Preoperative gastric residual volumes in fasted patients measured by bedside ultrasound: a prospective observational study.
Ohashi Y,Walker J C,Zhang F,Prindiville F E,Hanrahan J P,Mendelson R,Corcoran T
Anaesthesia and intensive care
The purpose of this prospective observational study was to measure gastric volumes in fasted patients using bedside gastric ultrasound. Patients presenting for non-emergency surgery underwent a gastric antrum assessment, using the two-diameter and free-trace methods to determine antral cross-sectional area (CSA). Gastric residual volume (GRV) was calculated using a validated formula. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to examine any potential relationships between 'at risk' GRVs (>100 ml) and patient factors. Two hundred and twenty-two successful scans were performed; of these 110 patients (49.5%) had an empty stomach, nine patients (4.1%) had a GRV >100 ml, and a further six patients (2.7%) had a GRV >1.5 ml/kg. There was no significant relationship between at risk GRV and obesity, diabetes mellitus, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease or opioid use, although our study had insufficient power to exclude an influence of one or more of these factors. Our results indicate that despite compliance with fasting guidelines, a small percentage of patients still have GRVs that pose a pulmonary aspiration risk. Anaesthetists should consider this background incidence when choosing anaesthesia techniques for their patients. While future observational studies are required to determine the role of preoperative bedside gastric ultrasound, it is possible that this technique may assist anaesthetists in identifying patients with 'at risk' GRVs.
Postendoscopic duodenal hematoma in children: ultrasound diagnosis and follow-up.
Dumitriu Dana,Menten Renaud,Smets Françoise,Clapuyt Philippe
Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
Intramural duodenal hematomas have most frequently been reported in children in a traumatic setting. We present two cases of duodenal hematoma that occurred after upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy with biopsy in children without significant prior medical history. The diagnosis was made by ultrasound, in correlation with the clinical presentation. Because the patients were hemodynamically stable, they were treated conservatively and the regression of the hematoma was followed up with ultrasound until its complete resolution. These cases demonstrate the risks of endoscopy, which are not to be neglected even in children without impaired coagulation, and the manner in which ultrasound can provide the correct diagnosis and follow-up.
Ultrasound assessment of gastric volume in the fasted pediatric patient undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: development of a predictive model using endoscopically suctioned volumes.
Spencer Adam O,Walker Andrew M,Yeung Alfred K,Lardner David R,Yee Kevin,Mulvey Jamin M,Perlas Anahi
BACKGROUND:Aspiration of gastric contents can be a serious anesthetic-related complication. Gastric antral sonography prior to anesthesia may have a role in identifying pediatric patients at risk of aspiration. We examined the relationship between sonographic antral area and endoscopically suctioned gastric volumes, and whether a 3-point qualitative grading system is applicable in pediatric patients. METHODS:Fasted patients presenting to a pediatric hospital for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were included in the study. Sonographic measurement of the antral cross-sectional area (CSA) in supine (supine CSA) and right lateral decubitus (RLD CSA) position was completed, and the antrum was designated as empty or nonempty. Gastric contents were endoscopically suctioned and measured. Multiple regression analysis was used to fit a mathematical model to estimate gastric volume. RESULTS:One hundred patients (aged 11-216 months) were included. The gastric antrum was measured in 94% and 99% of patients in the supine and RLD positions, respectively. Gastric antral CSA correlated with total gastric volume in both supine (ρ = 0.63) and RLD (ρ = 0.67) positions. A mathematical model incorporating RLD CSA and age (R(2) = 0.60) was determined as the best-fit model to predict gastric volumes. Increasing gastric antral grade (0-2) was associated with increasing gastric fluid volume. CONCLUSION:The results suggest that sonographic assessment of the gastric antrum provides useful information regarding gastric content (empty versus nonempty) and volume (ml·kg(-1) ) in pediatric patients. Results suggest that the three-point grading system may be a valuable tool to assess gastric 'fullness' based on a qualitative exam of the antrum.
Intestinal ultrasound for monitoring therapeutic response in patients with ulcerative colitis: results from the TRUST&UC study.
Maaser Christian,Petersen Frauke,Helwig Ulf,Fischer Imma,Roessler Alexander,Rath Stefan,Lang Dorothee,Kucharzik Torsten, ,
OBJECTIVE:Prospective evaluation of intestinal ultrasound (IUS) for disease monitoring of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) in routine medical practice. DESIGN:TRansabdominal Ultrasonography of the bowel in Subjects with IBD To monitor disease activity with UC (TRUST&UC) was a prospective, observational study at 42 German inflammatory bowel disease-specialised centres representing different care levels. Patients with a diagnosis of a proctosigmoiditis, left-sided colitis or pancolitis currently in clinical relapse (defined as Short Clinical Colitis Activity Index ≥5) were enrolled consecutively. Disease activity and vascularisation within the affected bowel wall areas were assessed by duplex/Colour Doppler ultrasonography. RESULTS:At baseline, 88.5% (n=224) of the patients had an increased bowel wall thickness (BWT) in the descending or sigmoid colon. Even within the first 2 weeks of the study, the percentage of patients with an increased BWT in the sigmoid or descending colon decreased significantly (sigmoid colon 89.3%-38.6%; descending colon 83.0%-42.9%; p<0.001 each) and remained low at week 6 and 12 (sigmoid colon 35.4% and 32.0%; descending colon 43.4% and 37.6%; p<0.001 each). Normalisation of BWT and clinical response after 12 weeks of treatment showed a high correlation (90.5% of patients with normalised BWT had symptomatic response vs 9.5% without symptomatic response; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:IUS may be preferred in general practice in a point-of-care setting for monitoring the disease course and for assessing short-term treatment response. Our findings give rise to the assumption that monitoring BWT alone has the potential to predict the therapeutic response, which has to be verified in future studies.
