Phase II study on the efficacy and safety of Lapatinib administered beyond disease progression and combined with vinorelbine in HER-2/neu- positive advanced breast cancer: results of the CECOG LaVie trial. Thallinger Christiane,Lang Istvan,Kuhar Cvetka Grasic,Bartsch Rupert,Singer Christian F,Petruzelka Lubos,Melichar Bohuslav,Knittelfelder Regina,Brodowicz Thomas,Zielinski Christoph BMC cancer BACKGROUND:Vinorelbine constitutes effective chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and acts synergistically with trastuzumab in HER-2/neu positive disease. The present study was set out to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vinorelbine when combined with lapatinib, an anti-HER2 tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, as late-line regimen administered beyond previous disease progression on prior lapatinib in patients with HER-2/neu- positive MBC. METHODS:The CECOG LaVie study was designed as open-labeled, single-arm, multicenter phase II trial. Patients had to be pretreated with lapatinib plus chemotherapy, and received lapatinib at a daily dose of 1250 mg in combination with vinorelbine 20 mg/m(2) i.v. on days 1 and 8 of a three-week cycle until disease progression, intolerable toxicity or withdrawal of consent. Progression-free survival (PFS) was defined as primary study endpoint; secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), response rate according to RECIST 1.1, and safety. The study was terminated early due to poor accrual. RESULTS:A total number of nine patients were included; lapatinib administered beyond disease progression combined with vinorelbine resulted in a median PFS of 7.7 months (95% CI 0.56-14.91) and a median OS of 23.4 months (95% CI 16.61-30.13), respectively. Partial remission was seen in one of nine patients, three patients had stable disease of > six months, whereas the remaining five patients had primary disease progression. In two patients, modification of vinorelbine dose due to toxicity became necessary; no dose modification was needed for lapatinib. The majority of reported adverse events (AE) were grade 1 and 2 in severity with diarrhea being the most commonly observed AE CONCLUSION: In this heavily pretreated patient population, combination of vinorelbine plus lapatinib showed encouraging activity and was characterized by an acceptable safety profile. Despite the low patient number, lapatinib plus vinorelbine may constitute a potential treatment option in heavily pretreated patients with HER-2/neu-positive MBC previously exposed to lapatinib. TRIAL REGISTRATION:EudraCT number 2009-016826-15, (15. 10.2009). 10.1186/s12885-016-2171-y
    Identification of early breast cancer patient cohorts who may benefit from lapatinib therapy. Strasser-Weippl Kathrin,Horick Nora,Smith Ian E,O'Shaughnessy Joyce,Ejlertsen Bent,Boyle Frances,Buzdar Aman U,Fumoleau Pierre,Gradishar William,Martin Miguel,Moy Beverly,Piccart-Gebhart Martine,Pritchard Kathleen I,Lindquist Deborah,Rappold Erica,Finkelstein Dianne M,Goss Paul E European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) In resource-constrained environments many patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)+ early breast cancer are currently not offered adjuvant anti-HER2 therapy. For patients who might be able to receive the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) lapatinib (e.g. after patent expiration), it is important to identify subgroups of patients for whom anti-HER2 TKI therapy could be beneficial. To do this, we used data from 2489 patients with centrally confirmed HER2+ disease enrolled in the adjuvant Tykerb Evaluation After Chemotherapy (TEACH) trial, investigating the effect of lapatinib in patients with HER2+ early breast cancer not treated with trastuzumab. We performed subgroup analyses and number-needed-to-treat (NNT) calculations using patient and tumour associated predictors. Hormone receptor negative (HR-) patients on lapatinib had a significantly prolonged disease-free survival (DFS) compared to HR- patients on placebo (hazard ratio 0.64, P=0.003). For patients with HR- disease, starting treatment with lapatinib ≤1 year from diagnosis improved DFS by 12.1% [2.1-22.1] at 2 years and 15.7% [4.1-27.2] at 5 years. Depending on lymph node status and time since diagnosis the NNT for recurrence (at 5 years) was between 5.9 (node positive patients <1 year from diagnosis) and 15.9. These numbers are in range with numbers reported for up-front adjuvant trastuzumab for HR unselected patients (e.g. 15.6 for DFS at 4 years in HERA). In a subgroup analysis of the adjuvant TEACH trial, we show that anti-HER2 monotherapy with a TKI is beneficial as adjuvant therapy in a subgroup of patients. NNT in HER2+ HR- patients are in range with those reported from up-front adjuvant trastuzumab trials. 10.1016/j.ejca.2015.12.024
    Histamine receptor 1 inhibition enhances antitumor therapeutic responses through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in breast cancer. Fernández-Nogueira Patricia,Noguera-Castells Aleix,Fuster Gemma,Recalde-Percaz Leire,Moragas Núria,López-Plana Anna,Enreig Estel,Jauregui Patricia,Carbó Neus,Almendro Vanessa,Gascón Pedro,Bragado Paloma,Mancino Mario Cancer letters Histamine receptor 1 (HRH1) belongs to the rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptor family. Its activation by histamine triggers cell proliferation, embryonic development, and tumor growth. We recently established that HRH1 is up-regulated in basal and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-enriched human breast tumors and that its expression correlates with a worse prognosis. Nevertheless, the functional role of HRH1 in basal and HER2-targeted therapy-resistant breast cancer (BC) progression has not yet been addressed. Using terfenadine, a selective chemical inhibitor of HRH1, we showed that the inhibition of HRH1 activity in basal BC cells leads to sub-G0 cell accumulation, suppresses proliferation, promotes cell motility and triggers the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, initiating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, HER2-targeted therapy-resistant cells express higher levels of HRH1 and are more sensitive to terfenadine treatment. Moreover, in vivo experiments showed that terfenadine therapy reduced the tumor growth of basal and trastuzumab-resistant BC cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that targeting HRH1 is a promising new clinical approach to consider that could enhance the effectiveness of current therapeutic treatment in patients with basal and BC tumors resistant to HER2-targeted therapies. 10.1016/j.canlet.2018.03.014
    Adaptive Randomization of Neratinib in Early Breast Cancer. Park John W,Liu Minetta C,Yee Douglas,Yau Christina,van 't Veer Laura J,Symmans W Fraser,Paoloni Melissa,Perlmutter Jane,Hylton Nola M,Hogarth Michael,DeMichele Angela,Buxton Meredith B,Chien A Jo,Wallace Anne M,Boughey Judy C,Haddad Tufia C,Chui Stephen Y,Kemmer Kathleen A,Kaplan Henry G,Isaacs Claudine,Nanda Rita,Tripathy Debasish,Albain Kathy S,Edmiston Kirsten K,Elias Anthony D,Northfelt Donald W,Pusztai Lajos,Moulder Stacy L,Lang Julie E,Viscusi Rebecca K,Euhus David M,Haley Barbara B,Khan Qamar J,Wood William C,Melisko Michelle,Schwab Richard,Helsten Teresa,Lyandres Julia,Davis Sarah E,Hirst Gillian L,Sanil Ashish,Esserman Laura J,Berry Donald A, The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:The heterogeneity of breast cancer makes identifying effective therapies challenging. The I-SPY 2 trial, a multicenter, adaptive phase 2 trial of neoadjuvant therapy for high-risk clinical stage II or III breast cancer, evaluated multiple new agents added to standard chemotherapy to assess the effects on rates of pathological complete response (i.e., absence of residual cancer in the breast or lymph nodes at the time of surgery). METHODS:We used adaptive randomization to compare standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus the tyrosine kinase inhibitor neratinib with control. Eligible women were categorized according to eight biomarker subtypes on the basis of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, hormone-receptor status, and risk according to a 70-gene profile. Neratinib was evaluated against control with regard to 10 biomarker signatures (prospectively defined combinations of subtypes). The primary end point was pathological complete response. Volume changes on serial magnetic resonance imaging were used to assess the likelihood of such a response in each patient. Adaptive assignment to experimental groups within each disease subtype was based on Bayesian probabilities of the superiority of the treatment over control. Enrollment in the experimental group was stopped when the 85% Bayesian predictive probability of success in a confirmatory phase 3 trial of neoadjuvant therapy reached a prespecified threshold for any biomarker signature ("graduation"). Enrollment was stopped for futility if the probability fell to below 10% for every biomarker signature. RESULTS:Neratinib reached the prespecified efficacy threshold with regard to the HER2-positive, hormone-receptor-negative signature. Among patients with HER2-positive, hormone-receptor-negative cancer, the mean estimated rate of pathological complete response was 56% (95% Bayesian probability interval [PI], 37 to 73%) among 115 patients in the neratinib group, as compared with 33% among 78 controls (95% PI, 11 to 54%). The final predictive probability of success in phase 3 testing was 79%. CONCLUSIONS:Neratinib added to standard therapy was highly likely to result in higher rates of pathological complete response than standard chemotherapy with trastuzumab among patients with HER2-positive, hormone-receptor-negative breast cancer. (Funded by QuantumLeap Healthcare Collaborative and others; I-SPY 2 TRIAL ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01042379.). 10.1056/NEJMoa1513750
    A novel anti-HER2 anthracycline-based antibody-drug conjugate induces adaptive anti-tumor immunity and potentiates PD-1 blockade in breast cancer. D'Amico Lucia,Menzel Ulrike,Prummer Michael,Müller Philipp,Buchi Mélanie,Kashyap Abhishek,Haessler Ulrike,Yermanos Alexander,Gébleux Rémy,Briendl Manfred,Hell Tamara,Wolter Fabian I,Beerli Roger R,Truxova Iva,Radek Špíšek,Vlajnic Tatjana,Grawunder Ulf,Reddy Sai,Zippelius Alfred Journal for immunotherapy of cancer Increasing evidence suggests that antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) can enhance anti-tumor immunity and improve clinical outcome. Here, we elucidate the therapeutic efficacy and immune-mediated mechanisms of a novel HER2-targeting ADC bearing a potent anthracycline derivate as payload (T-PNU) in a human HER2-expressing syngeneic breast cancer model resistant to trastuzumab and ado-trastuzumab emtansine. Mechanistically, the anthracycline component of the novel ADC induced immunogenic cell death leading to exposure and secretion of danger-associated molecular signals. RNA sequencing derived immunogenomic signatures and TCRβ clonotype analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes revealed a prominent role of the adaptive immune system in the regulation of T-PNU mediated anti-cancer activity. Depletion of CD8 T cells severely reduced T-PNU efficacy, thus confirming the role of cytotoxic T cells as drivers of the T-PNU mediated anti-tumor immune response. Furthermore, T-PNU therapy promoted immunological memory formation in tumor-bearing animals protecting those from tumor rechallenge. Finally, the combination of T-PNU and checkpoint inhibition, such as α-PD1, significantly enhanced tumor eradication following the treatment. In summary, a novel PNU-armed, HER2-targeting ADC elicited long-lasting immune protection in a murine orthotopic breast cancer model resistant to other HER2-directed therapies. Our findings delineate the therapeutic potential of this novel ADC payload and support its clinical development for breast cancer patients and potentially other HER2 expressing malignancies. 10.1186/s40425-018-0464-1
    The combination of NVP-BKM120 with trastuzumab or RAD001 synergistically inhibits the growth of breast cancer stem cells in vivo. Yu Feng,Zhao Jing,Hu Yunhui,Zhou Yang,Guo Rong,Bai Jingchao,Zhang Sheng,Zhang Huilai,Zhang Jin Oncology reports Deregulation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling pathway is common in breast cancer and is frequently associated with resistance to both traditional chemotherapy and targeted drugs. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that a small subpopulation of self-renewing cells, the so called cancer stem cells (CSC), are responsible for the growth of drug resistant secondary tumors. As many CSCs have upregulated the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway, preclinical and clinical studies are addressing the inhibition of this axis to target drug resistance. We evaluated the susceptibility of breast CSCs to NVP-BKM120 (BKM120), a new generation of PI3K-specific inhibitor, when used individually or in combination with trastuzumab or RAD001 both in vitro and in vivo. For this, a stem-like cell population (SC) was enriched from breast cancer cell lines after mammosphere cultures. We demonstrated that BKM120 inhibits growth, generation of drug-resistant derivatives and SC formation in a panel of four breast cancer cell lines: MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, SK-BR-3 and CAL51. Importantly, BKM120 inhibits the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway in SCs from these cell lines. When BKM120 was used in combination with trastuzumab, a targeted therapy to treat HER2-positive breast cancer, we found synergistic cell growth inhibition, generation of drug resistant cells as well as SC formation from SK-BR-3 cells. Importantly, SK-BR-3 xenograft-derived tumors showed marginal growth when the drug combination was used. We also found a similar synergistic anticancer effect of BKM120 in combination with RAD001, an mTOR inhibitor, when treating triple-negative breast cancer cells in vitro and in both MDA-MB-231 and CAL51- mouse xenografts. Moreover, mouse data indicate that these drug combinations are well tolerated and provide the proof-of-concept and rationale to initiate clinical trials in both HER2-positive and triple-negative breast cancer. 10.3892/or.2016.4799
    A phase 1b study of the Akt-inhibitor MK-2206 in combination with weekly paclitaxel and trastuzumab in patients with advanced HER2-amplified solid tumor malignancies. Chien Amy Jo,Cockerill Alyson,Fancourt Craig,Schmidt Emmett,Moasser Mark M,Rugo Hope S,Melisko Michelle E,Ko Andrew H,Kelley R Katie,Korn W Michael,Esserman Laura J,van't Veer Laura,Yau Christina,Wolf Denise M,Munster Pamela N Breast cancer research and treatment PURPOSE:Akt plays a key role in the aggressive pathogenesis of HER2+ malignancies, suggesting that Akt-inhibitors may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of HER2+ tumors. Preclinical studies demonstrate synergy between MK-2206, a selective allosteric Akt-inhibitor, with paclitaxel and trastuzumab. We aimed to evaluate the safety of this combination in patients with HER2+ malignancies. METHODS:We conducted a phase 1b study of weekly MK-2206 in combination with weekly paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) and trastuzumab 2 mg/kg in patients with HER2+ malignancies. Dose escalation was performed using a modified toxicity probability interval method. Molecular profiling of archived tissue samples and limited PK analyses were performed. RESULTS:16 patients with HER2+ tumors were enrolled (12 breast, 3 gastric, 1 esophageal). 81 and 75 % had received prior trastuzumab and taxane chemotherapy, respectively. MK-2206 135 mg/week was determined to be tolerable. Three dose-limiting toxicities were observed including two grade 3 rashes and 1 grade 3 neutropenia resulting in a > 7 day delay in treatment. Grade 3/4 adverse events include neutropenia (44 %), rash (13 %), peripheral neuropathy (6 %), and depression (6 %). 10 patients (63 %) demonstrated tumor response (3 complete, 7 partial). Median duration of response was 6 months. Exploratory analyses identified STARD3, TM7SF2, and G3BP1 as potential biomarkers of response. CONCLUSIONS:MK-2206 at a dose of 135 mg/week in combination with weekly paclitaxel and trastuzumab is safe and well tolerated, and is the recommended phase 2 dose for this combination. Preliminary data indicate significant clinical activity in patients with HER2+ tumors despite prior HER2-directed therapy. 10.1007/s10549-016-3701-7
    Neratinib is effective in breast tumors bearing both amplification and mutation of ERBB2 (HER2). Cocco Emiliano,Javier Carmona F,Razavi Pedram,Won Helen H,Cai Yanyan,Rossi Valentina,Chan Carmen,Cownie James,Soong Joanne,Toska Eneda,Shifman Sophie G,Sarotto Ivana,Savas Peter,Wick Michael J,Papadopoulos Kyriakos P,Moriarty Alyssa,Cutler Richard E,Avogadri-Connors Francesca,Lalani Alshad S,Bryce Richard P,Chandarlapaty Sarat,Hyman David M,Solit David B,Boni Valentina,Loi Sherene,Baselga José,Berger Michael F,Montemurro Filippo,Scaltriti Maurizio Science signaling Mutations in , the gene encoding epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family member HER2, are common in and drive the growth of "HER2-negative" (not amplified) tumors but are rare in "HER2-positive" ( amplified) breast cancer. We analyzed DNA-sequencing data from HER2-positive patients and used cell lines and a patient-derived xenograft model to test the consequence of HER2 mutations on the efficacy of anti-HER2 agents such as trastuzumab, lapatinib, and neratinib, an irreversible pan-EGFR inhibitor. HER2 mutations were present in ~7% of HER2-positive tumors, all of which were metastatic but not all were previously treated. Compared to HER2 amplification alone, in both patients and cultured cell lines, the co-occurrence of HER2 mutation and amplification was associated with poor response to trastuzumab and lapatinib, the standard-of-care anti-HER2 agents. In mice, xenografts established from a patient whose HER2-positive tumor acquired a D769Y mutation in HER2 after progression on trastuzumab-based therapy were resistant to trastuzumab or lapatinib but were sensitive to neratinib. Clinical data revealed that six heavily pretreated patients with tumors bearing coincident HER2 amplification and mutation subsequently exhibited a statistically significant response to neratinib monotherapy. Thus, these findings indicate that coincident HER2 mutation reduces the efficacy of therapies commonly used to treat HER2-positive breast cancer, particularly in metastatic and previously HER2 inhibitor-treated patients, as well as potentially in patients scheduled for first-line treatment. Therefore, we propose that clinical studies testing the efficacy of neratinib are warranted selectively in breast cancer patients whose tumors carry both amplification and mutation of /HER2. 10.1126/scisignal.aat9773
