD: Weak recommendation for starting SGLT-2 inhibitors and weak against starting GLP-1 receptor agonists.• Established CVD or CKD: Weak recommendation for starting SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists.• Established CVD and CKD: Strong recommendation for starting SGLT-2 inhibitors and weak recommendation for starting GLP-1 receptor agonists.• For those committed to further reducing their risk for CVD and CKD outcomes: Weak recommendation for starting SGLT-2 inhibitors rather than GLP-1 receptor agonists. HOW THIS GUIDELINE WAS CREATED:An international panel including patients, clinicians, and methodologists created these recommendations following standards for trustworthy guidelines and using the GRADE approach. The panel applied an individual patient perspective. THE EVIDENCE:A linked systematic review and network meta-analysis (764 randomised trials included 421 346 participants) of benefits and harms found that SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists generally reduce overall death, and incidence of myocardial infarctions, and end-stage kidney disease or kidney failure (moderate to high certainty evidence). These medications exert different effects on stroke, hospitalisations for heart failure, and key adverse events in different subgroups. Absolute effects of benefit varied widely based on patients' individual risk (for example, from five fewer deaths in the lowest risk to 48 fewer deaths in the highest risk, for 1000 patients treated over five years). A prognosis review identified 14 eligible risk prediction models, one of which (RECODe) informed most baseline risk estimates in evidence summaries to underpin the risk-stratified recommendations. Concerning patients' values and preferences, the recommendations were supported by evidence from a systematic review of published literature, a patient focus group study, a practical issues summary, and a guideline panel survey. UNDERSTANDING THE RECOMMENDATION:We stratified the recommendations by the levels of risk for CVD and CKD and systematically considered the balance of benefits, harms, other considerations, and practical issues for each risk group. The strong recommendation for SGLT-2 inhibitors in patients with CVD and CKD reflects what the panel considered to be a clear benefit. For all other adults with type 2 diabetes, the weak recommendations reflect what the panel considered to be a finer balance between benefits, harms, and burdens of treatment options. Clinicians using the guideline can identify their patient's individual risk for cardiovascular and kidney outcomes using credible risk calculators such as RECODe. Interactive evidence summaries and decision aids may support well informed treatment choices, including shared decision making. 10.1136/bmj.n1091
    Effect of Treating Hyperphosphatemia With Lanthanum Carbonate vs Calcium Carbonate on Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Undergoing Hemodialysis: The LANDMARK Randomized Clinical Trial. Ogata Hiroaki,Fukagawa Masafumi,Hirakata Hideki,Kagimura Tatsuo,Fukushima Masanori,Akizawa Tadao, JAMA Importance:Among patients with hyperphosphatemia undergoing dialysis, it is unclear whether non-calcium-based phosphate binders are more effective than calcium-based binders for reducing cardiovascular events. Objective:To determine whether lanthanum carbonate reduces cardiovascular events compared with calcium carbonate in patients with hyperphosphatemia at risk of vascular calcification undergoing hemodialysis. Design, Setting, and Participants:Open-label, randomized, parallel-group clinical trial with blinded end point adjudication performed in 2374 patients with chronic kidney disease from 273 hemodialysis facilities in Japan. Eligible patients had hyperphosphatemia and 1 or more risk factors for vascular calcification (ie, ≥65 years, postmenopausal, diabetes). Enrollment occurred from November 2011 to July 2014; follow-up ended June 2018. Interventions:Patients were randomized to receive either lanthanum carbonate (n = 1154) or calcium carbonate (n = 1155) and titrated to achieve serum phosphate levels of between 3.5 mg/dL and 6.0 mg/dL. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was a composite cardiovascular event (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke, unstable angina, transient ischemic attack, or hospitalization for heart failure or ventricular arrhythmia). Secondary outcomes included overall survival, secondary hyperparathyroidism-free survival, hip fracture-free survival, and adverse events. Results:Among 2309 randomized patients (median age, 69 years; 40.5% women), 1851 (80.2%) completed the trial. After a median follow-up of 3.16 years, cardiovascular events occurred in 147 of 1063 patients in the lanthanum calcium group and 134 of 1072 patients in the calcium carbonate group (incidence rate, 4.80 vs 4.30 per 100 person-years; difference 0.50 per 100 person-years [95% CI, -0.57 to 1.56]; hazard ratio [HR], 1.11 [95%, CI, 0.88 to 1.41], P = .37). There were no significant differences in all-cause death (difference, 0.43 per 100 person-years [95% CI, -0.63 to 1.49]; HR, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.88 to 1.37]; P = .42) or hip fracture (difference, 0.10 per 100 person-years [95% CI, -0.26 to 0.47]; HR, 1.21 [95% CI, 0.62 to 2.35]; P = .58). The lanthanum carbonate group had an increased risk of cardiovascular death (difference, 0.61 per 100 person-years [95% CI, 0.02 to 1.21]; HR, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.01 to 2.27]; P = .045) and secondary hyperparathyroidism (difference, 1.34 [95% CI, 0.49 to 2.19]; HR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.19 to 2.20]; P = .002). Adverse events occurred in 282 (25.7%) in the lanthanum carbonate group and 259 (23.4%) in the calcium carbonate groups. Conclusions and Relevance:Among patients undergoing hemodialysis with hyperphosphatemia and at least 1 vascular calcification risk factor, treatment of hyperphosphatemia with lanthanum carbonate compared with calcium carbonate did not result in a significant difference in composite cardiovascular events. However, the event rate was low, and the findings may not apply to patients at higher risk. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01578200; UMIN Clinical Trial Registry Identifier: UMIN000006815. 10.1001/jama.2021.4807
    Chronic kidney disease. Kalantar-Zadeh Kamyar,Jafar Tazeen H,Nitsch Dorothea,Neuen Brendon L,Perkovic Vlado Lancet (London, England) Chronic kidney disease is a progressive disease with no cure and high morbidity and mortality that occurs commonly in the general adult population, especially in people with diabetes and hypertension. Preservation of kidney function can improve outcomes and can be achieved through non-pharmacological strategies (eg, dietary and lifestyle adjustments) and chronic kidney disease-targeted and kidney disease-specific pharmacological interventions. A plant-dominant, low-protein, and low-salt diet might help to mitigate glomerular hyperfiltration and preserve renal function for longer, possibly while also leading to favourable alterations in acid-base homoeostasis and in the gut microbiome. Pharmacotherapies that alter intrarenal haemodynamics (eg, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway modulators and SGLT2 [SLC5A2] inhibitors) can preserve kidney function by reducing intraglomerular pressure independently of blood pressure and glucose control, whereas other novel agents (eg, non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists) might protect the kidney through anti-inflammatory or antifibrotic mechanisms. Some glomerular and cystic kidney diseases might benefit from disease-specific therapies. Managing chronic kidney disease-associated cardiovascular risk, minimising the risk of infection, and preventing acute kidney injury are crucial interventions for these patients, given the high burden of complications, associated morbidity and mortality, and the role of non-conventional risk factors in chronic kidney disease. When renal replacement therapy becomes inevitable, an incremental transition to dialysis can be considered and has been proposed to possibly preserve residual kidney function longer. There are similarities and distinctions between kidney-preserving care and supportive care. Additional studies of dietary and pharmacological interventions and development of innovative strategies are necessary to ensure optimal kidney-preserving care and to achieve greater longevity and better health-related quality of life for these patients. 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00519-5
    SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists: established and emerging indications. Brown Emily,Heerspink Hiddo J L,Cuthbertson Daniel J,Wilding John P H Lancet (London, England) SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists are used in patients with type 2 diabetes as glucose lowering therapies, with additional benefits of weight loss and blood pressure reduction. Data from cardiovascular outcome trials have highlighted that these drugs confer protection against major cardiovascular disease in those with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, reduce the risk of admission to hospital for heart failure, and reduce cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Ongoing research using hard renal endpoints such as end stage kidney disease rather than surrogate markers might clarify the renoprotective benefits of both agents. When used for glucose lowering, SGLT2 inhibitors are most effective if the estimated glomerular filtration rate is more than 60 ml per min per 1·73m at initiation and should be avoided where there is a risk of diabetic ketoacidosis. GLP-1 receptor agonists are contraindicated in those with a history of medullary thyroid cancer and used with caution in patients with a history of pancreatitis of a known cause. These drugs are now