Abdominal Ultrasound for the Evaluation of Gastric Emptying Revisited.
Muresan Crina,Surdea Blaga Teodora,Muresan Lucian,Dumitrascu Dan L
Journal of gastrointestinal and liver diseases : JGLD
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Disorders of gastrointestinal transit and motility are frequently found in the general population, impacting the quality of life and increasing the costs of health care services. Ultrasonographic assessment of gastric emptying is a method introduced in the early 1980s for the evaluation of dyspepsia. The aim of this paper was to assess the current role of abdominal ultrasound in the evaluation of gastric emptying. METHOD:Using the keywords "ultrasound and gastric emptying", "echography and gastric emptying", "3D and gastric emptying" and "strain rate imaging and gastric emptying" the PubMed database was screened for publications on ultrasonography evaluating gastric emptying in adults from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2014. RESULTS:281 papers were identified, of which only 21 randomized studies, 18 comparative and 18 non-comparative studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies were conducted on healthy subjects for research purposes. Thirteen studies were performed on patients with functional dyspepsia, of which 6 studies assessed treatment efficacy. Other indications for ultrasound gastric emptying evaluation were: diabetes mellitus, scleroderma, metabolic syndrome, asthma, Parkinson's disease, and obesity. Using abdominal ultrasound, delayed gastric emptying was found in 10% of patients with functional dyspepsia, 48.5% of patients with longstanding diabetes and 65-70% of patients with systemic sclerosis with a disease duration of more than 10 years. CONCLUSION:Functional ultrasonography is a non-invasive method used for research or practical purposes that brings an insight into gastric emptying in healthy individuals, and in individuals with functional and motility gastrointestinal disorders.
The features of intestinal tuberculosis by contrast-enhanced ultrasound.
Yang Gaoyi,Zhang Wenzhi,Yu Tianzhuo,Meng Jun,Zhao Dan,Zhang Xu,Xu Jianping,Ning He
Japanese journal of radiology
PURPOSE:To examine the imaging characteristics of intestinal tuberculosis by conventional ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). MATERIALS AND METHODS:Characteristics of the conventional and contrast-enhanced ultrasound images of 31 patients with intestinal tuberculosis confirmed by surgery were retrospectively examined. CEUS was used to evaluate the pattern of the bowel wall enhancement. RESULTS:Of the 31 patients with intestinal tuberculosis (IT), 27 had infections located at the ileocecum and 4 at the hepatic flexure of the colon. Conventional ultrasound showed that the mean thickening of bowel wall was 1.38 cm, ranging from 0.56 to 2.20 cm. Two types of bowel wall enhancement patterns on CEUS were observed. For 13 % of the patients (4/31), the serosa was quickly enhanced first, then the mucosa was enhanced gradually (type 1 enhancement). In the remaining 27 patients, the whole bowel wall was quickly diffusely enhanced (type 2 enhancement). In addition, the enhancement of the thickened bowel wall was homogeneous in 9 patients, while the others showed inhomogeneous enhancement. CONCLUSION:CEUS found detailed patterns of bowel wall enhancement of intestinal tuberculosis and had the potential to provide useful information for the diagnosis of suspected patients.
Gastrointestinal ultrasonography of normal Standardbred neonates and frequency of asymptomatic intussusceptions.
Abraham M,Reef V B,Sweeney R W,Navas de Solís C
Journal of veterinary internal medicine
BACKGROUND:Ultrasonographic appearance of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of equine neonates has not been completely described. OBJECTIVES:To describe (1) sonographic characteristics of the GI segments in normal nonsedated equine neonates, (2) intra- and interobserver variation in wall thickness, and (3) the sonographic appearance of asymptomatic intussusceptions, and (4) to compare age and sonographic findings of foals with and without asymptomatic intussusceptions. ANIMALS:Eighteen healthy Standardbred foals ≤5 days of age. METHODS:Prospective, cross-sectional blinded study. Gastrointestinal sonograms were performed stall-side. Intraobserver variability in wall thickness measurements was determined by calculating the coefficient of variation (CV). The Bland-Altman method was used to assess interobserver bias. Student's t-test and Fisher's exact test were used to test the association among presence of intussusceptions, age, and selected sonographic findings. RESULTS:The reference ranges (95% predictive interval) for wall thickness were 1.6-3.6 mm for the stomach, 1.9-3.2 mm for the duodenum, 1.9-3.1 mm for the jejunum, 1.3-2.2 mm for the colon, and 0.8-2.7 mm for the cecum. Intraobserver wall thickness CV ranged from 8 to 21% for the 2 observers for 5 gastrointestinal segments. The interobserver bias for wall thickness measurements was not significant except for the stomach (0.14 mm, P < .05) and duodenum (0.29 mm, P < .05). Diagnostic images of mural blood flow could not be obtained. Asymptomatic intussusceptions were found in 10/18 neonates. Associations between sonographic variables or age and the presence of intussusceptions were not found. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE:Sonographic characteristics of the GI tract of normal Standardbred neonates can be useful in evaluating ill foals. Asymptomatic small intestinal intussusceptions occur in normal Standardbred neonates.
Utility of bowel ultrasound in assessing disease activity in Crohn's disease.