    A phase II trial of the pan-HER inhibitor poziotinib, in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer who had received at least two prior HER2-directed regimens: results of the NOV120101-203 trial. Park Yeon Hee,Lee Kyung-Hun,Sohn Joo Hyuk,Lee Keun Seok,Jung Kyung Hae,Kim Jee-Hyun,Lee Ki Hyeong,Ahn Jin Seok,Kim Tae-Yong,Kim Gun Min,Park In Hae,Kim Sung-Bae,Kim Se Hyun,Han Hye Sook,Im Young-Hyuck,Ahn Jin-Hee,Kim Jung-Yong,Kang Jahoon,Im Seock-Ah International journal of cancer Although the introduction of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)2-directed therapy including trastuzumab, pertuzumab, lapatinib and trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) in the treatment of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancers (mBCs) favorably changed the natural history of this disease, most cases of HER2-positive mBC will eventually progress. Poziotinib is an oral pan-HER kinase inhibitor showing potent activity through irreversible inhibition of these kinases. This open-label, multicenter phase II study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of poziotinib monotherapy in patients with HER2-positive mBC who had progressed from more than two HER2-directed therapies. Patients received 12 mg poziotinib once daily on a 14-day on/7-day off schedule. Progression-free survival (PFS) as the primary endpoint, the objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS) and safety were evaluated. From April 2015 to February 2016, 106 patients were enrolled in the trial from seven institutes in South Korea. They had a median age of 51 years (range 30-76) and had received a median of four prior therapies including two HER2-directed therapies for advanced or metastatic cancers. The median follow-up duration was 12 months. The median PFS was 4.04 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.94-4.40 months), and median overall survival has not been reached. The most common treatment-related adverse events were (total/grade ≥3) diarrhea (96.23%/14.15%), stomatitis (92.45%/12.26%) and rashes (63.21%/3.77%). Poziotinib showed meaningful activity in these heavily treated HER2-positive mBCs. Diarrhea and stomatitis were the major toxicities. Biomarker studies analyzed are warranted to support further evaluation of this treatment in such cases. 10.1002/ijc.31651
    Safety, Efficacy, and Biomarker Analysis of Pyrotinib in Combination with Capecitabine in HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients: A Phase I Clinical Trial. Li Qiao,Guan Xiuwen,Chen Shanshan,Yi Zongbi,Lan Bo,Xing Puyuan,Fan Ying,Wang Jiayu,Luo Yang,Yuan Peng,Cai Ruigang,Zhang Pin,Li Qing,Zhong Dafang,Zhang Yifan,Zou Jianjun,Zhu Xiaoyu,Ma Fei,Xu Binghe Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:This phase I study assessed the safety, tolerability, MTD, pharmacokinetics, antitumor activity, and predictive biomarkers of pyrotinib, an irreversible pan-ErbB inhibitor, in combination with capecitabine in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC). PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients received oral pyrotinib 160 mg, 240 mg, 320 mg, or 400 mg once daily continually plus capecitabine 1,000 mg/m twice daily on days 1 to 14 of a 21-day cycle. Pharmacokinetic blood samples were collected on days 1 and 14. Next-generation sequencing was performed on circulating tumor DNA to probe for predictive biomarkers. RESULTS:A total of 28 patients were enrolled, 22 patients were treated at the two top-level doses. Among 17 (60.7%) trastuzumab-pretreated patients, 11 received trastuzumab for metastatic disease and 6 received adjuvant trastuzumab. No dose-limited toxicity was observed. Grade 3 treatment-related adverse events (AE) occurred in 12 (42.9%) patients; anemia (14.3%) and diarrhea (10.7%) were the most common grade 3 AEs. The overall response rate (ORR) was 78.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 59.0%-91.7%], and the clinical benefit rate was 85.7% (95% CI: 67.3%-96.0%). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 22.1 months (95% CI: 9.0-26.2 months). ORR was 70.6% (12/17) in trastuzumab-pretreated patients and 90.9% (10/11) in trastuzumab-naïve patients. Analysis of all genetic alterations in HER2-related signaling network in baseline blood samples suggested that multiple genetic alterations were significantly associated with poorer PFS compared with none or one genetic alteration (median, 16.8 vs. 29.9 months, = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS:In a population largely naïve to HER2-targeted therapy, pyrotinib in combination with capecitabine was well-tolerated and demonstrates promising antitumor activity in patients with HER2-positive MBC. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-4173
    An integrated stress response via PKR suppresses HER2+ cancers and improves trastuzumab therapy. Darini Cedric,Ghaddar Nour,Chabot Catherine,Assaker Gloria,Sabri Siham,Wang Shuo,Krishnamoorthy Jothilatha,Buchanan Marguerite,Aguilar-Mahecha Adriana,Abdulkarim Bassam,Deschenes Jean,Torres Jose,Ursini-Siegel Josie,Basik Mark,Koromilas Antonis E Nature communications Trastuzumab is integral to HER2+ cancer treatment, but its therapeutic index is narrowed by the development of resistance. Phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α (eIF2α-P) is the nodal point of the integrated stress response, which promotes survival or death in a context-dependent manner. Here, we show an anti-tumor function of the protein kinase PKR and its substrate eIF2α in a mouse HER2+ breast cancer model. The anti-tumor function depends on the transcription factor ATF4, which upregulates the CDK inhibitor P21 and activates JNK1/2. The PKR/eIF2α-P arm is induced by Trastuzumab in sensitive but not resistant HER2+ breast tumors. Also, eIF2α-P stimulation by the phosphatase inhibitor SAL003 substantially increases Trastuzumab potency in resistant HER2+ breast and gastric tumors. Increased eIF2α-P prognosticates a better response of HER2+ metastatic breast cancer patients to Trastuzumab therapy. Hence, the PKR/eIF2α-P arm antagonizes HER2 tumorigenesis whereas its pharmacological stimulation improves the efficacy of Trastuzumab therapy. 10.1038/s41467-019-10138-8
    Inhibition of HER2 Increases JAGGED1-dependent Breast Cancer Stem Cells: Role for Membrane JAGGED1. Shah Deep,Wyatt Debra,Baker Andrew T,Simms Patricia,Peiffer Daniel S,Fernandez Michelle,Rakha Emad,Green Andrew,Filipovic Alexandra,Miele Lucio,Osipo Clodia Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research HER2-positive breast cancer is driven by cells possessing stem-like properties of self-renewal and differentiation, referred to as cancer stem cells (CSC). CSCs are implicated in radiotherapy, chemotherapy resistance, and tumor recurrence. NOTCH promotes breast CSC survival and self-renewal, and overexpression of NOTCH1 and the NOTCH ligand JAGGED1 predict poor outcome. Resistance to anti-HER2 therapy in HER2 breast cancer requires NOTCH1, and that combination of trastuzumab and a gamma secretase inhibitor (GSI) prevents tumor relapse in xenograft models. The current study investigates mechanisms by which HER2 tyrosine kinase activity regulates NOTCH-dependent CSC survival and tumor initiation. Lapatinib-mediated HER2 inhibition shifts the population of HER2 breast cancer cells from low membrane JAGGED1 expression to higher levels, independent of sensitivity to anti-HER2 treatment within the bulk cell population. This increase in membrane JAGGED1 is associated with higher NOTCH receptor expression, activation, and enrichment of CSCs and Importantly, lapatinib treatment results in growth arrest and cell death of JAGGED1 low-expressing cells while the JAGGED1 high-expressing cells continue to cycle. High membrane JAGGED1 protein expression predicts poor overall cumulative survival in women with HER2 breast cancer. These results indicate that higher membrane JAGGED1 expression may be used to either predict response to anti-HER2 therapy or for detection of NOTCH-sensitive CSCs posttherapy. Sequential blockade of HER2 followed by JAGGED1 or NOTCH could be more effective than simultaneous blockade to prevent drug resistance and tumor progression. . 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-1952
    First-Line Trastuzumab Plus an Aromatase Inhibitor, With or Without Pertuzumab, in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive and Hormone Receptor-Positive Metastatic or Locally Advanced Breast Cancer (PERTAIN): A Randomized, Open-Label Phase II Trial. Rimawi Mothaffar,Ferrero Jean-Marc,de la Haba-Rodriguez Juan,Poole Christopher,De Placido Sabino,Osborne C Kent,Hegg Roberto,Easton Valerie,Wohlfarth Christine,Arpino Grazia, Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology PURPOSE:To assess pertuzumab plus trastuzumab and an aromatase inhibitor (AI) in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and hormone receptor-positive metastatic/locally advanced breast cancer (MBC/LABC). PATIENTS AND METHODS:The PERTAIN trial (NCT01491737) is an ongoing randomized, open-label, multicenter-80 sites and eight countries-phase II trial. Patients have HER2-positive, hormone receptor-positive MBC/LABC and no prior systemic therapy with the exception of endocrine. Random assignment was 1:1 to intravenous pertuzumab (840 mg loading dose followed by 420 mg every 3 weeks) plus trastuzumab (8 mg/kg followed by 6 mg/kg every 3 weeks), and oral anastrozole (1 mg every day) or letrozole (2.5 mg every day), or trastuzumab and an AI. Induction intravenous docetaxel every 3 weeks or paclitaxel every week could be administered for 18 to 24 weeks at the investigator's discretion (decided before but given after random assignment). Primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Patients were stratified by whether they received induction chemotherapy and their time since adjuvant hormone therapy. RESULTS:One hundred twenty-nine patients were randomly assigned per arm (February 2012 to October 2014; intent-to-treat populations); 75 in one arm and 71 in the other were chosen to receive induction chemotherapy. Stratified median PFS was 18.89 months (95% CI, 14.09 to 27.66 months) in the pertuzumab plus trastuzumab arm and 15.80 months (95% CI, 11.04 to 18.56 months) in the trastuzumab arm (stratified hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.89; P = .0070). Serious adverse events (AEs) were reported for 42 (33.1%) of 127 and 24 (19.4%) of 124 patients in the safety populations of the pertuzumab plus trastuzumab and trastuzumab arms, respectively. Rates of grade ≥ 3 AEs were 64 (50.4%) of 127 and 48 (38.7%) of 124, respectively. There were no deaths as a result of AEs. CONCLUSION:PERTAIN met its primary PFS end point. Pertuzumab plus trastuzumab and an AI is effective for the treatment of HER2-positive MBC/LABC. The safety profile was consistent with previous trials of pertuzumab plus trastuzumab. 10.1200/JCO.2017.76.7863
    Anti-HER2 immunoliposomes for co-delivery of paclitaxel and rapamycin for breast cancer therapy. Eloy Josimar O,Petrilli Raquel,Chesca Deise L,Saggioro Fabiano P,Lee Robert J,Marchetti Juliana Maldonado European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Paclitaxel (PTX) is used for its treatment, however non-selectivity, rapid systemic clearance and hypersensitivity to the commercially available formulation are major drawbacks. Rapamycin (RAP), an mTOR inhibitor, acts synergistically with PTX, and thus could be used in combination with it. Drug loading into nanocarriers, particularly liposomes, has proven to enhance efficacy and reduce side-effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. Within this context, the functionalization of liposomes with antibodies for overexpressed receptors on tumor surface is a potential strategy to increase specificity and reduce side-effects. Specifically, active targeting of HER2(+) breast cancer cells can be achieved by immunoliposomes consisting of liposomes coated with an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody, Trastuzumab. Herein, we have synthesized PTX/RAP co-loaded immunoliposomes coated with Trastuzumab, performed physicochemical characterization, and evaluated the formulations for cytotoxicity and uptake in 4T1 (triple negative) and SKBR3 (HER2 positive) cell lines. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the immunoliposomes with liposomes and solution of PTX/RAP in vivo, employing human xenograft HER2-overexpressing tumors in mouse model. The co-loaded immunoliposomes had a mean particle size of 140.3nm, a zeta potential of -9.85mV and drug encapsulation efficiency of 55.87 and 69.51, respectively for PTX and RAP. The functionalization efficiency of Trastuzumab was higher than 70% and the antibody retained HER2 binding activity. Cell studies showed increased cytotoxicity of PTX/RAP for the immunoliposome, compared to the control liposomes in SKBR3 cells, which could be attributed to enhanced uptake mediated through HER2 binding. Furthermore, immunoliposomes were better able to control tumor growth in vivo, with tumor volume averages corresponding to 25.27, 44.38 and 47.78% of tumor volumes of untreated control, PTX/RAP solution and control liposomes, respectively. Taken together, our results support the clinical development of immunoliposomes for targeted delivery of PTX and RAP to HER2-positive breast cancer. 10.1016/j.ejpb.2017.02.020
    Neratinib Plus Paclitaxel vs Trastuzumab Plus Paclitaxel in Previously Untreated Metastatic ERBB2-Positive Breast Cancer: The NEfERT-T Randomized Clinical Trial. Awada Ahmad,Colomer Ramon,Inoue Kenichi,Bondarenko Igor,Badwe Rajendra A,Demetriou Georgia,Lee Soo-Chin,Mehta Ajay O,Kim Sung-Bae,Bachelot Thomas,Goswami Chanchal,Deo Suryanarayan,Bose Ron,Wong Alvin,Xu Feng,Yao Bin,Bryce Richard,Carey Lisa A JAMA oncology Importance:Efficacious ERBB2 (formerly HER2 or HER2/neu)-directed treatments, in addition to trastuzumab and lapatinib, are needed. Objective:To determine whether neratinib, an irreversible pan-ERBB tyrosine kinase inhibitor, plus paclitaxel improves progression-free survival compared with trastuzumab plus paclitaxel in the first-line treatment of recurrent and/or metastatic ERBB2-positive breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants:In the randomized, controlled, open-label NEfERT-T trial conducted from August 2009 to December 2014 at 188 centers in 34 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America, 479 women with previously untreated recurrent and/or metastatic ERBB2-positive breast cancer were randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms (neratinib-paclitaxel [n = 242] or trastuzumab-paclitaxel [n = 237]). Women with asymptomatic central nervous system metastases were eligible, and randomization was stratified by prior trastuzumab and lapatinib exposure, hormone-receptor status, and region. Interventions:Women received neratinib (240 mg/d orally) or trastuzumab (4 mg/kg then 2 mg/kg weekly), each combined with paclitaxel (80 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days). Primary prophylaxis for diarrhea was not mandatory. Main Outcome and Measures:The primary outcome was progression-free survival. Secondary end points were response rate, clinical benefit rate, duration of response, frequency, and time to symptomatic and/or progressive central nervous system lesions, and safety. Results:The intent-to-treat population comprised 479 women 18 years or older (neratinib-paclitaxel, n = 242; trastuzumab-paclitaxel, n = 237) randomized and stratified in their respective treatment arms by prior trastuzumab and lapatinib exposure, hormone-receptor status, and region. Median progression-free survival was 12.9 months (95% CI, 11.1-14.9) with neratinib-paclitaxel and 12.9 months (95% CI, 11.1-14.8) with trastuzumab-paclitaxel (hazard ratio [HR], 1.02; 95% CI, 0.81-1.27; P =.89). With neratinib-paclitaxel, the incidence of central nervous system recurrences was lower (relative risk, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.29-0.79; P = .002) and time to central nervous system metastases delayed (HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.26-0.78; P = .004). Common grade 3 to 4 adverse events were diarrhea (73 of 240 patients [30.4%] with neratinib-paclitaxel and 9 of 234 patients [3.8%] with trastuzumab-paclitaxel), neutropenia (31 patients [12.9%] vs 34 patients [14.5%]) and leukopenia (19 patients [7.9%] vs 25 patients [10.7%]); no grade 4 diarrhea was observed. Conclusions and Relevance:In first-line ERBB2-positive metastatic breast cancer, neratinib-paclitaxel was not superior to trastuzumab-paclitaxel in terms of progression-free survival. In spite of similar overall efficacy, neratinib-paclitaxel may delay the onset and reduce the frequency of central nervous system progression, a finding that requires a larger study to confirm. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00915018. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.0237