second-line, or even arguably first-line, glucose lowering therapies in patients with cardiorenal disease, irrespective of glycaemic control. If an SGLT2 inhibitor or GLP-1 receptor agonist is considered suitable in patients with type 2 diabetes, treatment should be prioritised according to existing evidence: GLP-1 receptor agonists should be considered in patients at a high risk of, or with established, cardiovascular disease and SGLT2 inhibitors considered for patients with heart failure (with reduced ejection fraction) or chronic kidney disease (with or without established cardiovascular disease). There is now compelling data on the benefits of these drugs for a range of other clinical indications even without type 2 diabetes, including for GLP-1 receptor agonists in patients with obesity and overweight with weight-related comorbidities. 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00536-5
    Acute kidney injury. Kellum John A,Romagnani Paola,Ashuntantang Gloria,Ronco Claudio,Zarbock Alexander,Anders Hans-Joachim Nature reviews. Disease primers Acute kidney injury (AKI) is defined by a sudden loss of excretory kidney function. AKI is part of a range of conditions summarized as acute kidney diseases and disorders (AKD), in which slow deterioration of kidney function or persistent kidney dysfunction is associated with an irreversible loss of kidney cells and nephrons, which can lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD). New biomarkers to identify injury before function loss await clinical implementation. AKI and AKD are a global concern. In low-income and middle-income countries, infections and hypovolaemic shock are the predominant causes of AKI. In high-income countries, AKI mostly occurs in elderly patients who are in hospital, and is related to sepsis, drugs or invasive procedures. Infection and trauma-related AKI and AKD are frequent in all regions. The large spectrum of AKI implies diverse pathophysiological mechanisms. AKI management in critical care settings is challenging, including appropriate volume control, nephrotoxic drug management, and the timing and type of kidney support. Fluid and electrolyte management are essential. As AKI can be lethal, kidney replacement therapy is frequently required. AKI has a poor prognosis in critically ill patients. Long-term consequences of AKI and AKD include CKD and cardiovascular morbidity. Thus, prevention and early detection of AKI are essential. 10.1038/s41572-021-00284-z
    Pro-resolving lipid mediators: regulators of inflammation, metabolism and kidney function. Brennan Eoin,Kantharidis Phillip,Cooper Mark E,Godson Catherine Nature reviews. Nephrology Obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease are risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and kidney failure. Chronic, low-grade inflammation is recognized as a major pathogenic mechanism that underlies the association between CKD and obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and diabetes, through interaction between resident and/or circulating immune cells with parenchymal cells. Thus, considerable interest exists in approaches that target inflammation as a strategy to manage CKD. The initial phase of the inflammatory response to injury or metabolic dysfunction reflects the release of pro-inflammatory mediators including peptides, lipids and cytokines, and the recruitment of leukocytes. In self-limiting inflammation, the evolving inflammatory response is coupled to distinct processes that promote the resolution of inflammation and restore homeostasis. The discovery of endogenously generated lipid mediators - specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators and branched fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids - which promote the resolution of inflammation and attenuate the microvascular and macrovascular complications of obesity and diabetes mellitus highlights novel opportunities for potential therapeutic intervention through the targeting of pro-resolution, rather than anti-inflammatory pathways. 10.1038/s41581-021-00454-y
    Management of gout in chronic kidney disease: a G-CAN Consensus Statement on the research priorities. Stamp Lisa K,Farquhar Hamish,Pisaniello Huai Leng,Vargas-Santos Ana B,Fisher Mark,Mount David B,Choi Hyon K,Terkeltaub Robert,Hill Catherine L,Gaffo Angelo L Nature reviews. Rheumatology Gout and chronic kidney disease (CKD) frequently coexist, but quality evidence to guide gout management in people with CKD is lacking. Use of urate-lowering therapy (ULT) in the context of advanced CKD varies greatly, and professional bodies have issued conflicting recommendations regarding the treatment of gout in people with concomitant CKD. As a result, confusion exists among medical professionals about the appropriate management of people with gout and CKD. This Consensus Statement from the Gout, Hyperuricemia and Crystal-Associated Disease Network (G-CAN) discusses the evidence and/or lack thereof for the management of gout in people with CKD and identifies key areas for research to address the challenges faced in the management of gout and CKD. These discussions, which address areas for research both in general as well as related to specific medications used to treat gout flares or as ULT, are supported by separately published G-CAN systematic literature reviews. This Consensus Statement is not intended as a guideline for the management of gout in CKD; rather, it analyses the available literature on the safety and efficacy of drugs used in gout management to identify important gaps in knowledge and associated areas for research. 10.1038/s41584-021-00657-4