Kakkadasam Ramaswamy Pradeep,Vizhi N Kayal,Yelsangikar Amit,Krishnamurthy Anupama Nagar,Bhat Vinay,Bhat Naresh
Indian journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
BACKGROUND:Gastrointestinal ultrasound (GIUS) has been used increasingly for monitoring inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of GIUS in assessing disease activity in Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS:Consecutive patients with CD (diagnosis established for at least 6 months) between July 2017 and July 2018 requiring assessment of disease activity were prospectively assessed by magnetic resonance enterography, colonoscopy (CS), and GIUS within a 2-week period and without any change in ongoing treatment. Features on GIUS which correlated with disease activity were assessed. Sensitivity and specificity of the GIUS in assessing disease activity and localization were calculated. RESULTS:Thirty-five patients were enrolled in the study. Bowel wall thickness (BWT) ≥ 3 mm and Doppler activity ≥ 2 had the highest sensitivity (100% and 95.6%, respectively) for detecting active disease on CS. BWT ≥ 3 mm had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100%, 83.3%, 92%, and 100%, respectively for assessing active disease. Combination of median BWT, Doppler activity, and loss of bowel wall stratification correlated with simplified endoscopic score (SES) for CD (r = 0.8, p 0.009) and Harvey-Bradshaw index (HBI, r = 0.76, p 0.04). For localizing active disease in the ileum, GIUS had a sensitivity of 93.7%, 80% for lesions in the right colon, 100% for transverse colon, and 89% for the left colon. Specificity was 100% for ileal and colonic lesions. CONCLUSION:Loss of stratification, BWT, and Doppler activity in the bowel wall correlate with endoscopic and clinical disease activity in CD. GIUS is a sensitive modality in assessing disease activity in CD.
Small Bowel Ultrasound beyond Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Updated Review of the Recent Literature.
Cavalcoli Federica,Zilli Alessandra,Fraquelli Mirella,Conte Dario,Massironi Sara
Ultrasound in medicine & biology
The use of bowel ultrasonography (US) for the evaluation of gut diseases has increased in recent years and has been proven to provide a widely available, non-invasive and inexpensive method for the initial work-up and follow-up of different intestinal diseases, limited mostly by technical challenges posed by the patient's anatomy. The present review aims to provide an extensive overview of the main pathologic features at US examination of intestinal diseases other than inflammatory bowel disease, both acute (e.g., acute appendicitis, colonic diverticulitis, infectious diseases and ischemic conditions) and chronic (e.g., celiac disease, cystic fibrosis and other enterocolites). The identification of typical US features may help in the diagnostic process and guide the treatment approach. Therefore, the application of knowledge of the US appearance of gastrointestinal diseases is of relevance in enabling greater diagnostic performance and better patient management.
Interrater reliability of the assessment of disease activity by gastrointestinal ultrasound in a prospective cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Smith Rebecca L,Taylor Kirstin M,Friedman Antony B,Su Heidi Y,Con Danny,Gibson Peter R
European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
OBJECTIVE:Gastrointestinal ultrasound is a radiological investigation for monitoring patients with inflammatory bowel disease. However, the reliability of the findings depends on the reproducibility of results between different operators. Thus, the study aim was to assess the interrater reliability of gastrointestinal ultrasound in individuals with inflammatory bowel disease between gastroenterologists with varying GIUS experience. . METHODS:Patients were prospectively recruited at the commencement of a new medical therapy for a baseline assessment, with a second assessment at the end of treatment induction (3 months). Consecutive, blinded ultrasounds were performed by two operators for every test. Gastrointestinal ultrasound examination included assessment of bowel wall thickness, vascularity, wall stratification assessment, mesenteric hyperechogenicity and lymphadenopathy. RESULTS:Forty-nine patients were recruited (Crohn's n = 27, ulcerative colitis n = 22) with 35 returning for a repeat assessment at 3 months. At baseline, the intraclass coefficient for bowel wall thickness was near perfect (0.882). By bowel segment, the closest correlation was in the terminal ileum and differences in bowel wall thickness were similar by disease subtype. All other ultrasound indices of disease activity demonstrated substantial to near-perfect agreement with Gwet's agreement coefficient: vascularity (0.681), wall stratification (0.685), mesenteric hyperechogenicity (0.841) and lymphadenopathy (0.633). Similar findings were seen at 3 months. CONCLUSION:There is substantial agreement between operators of varying experience in gastrointestinal ultrasound findings in patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis and this is repeatedly demonstrated over time. Thus, a well-trained operator should be sufficient to assess disease activity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Gastrointestinal ultrasound in neonates, infants and children.
Lobo Maria Luisa,Roque Mariana
European journal of radiology
Today US plays an important and increasing role in the assessment of many, partially age-specific conditions in the GI tract in neonates, infants and children. Knowledge of the potential capabilities of US and its restrictions together with a skillful performance of GI US examination can provide essential anatomic and functional diagnostic information in many pediatric GI disorders. The aim of this review is to highlight the potential of ultrasound (US) in the evaluation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in neonates, infants and children. Basic and potential applications of modern US tools in pediatric GI tract are addressed, the GI US examination technique is discussed - including some common and/or typical clinical applications of and indications for US.