    CDK12 drives breast tumor initiation and trastuzumab resistance via WNT and IRS1-ErbB-PI3K signaling. Choi Hee-Joo,Jin Sora,Cho Hani,Won Hee-Young,An Hee Woon,Jeong Ga-Young,Park Young-Un,Kim Hyung-Yong,Park Mi Kyung,Son Taekwon,Min Kyueng-Whan,Jang Ki-Seok,Oh Young-Ha,Lee Jeong-Yeon,Kong Gu EMBO reports Cyclin-dependent kinase 12 (CDK12) has emerged as an effective therapeutic target due to its ability to regulate DNA damage repair in human cancers, but little is known about the role of CDK12 in driving tumorigenesis. Here, we demonstrate that CDK12 promotes tumor initiation as a novel regulator of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and induces anti-HER2 therapy resistance in human breast cancer. High CDK12 expression caused by concurrent amplification of CDK12 and HER2 in breast cancer patients is associated with disease recurrence and poor survival. CDK12 induces self-renewal of breast CSCs and in vivo tumor-initiating ability, and also reduces susceptibility to trastuzumab. Furthermore, CDK12 kinase activity inhibition facilitates anticancer efficacy of trastuzumab in HER2 tumors, and mice bearing trastuzumab-resistant HER2 tumor show sensitivity to an inhibitor of CDK12. Mechanistically, the catalytic activity of CDK12 is required for the expression of genes involved in the activation of ErbB-PI3K-AKT or WNT-signaling cascades. These results suggest that CDK12 is a major oncogenic driver and an actionable target for HER2 breast cancer to replace or augment current anti-HER2 therapies. 10.15252/embr.201948058
    Synergistic action of the MCL-1 inhibitor S63845 with current therapies in preclinical models of triple-negative and HER2-amplified breast cancer. Merino Delphine,Whittle James R,Vaillant François,Serrano Antonin,Gong Jia-Nan,Giner Goknur,Maragno Ana Leticia,Chanrion Maïa,Schneider Emilie,Pal Bhupinder,Li Xiang,Dewson Grant,Gräsel Julius,Liu Kevin,Lalaoui Najoua,Segal David,Herold Marco J,Huang David C S,Smyth Gordon K,Geneste Olivier,Lessene Guillaume,Visvader Jane E,Lindeman Geoffrey J Science translational medicine The development of BH3 mimetics, which antagonize prosurvival proteins of the BCL-2 family, represents a potential breakthrough in cancer therapy. Targeting the prosurvival member MCL-1 has been an area of intense interest because it is frequently deregulated in cancer. In breast cancer, MCL-1 is often amplified, and high expression predicts poor patient outcome. We tested the MCL-1 inhibitor S63845 in breast cancer cell lines and patient-derived xenografts with high expression of MCL-1. S63845 displayed synergistic activity with docetaxel in triple-negative breast cancer and with trastuzumab or lapatinib in HER2-amplified breast cancer. Using S63845-resistant cells combined with CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated 9) technology, we identified deletion of BAK and up-regulation of prosurvival proteins as potential mechanisms that confer resistance to S63845 in breast cancer. Collectively, our findings provide a strong rationale for the clinical evaluation of MCL-1 inhibitors in breast cancer. 10.1126/scitranslmed.aam7049
    Targeting PLK1 overcomes T-DM1 resistance via CDK1-dependent phosphorylation and inactivation of Bcl-2/xL in HER2-positive breast cancer. Saatci Özge,Borgoni Simone,Akbulut Özge,Durmuş Selvi,Raza Umar,Eyüpoğlu Erol,Alkan Can,Akyol Aytekin,Kütük Özgür,Wiemann Stefan,Şahin Özgür Oncogene Trastuzumab-refractory, HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)-positive breast cancer is commonly treated with trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), an antibody-drug conjugate of trastuzumab and the microtubule-targeting agent, DM1. However, drug response reduces greatly over time due to acquisition of resistance whose molecular mechanisms are mostly unknown. Here, we uncovered a novel mechanism of resistance against T-DM1 by combining whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq), proteomics and a targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) sensitization screen for molecular level analysis of acquired and de novo T-DM1-resistant models of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. We identified Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), a mitotic kinase, as a resistance mediator whose genomic as well as pharmacological inhibition restored drug sensitivity. Both acquired and de novo resistant models exhibited synergistic growth inhibition upon combination of T-DM1 with a selective PLK1 inhibitor, volasertib, at a wide concentration range of the two drugs. Mechanistically, T-DM1 sensitization upon PLK1 inhibition with volasertib was initiated by a spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC)-dependent mitotic arrest, leading to caspase activation, followed by DNA damage through CDK1-dependent phosphorylation and inactivation of Bcl-2/xL. Furthermore, we showed that Ser70 phosphorylation of Bcl-2 directly regulates apoptosis by disrupting the binding to and sequestration of the pro-apoptotic protein Bim. Importantly, T-DM1 resistance signature or PLK1 expression correlated with cell cycle progression and DNA repair, and predicted a lower sensitivity to taxane/trastuzumab combination in HER2-positive breast cancer patients. Finally, volasertib in combination with T-DM1 greatly synergized in models of T-DM1 resistance in terms of growth inhibition both in three dimensional (3D) cell culture and in vivo. Altogether, our results provide promising pre-clinical evidence for potential testing of T-DM1/volasertib combination in T-DM1 refractory HER2-positive breast cancer patients for whom there is currently no treatment available. 10.1038/s41388-017-0108-9
    Synergy between Androgen Receptor Antagonism and Inhibition of mTOR and HER2 in Breast Cancer. Gordon Michael A,D'Amato Nicholas C,Gu Haihua,Babbs Beatrice,Wulfkuhle Julia,Petricoin Emanuel F,Gallagher Isela,Dong Ting,Torkko Kathleen,Liu Bolin,Elias Anthony,Richer Jennifer K Molecular cancer therapeutics The androgen receptor (AR) is widely expressed in breast cancer, and evidence suggests dependence on AR signaling for growth and survival. AR antagonists such as enzalutamide and seviteronel have shown success in preclinical models and clinical trials of prostate cancer and are currently being evaluated in breast cancer. Reciprocal regulation between AR and the HER2/PI3K/mTOR pathway may contribute to resistance to HER2- and mTOR-targeted therapies; thus, dual inhibition of these pathways may synergistically inhibit breast cancer growth. HER2 and triple-negative breast cancer cell lines were treated with AR antagonist plus anti-HER2 mAb trastuzumab or mTOR inhibitor everolimus. Apoptosis, cell proliferation, and drug synergy were measured Pathway component genes and proteins were measured by qRT-PCR, Western blot, and reverse phase protein array. , HER2 breast cancer xenografts were treated with enzalutamide, everolimus, trastuzumab, and combinations of these drugs. AR antagonists inhibited proliferation of both HER2 and TNBC cell lines. Combining AR antagonist and either everolimus or trastuzumab resulted in synergistic inhibition of proliferation. Dihydrotestosterone caused increased phosphorylation of HER2 and/or HER3 that was attenuated by AR inhibition. Everolimus caused an increase in total AR, phosphorylation of HER2 and/or HER3, and these effects were abrogated by enzalutamide. Growth of trastuzumab-resistant HER2 xenograft tumors was inhibited by enzalutamide, and combining enzalutamide with everolimus decreased tumor viability more than either single agent. AR antagonists synergize with FDA-approved breast cancer therapies such as everolimus and trastuzumab through distinct mechanisms. Treatment combinations are effective in trastuzumab-resistant HER2 breast cancer cells . 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-17-0111
    Phase I Study and Biomarker Analysis of Pyrotinib, a Novel Irreversible Pan-ErbB Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, in Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer. Ma Fei,Li Qiao,Chen Shanshan,Zhu Wenjie,Fan Ying,Wang Jiayu,Luo Yang,Xing Puyuan,Lan Bo,Li Meiying,Yi Zongbi,Cai Ruigang,Yuan Peng,Zhang Pin,Li Qing,Xu Binghe Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology Purpose This phase I study assessed the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, antitumor activity, and predictive biomarkers of pyrotinib, an irreversible pan-ErbB inhibitor, in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer. Patients and Methods Pyrotinib was administered continuously, orally, once per day to patients who did not have prior exposure to tyrosine kinase inhibitors of HER2. Planned dose escalation was 80, 160, 240, 320, 400, and 480 mg. For pharmacokinetic analysis, timed blood samples were collected on day 1 and day 28. Next-generation sequencing was performed on circulating tumor DNA and genomic DNA from tumor samples. Results Thirty-eight patients were enrolled. The dose-limiting toxicity was grade 3 diarrhea, which occurred in two patients administered 480 mg of pyrotinib; thus, the maximum tolerated dose was 400 mg. Common pyrotinib-related adverse events included diarrhea (44.7% [17 of 38]), nausea (13.2% [five of 38]), oral ulceration (13.2% [five of 38]), asthenia (10.5% [four of 38]), and leukopenia (10.5% [four of 38]). The only grade 3 adverse event was diarrhea. Pharmacokinetic analyses indicated that pyrotinib exposure was dose dependent. The overall response rate was 50.0% (18 of 36), and the clinical benefit rate (complete response + partial response + stable disease ≥ 24 weeks) was 61.1% (22 of 36). The median progression-free survival was 35.4 weeks (95% CI, 23.3 to 40.0 weeks). The overall response rate was 83.3% (10 of 12) in trastuzumab-naive patients and 33.3% (eight of 24) in trastuzumab-pretreated patients. Preliminary results suggest that PIK3CA and TP53 mutations in circulating tumor DNA ( P = .013) rather than in archival tumor tissues ( P = .474) may predict the efficacy of pyrotinib. Conclusion Continuous once-per-day pyrotinib was well tolerated and demonstrated promising antitumor activity in HER2-positive patients with metastatic breast cancer. The maximum tolerated dose was established as 400 mg. Diarrhea was the dose-limiting toxicity. The promising antitumor activity and acceptable tolerability of pyrotinib warrant its further evaluation in a phase II study. 10.1200/JCO.2016.69.6179
    A phase II study of cabozantinib alone or in combination with trastuzumab in breast cancer patients with brain metastases. Leone José Pablo,Duda Dan G,Hu Jiani,Barry William T,Trippa Lorenzo,Gerstner Elizabeth R,Jain Rakesh K,Tan Sally,Lawler Elizabeth,Winer Eric P,Lin Nancy U,Tolaney Sara M Breast cancer research and treatment PURPOSE:To analyze the efficacy and tolerability of cabozantinib-a small molecule inhibitor of MET and VEGFR2-alone or with trastuzumab in patients with breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM). METHODS:This single-arm phase II study enrolled patients with new or progressive measurable BCBM into 3 cohorts: Cohort 1 (HER2-positive), Cohort 2 (hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative), and Cohort 3 (triple-negative). Patients received cabozantinib 60-mg daily on a 21-day cycle. Cohort 1 added trastuzumab every 3 weeks and had a primary objective of central nervous system (CNS) objective response rate (ORR) by RECIST 1.1. Secondary objectives for all cohorts were progression-free survival, overall survival, toxicity, and changes in vascular parameters and circulating biomarkers. Cohorts 2 and 3 also had CNS ORR as a secondary objective. RESULTS:Thirty-six BCBM patients enrolled (cohort 1, n = 21; cohort 2, n = 7; cohort 3, n = 8), with a median age of 50. Patients had a median of 3 prior lines for metastatic disease (range 1-9). Treatments prior to enrollment included craniotomy (n = 4), whole brain radiation (n = 24) and stereotactic radiosurgery (n = 11). CNS ORR was 5% in cohort 1, 14% in cohort 2, and 0% in cohort 3. Most common grade 3/4 adverse events included elevations in lipase (11%), AST (8%), ALT (6%), hyponatremia (8%), and hypertension (6%). Cabozantinib increased plasma concentrations of CA-IX, soluble (s)MET, PlGF, sTIE-2, VEGF, and VEGF-D, and decreased sVEGFR2 and TNF-α and total tumor blood volume. CONCLUSIONS:Cabozantinib had insufficient activity in heavily pretreated BCBM patients. Biomarker analysis showed that cabozantinib had antiangiogenic activity and increased tissue hypoxia. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrial.gov registration: NCT02260531. 10.1007/s10549-019-05445-z
    DCZ3112, a novel Hsp90 inhibitor, exerts potent antitumor activity against HER2-positive breast cancer through disruption of Hsp90-Cdc37 interaction. Chen Xiangling,Liu Peng,Wang Quanren,Li Yun,Fu Li,Fu Haoyu,Zhu Jianming,Chen Zhaoqiang,Zhu Weiliang,Xie Chengying,Lou Liguang Cancer letters Hsp90 regulates the stability of oncoproteins important in tumor development and progression, and represents a potential therapeutic target. However, all Hsp90 inhibitors currently in clinical trials target Hsp90 ATPase activity and exhibit low selectivity and high toxicity. In this study, we discovered a new Hsp90 inhibitor, DCZ3112, with a novel mechanism of action. DCZ3112 directly bound to the N-terminal domain of Hsp90 and inhibited Hsp90-Cdc37 interaction without inhibiting ATPase activity. DCZ3112 inhibited the proliferation predominantly in HER2-positive breast cancer cells, including those resistant to the classical Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin, which mainly targets ATPase. DCZ3112 produced synergistic in vitro activity in inhibiting cell proliferation, inducing G-phase arrest and apoptosis, and reducing AKT and ERK phosphorylation. Consistent with this, DCZ3112 alone inhibited the growth of HER2-positive BT-474 xenografts, and exhibited enhanced antitumor activity when combined with the anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab. Importantly, DCZ3112 also significantly inhibited the growth of trastuzumab-resistant BT-474 cells, and combined treatment retained synergistic antitumor activity. Thus, our findings show that disrupting Hsp90-Cdc37 interaction may represent a promising strategy against HER2-positive breast cancer, especially those with acquired resistance to trastuzumab. 10.1016/j.canlet.2018.07.012
    Mechanisms of Acquired Resistance to Trastuzumab Emtansine in Breast Cancer Cells. Li Guangmin,Guo Jun,Shen Ben-Quan,Yadav Daniela Bumbaca,Sliwkowski Mark X,Crocker Lisa M,Lacap Jennifer A,Phillips Gail D Lewis Molecular cancer therapeutics The receptor tyrosine kinase HER2 is overexpressed in approximately 20% of breast cancer, and its amplification is associated with reduced survival. Trastuzumab emtansine (Kadcyla, T-DM1), an antibody-drug conjugate that is comprised of trastuzumab covalently linked to the antimitotic agent DM1 through a stable linker, was designed to selectively deliver DM1 to HER2-overexpressing tumor cells. T-DM1 is approved for the treatment of patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer following progression on trastuzumab and a taxane. Despite the improvement in clinical outcome, many patients who initially respond to T-DM1 treatment eventually develop progressive disease. The mechanisms that contribute to T-DM1 resistance are not fully understood. To this end, we developed T-DM1-resistant models to examine the mechanisms of acquired T-DM1 resistance. We demonstrate that decreased HER2 and upregulation of MDR1 contribute to T-DM1 resistance in KPL-4 T-DM1-resistant cells. In contrast, both loss of SLC46A3 and PTEN deficiency play a role in conferring resistance in BT-474M1 T-DM1-resistant cells. Our data suggest that these two cell lines acquire resistance through distinct mechanisms. Furthermore, we show that the KPL-4 T-DM1 resistance can be overcome by treatment with an inhibitor of MDR1, whereas a PI3K inhibitor can rescue PTEN loss-induced resistance in T-DM1-resistant BT-474M1 cells. Our results provide a rationale for developing therapeutic strategies to enhance T-DM1 clinical efficacy by combining T-DM1 and other inhibitors that target signaling transduction or resistance pathways. . 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-17-0296
    Investigational drugs in early stage clinical trials for the treatment of HER2+ breast cancer. Gombos Andrea,Franzoi Maria Alice,Awada Ahmad Expert opinion on investigational drugs INTRODUCTION:Despite improvements in the management of HER2+ breast cancer, metastatic disease is still fatal. Usually, these patients receive several lines of chemotherapy associated with HER2 targeted treatments. Most of the trials using innovative approaches are positioning themselves in disease that is resistant to pertuzumab and trastuzumab emtansine (TDM1). AREAS COVERED:We describe the recent advances in clinical development of anti-HER2 treatments. To this aim, we used literature search via Pubmed and made an inventory of abstracts published during the last two years in major oncology conferences. EXPERT OPINION:Further changes will probably occur during the next decade in the management of metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer. This is mainly driven by the fact that the two mainstay drugs (pertuzumab and TDM-1) that confer prolonged survival (56 months) to these patients are currently being used in the treatment of early-stage disease in a subset of patients. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop new, innovative approaches in those patients whose disease has become resistant to these highly potent drugs. Several new antibody-drug conjugates, bispecific antibodies or new generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKIs) hold promise and should be assessed and compared with drugs currently used. 10.1080/13543784.2019.1633306