    Therapeutic and delivery strategies of phytoconstituents for renal fibrosis. Xu Huan,Wu Tianyi,Huang Leaf Advanced drug delivery reviews Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most common diseases endangering human health and life. By 2030, 14 per 100,000 people may die from CKD. Renal fibrosis (RF) is an important intermediate link and the final pathological change during CKD progression to the terminal stage. Therefore, identifying safe and effective treatment methods for RF has become an important goal. In 2018, the World Health Organization introduced traditional Chinese medicine into its effective global medical program. Various phytoconstituents that affect the RF process have been extracted from different plants. Here, we review the potential therapeutic capabilities of active phytoconstituents in RF treatment and discuss how phytoconstituents can be structurally modified or combined with other ingredients to enhance efficiency and reduce toxicity. We also summarize phytoconstituent delivery strategies to overcome renal barriers and improve bioavailability and targeting. 10.1016/j.addr.2021.113911
    The therapeutic potential of apelin in kidney disease. Chapman Fiona A,Nyimanu Duuamene,Maguire Janet J,Davenport Anthony P,Newby David E,Dhaun Neeraj Nature reviews. Nephrology Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality and is independently associated with cardiovascular disease. The mainstay of treatment for CKD is blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which reduces blood pressure and proteinuria and slows kidney function decline. Despite this treatment, many patients progress to kidney failure, which requires dialysis or kidney transplantation, and/or die as a result of cardiovascular disease. The apelin system is an endogenous physiological regulator that is emerging as a potential therapeutic target for many diseases. This system comprises the apelin receptor and its two families of endogenous ligands, apelin and elabela/toddler. Preclinical and clinical studies show that apelin receptor ligands are endothelium-dependent vasodilators and potent inotropes, and the apelin system has a reciprocal relationship with the RAAS. In preclinical studies, apelin regulates glomerular haemodynamics and acts on the tubule to promote aquaresis. In addition, apelin is protective in several kidney injury models. Although the apelin system has not yet been studied in patients with CKD, the available data suggest that apelin is a promising potential therapeutic target for kidney disease. 10.1038/s41581-021-00461-z
    2019 Update to: Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes, 2018. A Consensus Report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Buse John B,Wexler Deborah J,Tsapas Apostolos,Rossing Peter,Mingrone Geltrude,Mathieu Chantal,D'Alessio David A,Davies Melanie J Diabetes care The American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes have briefly updated their 2018 recommendations on management of hyperglycemia, based on important research findings from large cardiovascular outcomes trials published in 2019. Important changes include: ) the decision to treat high-risk individuals with a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist or sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor to reduce major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), hospitalization for heart failure (hHF), cardiovascular death, or chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression should be considered independently of baseline HbA or individualized HbA target; ) GLP-1 receptor agonists can also be considered in patients with type 2 diabetes without established cardiovascular disease (CVD) but with the presence of specific indicators of high risk; and ) SGLT2 inhibitors are recommended in patients with type 2 diabetes and heart failure, particularly those with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, to reduce hHF, MACE, and CVD death, as well as in patients with type 2 diabetes with CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate 30 to ≤60 mL min [1.73 m] or urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio >30 mg/g, particularly >300 mg/g) to prevent the progression of CKD, hHF, MACE, and cardiovascular death. 10.2337/dci19-0066