Diagnostic accuracy and interobserver agreement of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the evaluation of residual lesions after treatment for malignant lymphoma and testicular cancer: a retrospective pilot study in 52 patients
Peil-Grun Anke,Trenker Corinna,Görg Konrad,Neesse Albrecht,Haasenritter Jörg,Görg Christian
Leukemia & lymphoma
Value of contrast-enhanced-ultrasound (CEUS) in the evaluation of residual lesions (RL) after therapy in patients with malignant lymphomas (ML) and testicular cancer (TC) with regard to tumor activity. From May 2004-October 2010, in = 52 patients with ML ( = 34) or TC ( = 18) and RL, B-mode-imaging and CEUS of the RL was performed. In CEUS, differentiation was made between high-enhancement (HE), low-(LE) or no-enhancement (NE) of the RL after therapy. Data were retrospectively evaluated. A positive test result (HE) was found in = 13 (25%); a negative test result (LE/NE) in = 39 (75%) patients. Sensitivity was 72.7%, specificity 87.8%, positive likelihood-ratio 5.96, negative likelihood-ratio 0.31. In the subgroup of ML a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 86.2% was reached. Active residual disease in ML and TC is associated with a marked enhancement, so CEUS might be helpful in the evaluation of RL, especially to exclude residual disease.
Use of bedside abdominal ultrasound to confirm intestinal motility in neonates with gastroschisis: A feasibility study.
Gurien Lori A,Wyrick Deidre L,Dassinger Melvin S,Burford Jeffrey M,Mehl Steven C,Saylors Marie E,Smith Samuel D
Journal of pediatric surgery
BACKGROUND:Optimal timing to begin feeds in neonates with gastroschisis remains unclear. We examined if bedside abdominal ultrasound for intestinal motility is a feasible tool to detect return of bowel function in neonates with gastroschisis. METHODS:Neonates born with uncomplicated gastroschisis who underwent closure received daily ultrasound exams. Full motility was defined as peristalsis seen in all quadrants. Average length of time between abdominal wall closure and start of enteral feeds, full ultrasound motility, and clinical characteristics was compared using Student's t-tests. RESULTS:Seventeen patients were enrolled. No differences were found between motility on ultrasound and bowel movements, gastric residuals, or nonbilious residuals. Mean time to enteral feeds (11.82days) was significantly delayed compared to documentation of full motility on ultrasound (8.94days; p=0.012), consistent bowel movements (8.41days; p=0.006), low gastric residuals (9.47days; p<0.001), and nonbilious residuals (9.18days; p<0.001). In the single subject in which feeds were started before full motility was seen on ultrasound, feeds were subsequently discontinued because of emesis. CONCLUSION:Bedside abdominal ultrasound provides real-time evidence regarding intestinal motility and is a feasible tool to detect return of bowel function in neonates with gastroschisis. Future studies are needed to determine if abdominal ultrasound can shorten time to start of enteral feeds. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:III (diagnosis: nonconsecutive study).
Study on the Application of Ultrasonic Image Analysis Technology Combined with the Analysis of Intestinal Nervous System in the Treatment of Intestinal Duplication in Children.
Gao Yang,Chen Na,Zhong Yuanyuan,Wang Wei,Zhou Xin,Shao Fang,Lv Zhenxiang,Liang Xiaohong,Li Ping
This paper retrospectively analyzed 28 cases of children diagnosed with repeated intestinal malformations in our hospital from October 2014 to November 2016. The characteristics of ultrasound sonograms of children were evaluated. The images of intestinal repetitive malformations were classified and summarized to identify their common sites, the characteristics of various types of ultrasound sonograms, the main points of ultrasound diagnosis and identification, and the experience of ultrasound workers in daily inspection of children with repetitive malformations of the digestive tract. We analyzed the images of some common complications caused by repeated bowel malformations and identified the main points of ultrasound diagnosis. We then compared the results of ultrasound with other imaging findings, surgery, and pathologic results. At the same time, some special types of repeated bowel malformations were analyzed, discussed, and summarized to improve the understanding of ultrasound examination of gastrointestinal diseases in children, and show the superiority of children's abdominal intestine ultrasound. This study found that the ultrasound diagnosis of children with intestinal repetitive deformities has a high detection rate, clear images, clear anatomic levels, and clear blood flow conditions. Compared with other imaging methods, ultrasound has strong operability, real-time dynamics, strong specificity, and no radiation, and things are not easily misdiagnosed and missed. Therefore, ultrasound can be used as the preferred method for preoperative diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and postoperative follow-up review of repeated intestinal malformations in children.
EFSUMB Recommendations for Gastrointestinal Ultrasound Part 3: Endorectal, Endoanal and Perineal Ultrasound.
Nuernberg Dieter,Saftoiu Adrian,Barreiros Ana Paula,Burmester Eike,Ivan Elena Tatiana,Clevert Dirk-André,Dietrich Christoph F,Gilja Odd Helge,Lorentzen Torben,Maconi Giovanni,Mihmanli Ismail,Nolsoe Christian Pallson,Pfeffer Frank,Rafaelsen Søren Rafael,Sparchez Zeno,Vilmann Peter,Waage Jo Erling Riise
Ultrasound international open
This article represents part 3 of the EFSUMB Recommendations and Guidelines for Gastrointestinal Ultrasound (GIUS). It provides an overview of the examination techniques recommended by experts in the field of endorectal/endoanal ultrasound (ERUS/EAUS), as well as perineal ultrasound (PNUS). The most important indications are rectal tumors and inflammatory diseases like fistula and abscesses in patients with or without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). PNUS sometimes is more flexible and convenient compared to ERUS. However, the technique of ERUS is quite well established, especially for the staging of rectal cancer. EAUS also gained ground in the evaluation of perianal diseases like fistulas, abscesses and incontinence. For the staging of perirectal tumors, the use of PNUS in addition to conventional ERUS could be recommended. For the staging of anal carcinomas, PNUS can be a good option because of the higher resolution. Both ERUS and PNUS are considered excellent guidance methods for invasive interventions, such as the drainage of fluids or targeted biopsy of tissue lesions. For abscess detection and evaluation, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) also helps in therapy planning.