    Phase 1B/2 study of the HSP90 inhibitor AUY922 plus trastuzumab in metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer patients who have progressed on trastuzumab-based regimen. Kong Anthony,Rea Daniel,Ahmed Samreen,Beck J Thaddeus,López López Rafael,Biganzoli Laura,Armstrong Anne C,Aglietta Massimo,Alba Emilio,Campone Mario,Hsu Schmitz Shu-Fang,Lefebvre Caroline,Akimov Mikhail,Lee Soo-Chin Oncotarget This open-label, multicenter, phase 1B/2 trial assessed AUY922 plus trastuzumab in patients with locally advanced or metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer previously treated with chemotherapy and anti-HER2 therapy. This study was composed of a dose-escalation part with AUY922 administered weekly at escalating doses with trastuzumab 2 mg/kg/week (phase 1B), followed by a phase 2 part using the same regimen at recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D). The primary objectives were to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and/or RP2D (phase 1B), and to evaluate preliminary antitumor activity (phase 2) of AUY922 plus trastuzumab at MTD/RP2D. Forty-five patients were treated with AUY922 plus trastuzumab (4 in phase 1B with AUY922 at 55 mg/m2 and 41 in phase 1B/2 with AUY922 at 70 mg/m2 [7 in phase 1B and 34 in phase 2]). One patient in phase 1B (70 mg/m2) experienced a dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3 diarrhea); the RP2D was weekly AUY922 70 mg/m2 plus trastuzumab. Of the 41 patients in the 70 mg/m2 cohort, the overall response rate (complete or partial responses) was 22.0% and 48.8% patients had stable disease. Study treatment-related adverse events occurred in 97.8% of patients; of these, 31.1% were grade 3 or 4. Forty-one patients (91.1%) reported ocular events (82.3% had grade 1 or 2 events). Two patients (4.4%) had ocular events leading to the permanent discontinuation of study treatment. AUY922 at 70 mg/m2 plus trastuzumab standard therapy is well tolerated and active in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer who progressed on trastuzumab-based therapy. 10.18632/oncotarget.8974
    Pyrotinib or Lapatinib Combined With Capecitabine in HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer With Prior Taxanes, Anthracyclines, and/or Trastuzumab: A Randomized, Phase II Study. Ma Fei,Ouyang Quchang,Li Wei,Jiang Zefei,Tong Zhongsheng,Liu Yunjiang,Li Huiping,Yu Shiying,Feng Jifeng,Wang Shusen,Hu Xichun,Zou Jianjun,Zhu Xiaoyu,Xu Binghe Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology PURPOSE:Pyrotinib, an irreversible pan-ErbB inhibitor, showed promising antitumor activity and acceptable tolerability in a phase I trial. We assessed the efficacy and tolerability of pyrotinib versus lapatinib, both in combination with capecitabine, in women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer in an open-label, multicenter, randomized phase II study. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Chinese patients with HER2-positive relapsed or metastatic breast cancer previously treated with taxanes, anthracyclines, and/or trastuzumab were assigned (1:1) to receive 400 mg pyrotinib or lapatinib 1,250 mg orally once per day for 21-day cycles in combination with capecitabine (1,000 mg/m orally twice per day on days 1 to 14). The primary end point was investigator-assessed overall response rate per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), version 1.1. RESULTS:Between May 29, 2015, and March 15, 2016, 128 eligible patients were randomly assigned to the pyrotinib (n = 65) or lapatinib (n = 63) treatment groups. The overall response rate was 78.5% (95% CI, 68.5% to 88.5%) with pyrotinib and 57.1% (95% CI, 44.9% to 69.4%) with lapatinib (treatment difference, 21.3%; 95% CI, 4.0% to 38.7%; = .01). The median progression-free survival was 18.1 months (95% CI, 13.9 months to not reached) with pyrotinib and 7.0 months (95% CI, 5.6 to 9.8 months) with lapatinib (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.58; < .001). The most frequent grade 3 to 4 adverse events were hand-foot syndrome in 16 of 65 patients (24.6%) in the pyrotinib group versus 13 of 63 (20.6%) in the lapatinib group; diarrhea in 10 patients (15.4%) versus three patients (4.8%), respectively; and decreased neutrophil count in six patients (9.2%) versus two patients (3.2%), respectively. CONCLUSION:In women with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer previously treated with taxanes, anthracyclines, and/or trastuzumab, pyrotinib plus capecitabine yielded statistically significant better overall response rate and progression-free survival than lapatinib plus capecitabine in this randomized phase II trial. 10.1200/JCO.19.00108
    A combination of trastuzumab and BAG-1 inhibition synergistically targets HER2 positive breast cancer cells. Papadakis Emmanouil,Robson Natalia,Yeomans Alison,Bailey Sarah,Laversin Stephanie,Beers Stephen,Sayan A Emre,Ashton-Key Margaret,Schwaiger Stefan,Stuppner Hermann,Troppmair Jakob,Packham Graham,Cutress Ramsey Oncotarget Treatment of HER2+ breast cancer with trastuzumab is effective and combination anti-HER2 therapies have demonstrated benefit over monotherapy in the neoadjuvant and metastatic settings. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of targeting the BAG-1 protein co-chaperone in trastuzumab-responsive or -resistant cells. In the METABRIC dataset, BAG-1 mRNA was significantly elevated in HER2+ breast tumors and predicted overall survival in a multivariate analysis (HR = 0.81; p = 0.022). In a breast cell line panel, BAG-1 protein was increased in HER2+ cells and was required for optimal growth as shown by siRNA knockdown. Overexpression of BAG-1S in HER2+ SKBR3 cells blocked growth inhibition by trastuzumab, whereas overexpression of a mutant BAG-1S protein (BAG-1S H3AB), defective in binding HSC70, potentiated the effect of trastuzumab. Injection of a Tet-On SKBR3 clone, induced to overexpress myc-BAG-1S into the mammary fat pads of immunocompromised mice, resulted in 2-fold larger tumors compared to uninduced controls. Induction of myc-BAG-1S expression in two Tet-On SKBR3 clones attenuated growth inhibition by trastuzumab in vitro. Targeting endogenous BAG-1 by siRNA enhanced growth inhibition of SKBR3 and BT474 cells by trastuzumab, while BAG-1 protein-protein interaction inhibitor (Thio-S or Thio-2) plus trastuzumab combination treatment synergistically attenuated growth. In BT474 cells this reduced protein synthesis, caused G1/S cell cycle arrest and targeted the ERK and AKT signaling pathways. In a SKBR3 subpopulation with acquired resistance to trastuzumab BAG-1 targeting remained effective and either Thio-2 or BAG-1 siRNA reduced growth more compared to trastuzumab-responsive parental cells. In summary, targeting BAG-1 function in combination with anti-HER2 therapy might prove beneficial. 10.18632/oncotarget.7944
    A Phase I/II study of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) in combination with trastuzumab (Herceptin) in patients with advanced metastatic and/or local chest wall recurrent HER2-amplified breast cancer: a trial of the ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group (E1104). Goldstein Lori J,Zhao Fengmin,Wang Molin,Swaby Ramona F,Sparano Joseph A,Meropol Neal J,Bhalla Kapil N,Pellegrino Christine M,Katherine Alpaugh R,Falkson Carla I,Klein Paula,Sledge George W Breast cancer research and treatment PURPOSE:Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; vorinostat), a small molecule inhibitor of histone deacetylase, attenuates signaling pathways known to confer trastuzumab resistance. A combination of SAHA and trastuzumab may be a promising strategy to improve the efficacy of trastuzumab against breast cancer. In this Phase I/II study, we evaluated the toxicity and response rate after treatment with SAHA and trastuzumab in patients with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer with trastuzumab-resistant progressive disease. METHODS:In Phase I, the SAHA dose was modified in cohorts of 3-6 patients to find the dose level at which 0 or 1 patients experienced a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) during the first cycle of therapy. In the Phase II study, response to the recommended dose identified in Phase I was based on the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors. Overall survival and time to progression were also evaluated. RESULTS:The recommended dose was determined to be 200 mg twice a day on days 1-14 and IV trastuzumab 6 mg/kg on day 1 of a 21-day cycle (n = 6). The Phase II study (n = 10) was terminated when the pre-planned efficacy evaluation found that none of the patients in the primary analysis set responded to combination SAHA and trastuzumab treatment. CONCLUSIONS:In patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer who had relapsed or progressed during trastuzumab therapy, we observed no DLTs with SAHA 200 mg twice daily combined with trastuzumab; however, there was insufficient statistical evidence that adding SAHA reversed trastuzumab resistance in these patients. 10.1007/s10549-017-4310-9
    Impact of serum HER2, TIMP-1, and CAIX on outcome for HER2+ metastatic breast cancer patients: CCTG MA.31 (lapatinib vs. trastuzumab). Ho Diep,Huang Jessica,Chapman Judith-Anne W,Leitzel Kim,Ali Suhail M,Shepherd Lois,Parulekar Wendy R,Ellis Catherine E,Crescnzo Rocco J,Zhu Liting,Virk Shakeel,Nomikos Dora,Aparicio Samuel,Gelmon Karen A,Carney Walter P,Lipton Allan Breast cancer research and treatment BACKGROUND:The lapatinib-taxane combination led to shorter PFS than trastuzumab-taxane in HER2+ metastatic breast cancer. We investigated the prognostic and predictive effects of pretreatment serum HER2, CAIX, and TIMP-1. METHODS:MA.31 accrued 652 patients; 537 (82%) were centrally confirmed HER2+. Biomarkers were categorized for univariate and multivariable predictive investigations with a median cut-point, ULN cut-points (15 ng/ml for HER2; 506 pg/ml for CAIX; 454 pg/ml for TIMP-1), and custom cut-points (30 and 100 ng/ml for HER2). Stratified step-wise forward Cox multivariable analysis examined continuous and categorical effects of biomarkers on PFS in the ITT and central HER2+ populations; central HER2+ biomarker results are shown. RESULTS:Serum was banked for 472 (72%) of 652 patients. Higher serum HER2 (>median; >15; >30; or >100 ng/ml; p = 0.05-0.002); higher CAIX (>median; >506 pg/ml; p = 0.02; p = 0.001); and higher TIMP-1 (> median; > 454 pg/ml; p = 0.001; p = 0.02) had shorter univariate PFS. In multivariable analysis, higher continuous TIMP-1 was associated with significantly shorter PFS: HR = 1.001 (95% CI = 1.00-01.002; p = 0.004). Continuous serum HER2 and CAIX were not significantly associated with PFS. HER2 of 15 ng/ml or higher had shorter PFS (p = 0.02); higher categorical CAIX had shorter PFS (p = 0.01-0.08). Interaction terms of HER2, CAIX, and TIMP-1 with treatment were not significant; the predictive test power was low. CONCLUSIONS:Higher levels of serum TIMP-1, CAIX, and HER2 were significant prognostic biomarkers of shorter PFS. We found no significant interaction between serum biomarkers and response to lapatinib versus trastuzumab. Evaluation of TIMP-1 and CAIX-targeted therapy in addition to HER2-targeted therapy appears warranted in patients with elevated serum levels of these biomarkers. 10.1007/s10549-017-4273-x
    LCCC 1025: a phase II study of everolimus, trastuzumab, and vinorelbine to treat progressive HER2-positive breast cancer brain metastases. Van Swearingen Amanda E D,Siegel Marni B,Deal Allison M,Sambade Maria J,Hoyle Alan,Hayes D Neil,Jo Heejoon,Little Paul,Dees Elizabeth Claire,Muss Hyman,Jolly Trevor,Zagar Timothy M,Patel Nirali,Miller C Ryan,Parker Joel S,Smith J Keith,Fisher Julie,Shah Nikita,Nabell Lisle,Nanda Rita,Dillon Patrick,Abramson Vandana,Carey Lisa A,Anders Carey K Breast cancer research and treatment PURPOSE:HER2 + breast cancer (BC) is an aggressive subtype with high rates of brain metastases (BCBM). Two-thirds of HER2 + BCBM demonstrate activation of the PI3K/mTOR pathway driving resistance to anti-HER2 therapy. This phase II study evaluated everolimus (E), a brain-permeable mTOR inhibitor, trastuzumab (T), and vinorelbine (V) in patients with HER2 + BCBM. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Eligible patients had progressive HER2 + BCBM. The primary endpoint was intracranial response rate (RR); secondary objectives were CNS clinical benefit rate (CBR), extracranial RR, time to progression (TTP), overall survival (OS), and targeted sequencing of tumors from enrolled patients. A two-stage design distinguished intracranial RR of 5% versus 20%. RESULTS:32 patients were evaluable for toxicity, 26 for efficacy. Intracranial RR was 4% (1 PR). CNS CBR at 6 mos was 27%; at 3 mos 65%. Median intracranial TTP was 3.9 mos (95% CI 2.2-5). OS was 12.2 mos (95% CI 0.6-20.2). Grade 3-4 toxicities included neutropenia (41%), anemia (16%), and stomatitis (16%). Mutations in TP53 and PIK3CA were common in BCBM. Mutations in the PI3K/mTOR pathway were not associated with response. ERBB2 amplification was higher in BCBM compared to primary BC; ERBB2 amplification in the primary BC trended toward worse OS. CONCLUSION:While intracranial RR to ETV was low in HER2 + BCBM patients, one-third achieved CNS CBR; TTP/OS was similar to historical control. No new toxicity signals were observed. Further analysis of the genomic underpinnings of BCBM to identify tractable prognostic and/or predictive biomarkers is warranted. CLINICAL TRIAL:(NCT01305941). 10.1007/s10549-018-4852-5
    Association of p27 and Cyclin D1 Expression and Benefit from Adjuvant Trastuzumab Treatment in HER2-Positive Early Breast Cancer: A TransHERA Study. Filipits Martin,Dafni Urania,Gnant Michael,Polydoropoulou Varvara,Hills Margaret,Kiermaier Astrid,de Azambuja Evandro,Larsimont Denis,Rojo Federico,Viale Giuseppe,Toi Masakazu,Harbeck Nadia,Prichard Kathleen I,Gelber Richard D,Dinh Phuong,Zardavas Dimitrios,Leyland-Jones Brian,Piccart-Gebhart Martine J,Dowsett Mitch, Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research To assess the prognostic and predictive value of selected biomarkers involved in cell-cycle regulation or proliferation in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer. Protein expression of TOP2A, Ki67, cyclin D1, and p27 was immunohistochemically determined in tissue microarrays of surgical specimens from 862 patients randomized to trastuzumab (1 or 2 years; = 561) and observation ( = 301) arms of the HERA trial. The primary analysis endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS). Biomarkers were examined as continuous or categorical variables (predefined cutoffs). Interaction terms between biomarkers and treatment were assessed in multivariate Cox models adjusted for variables of clinical interest. A significant interaction was detected between p27 and treatment (adjusted = 0.0049). Trastuzumab effect was significant in the p27-low subgroup (≤70% p27-positive tumor cells; = 318). HR 0.44, 95% CI, 0.29-0.65 ( < 0.001). No trastuzumab effect was observed in the p27-high subgroup = 435; HR 0.97, 95% CI, 0.66-1.44, = 0.89), indicating that these patients derived little or no benefit from trastuzumab treatment. A prognostic effect of p27 on DFS was observed, with p27-high patients experiencing half the hazard of a DFS event compared with low ones (HR 0.49, 95% CI, 0.32-0.75). TOP2A, Ki67, and cyclin D1, as categorical variables were not predictive, whereas cyclin D1 as continuous variable was predictive of trastuzumab benefit. In TransHERA, patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer with low p27 expression in their tumors benefited from trastuzumab treatment, whereas patients with high p27 expression did not. . 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-3473
    Phase I study of alpelisib (BYL-719) and trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) after trastuzumab and taxane therapy. Jain Sarika,Shah Ami N,Santa-Maria Cesar A,Siziopikou Kalliopi,Rademaker Alfred,Helenowski Irene,Cristofanilli Massimo,Gradishar William J Breast cancer research and treatment PURPOSE:Activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is an important resistance mechanism to anti-HER2 therapies. This study aimed to assess the safety and activity of alpelisib (a PI3Kα isoform-specific inhibitor) with T-DM1 in trastuzumab- and taxane-resistant HER2-positive MBC. METHODS:Patients with HER2-positive MBC that had progressed on trastuzumab-based therapy were treated with alpelisib daily and T-DM1 3.6 mg/kg every 3 weeks. The dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), adverse events, overall response rate (ORR), and clinical benefit rate (CBR = CR + PR + SD > 6 months) were assessed with descriptive statistics. Progression-free survival (PFS) was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS:Seventeen patients were enrolled with a median of 3 prior therapies for metastatic disease. The DLT was a maculopapular rash and MTD was 250 mg alpelisib daily. The most frequently occurring toxicities included fatigue, rash, gastrointestinal side effects, thrombocytopenia, anemia, elevated liver enzymes, and hyperglycemia. Fourteen patients were evaluable for response with an ORR of 43%. In patients with prior treatment and progression on T-DM1 (n = 10), the ORR was 30%. The CBR was 71% in evaluable patients and 60% in those with prior T-DM1. The median PFS was 8.1 months. CONCLUSIONS:The combination of alpelisib and T-DM1 is tolerable and demonstrates activity in trastuzumab-resistant HER2-positive MBC. Furthermore, activity was observed in T-DM1-resistant disease. These data suggest that PIK3CA inhibition targets an important resistance pathway to anti-HER2 therapy, providing rationale for further study of PI3K inhibition in refractory HER2-positive MBC to validate these results. 10.1007/s10549-018-4792-0
    Efficacy and safety of dasatinib with trastuzumab and paclitaxel in first line HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer: results from the phase II GEICAM/2010-04 study. Ocana Alberto,Gil-Martin Marta,Antolín Silvia,Atienza María,Montaño Álvaro,Ribelles Nuria,Urruticoechea Ander,Falcón Alejandro,Pernas Sonia,Orlando Javier,Montero Juan Carlos,Escudero Maria José,Benito Sara,Caballero Rosalía,Carrasco Eva,Rojo Federico,Pandiella Atanasio,Ruiz-Borrego Manuel Breast cancer research and treatment BACKGROUND:An important proportion of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients do not respond to trastuzumab. The combination of dasatinib and trastuzumab has shown to be synergistic in preclinical models. METHODS:We conducted a phase II trial combining dasatinib 100 mg once daily with trastuzumab 2 mg/kg and paclitaxel 80 mg/m weekly. Primary objective was objective response rate (ORR) and secondary included safety, other efficacy parameters and pharmacodynamics in tumour tissue, blood samples and skin biopsies. RESULTS:From June 2013 to December 2015, 29 patients were included. Median number of cycles was 12 (1-49). Only 6 patients discontinued due to adverse events. ORR was 79.3% (95% CI 60.3-92), clinical benefit rate 82.8% (95% CI 64.2-94.2). Median time to progression 23.9 months (95% CI 14.9-not reached [NR]), median progression-free survival 23.9 months (95% CI 10.3-NR). No grade 4 toxicity was seen. Grade 3 toxicities included: ejection fraction decrease, neutropenia, hyponatremia, fatigue and sensory neuropathy and one left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Phosphorylated (p)-SRC was reduced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Phosphorylated SRC, ERK and AKT were also reduced in epidermal keratinocytes. CONCLUSIONS:Dasatinib can be safely combined with trastuzumab and paclitaxel. The combination is active with an ORR of almost 80%. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT01306942, EudraCT 2010-023304-27. 10.1007/s10549-018-05100-z
    Neoadjuvant treatment with trastuzumab and pertuzumab plus palbociclib and fulvestrant in HER2-positive, ER-positive breast cancer (NA-PHER2): an exploratory, open-label, phase 2 study. Gianni Luca,Bisagni Giancarlo,Colleoni Marco,Del Mastro Lucia,Zamagni Claudio,Mansutti Mauro,Zambetti Milvia,Frassoldati Antonio,De Fato Raffaella,Valagussa Pinuccia,Viale Giuseppe The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:In the neoadjuvant setting, blockade of HER2 plus use of an aromatase inhibitor in patients with HER2-positive and oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer leads to a pathological complete response in 21% of patients. Convergence of HER2 and ER signals on RB1 suggests that a combined pharmacological intervention directed to these targets could be synergistic. To test this approach, we combined palbociclib to block RB1, fulvestrant to block ER, and trastuzumab with pertuzumab to block HER2 in patients with HER2-positive, ER-positive breast cancer. METHODS:NA-PHER2 is a multicohort, open-label, exploratory, phase 2 study done at seven sites in Italy. Patients were eligible for the first cohort if they had previously untreated, histologically confirmed, unilateral, invasive, HER2-positive, ER-positive breast cancer and were suitable for neoadjuvant therapy. Patients were treated every 3 weeks with intravenous trastuzumab (8 mg/kg loading dose followed by 6 mg/kg) and intravenous pertuzumab (840 mg loading dose in the first cycle and then at 420 mg) for six cycles plus oral palbociclib (125 mg once a day for 21 days in a 4-week cycle) and intramuscular fulvestrant (500 mg) every 4 weeks for five cycles. The coprimary endpoints were change from baseline in Ki67 expression at 2 weeks of treatment and at surgery (16 weeks after treatment) and changes in apoptosis from baseline to surgery. Secondary endpoints were clinical objective response (according to modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) and pathological complete response. All patients who met eligibility criteria were assessed for the primary and secondary endpoints. All patients who received at least one cycle of therapy were assessed for safety. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02530424. The trial is ongoing and two further cohorts are being enrolled. FINDINGS:Between May 20, 2015, and Feb 8, 2016, we enrolled 36 patients, of whom one was deemed ineligible for the study and five were found to be HER2-negative on retrospective analysis. Thus, 35 patients were included in safety analyses and 30 were assessed for the primary and secondary endpoints. At baseline, geometric mean Ki67 expression was 31·9 (SD 15·7), versus 4·3 (15·0) at week 2 (n=25; p<0·0001) and 12·1 (20·0) at time of surgery (n=22; p=0·013). The geometric mean for apoptosis was 1·2 (SD 0·3) at baseline versus 0·4 (0·4; p=0·019) at surgery. A clinical objective response immediately before surgery was achieved by 29 (97%; 95% CI 83-100) of 30 patients. At surgery, eight (27%; 95% CI 12-46) patients had a pathological complete response in breast and axillary nodes. The most frequent grade 3 adverse events were neutropenia (ten [29%]), diarrhoea (five [14%]), and stomatitis, increased alanine aminotransferase, and hypersensitivity reactions (one [3%] of each event). No grade 4 or serious adverse events were recorded in the study and there were no deaths. INTERPRETATION:The combination of palbociclib, fulvestrant, trastuzumab, and pertuzumab had a significant effect on the expression of Ki67 at 2 weeks and at surgery. Triple targeting of ER, HER2, and RB1 in HER2-positive and ER-positive breast cancer could be an effective chemotherapy-free treatment strategy. Further clinical testing and additional molecular characterisation is necessary, not only in hormone receptor-positive tumours but also in tumours without HER2 amplification. FUNDING:Pfizer and Roche. 10.1016/S1470-2045(18)30001-9
    PIKHER2: A phase IB study evaluating buparlisib in combination with lapatinib in trastuzumab-resistant HER2-positive advanced breast cancer. Guerin Mathilde,Rezai Keyvan,Isambert Nicolas,Campone Mario,Autret Aurélie,Pakradouni Jihane,Provansal Magali,Camerlo Jacques,Sabatier Renaud,Bertucci François,Charafe-Jauffret Emmanuelle,Hervieu Alice,Extra Jean-Marc,Viens Patrice,Lokiec François,Boher Jean-Marie,Gonçalves Anthony European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) BACKGROUND:Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway is frequently activated in HER2-positive breast cancer and may play a major role in resistance to trastuzumab. Buparlisib is a pan-class-I PI3K inhibitor with potent and selective activity against wild-type and mutant PI3K p110 isoforms. PATIENTS AND METHODS:PIKHER2 phase IB study aimed primarily to determine a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and propose a recommended phase II dose (RP2D) for buparlisib in combination with lapatinib in HER2-positive, trastuzumab-resistant, advanced breast cancer. Oral buparlisib (40, 60 or 80 mg) and lapatinib (750, 1000 or 1250 mg) were administered daily. A modified continuous reassessment method using an adaptive Bayesian model guided the dose escalation of both agents. Secondary end-points included antitumour activity and pharmacokinetic (PK) assessments. RESULTS:A total of 24 patients were treated across five dose levels. Dose-limiting toxicities included transaminases elevation, vomiting, stomatitis, hyperglycemia and diarrhoea. MTD was declared at buparlisib 80 mg/d + lapatinib 1250 mg/d, but toxicities and early treatment discontinuation rate beyond cycle 1 led to select buparlisib 80 mg + lapatinib 1000 mg/d as the RP2D. Main drug-related adverse events included diarrhoea, nausea, skin rash, asthenia, depression, anxiety and transaminases increase. There was no significant evidence for drug-drug PK interaction. Disease control rate was 79% [95% confidence interval [CI] 57-92%], one patient obtained a complete remission, and six additional patients experienced stable disease for ≥ 24 weeks (clinical benefit rate of 29% [95% CI 12-51%]). CONCLUSION:Combining buparlisib and lapatinib in HER2-positive trastuzumab-resistant advanced breast cancer was feasible. Preliminary evidence of antitumour activity was observed in this heavily pre-treated population. TRIAL REGISTRATION ID:NCT01589861. 10.1016/j.ejca.2017.08.025
    Role of MEL-18 Amplification in Anti-HER2 Therapy of Breast Cancer. Lee Jeong-Yeon,Joo Hyeong-Seok,Choi Hee-Joo,Jin Sora,Kim Hyung-Yong,Jeong Ga-Young,An Hee Woon,Park Mi Kyung,Lee Seung Eun,Kim Wan-Seop,Son Taekwon,Min Kyueng-Whan,Oh Young-Ha,Kong Gu Journal of the National Cancer Institute BACKGROUND:Resistance to HER2-targeted therapy with trastuzumab still remains a major challenge in HER2-amplified tumors. Here we investigated the potential role of MEL-18, a polycomb group gene, as a novel prognostic marker for trastuzumab resistance in HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer. METHODS:The genetic alteration of MEL-18 and its clinical relevance were examined in multiple breast cancer cohorts including METABRIC (n = 1,980), TCGA (n = 825), and our clinical specimens (n = 213, trastuzumab-treated HER2+ cases). MEL-18 amplification was validated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. The MEL-18 effect on trastuzumab response was confirmed by in vitro cell viability assays and an in vivo xenograft experiment (n = 7 per group). Gene expression microarray and receptor tyrosine kinase array were performed to identify the trastuzumab resistance mechanism by MEL-18 loss. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS:MEL-18 was exclusively amplified in approximately 30-50% of HER2+ breast tumors and was associated with a favorable clinical outcome (disease-free survival: P = .02 in HER2+ cases, METABRIC; P = .04 in patients receiving trastuzumab). In MEL-18-amplified HER2+ breast cancer, MEL-18 depletion induced trastuzumab resistance by increasing ADAM sheddase-mediated ErbB ligand production and receptor heterodimerization. MEL-18 epigenetically silenced ADAM10/17 expression in cooperation with polycomb-repressive complex (PRC) 1 and PRC2. Combination treatment with an ADAM10/17 inhibitor and trastuzumab could overcome MEL-18 loss-mediated trastuzumab resistance in vivo (BT474/shMEL-18 xenograft: trastuzumab, mean [SD] tumor volume = 406.1 [50.1] mm3, vs trastuzumab + GW280264 30 mg/kg, mean [SD] tumor volume = 68.4 [15.6] mm3, P < .001). Consistently, trastuzumab-treated patients harboring concomitant MEL-18 amplification and low ADAM17 expression showed prolonged relapse-free survival (P = .02 in our cohort, n = 213). CONCLUSION:MEL-18 serves to prevent ligand-dependent ErbB heterodimerization and trastuzumab resistance, suggesting MEL-18 amplification as a novel biomarker for HER2+ breast cancer. 10.1093/jnci/djy151
    A phase Ib study of entinostat plus lapatinib with or without trastuzumab in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer that progressed during trastuzumab treatment. Lim Bora,Murthy Rashmi K,Lee Jangsoon,Jackson Summer A,Iwase Toshiaki,Davis Darren W,Willey Jie S,Wu Jimin,Shen Yu,Tripathy Debu,Alvarez Ricardo,Ibrahim Nuhad K,Brewster Abenaa M,Barcenas Carlos H,Brown Powel H,Giordano Sharon H,Moulder Stacy L,Booser Daniel J,Moscow Jeffrey A,Piekarz Richard,Valero Vicente,Ueno Naoto T British journal of cancer BACKGROUND:Human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) is an effective therapeutic target in breast cancer; however, resistance to anti-HER2 agents such as trastuzumab and lapatinib develops. In a preclinical model, an HDAC inhibitor epigenetically reversed the resistance of cancer cells to trastuzumab and showed synergistic efficacy with lapatinib in inhibiting growth of trastuzumab-resistant HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer. METHODS:A phase 1b, dose escalation study was performed to assess maximum tolerated dose, safety/toxicity, clinical efficacy and explored pharmacodynamic biomarkers of response to entinostat combined with lapatinib with or without trastuzumab. RESULTS:The combination was safe. The MTD was lapatinib, 1000 mg daily; entinostat, 12 mg every other week; trastuzumab, 8 mg/kg followed by 6 mg/kg every 3 weeks. Adverse events included diarrhoea (89%), neutropenia (31%), and thrombocytopenia (23%). Neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and hypokalaemia were noted. Pharmacodynamic assessment did not yield conclusive results. Among 35 patients with evaluable response, PR was observed in 3 patients and CR in 3 patients, 1 maintained SD for over 6 months. DISCUSSION:This study identified the MTD of the entinostat, lapatinib, and trastuzumab combination that provided acceptable tolerability and anti-tumour activity in heavily pre-treated patients with HER2+ metastatic breast cancer, supporting a confirmatory trial. 10.1038/s41416-019-0473-y
    Trastuzumab Deruxtecan in Previously Treated HER2-Positive Breast Cancer. Modi Shanu,Saura Cristina,Yamashita Toshinari,Park Yeon Hee,Kim Sung-Bae,Tamura Kenji,Andre Fabrice,Iwata Hiroji,Ito Yoshinori,Tsurutani Junji,Sohn Joohyuk,Denduluri Neelima,Perrin Christophe,Aogi Kenjiro,Tokunaga Eriko,Im Seock-Ah,Lee Keun Seok,Hurvitz Sara A,Cortes Javier,Lee Caleb,Chen Shuquan,Zhang Lin,Shahidi Javad,Yver Antoine,Krop Ian, The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Trastuzumab deruxtecan (DS-8201) is an antibody-drug conjugate composed of an anti-HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) antibody, a cleavable tetrapeptide-based linker, and a cytotoxic topoisomerase I inhibitor. In a phase 1 dose-finding study, a majority of the patients with advanced HER2-positive breast cancer had a response to trastuzumab deruxtecan (median response duration, 20.7 months). The efficacy of trastuzumab deruxtecan in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer previously treated with trastuzumab emtansine requires confirmation. METHODS:In this two-part, open-label, single-group, multicenter, phase 2 study, we evaluated trastuzumab deruxtecan in adults with pathologically documented HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer who had received previous treatment with trastuzumab emtansine. In the first part of the study, we evaluated three different doses of trastuzumab deruxtecan to establish a recommended dose; in the second part, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of the recommended dose. The primary end point was the objective response, according to independent central review. Key secondary end points were the disease-control rate, clinical-benefit rate, duration of response and progression-free survival, and safety. RESULTS:Overall, 184 patients who had undergone a median of six previous treatments received the recommended dose of trastuzumab deruxtecan (5.4 mg per kilogram of body weight). In the intention-to-treat analysis, a response to therapy was reported in 112 patients (60.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 53.4 to 68.0). The median duration of follow-up was 11.1 months (range, 0.7 to 19.9). The median response duration was 14.8 months (95% CI, 13.8 to 16.9), and the median duration of progression-free survival was 16.4 months (95% CI, 12.7 to not reached). During the study, the most common adverse events of grade 3 or higher were a decreased neutrophil count (in 20.7% of the patients), anemia (in 8.7%), and nausea (in 7.6%). On independent adjudication, the trial drug was associated with interstitial lung disease in 13.6% of the patients (grade 1 or 2, 10.9%; grade 3 or 4, 0.5%; and grade 5, 2.2%). CONCLUSIONS:Trastuzumab deruxtecan showed durable antitumor activity in a pretreated patient population with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. In addition to nausea and myelosuppression, interstitial lung disease was observed in a subgroup of patients and requires attention to pulmonary symptoms and careful monitoring. (Funded by Daiichi Sankyo and AstraZeneca; DESTINY-Breast01 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03248492.). 10.1056/NEJMoa1914510
    A phase I/II study of epertinib plus trastuzumab with or without chemotherapy in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Macpherson Iain R,Spiliopoulou Pavlina,Rafii Saeed,Saggese Matilde,Baird Richard D,Garcia-Corbacho Javier,Italiano Antoine,Bonneterre Jacques,Campone Mario,Cresti Nicola,Posner John,Takeda Yousuke,Arimura Akinori,Spicer James Breast cancer research : BCR BACKGROUND:Epertinib (S-222611) is a potent reversible inhibitor of HER2, EGFR and HER4. This trial evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and antitumour activity of daily oral epertinib combined with trastuzumab (arm A), with trastuzumab plus vinorelbine (arm B) or with trastuzumab plus capecitabine (arm C), in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC). METHODS:Eligible patients, with or without brain metastases, had received prior HER2-directed therapy. A dose-escalation phase determined the tolerability of each combination and established a dose for further study. Further, patients were recruited to expansion cohorts in each of the 3 arms to further explore efficacy and safety. RESULTS:The recommended doses of epertinib were 600 mg, 200 mg and 400 mg in arms A, B and C, respectively. The most frequent grade 3/4 adverse event (AE) was diarrhoea in all arms, which was manageable with medical intervention and dose modification. The objective response rate (complete response [CR] plus partial response [PR]) in heavily pre-treated HER2-positive MBC patients at the recommended doses of epertinib combined with trastuzumab was 67% (N = 9), with trastuzumab plus vinorelbine was 0% (N = 5) and with trastuzumab plus capecitabine was 56% (N = 9). Notably, 4 of 6 patients previously treated with T-DM1 responded in the arm A expansion cohort (epertinib plus trastuzumab). In the arm C expansion cohort (epertinib plus trastuzumab plus capecitabine), 4 of 7 patients responded despite previous exposure to capecitabine. Measurable regression of brain metastases was observed in patients with CNS target lesions treated in both arms A and C. CONCLUSION:We observed safety, tolerability and encouraging antitumour activity of epertinib combined with trastuzumab, or with trastuzumab plus capecitabine. This supports further evaluation of these combinations in patients with pre-treated HER2-positive MBC, with or without brain metastases. TRIAL REGISTRATION:EudraCT Number: 2013-003894-87; registered 09-September-2013. 10.1186/s13058-019-1178-0