Role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in evaluation of the bowel.
Medellin Alexandra,Merrill Christina,Wilson Stephanie R
Abdominal radiology (New York)
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) of the gastrointestinal tract provides vascular information helpful for characterizing masses and other pathologies in and around the bowel, similar to contrast applications in other solid organs. However, the use of microbubble contrast agents for the bowel provides additional unique contributions as it gives both subjective and objective information about mural and mesenteric blood flow, invaluable for the determination of disease activity in those many patients affected by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD is a lifelong chronic disease and has its peak age of onset in adolescence or young adult life. Today, we have moved away from treating patient's symptoms and strive instead to alter the course of disease by obtaining mucosal healing. Expensive and aggressive biologic therapies and lack of agreement of patient's symptoms with their disease activity and complications necessitate frequent imaging surveillance, which must be safe, readily available, inexpensive, and effective. Ultrasound with the benefit of contrast enhancement meets these requirements and is shown in meta-analysis to be equivalent to CT and MRI scans for these indications.
The EFSUMB website, a great source for ultrasound information and education.
Dietrich Christoph F,Rudd Lynne,Saftiou Adrian,Gilja Odd Helge
The aim of this updated EFSUMB-website guide is to introduce readers to EFSUMB's wide ranging activities. The most recent are the guidelines on interventional ultrasound and intestinal ultrasound and updated CEUS Non-Liver and Elastography Liver Guidelines which can be freely downloaded. Hosting eBooks on our website is another new departure, most importantly the EFSUMB Course Book on Ultrasound available in a second edition as an eReader and an online Student Edition of the ECB. EFSUMB has been active with updating Guidelines; those mentioned above have all been revised or written in thelast two years. Webinars have been introduced and participation is possible online but can be reviewed later along with recent recordings of Euroson Schools. The EFSUMB Newsletter in the EJU promotes our activities and topical articles intended to reach all our members with the online version hosted on our website. The Case of the Month continues to be one of EFSUMB's most visited sites and in the last few years has been translated into 14 different languages including Chinese. In conclusion, this article aims to provide an updated guide to the website educational sites of the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB).
Detection of Intestinal Pneumatosis Location by Following Hyperechoic Foci in the Portal Vein Along Its Branches With Real-time Ultrasound.
Hosokawa Takahiro,Takahashi Hiroaki,Tanami Yutaka,Sato Yumiko,Hosokawa Mayumi,Oguma Eiji
Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Portal venous gas is occasionally encountered in children with intestinal pneumatosis, identified on real-time ultrasound imaging as hyperechoic foci with quick movement. The origin of the portal venous gas can be identified by following the hyperechoic foci along the branches of the portal vein, providing an estimate of the location of intestinal pneumatosis. This approach may be useful for predicting the patient's prognosis. Our report describes 2 cases of portal venous gas while estimating the area of intestinal pneumatosis, which were evaluated with real-time ultrasound.
Pediatric emergency gastrointestinal ultrasonography: pearls & pitfalls.
Meister Moshe,Alharthi Omar,Kim Jane S,Son Jennifer K
Ultrasonography is an essential tool in pediatric imaging, particularly in the emergency setting. Although ultrasound is often the favored initial modality for abdominal imaging in children, it is highly operator-dependent and therefore prone to misinterpretation which can lead to false positive or negative exams, or even incorrect diagnoses. Conditions discussed in this series include ileocolic intussusception, hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, appendicitis, and ingested foreign bodies. We will review diagnostic criteria, highlight crucial findings, and illustrate commonly-encountered difficulties and mimics.
Diagnostic point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) for gastrointestinal pathology: state of the art from basics to advanced.
Abu-Zidan Fikri M,Cevik Arif Alper
World journal of emergency surgery : WJES
The use of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) by non-radiologists has dramatically increased. POCUS is completely different from the routine radiological studies. POCUS is a Physiological, On spot, extension of the Clinical examination, that is Unique, and Safe. This review aims to lay the basic principles of using POCUS in diagnosing intestinal pathologies so as to encourage acute care physicians to learn and master this important tool. It will be a useful primer for clinicians who want to introduce POCUS into their clinical practice. It will cover the basic physics, technical aspects, and simple applications including detection of free fluid, free intraperitoneal air, and bowel obstruction followed by specific POCUS findings of the most common intestinal pathologies encountered by acute care physicians including acute appendicitis, epiploic appendagitis, acute diverticulitis, pseudomembranous colitis, intestinal tuberculosis, Crohn's disease, and colonic tumours. Deep understanding of the basic physics of ultrasound and its artefacts is the first step in mastering POCUS. This helps reaching an accurate POCUS diagnosis and avoiding its pitfalls. With increased skills, detailed and accurate POCUS findings of specific intestinal pathologies can be achieved and properly correlated with the clinical picture. We have personally experienced and enjoyed this approach to a stage that an ultrasound machine is always accompanying us in our clinical on calls and rounds.
Systematic Review: Gastrointestinal Ultrasound Scoring Indices for Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Goodsall Thomas M,Nguyen Tran M,Parker Claire E,Ma Christopher,Andrews Jane M,Jairath Vipul,Bryant Robert V
Journal of Crohn's & colitis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Serial measurements of luminal disease activity may facilitate inflammatory bowel disease management. Gastrointestinal ultrasound is an easily performed, non-invasive alternative to other assessment modes. However, its widespread use is limited by concerns regarding validity, reliability, and responsiveness. We systematically identified ultrasound scoring indices used to evaluate inflammatory bowel disease activity and examine their operating characteristics. METHODS:Electronic databases were searched from inception to June 14, 2019 using pre-defined terms. Studies that reported on gastrointestinal ultrasound index operating properties in an inflammatory bowel disease population were eligible for inclusion. Study characteristics, index components, and operating property data [ie, validity, reliability, responsiveness, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value] were extracted. The QUADAS-2 tool was used to examine study-level risk of bias. RESULTS:Of the 2610 studies identified, 26 studies reporting on 21 ultrasound indices were included. The most common index components included bowel wall thickness, colour Doppler imaging, and bowel wall stratification. The correlation between ultrasound indices and references standards ranged r = 0.62-0.95 and k = 0.40-0.96. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive values ranged 39-100%, 63-100%, 73-100%, 57-100%, and 40-100%, respectively. Reliability and responsiveness data were limited. Most [92%, 24/26] studies received at least one unclear or high risk of bias rating. CONCLUSIONS:Several gastrointestinal ultrasound indices for use in inflammatory bowel disease have been developed. Future research should focus on fully validating existing or novel gastrointestinal ultrasound scoring instruments for assessment of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
Ultrasound to guide the individual medical decision by evaluating the gastric contents and risk of aspiration: A literature review.
Zhang Gang,Huang Xiaoyan,Shui Yunhua,Luo Chunqiong,Zhang Lan
Asian journal of surgery
Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents is one of the most terrible complications following general anesthesia. It is important for patients to prevent this complication by obeying the preoperative fasting protocol strictly. At present, it has been reported by many studies that bedside ultrasound, as a non-invasive and convenient method, could be used to evaluate gastric contents qualitatively and quantitatively. With the advantages of reliability, accuracy and repeatability, it can greatly reduce the risk of aspiration and ensure patients' life security. But most of the data were acquired from the healthy volunteers. For the gastrointestinal disorder, the pregnant women, obesity, children, the elderly and diabetes patients, the accuracy and reliability of ultrasound to predict the risk of aspiration remains to be identified by more further studies. For these patients with increasing risk of aspiration, I-AIM (Indication, Acquisition, Interpretation, Medical decision-making) framework plays an important role in ensuring the safety of patients. It is crucial to make appropriate clinical decisions by evaluating the gastric contents with ultrasound.
Color Doppler Ultrasound in Portal Hypertension: A Closer Look at Left Gastric Vein Hemodynamics.
Cannella Roberto,Giambelluca Dario,Pellegrinelli Alice,Cabassa Paolo
Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Portal hypertension is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients. A color Doppler evaluation of the left gastric vein (LGV) has proven utility in the prediction of esophageal varices and variceal bleeding in patients with portal hypertension. The purpose of this review is to discuss the ultrasound evaluation, imaging findings, and clinical application of Doppler ultrasound in the assessment of the LGV. Knowledge of the color Doppler technique and imaging findings of the LGV may help clinicians improve the monitoring of portal hypertension and predict patients with a high risk of esophageal varices.
Imaging Inflammation and Infection in the Gastrointestinal Tract.
Frickenstein Alex N,Jones Meredith A,Behkam Bahareh,McNally Lacey R
International journal of molecular sciences
A variety of seemingly non-specific symptoms manifest within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, particularly in the colon, in response to inflammation, infection, or a combination thereof. Differentiation between symptom sources can often be achieved using various radiologic studies. Although it is not possible to provide a comprehensive survey of imaging gastrointestinal GI tract infections in a single article, the purpose of this review is to survey several topics on imaging of GI tract inflammation and infections. The review discusses such modalities as computed tomography, positron emission tomography, ultrasound, endoscopy, and magnetic resonance imaging while looking at up-an-coming technologies that could improve diagnoses and patient comfort. The discussion is accomplished through examining a combination of organ-based and organism-based approaches, with accompanying selected case examples. Specific focus is placed on the bacterial infections caused by , , , and inflammatory conditions of diverticulitis and irritable bowel disease. These infectious and inflammatory diseases and their detection via molecular imaging will be compared including the appropriate differential diagnostic considerations.
Beyond appendicitis: ultrasound findings of acute bowel pathology.
Choe Jihee,Wortman Jeremy R,Michaels Aya,Sarma Asha,Fulwadhva Urvi P,Sodickson Aaron D
Bowel pathology is a common unexpected finding on routine abdominal and pelvic ultrasound. However, radiologists are often unfamiliar with the ultrasound appearance of the gastrointestinal tract due to the underutilization of ultrasound for bowel evaluation in the USA. The purpose of this article is to familiarize radiologists with the characteristic ultrasound features of a variety of bowel pathologies. Basic ultrasound technique for bowel evaluation, ultrasound appearance of normal bowel, and key ultrasound features of common acute bowel abnormalities will be reviewed.
Intestinal Ultrasound in Rare Gastrointestinal Diseases, Update, Part 2.