    Ribociclib Plus Trastuzumab in Advanced HER2-Positive Breast Cancer: Results of a Phase 1b/2 Trial. Goel Shom,Pernas Sonia,Tan-Wasielewski Zhenying,Barry William T,Bardia Aditya,Rees Rebecca,Andrews Chelsea,Tahara Rie Kawabori,Trippa Lorenzo,Mayer Erica L,Winer Eric P,Spring Laura M,Tolaney Sara M Clinical breast cancer BACKGROUND:Signaling through the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) pathway can mediate therapeutic resistance in HER2-positive breast cancer. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that CDK4/6 inhibitors can resensitize resistant HER2-positive breast cancer to anti-HER2 therapies. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We conducted a phase 1b/2 study of ribociclib (400 mg per day on a continuous schedule) plus trastuzumab (6 mg/kg every 3 weeks) in patients with advanced HER2-positive breast cancer previously treated with trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and trastuzumab emtansine. There were no restrictions on the number of prior therapy lines. Primary objective was clinical benefit rate at 24 weeks, and secondary objectives included safety, objective response, rate and progression-free survival. The study was enrolled at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT02657343. RESULTS:From March 2016 to March 2017, 13 patients were enrolled. One patient was found to have HER2-negative disease and did not receive treatment. Median number of prior lines in the metastatic setting was 5 (range, 0-14); 67% had hormone receptor-positive disease. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed during the safety run-in phase, and ribociclib was thus dosed at 400 mg per day continuously for the expansion cohort. Grade 3 adverse events were observed in 4 patients (33.3%) and included neutropenia (n = 2) as well as fatigue and pain in 1 patient each. No grade 4/5 adverse events or QTc prolongation were observed. One patient (8.3%) experienced stable disease > 24 weeks; no objective responses were observed, and median progression-free survival was 1.33 months (95% confidence interval, 0.92-2.57). CONCLUSION:Continuous low-dose ribociclib (400 mg) plus trastuzumab is safe, with no new safety concerns. The limited activity observed in this study suggests that further study of CDK4/6 inhibitor/anti-HER2 combinations should focus on a less pretreated population. 10.1016/j.clbc.2019.05.010
    First report of eribulin in combination with pertuzumab and trastuzumab for advanced HER2-positive breast cancer. Araki Kazuhiro,Fukada Ippei,Yanagi Hiroyo,Kobayashi Kokoro,Shibayama Tomoko,Horii Rie,Takahashi Shunji,Akiyama Futoshi,Ohno Shinji,Ito Yoshinori Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) BACKGROUND:The efficacy and safety of continuing multiple anti-HER2 therapies in advanced breast cancer (ABC) patients remains unclear. This study investigated eribulin in combination with pertuzumab and trastuzumab for both taxane- and trastuzumab-pretreated HER2-positive ABC patients. METHODS:In a single-institute, single-arm, open-label, phase II trial, HER2-positive ABC patients who had previously received taxanes and trastuzumab were treated with eribulin in combination with pertuzumab and trastuzumab. The pharmacokinetics of eribulin in this combination were assessed in 6 patients. Tumor assessments were conducted every 6 weeks for the first 6 cycles and every 12 weeks thereafter. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR). RESULTS:A total of 30 patients (median age, 58 years; range, 31-76) were enrolled, with a median number of previous chemotherapy regimens of 3.5 (range: 1-9) in the metastatic setting. Pharmacokinetic parameters of eribulin in this combination were similar to previous reports of eribulin monotherapy. ORR was 34.8% (95% CI: 16.4-57.3, n = 23), and median progression-free survival was 42.6 weeks (95% CI: 20.3-51.9, n = 30). Clinical benefit rate was 60.9% (95% CI: 16.4-57.3). The most common grade 3/4 adverse event was neutropenia in 20 patients (66.7%). A dose reduction of eribulin was required in 27 patients due to adverse events, particularly grade 3 neutropenia. CONCLUSIONS:Eribulin in combination with pertuzumab and trastuzumab was well tolerated in heavily pretreated patients. Eribulin may be a viable treatment option when used in combination with pertuzumab and trastuzumab for HER2-positive ABC patients (UMIN Clinical Trial Registry identification number, UMIN000012375). 10.1016/j.breast.2017.06.015
    Synergistic anti-tumor activity of Nimotuzumab in combination with Trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer. Yang Yun,Guo Rui,Tian Xiaoting,Zhang Ziheng,Zhang Pengfei,Li Changzheng,Feng Zhiwei Biochemical and biophysical research communications Breast cancer is characterized with poor prognosis and high recurrence. HER2 is highly expressed in breast cancer and is a target for cancer therapy and prevention. Here, we investigated the anti-tumor activity of the combination of an HER2 inhibitor, trastuzumab with an EGFR-inhibitor, nimotuzumab in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. Our data showed that a greater anti-tumor activity from the combination of trastuzumab and nimotuzumab than any alone usage of above antibody both in vitro and in vivo. Based on the combination index value, our data demonstrated that nimotuzumab synergistically enhanced trastuzumab-induced cell growth inhibition. Furthermore, we investigated the possible mechanism of this synergistic efficacy induced by trastuzumab plus nimotuzumab. Data showed that the combination was more potent in reducing the phosphorylation of HER2 and ERK1/2. We also found that the synergistic inhibition was partly attributed to the ROS generation and repression of NRF2 pathway that is known to promote cell growth. These results support the clinical development of this two-drug regimen for the treatment of HER2-amplified breast cancer. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2017.06.001
    A phase I trial of ganetespib in combination with paclitaxel and trastuzumab in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer. Jhaveri Komal,Wang Rui,Teplinsky Eleonora,Chandarlapaty Sarat,Solit David,Cadoo Karen,Speyer James,D'Andrea Gabriella,Adams Sylvia,Patil Sujata,Haque Sofia,O'Neill Tara,Friedman Kent,Esteva Francisco J,Hudis Clifford,Modi Shanu Breast cancer research : BCR BACKGROUND:Targeted therapies in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer significantly improve outcomes but efficacy is limited by therapeutic resistance. HER2 is an acutely sensitive Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90) client and HSP90 inhibition can overcome trastuzumab resistance. Preclinical data suggest that HSP90 inhibition is synergistic with taxanes with the potential for significant clinical activity. We therefore tested ganetespib, a HSP90 inhibitor, in combination with paclitaxel and trastuzumab in patients with trastuzumab-refractory HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. METHODS:In this phase I dose-escalation study, patients with trastuzumab-resistant HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer received weekly trastuzumab (2 mg/kg) and paclitaxel (80 mg/m) on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of a 28-day cycle with escalating doses of ganetespib (100 mg/m, 150 mg/m, and a third cohort of 125 mg/m if needed) on days 1, 8, and 15. Therapy was continued until disease progression or toxicity. The primary objective was to establish the safety and maximum tolerated dose and/or recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of this therapy. The secondary objectives included evaluation of the effects of ganetespib on the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel, and to make a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of the combination therapy. RESULTS:Dose escalation was completed for the two main cohorts without any observed dose-limiting toxicities. Nine patients received treatment. The median prior lines of anti-HER2 therapy numbered three (range 2-4), including prior pertuzumab in 9/9 patients and ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) in 8/9 patients. The most common grade 1/2 adverse events (AEs) were diarrhea, fatigue, anemia, and rash. There were no grade 4 AEs related to ganetespib. The overall response rate was 22% (2/9 patients had partial response) and stable disease was seen in 56% (5/9 patients). The clinical benefit rate was 44% (4/9 patients). The median progression-free survival was 20 weeks (range 8-55). CONCLUSION:The RP2D of ganetespib is 150 mg/m in combination with weekly paclitaxel plus trastuzumab. The combination was safe and well tolerated. Despite prior taxanes, pertuzumab, and T-DM1, clinical activity of this triplet regimen in this heavily pretreated cohort is promising and warrants further study in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02060253 . Registered 30 January 2014. 10.1186/s13058-017-0879-5
    Trastuzumab Emtansine for Residual Invasive HER2-Positive Breast Cancer. von Minckwitz Gunter,Huang Chiun-Sheng,Mano Max S,Loibl Sibylle,Mamounas Eleftherios P,Untch Michael,Wolmark Norman,Rastogi Priya,Schneeweiss Andreas,Redondo Andres,Fischer Hans H,Jacot William,Conlin Alison K,Arce-Salinas Claudia,Wapnir Irene L,Jackisch Christian,DiGiovanna Michael P,Fasching Peter A,Crown John P,Wülfing Pia,Shao Zhimin,Rota Caremoli Elena,Wu Haiyan,Lam Lisa H,Tesarowski David,Smitt Melanie,Douthwaite Hannah,Singel Stina M,Geyer Charles E, The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Patients who have residual invasive breast cancer after receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapy have a worse prognosis than those who have no residual cancer. Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), an antibody-drug conjugate of trastuzumab and the cytotoxic agent emtansine (DM1), a maytansine derivative and microtubule inhibitor, provides benefit in patients with metastatic breast cancer that was previously treated with chemotherapy plus HER2-targeted therapy. METHODS:We conducted a phase 3, open-label trial involving patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer who were found to have residual invasive disease in the breast or axilla at surgery after receiving neoadjuvant therapy containing a taxane (with or without anthracycline) and trastuzumab. Patients were randomly assigned to receive adjuvant T-DM1 or trastuzumab for 14 cycles. The primary end point was invasive disease-free survival (defined as freedom from ipsilateral invasive breast tumor recurrence, ipsilateral locoregional invasive breast cancer recurrence, contralateral invasive breast cancer, distant recurrence, or death from any cause). RESULTS:At the interim analysis, among 1486 randomly assigned patients (743 in the T-DM1 group and 743 in the trastuzumab group), invasive disease or death had occurred in 91 patients in the T-DM1 group (12.2%) and 165 patients in the trastuzumab group (22.2%). The estimated percentage of patients who were free of invasive disease at 3 years was 88.3% in the T-DM1 group and 77.0% in the trastuzumab group. Invasive disease-free survival was significantly higher in the T-DM1 group than in the trastuzumab group (hazard ratio for invasive disease or death, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.39 to 0.64; P<0.001). Distant recurrence as the first invasive-disease event occurred in 10.5% of patients in the T-DM1 group and 15.9% of those in the trastuzumab group. The safety data were consistent with the known safety profile of T-DM1, with more adverse events associated with T-DM1 than with trastuzumab alone. CONCLUSIONS:Among patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer who had residual invasive disease after completion of neoadjuvant therapy, the risk of recurrence of invasive breast cancer or death was 50% lower with adjuvant T-DM1 than with trastuzumab alone. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche/Genentech; KATHERINE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01772472 .). 10.1056/NEJMoa1814017
    Neoadjuvant buparlisib plus trastuzumab and paclitaxel for women with HER2+ primary breast cancer: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II trial (NeoPHOEBE). Loibl Sibylle,de la Pena Lorena,Nekljudova Valentina,Zardavas Dimitrios,Michiels Stefan,Denkert Carsten,Rezai Mahdi,Bermejo Begoña,Untch Michael,Lee Soo Chin,Turri Sabine,Urban Patrick,Kümmel Sherko,Steger Guenther,Gombos Andrea,Lux Michael,Piccart Martine J,Von Minckwitz Gunter,Baselga José,Loi Sherene European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) AIM:The Neoadjuvant PI3K inhibition in HER2 OverExpressing Breast cancEr (NeoPHOEBE) trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of buparlisib, a pan-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, plus trastuzumab and paclitaxel as neoadjuvant treatment for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive (HER2+) breast cancer. METHODS:NeoPHOEBE was a neoadjuvant, phase II, randomised, double-blind study. Women with HER2+ breast cancer were randomised within two independent cohorts by PIK3CA mutation status and, in each cohort stratified by oestrogen receptor (ER) status to receive buparlisib or placebo plus trastuzumab (first 6 weeks) followed by buparlisib or placebo with trastuzumab and paclitaxel. Primary end-point was pathological complete response (pCR) rate; key secondary end-point was objective response rate (ORR) at 6 weeks. Exploratory end-points were evaluation of Ki67 levels and change in tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in intermediate biopsies at day 15. RESULTS:Recruitment was suspended mainly due to liver toxicity after enrolment of 50 of the planned 256 patients. In each arm (buparlisib n = 25; placebo n = 25) 21 patients (84%) had wild type PIK3CA and 4 patients (16%) had mutant PIK3CA. Overall, pCR rate was similar between buparlisib and placebo arms (32.0% versus 40%; one-sided P = 0.811). A trend towards higher ORR (68.8% versus 33.3%; P = 0.053) and a significant decrease in Ki67 (75% versus 26.7%; P = 0.021) was observed in buparlisib versus placebo arm in the ER+ subgroup (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS:Addition of the pan-PI3K inhibitor buparlisib to taxane-trastuzumab-based therapy in HER2+ early breast cancer was not feasible. However, the higher ORR and Ki67 reduction in the ER+, HER2+ subgroup indicates a potential role for PI3K-targeted therapy in this setting and may warrant further investigation with better-tolerated second-generation PI3K inhibitors. TRIAL REGISTRATION IDENTIFIER:NCT01816594. 10.1016/j.ejca.2017.08.020
    Trastuzumab deruxtecan (DS-8201a) in patients with advanced HER2-positive breast cancer previously treated with trastuzumab emtansine: a dose-expansion, phase 1 study. Tamura Kenji,Tsurutani Junji,Takahashi Shunji,Iwata Hiroji,Krop Ian E,Redfern Charles,Sagara Yasuaki,Doi Toshihiko,Park Haeseong,Murthy Rashmi K,Redman Rebecca A,Jikoh Takahiro,Lee Caleb,Sugihara Masahiro,Shahidi Javad,Yver Antoine,Modi Shanu The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:Trastuzumab deruxtecan (DS-8201a) is a novel HER2-targeted antibody-drug conjugate with a humanised anti-HER2 antibody, cleavable peptide-based linker, and potent topoisomerase I inhibitor payload. A phase 1, non-randomised, open-label, multiple-dose study was done to assess the safety, tolerability, and activity of trastuzumab deruxtecan in HER2-expressing, advanced solid tumours. The dose escalation (part 1) has previously been reported and the recommended doses for expansion of 5·4 mg/kg or 6·4 mg/kg were established. In this Article, we report the safety and preliminary activity results from this phase 1 trial in all patients with HER2-positive advanced-stage breast cancer with previous trastuzumab emtansine treatment who received trastuzumab deruxtecan at the recommended doses for expansion. METHODS:We did an open-label, dose-escalation and dose-expansion phase 1 trial at eight hospitals and clinics in the USA and six in Japan. Eligible patients were at least 18 years old in the USA and at least 20 years of age in Japan and had advanced solid tumours (regardless of HER2 expression in dose escalation or HER2 expression or mutation in dose expansion). The recommended doses for expansion of 5·4 mg/kg or 6·4 mg/kg trastuzumab deruxtecan were administered intravenously to patients once every 3 weeks until withdrawal of consent, unacceptable toxicity, or progressive disease. In this Article, all patients with HER2-positive advanced-stage breast cancer with previous trastuzumab emtansine treatment who received trastuzumab deruxtecan at the recommended doses for expansion were analysed together. The primary endpoints of the study were safety and preliminary activity (proportion of patients who achieved an objective response as assessed by the investigators). The activity evaluable set included all patients who received at least one dose of trastuzumab deruxtecan at the recommended doses for expansion, and for whom both baseline and post-treatment activity data were available. The safety analysis set included all patients who received at least one dose of trastuzumab deruxtecan at the recommended doses for expansion. Enrolment for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer has been completed. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02564900, and ClinicalTrials.jp, number JapicCTI-152978. FINDINGS:Between Aug 28, 2015, and Aug 10, 2018, 115 of 118 patients with HER2-positive breast cancer were treated with at least one dose of trastuzumab deruxtecan at the recommended doses for expansion. All patients had at least one treatment-emergent adverse event. Frequent grade 3 or worse treatment-emergent adverse events included anaemia (19 [17%] of 115) and decreased neutrophil (16 [14%]), white blood cell (ten [9%]), and platelet (nine [8%]) counts. At least one serious treatment-emergent adverse event occurred for 22 (19%) patients. Investigators reported 20 cases of interstitial lung disease, pneumonitis, or organising pneumonia, including one grade 3 event and two treatment-related deaths due to pneumonitis. One death unrelated to study treatment was due to progressive disease. 66 (59·5%; 95% CI 49·7-68·7) of 111 patients had a confirmed objective response. INTERPRETATION:Trastuzumab deruxtecan had a manageable safety profile and showed preliminary activity in trastuzumab emtansine-pretreated patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. These results suggest that further development in phase 2 and 3 clinical trials for HER2-positive breast cancer is warranted. FUNDING:Daiichi Sankyo Co, Ltd. 10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30097-X
    Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer (ExteNET): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Chan Arlene,Delaloge Suzette,Holmes Frankie A,Moy Beverly,Iwata Hiroji,Harvey Vernon J,Robert Nicholas J,Silovski Tajana,Gokmen Erhan,von Minckwitz Gunter,Ejlertsen Bent,Chia Stephen K L,Mansi Janine,Barrios Carlos H,Gnant Michael,Buyse Marc,Gore Ira,Smith John,Harker Graydon,Masuda Norikazu,Petrakova Katarina,Zotano Angel Guerrero,Iannotti Nicholas,Rodriguez Gladys,Tassone Pierfrancesco,Wong Alvin,Bryce Richard,Ye Yining,Yao Bin,Martin Miguel, The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:Neratinib, an irreversible tyrosine-kinase inhibitor of HER1, HER2, and HER4, has clinical activity in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of 12 months of neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in patients with early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer. METHODS:We did this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial at 495 centres in Europe, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and North and South America. Eligible women (aged ≥18 years, or ≥20 years in Japan) had stage 1-3 HER2-positive breast cancer and had completed neoadjuvant and adjuvant trastuzumab therapy up to 2 years before randomisation. Inclusion criteria were amended on Feb 25, 2010, to include patients with stage 2-3 HER2-positive breast cancer who had completed trastuzumab therapy up to 1 year previously. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive oral neratinib 240 mg per day or matching placebo. The randomisation sequence was generated with permuted blocks stratified by hormone receptor status (hormone receptor-positive [oestrogen or progesterone receptor-positive or both] vs hormone receptor-negative [oestrogen and progesterone receptor-negative]), nodal status (0, 1-3, or ≥4), and trastuzumab adjuvant regimen (sequentially vs concurrently with chemotherapy), then implemented centrally via an interactive voice and web-response system. Patients, investigators, and trial sponsors were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was invasive disease-free survival, as defined in the original protocol, at 2 years after randomisation. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00878709. FINDINGS:Between July 9, 2009, and Oct 24, 2011, we randomly assigned 2840 women to receive neratinib (n=1420) or placebo (n=1420). Median follow-up time was 24 months (IQR 20-25) in the neratinib group and 24 months (22-25) in the placebo group. At 2 year follow-up, 70 invasive disease-free survival events had occurred in patients in the neratinib group versus 109 events in those in the placebo group (stratified hazard ratio 0·67, 95% CI 0·50-0·91; p=0·0091). The 2-year invasive disease-free survival rate was 93·9% (95% CI 92·4-95·2) in the neratinib group and 91·6% (90·0-93·0) in the placebo group. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events in patients in the neratinib group were diarrhoea (grade 3, n=561 [40%] and grade 4, n=1 [<1%] vs grade 3, n=23 [2%] in the placebo group), vomiting (grade 3, n=47 [3%] vs n=5 [<1%]), and nausea (grade 3, n=26 [2%] vs n=2 [<1%]). QT prolongation occurred in 49 (3%) patients given neratinib and 93 (7%) patients given placebo, and decreases in left ventricular ejection fraction (≥grade 2) in 19 (1%) and 15 (1%) patients, respectively. We recorded serious adverse events in 103 (7%) patients in the neratinib group and 85 (6%) patients in the placebo group. Seven (<1%) deaths (four patients in the neratinib group and three patients in the placebo group) unrelated to disease progression occurred after study drug discontinuation. The causes of death in the neratinib group were unknown (n=2), a second primary brain tumour (n=1), and acute myeloid leukaemia (n=1), and in the placebo group were a brain haemorrhage (n=1), myocardial infarction (n=1), and gastric cancer (n=1). None of the deaths were attributed to study treatment in either group. INTERPRETATION:Neratinib for 12 months significantly improved 2-year invasive disease-free survival when given after chemotherapy and trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy to women with HER2-positive breast cancer. Longer follow-up is needed to ensure that the improvement in breast cancer outcome is maintained. FUNDING:Wyeth, Pfizer, Puma Biotechnology. 10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00551-3
    Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in patients from Asia with early stage HER2-positive breast cancer. Iwata Hiroji,Masuda Norikazu,Kim Sung-Bae,Inoue Kenichi,Rai Yoshiaki,Fujita Takashi,Chiu Joanne,Ohtani Shoichiro,Takahashi Masato,Miyaki Toshiko,Lu Yen-Shen,Xu Binghe,Yap Yoon Sim,Bustam Anita,Yao Bin,Zhang Bo,Bryce Richard,Chan Arlene Future oncology (London, England) To evaluate the efficacy and safety of neratinib as extended adjuvant therapy in patients from Asia based on exploratory analyses of the Phase III ExteNET trial. A total of 2840 women with early stage HER2-positive breast cancer were randomly assigned to neratinib 240 mg/day or placebo for 1 year after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy. A total of 341 patients were from Asia (neratinib, n = 165; placebo, n = 176). 2-year invasive disease-free survival rates were 92.8 and 90.8% with neratinib and placebo, respectively (HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.31-1.55), and 5-year rates were 91.9 and 87.2%, respectively (HR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.27-1.13). Diarrhea was the most common adverse event with neratinib. Extended adjuvant therapy with neratinib reduces disease recurrences in Asian women with HER2-positive breast cancer. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00878709. 10.2217/fon-2019-0143
    Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in HER2-positive breast cancer (ExteNET): 5-year analysis of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Martin Miguel,Holmes Frankie A,Ejlertsen Bent,Delaloge Suzette,Moy Beverly,Iwata Hiroji,von Minckwitz Gunter,Chia Stephen K L,Mansi Janine,Barrios Carlos H,Gnant Michael,Tomašević Zorica,Denduluri Neelima,Šeparović Robert,Gokmen Erhan,Bashford Anna,Ruiz Borrego Manuel,Kim Sung-Bae,Jakobsen Erik Hugger,Ciceniene Audrone,Inoue Kenichi,Overkamp Friedrich,Heijns Joan B,Armstrong Anne C,Link John S,Joy Anil Abraham,Bryce Richard,Wong Alvin,Moran Susan,Yao Bin,Xu Feng,Auerbach Alan,Buyse Marc,Chan Arlene, The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:ExteNET showed that 1 year of neratinib, an irreversible pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor, significantly improves 2-year invasive disease-free survival after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in women with HER2-positive breast cancer. We report updated efficacy outcomes from a protocol-defined 5-year follow-up sensitivity analysis and long-term toxicity findings. METHODS:In this ongoing randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, eligible women aged 18 years or older (≥20 years in Japan) with stage 1-3c (modified to stage 2-3c in February, 2010) operable breast cancer, who had completed neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy plus trastuzumab with no evidence of disease recurrence or metastatic disease at study entry. Patients who were eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) via permuted blocks stratified according to hormone receptor status (hormone receptor-positive vs hormone receptor-negative), nodal status (0 vs 1-3 vs or ≥4 positive nodes), and trastuzumab adjuvant regimen (given sequentially vs concurrently with chemotherapy), then implemented centrally via an interactive voice and web-response system, to receive 1 year of oral neratinib 240 mg/day or matching placebo. Treatment was given continuously for 1 year, unless disease recurrence or new breast cancer, intolerable adverse events, or consent withdrawal occurred. Patients, investigators, and trial funder were masked to treatment allocation. The predefined endpoint of the 5-year analysis was invasive disease-free survival, analysed by intention to treat. ExteNET is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00878709, and is closed to new participants. FINDINGS:Between July 9, 2009, and Oct 24, 2011, 2840 eligible women with early HER2-positive breast cancer were recruited from community-based and academic institutions in 40 countries and randomly assigned to receive neratinib (n=1420) or placebo (n=1420). After a median follow-up of 5·2 years (IQR 2·1-5·3), patients in the neratinib group had significantly fewer invasive disease-free survival events than those in the placebo group (116 vs 163 events; stratified hazard ratio 0·73, 95% CI 0·57-0·92, p=0·0083). The 5-year invasive disease-free survival was 90·2% (95% CI 88·3-91·8) in the neratinib group and 87·7% (85·7-89·4) in the placebo group. Without diarrhoea prophylaxis, the most common grade 3-4 adverse events in the neratinib group, compared with the placebo group, were diarrhoea (561 [40%] grade 3 and one [<1%] grade 4 with neratinib vs 23 [2%] grade 3 with placebo), vomiting (grade 3: 47 [3%] vs five [<1%]), and nausea (grade 3: 26 [2%] vs two [<1%]). Treatment-emergent serious adverse events occurred in 103 (7%) women in the neratinib group and 85 (6%) women in the placebo group. No evidence of increased risk of long-term toxicity or long-term adverse consequences of neratinib-associated diarrhoea were identified with neratinib compared with placebo. INTERPRETATION:At the 5-year follow-up, 1 year of extended adjuvant therapy with neratinib, administered after chemotherapy and trastuzumab, significantly reduced the proportion of clinically relevant breast cancer relapses-ie, those that might lead to death, such as distant and locoregional relapses outside the preserved breast-without increasing the risk of long-term toxicity. An analysis of overall survival is planned after 248 events. FUNDING:Wyeth, Pfizer, and Puma Biotechnology. 10.1016/S1470-2045(17)30717-9
    Pembrolizumab plus trastuzumab in trastuzumab-resistant, advanced, HER2-positive breast cancer (PANACEA): a single-arm, multicentre, phase 1b-2 trial. Loi Sherene,Giobbie-Hurder Anita,Gombos Andrea,Bachelot Thomas,Hui Rina,Curigliano Giuseppe,Campone Mario,Biganzoli Laura,Bonnefoi Hervé,Jerusalem Guy,Bartsch Rupert,Rabaglio-Poretti Manuela,Kammler Roswitha,Maibach Rudolf,Smyth Mark J,Di Leo Angelo,Colleoni Marco,Viale Giuseppe,Regan Meredith M,André Fabrice, The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:HER2-positive breast cancers usually contain large amounts of T-cell infiltrate. We hypothesised that trastuzumab resistance in HER2-positive breast cancer could be mediated by immune mechanisms. We assessed the safety and anti-tumour activity of pembrolizumab, a programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor, added to trastuzumab in trastuzumab-resistant, advanced HER2-positive breast cancer. METHODS:We did this single-arm, multicentre, phase 1b-2 trial in 11 centres based in five countries. Eligible participants were women aged 18 years or older, who had advanced, histologically confirmed, HER2-positive breast cancer; documented progression during previous trastuzumab-based therapy; an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1; and a formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded metastatic tumour biopsy for central assessment of programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) status. In phase 1b, we enrolled patients with PD-L1-positive tumours in a 3 + 3 dose-escalation of intravenous pembrolizumab (2 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, every 3 weeks) plus 6 mg/kg of intravenous trastuzumab. The primary endpoint of the phase 1b study was the incidence of dose-limiting toxicity and recommended phase 2 dose; however, a protocol amendment on Aug 28, 2015, stipulated a flat dose of pembrolizumab of 200 mg every 3 weeks in all Merck-sponsored trials. In phase 2, patients with PD-L1-positive and PD-L1-negative tumours were enrolled in parallel cohorts and received the flat dose of pembrolizumab plus standard trastuzumab. The primary endpoint of the phase 2 study was the proportion of PD-L1-positive patients achieving an objective response. This trial is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02129556, and with EudraCT, number 2013-004770-10, and is closed. FINDINGS:Between Feb 2, 2015, and April 5, 2017, six patients were enrolled in phase 1b (n=3 received 2 mg/kg pembrolizumab, n=3 received 10 mg/kg pembrolizumab) and 52 patients in phase 2 (n=40 had PD-L1-positive tumours, n=12 had PD-L1-negative tumours). The data cutoff for this analysis was Aug 7, 2017. During phase 1b, there were no dose-limiting toxicities in the dose cohorts tested. Median follow-up for the phase 2 cohort was 13·6 months (IQR 11·6-18·4) for patients with PD-L1-positive tumours, and 12·2 months (7·9-12·2) for patients with PD-L1-negative tumours. Six (15%, 90% CI 7-29) of 40 PD-L1-positive patients achieved an objective response. There were no objective responders among the PD-L1-negative patients. The most common treatment-related adverse event of any grade was fatigue (12 [21%] of 58 patients). Grade 3-5 adverse events occurred in 29 (50%) of patients, treatment-related grade 3-5 adverse events occurred in 17 (29%), and serious adverse events occurred in 29 (50%) patients. The most commonly occurring serious adverse events were dyspnoea (n=3 [5%]), pneumonitis (n=3 [5%]), pericardial effusion (n=2 [3%]), and upper respiratory infection (n=2 [3%]). There was one treatment-related death due to Lambert-Eaton syndrome in a PD-L1-negative patient during phase 2. INTERPRETATION:Pembrolizumab plus trastuzumab was safe and showed activity and durable clinical benefit in patients with PD-L1-positive, trastuzumab-resistant, advanced, HER2-positive breast cancer. Further studies in this breast cancer subtype should focus on a PD-L1-positive population and be done in less heavily pretreated patients. FUNDING:Merck, International Breast Cancer Study Group. 10.1016/S1470-2045(18)30812-X
    Phase III, Randomized Study of Dual Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) Blockade With Lapatinib Plus Trastuzumab in Combination With an Aromatase Inhibitor in Postmenopausal Women With HER2-Positive, Hormone Receptor-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer: ALTERNATIVE. Johnston Stephen R D,Hegg Roberto,Im Seock-Ah,Park In Hae,Burdaeva Olga,Kurteva Galina,Press Michael F,Tjulandin Sergei,Iwata Hiroji,Simon Sergio D,Kenny Sarah,Sarp Severine,Izquierdo Miguel A,Williams Lisa S,Gradishar William J Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology Purpose Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) targeting plus endocrine therapy (ET) improved clinical benefit in HER2-positive, hormone receptor (HR)-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) versus ET alone. Dual HER2 blockade enhances clinical benefit versus single HER2 blockade. The ALTERNATIVE study evaluated the efficacy and safety of dual HER2 blockade plus aromatase inhibitor (AI) in postmenopausal women with HER2-positive/HR-positive MBC who received prior ET and prior neo(adjuvant)/first-line trastuzumab (TRAS) plus chemotherapy. Methods Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive lapatinib (LAP) + TRAS + AI, TRAS + AI, or LAP + AI. Patients for whom chemotherapy was intended were excluded. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS; investigator assessed) with LAP + TRAS + AI versus TRAS + AI. Secondary end points were PFS (comparison of other arms), overall survival, overall response rate, clinical benefit rate, and safety. Results Three hundred fifty-five patients were included in this analysis: LAP + TRAS + AI (n = 120), TRAS + AI (n = 117), and LAP + AI (n = 118). Baseline characteristics were balanced. The study met its primary end point; superior PFS was observed with LAP + TRAS + AI versus TRAS + AI (median PFS, 11 v 5.7 months; hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.88; P = .0064). Consistent PFS benefit was observed in predefined subgroups. Overall response rate, clinical benefit rate, and overall survival also favored LAP + TRAS + AI. The median PFS with LAP + AI versus TRAS + AI was 8.3 versus 5.7 months (hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.98; P = .0361). Common adverse events (AEs; ≥ 15%) with LAP + TRAS + AI, TRAS + AI, and LAP + AI were diarrhea (69%, 9%, and 51%, respectively), rash (36%, 2%, and 28%, respectively), nausea (22%, 9%, and 22%, respectively), and paronychia (30%, 0%, and 15%, respectively), mostly grade 1 or 2. Serious AEs were reported similarly across the three groups, and AEs leading to discontinuation were lower with LAP + TRAS + AI. Conclusion Dual HER2 blockade with LAP + TRAS + AI showed superior PFS benefit versus TRAS + AI in patients with HER2-positive/HR-positive MBC. This combination offers an effective and safe chemotherapy-sparing alternative treatment regimen for this patient population. 10.1200/JCO.2017.74.7824