Dietrich C F,Lembcke B,Jenssen C,Hocke M,Ignee A,Hollerweger A
Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
Intestinal ultrasound has become an established and valid diagnostic method for inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis, appendicitis, bowel obstruction, perforation and intussusception. However, little is known about sonographic findings in other rarer intestinal diseases. Ultrasound may display the transformation of the intestinal wall from a normal to a pathological state both in inflammatory and neoplastic disease. Besides demonstrating the transmural aspect, it also shows the mesenteric reaction as well as complications such as fistula, abscesses, stenosis, or ileus. Furthermore, in some diseases intestinal ultrasound may serve as a diagnostic clue if typical patterns of the bowel wall and impaired peristalsis can be demonstrated. This may lead to an important reduction of invasive and expensive (follow-up) procedures. The information gained by ultrasound regarding intestinal disease, however, is as important and valid as e. g. in case of focal lesions of the liver. Serving as tertiary referral centers for a broad spectrum of intestinal diseases, we therefore report some aspects of ultrasound in patients with less often recognized diseases. The article is divided into two parts, the first focusing on examination techniques, infectious diseases and celiac sprue and the second on hereditary, vascular and neoplastic diseases and varia.
How to perform gastrointestinal ultrasound: Anatomy and normal findings.
Atkinson Nathan S S,Bryant Robert V,Dong Yi,Maaser Christian,Kucharzik Torsten,Maconi Giovanni,Asthana Anil K,Blaivas Michael,Goudie Adrian,Gilja Odd Helge,Nuernberg Dieter,Schreiber-Dietrich Dagmar,Dietrich Christoph F
World journal of gastroenterology
Gastrointestinal ultrasound is a practical, safe, cheap and reproducible diagnostic tool in inflammatory bowel disease gaining global prominence amongst clinicians. Understanding the embryological processes of the intestinal tract assists in the interpretation of abnormal sonographic findings. In general terms, the examination principally comprises interrogation of the colon, mesentery and small intestine using both low-frequency and high-frequency probes. Interpretation of findings on GIUS includes assessment of bowel wall thickness, symmetry of this thickness, evidence of transmural changes, assessment of vascularity using Doppler imaging and assessment of other specific features including lymph nodes, mesentery and luminal motility. In addition to B-mode imaging, transperineal ultrasonography, elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography are useful adjuncts. This supplement expands upon these features in more depth.
Transperineal ultrasound predicts endoscopic and histological healing in ulcerative colitis.
Sagami Shintaro,Kobayashi Taku,Aihara Kanako,Umeda Misaki,Morikubo Hiromu,Matsubayashi Mao,Kiyohara Hiroki,Nakano Masaru,Ohbu Makoto,Hibi Toshifumi
Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics
BACKGROUND:Transabdominal ultrasound is useful to assess inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC); however, the assessment of the rectum is challenging and a barrier for its widespread use. AIM:To evaluate if transperineal ultrasound is useful for predicting endoscopic and histological findings of the rectum in UC. METHODS:Fifty-three consecutive adults with UC who required colonoscopy were included and transperineal ultrasound was performed in combination with transabdominal ultrasound within a week before or after colonoscopy with rectal biopsy. Mayo endoscopic subscore (MES) ≤1 was defined as endoscopic healing and Geboes score <2.1, Robarts histopathology index ≤6, and Nancy index ≤1 were defined as histological healing. Limberg score and bowel wall thickness were recorded with transperineal ultrasound. Faecal calprotectin was also measured. RESULTS:Excellent correlation was confirmed between colonoscopy and transabdominal ultrasound in all segments except for the rectum. Rectal bowel wall thickness and Limberg score in transperineal ultrasound well correlated with rectal MES and histological indices. Bowel wall thickness ≤4 mm predicted endoscopic (Area under the curve [AUC] = 0.90) and histological (AUC = 0.87-0.89) healing. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, only bowel wall thickness in transperineal ultrasound was a significant independent predictor for rectal endoscopic and histologic healing (P < 0.05) and the predictability was better than faecal calprotectin. CONCLUSIONS:Transperineal ultrasound predicts endoscopic and histological healing of the rectum. The combination of transperineal ultrasound with transabdominal ultrasound visualises the entire colorectum and is an ideal modality for the treat-to-target strategy. Clinical Trials Registry number UMIN000033611 (https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000038323).
The quality of abdominal ultrasound: a much-needed consensus.
Revista espanola de enfermedades digestivas : organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Patologia Digestiva
The abdominal ultrasound (AU) is a diagnostic imaging modality that is yet to be established in most Gastrointestinal (GI) Units in Spain. This is largely due to the difficulties that GI specialists face with regard to the appropriate training received when starting the specialty. Insufficient resources have been allocated to develop AU units in many GI units where AUs are performed. The equipment is obsolete and there are no adaptations to the needs of the GI specialist to provide good medical care. Thus, due to all the above, the AU does not hold the position it deserves in our specialty. This probably stems from a lack of impulse and/or support to the technique, which has underestimated its usefulness and has limited the implementation of resources in the GI units. For the AU to overcome these obstacles, it needs to be considered as a process or a series of activities based on scientific evidence and the experience of professionals that achieves a result that covers the patients' needs with minimal risk. In this article, we defend the need to boost AU as a key discipline for the diagnosis of digestive diseases. Quality is considered as the key aspect on which this transformation and improvement is founded.
Contrast-enhanced and targeted ultrasound.