    Tucatinib with capecitabine and trastuzumab in advanced HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer with and without brain metastases: a non-randomised, open-label, phase 1b study. Murthy Rashmi,Borges Virginia F,Conlin Alison,Chaves Jorge,Chamberlain Marc,Gray Todd,Vo Alex,Hamilton Erika The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:Tucatinib is a potent and selective oral HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, with the potential to provide a well tolerated new treatment option for patients whose disease has progressed on currently available therapies. We aimed to determine the recommended phase 2 dose, safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary activity of tucatinib in combination with capecitabine or trastuzumab in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer with or without brain metastases. METHODS:In this non-randomised, open-label, phase 1b trial done in five sites in the USA, we recruited patients aged 18 years or older with HER2-positive progressive breast cancer who had been previously treated with trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and trastuzumab emtansine. Eligible patients required HER2-positivity assessed locally, evaluable lesions as defined per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. Tucatinib was administered twice a day in conjunction with capecitabine 1000 mg/m orally twice a day for 14 days of a 21-day cycle, trastuzumab 6 mg/kg intravenously once every 21 days, or both. A modified 3 + 3 dose-escalation design was used to determine the recommended phase 2 dose, starting with tucatinib in combination with capecitabine or trastuzumab, and subsequently evaluating the triplet combination. The primary endpoint was to establish the maximum tolerated dose and recommended phase 2 dose of tucatinib, evaluated by toxicity assessments. Efficacy was assessed in all patients by contrast CT of the body. Analyses included all patients who had received at least one dose of study treatment. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02025192. FINDINGS:Between Jan 15, 2014, and Dec 15, 2015, 60 patients were enrolled and treated. The current report is from mature data as of June 30, 2017. The tucatinib recommended phase 2 dose was determined to be 300 mg orally twice a day, equivalent to single-agent maximum tolerated dose. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed that there was no drug-drug interaction with capecitabine. Adverse events seen at the recommended phase 2 dose regardless of causality, grade, and treatment group included diarrhoea (35 [67%] of 52 patients), nausea (31 [60%] patients), palmar-plantar erythrodysaesthesia syndrome (23 [44%] patients), fatigue (20 [38%] patients), and vomiting (20 [38%] patients). In all patients, treatment-related toxicities of grade 3 and worse included fatigue (five [8%] patients), diarrhoea (four [7%] patients), and palmar-plantar erythrodysaesthesia (four [7%] patients). No treatment-related deaths were reported. The proportion of patients with measurable disease achieving objective response was 83% (five of six patients) in the combination of tucatinib with capecitabine, 40% (six of 15 patients) in the combination of tucatinib with trastuzumab, and 61% (14 of 23 patients) in the combination of tucatinib with both capecitabine and trastuzumab. INTERPRETATION:Tucatinib in combination with capecitabine and trastuzumab had acceptable toxicity and showed preliminary anti-tumour activity. Validation of the current study results will be determined in the double-blinded randomised study, HER2CLIMB (ONT-380-206; NCT02614794). FUNDING:Cascadian Therapeutics, a wholly owned subsidiary of Seattle Genetics. 10.1016/S1470-2045(18)30256-0
    A retrospective, multicenter study of the efficacy of lapatinib plus trastuzumab in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients previously treated with trastuzumab, lapatinib, or both: the Trastyvere study. Gavilá J,De La Haba J,Bermejo B,Rodríguez-Lescure Á,Antón A,Ciruelos E,Brunet J,Muñoz-Couselo E,Santisteban M,Rodríguez Sánchez C A,Santaballa A,Sánchez Rovira P,García Sáenz J Á,Ruiz-Borrego M,Guerrero-Zotano A L,Huerta M,Cotes-Sanchís A,Lao Romera J,Aguirre E,Cortés J,Llombart-Cussac A Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico PURPOSE:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of lapatinib (L) and trastuzumab (T) combination in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients previously treated with T and/or L. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We conducted a retrospective, post-authorized, multicenter study including patients with HER2-positive MBC or locally advanced breast cancer (ABC) treated with the combination of L-T. Concomitant endocrine therapy, as well as brain metastasis and/or prior exposure to L, were allowed. RESULTS:One hundred and fifteen patients from 14 institutions were included. The median age was 59.8 years. The median number of prior T regimens in the advanced setting was 3 and 73 patients had received a prior L regimen. The clinical benefit rate (CBR) was 34.8% (95% CI 26.1-43.5). Among other efficacy endpoints, the overall response rate was 21.7%, and median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival were 3.9 and 21.6 months, respectively. Heavily pretreated and ≥ 3 metastatic organ patients showed lower CBR and PFS than patients with a low number of previous regimens and < 3 metastatic organs. Moreover, CBR did not significantly change in L-pretreated compared with L-naïve patients (31.5% versus 40.5% for L-pretreated versus L-naïve). Grade 3/4 adverse events were reported in 19 patients (16.5%). CONCLUSION:The combination of L-T is an effective and well-tolerated regimen in heavily pretreated patients and remains active among patients progressing on prior L-based therapy. Our study suggests that the L-T regimen is a safe and active chemotherapy-free option for MBC patients previously treated with T and/or L. 10.1007/s12094-019-02145-4
    Tucatinib Combined With Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine in Advanced ERBB2/HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Phase 1b Clinical Trial. Borges Virginia F,Ferrario Cristiano,Aucoin Nathalie,Falkson Carla,Khan Qamar,Krop Ian,Welch Stephen,Conlin Alison,Chaves Jorge,Bedard Philippe L,Chamberlain Marc,Gray Todd,Vo Alex,Hamilton Erika JAMA oncology Importance:Treatment options for patients with disease progression after treatment with trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) are limited. Tucatinib is an oral, potent, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) being developed as a novel treatment for ERBB2/HER2-positive breast cancer. Objective:To determine the maximum tolerated dosage of tucatinib in combination with T-DM1 in the treatment of patients with ERBB2/HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer with and without brain metastases. Design, Setting, and Participants:In this phase 1b open-label, multicenter, clinical trial, 57 participants enrolled between January 22, 2014, and June 22, 2015, were 18 years of age or older with ERBB2/HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer previously treated with trastuzumab and a taxane. Data were analyzed between January and March 2018. Interventions:Tucatinib 300 mg or 350 mg administered orally twice per day for 21 days and T-DM1 3.6 mg/kg administered intravenously once every 21 days. Main Outcomes and Measures:Safety assessments, pharmacokinetics, and response were assessed using RECIST 1.1 every 2 cycles for 6 cycles, followed by every 3 cycles. Results:Fifty-seven T-DM1-naive patients (median [IQR] 51 [44.0-63.0] years of age) who had undergone a median of 2 earlier HER2 therapies (range, 1-3) were treated. The tucatinib maximum tolerated dosage was determined to be 300 mg administered twice per day with dose-limiting toxic reactions seen at 350 mg twice per day. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed that there was no drug-drug interaction with T-DM1. Adverse events seen among the 50 patients treated at the maximum tolerated dosage regardless of causality included nausea (36 patients; 72%), diarrhea (30 patients; 60%), fatigue (28 patients; 56%), epistaxis (22 patients; 44%), headache (22 patients; 44%), vomiting (21 patients; 42%), constipation (21 patients; 42%), and decreased appetite (20 patients; 40%); the majority of adverse events were grade 1 or 2. Tucatinib-related toxic reactions that were grade 3 and above included thrombocytopenia (7 patients; 14%) and hepatic transaminitis (6 patients; 12%). Conclusions and Relevance:In this study, tucatinib in combination with T-DM1 appeared to have acceptable toxicity and to show preliminary antitumor activity among heavily pretreated patients with ERBB2/HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer with and without brain metastases. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01983501. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2018.1812
    Dual mTOR Kinase Inhibitor MLN0128 Sensitizes HR/HER2 Breast Cancer Patient-Derived Xenografts to Trastuzumab or Fulvestrant. Hsu Pei-Yin,Wu Victoria Shang,Kanaya Noriko,Petrossian Karineh,Hsu Hang-Kai,Nguyen Duc,Schmolze Daniel,Kai Masaya,Liu Chun-Yu,Lu Hannah,Chu Peiguo,Vito Courtney A,Kruper Laura,Mortimer Joanne,Chen Shiuan Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research Therapeutic strategies against hormonal receptor-positive (HR)/HER2 breast cancers with poor response to trastuzumab need to be optimized. Two HR/HER2 patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models named as COH-SC1 and COH-SC31 were established to explore targeted therapies for HER2 breast cancers. RNA sequencing and RPPA (reverse phase protein array) analyses were conducted to decipher molecular features of the two PDXs and define the therapeutic strategy of interest, validated by drug efficacy examination and cell proliferation analysis. Estrogen acted as a growth driver of trastuzumab-resistant COH-SC31 tumors but an accelerator in the trastuzumab-sensitive COH-SC1 model. trastuzumab efficacy examination further confirmed the consistent responses between PDXs and the corresponding tumors. Integrative omics analysis revealed that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ERα signaling predominantly regulate tumor growth of the two HR/HER2 PDXs. Combination of the dual mTOR complex inhibitor MLN0128 and anti-HER2 trastuzumab strongly suppressed tumor growth of COH-SC1 PDX accompanied by increasing ER-positive cell population Instead, MLN0128 in combination with antiestrogen fulvestrant significantly halted the growth of HR/HER2 cancer cells and trastuzumab-resistant COH-SC31 as well as trastuzumab-sensitive COH-SC1 tumors Compared with the standard trastuzumab treatment, this study demonstrates alternative therapeutic strategies against HR/HER2 tumors through establishment of two PDXs coupled with integrative omics analyses and drug efficacy examination. This work presents a prototype of future "co-clinical" trials to tailor personalized medicine in clinical practice. . 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-1983
    Neratinib in Combination With Trastuzumab for the Treatment of Patients With Advanced HER2-positive Breast Cancer: A Phase I/II Study. Blackwell Kimberly L,Zaman Khalil,Qin Shukui,Tkaczuk Katherine H R,Campone Mario,Hunt Daniel,Bryce Richard,Goldstein Lori J, Clinical breast cancer BACKGROUND:Despite the availability of several human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-directed treatments, many HER2-positive (HER2) breast cancers eventually progress because of primary or acquired resistance. PATIENTS AND METHODS:A 2-part, open-label, multicenter phase I/II study was conducted to determine the recommended dose of neratinib when administered with trastuzumab (part I), and to assess the antitumor activity of this combination in women with locally advanced or metastatic HER2 breast cancer previously treated with at least 1 prior trastuzumab-based regimen (part II). Patients received oral neratinib (160 or 240 mg/d) once daily plus intravenous trastuzumab 4 mg/kg (loading dose) then 2 mg/kg weekly. Diarrhea prophylaxis was not permitted. The primary endpoint in part II was investigator-assessed 16-week progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS:Forty-five patients received neratinib plus trastuzumab (part I: neratinib 160 mg/d, n = 4; neratinib 240 mg/d, n = 4; part II: neratinib 240 mg/d, n = 37). In part I, there were no dose-limiting toxicities and the recommended neratinib dose was 240 mg/d. In part II, the 16-week PFS rate was 44.8% (90% confidence interval, 28.8%-59.6%), and the median PFS was 15.9 weeks (95% confidence interval, 15.1-31.3 weeks) in 28 evaluable patients. Three patients had durable clinical benefit lasting 9.4 to 9.7 years. Diarrhea was the most common adverse event (grade 3, n = 7 [15.6%]; grade 4, n = 0). No clinically significant cardiac toxicity was seen. CONCLUSIONS:Neratinib in combination with trastuzumab was well-tolerated and had encouraging antitumor activity in patients with advanced trastuzumab-pretreated HER2 breast cancer. Durable responses can be achieved in some patients. 10.1016/j.clbc.2018.12.011
    Tucatinib, Trastuzumab, and Capecitabine for HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer. Murthy Rashmi K,Loi Sherene,Okines Alicia,Paplomata Elisavet,Hamilton Erika,Hurvitz Sara A,Lin Nancy U,Borges Virginia,Abramson Vandana,Anders Carey,Bedard Philippe L,Oliveira Mafalda,Jakobsen Erik,Bachelot Thomas,Shachar Shlomit S,Müller Volkmar,Braga Sofia,Duhoux Francois P,Greil Richard,Cameron David,Carey Lisa A,Curigliano Giuseppe,Gelmon Karen,Hortobagyi Gabriel,Krop Ian,Loibl Sibylle,Pegram Mark,Slamon Dennis,Palanca-Wessels M Corinna,Walker Luke,Feng Wentao,Winer Eric P The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer who have disease progression after therapy with multiple HER2-targeted agents have limited treatment options. Tucatinib is an investigational, oral, highly selective inhibitor of the HER2 tyrosine kinase. METHODS:We randomly assigned patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer previously treated with trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and trastuzumab emtansine, who had or did not have brain metastases, to receive either tucatinib or placebo, in combination with trastuzumab and capecitabine. The primary end point was progression-free survival among the first 480 patients who underwent randomization. Secondary end points, assessed in the total population (612 patients), included overall survival, progression-free survival among patients with brain metastases, confirmed objective response rate, and safety. RESULTS:Progression-free survival at 1 year was 33.1% in the tucatinib-combination group and 12.3% in the placebo-combination group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42 to 0.71; P<0.001), and the median duration of progression-free survival was 7.8 months and 5.6 months, respectively. Overall survival at 2 years was 44.9% in the tucatinib-combination group and 26.6% in the placebo-combination group (hazard ratio for death, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.88; P = 0.005), and the median overall survival was 21.9 months and 17.4 months, respectively. Among the patients with brain metastases, progression-free survival at 1 year was 24.9% in the tucatinib-combination group and 0% in the placebo-combination group (hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.69; P<0.001), and the median progression-free survival was 7.6 months and 5.4 months, respectively. Common adverse events in the tucatinib group included diarrhea, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome, nausea, fatigue, and vomiting. Diarrhea and elevated aminotransferase levels of grade 3 or higher were more common in the tucatinib-combination group than in the placebo-combination group. CONCLUSIONS:In heavily pretreated patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, including those with brain metastases, adding tucatinib to trastuzumab and capecitabine resulted in better progression-free survival and overall survival outcomes than adding placebo; the risks of diarrhea and elevated aminotransferase levels were higher with tucatinib. (Funded by Seattle Genetics; HER2CLIMB ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02614794.). 10.1056/NEJMoa1914609
    WEE1 inhibitor, AZD1775, overcomes trastuzumab resistance by targeting cancer stem-like properties in HER2-positive breast cancer. Sand Andrea,Piacsek Mitchel,Donohoe Deborah L,Duffin Aspen T,Riddell Geoffrey T,Sun Chaoyang,Tang Ming,Rovin Richard A,Tjoe Judy A,Yin Jun Cancer letters Although trastuzumab has greatly improved the outcome of HER2-positive breast cancer, the emergence of resistance hampers its clinical benefits. Trastuzumab resistance is a multi-factorial consequence predominantly due to presence of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). AZD1775, a potent anti-cancer agent targeting WEE1 kinase to drive tumor cells with DNA damage to premature mitosis, has previously shown high efficacies when targeting different cancers with a well-tolerated cytotoxic profile, but has not been evaluated in trastuzumab-resistant (TrR) breast cancer. We sought to investigate the effect of AZD1775 on cancer stem-like cell (CSC) properties, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation in TrR breast cancer. Our study for the first time demonstrated that AZD1775 induces apoptosis and arrests TrR cells at G2/M phase. More importantly, AZD1775 effectively targeted CSC properties by suppressing MUC1 expression levels. AZD1775 administration also induced apoptosis in our in-house patient-derived tumor cell line at passage 0, implying its significant clinical relevance. These findings highlight the potential clinical application of AZD1775 in overcoming trastuzumab resistance in breast cancer. 10.1016/j.canlet.2019.12.023