Postema Michiel,Gilja Odd Helge
World journal of gastroenterology
Ultrasonic imaging is becoming the most popular medical imaging modality, owing to the low price per examination and its safety. However, blood is a poor scatterer of ultrasound waves at clinical diagnostic transmit frequencies. For perfusion imaging, markers have been designed to enhance the contrast in B-mode imaging. These so-called ultrasound contrast agents consist of microscopically small gas bubbles encapsulated in biodegradable shells. In this review, the physical principles of ultrasound contrast agent microbubble behavior and their adjustment for drug delivery including sonoporation are described. Furthermore, an outline of clinical imaging applications of contrast-enhanced ultrasound is given. It is a challenging task to quantify and predict which bubble phenomenon occurs under which acoustic condition, and how these phenomena may be utilized in ultrasonic imaging. Aided by high-speed photography, our improved understanding of encapsulated microbubble behavior will lead to more sophisticated detection and delivery techniques. More sophisticated methods use quantitative approaches to measure the amount and the time course of bolus or reperfusion curves, and have shown great promise in revealing effective tumor responses to anti-angiogenic drugs in humans before tumor shrinkage occurs. These are beginning to be accepted into clinical practice. In the long term, targeted microbubbles for molecular imaging and eventually for directed anti-tumor therapy are expected to be tested.
Gastrointestinal Ultrasound in Functional Disorders of the Gastrointestinal Tract - EFSUMB Consensus Statement.
Maconi Giovanni,Hausken Trygve,Dietrich Christoph F,Pallotta Nadia,Sporea Ioan,Nurnberg Dieter,Dirks Klaus,Romanini Laura,Serra Carla,Braden Barbara,Sparchez Zeno,Gilja Odd Helge
Ultrasound international open
Abdominal ultrasonography and intestinal ultrasonography are widely used as first diagnostic tools for investigating patients with abdominal symptoms, mainly for excluding organic diseases. However, gastrointestinal ultrasound (GIUS), as a real-time diagnostic imaging method, can also provide information on motility, flow, perfusion, peristalsis, and organ filling and emptying, with high temporal and spatial resolution. Thanks to its noninvasiveness and high repeatability, GIUS can investigate functional gastrointestinal processes and functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGID) by studying their behavior over time and their response to therapy and providing insight into their pathophysiologic mechanisms. The European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) has established a Task Force Group consisting of GIUS experts, which developed clinical recommendations and guidelines on the role of GIUS in several acute and chronic gastrointestinal diseases. This review is dedicated to the role of GIUS in assisting the diagnosis of FGID and particularly in investigating patients with symptoms of functional disorders, such as dysphagia, reflux disorders, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, bloating, and altered bowel habits. The available scientific evidence of GIUS in detecting, assessing, and investigating FGID are reported here, while highlighting sonographic findings and its usefulness in a clinical setting, defining the actual and potential role of GIUS in the management of patients, and providing information regarding future applications and research.
Gastrointestinal Ultrasound (GIUS) in Intestinal Emergencies - An EFSUMB Position Paper.
Hollerweger Alois,Maconi Giovanni,Ripolles Tomas,Nylund Kim,Higginson Antony,Serra Carla,Dietrich Christoph F,Dirks Klaus,Gilja Odd Helge
Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
An interdisciplinary group of European experts summarizes the value of gastrointestinal ultrasound (GIUS) in the management of three time-critical causes of acute abdomen: bowel obstruction, gastrointestinal perforation and acute ischemic bowel disease. Based on an extensive literature review, statements for a targeted diagnostic strategy in these intestinal emergencies are presented. GIUS is best established in case of small bowel obstruction. Metanalyses and prospective studies showed a sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of computed tomography (CT) and superior to plain X-ray. GIUS may save time and radiation exposure and has the advantage of displaying bowel function directly. Gastrointestinal perforation is more challenging for less experienced investigators. Although GIUS in experienced hands has a relatively high sensitivity to establish a correct diagnosis, CT is the most sensitive method in this situation. The spectrum of intestinal ischemia ranges from self-limited ischemic colitis to fatal intestinal infarction. In acute arterial mesenteric ischemia, GIUS may provide information, but prompt CT angiography is the gold standard. On the other end of the spectrum, ischemic colitis shows typical ultrasound features that allow correct diagnosis. GIUS here has a diagnostic performance similar to CT and helps to differentiate mild from severe ischemic colitis.
Role of ultrasound in colorectal diseases.
Bor Renáta,Fábián Anna,Szepes Zoltán
World journal of gastroenterology
Ultrasound is an undervalued non-invasive examination in the diagnosis of colonic diseases. It has been replaced by the considerably more expensive magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, despite the fact that, as first examination, it can usefully supplement the diagnostic process. Transabdominal ultrasound can provide quick information about bowel status and help in the choice of adequate further examinations and treatment. Ultrasonography, as a screening imaging modality in asymptomatic patients can identify several colonic diseases such as diverticulosis, inflammatory bowel disease or cancer. In addition, it is widely available, cheap, non-invasive technique without the use of ionizing radiation, therefore it is safe to use in childhood or during pregnancy, and can be repeated at any time. New ultrasound techniques such as elastography, contrast enhanced and Doppler ultrasound, mini-probes rectal and transperineal ultrasonography have broadened the indication. It gives an overview of the methodology of various ultrasound examinations, presents the morphology of normal bowel wall and the typical changes in different colonic diseases. We will pay particular attention to rectal and transperineal ultrasound because of their outstanding significance in the diagnosis of rectal and perineal disorders. This article seeks to overview the diagnostic impact and correct indications of bowel ultrasound.
Diagnostic accuracy of high-frequency ultrasound in bleeding Meckel diverticulum in children.
Hu Yanxiu,Wang Xiaoman,Jia Liqun,Wang Yu,Xin Yue
BACKGROUND:Meckel diverticulum is one of the most important causes of small bowel bleeding in children. Reports suggest that ultrasonography can be used as an alternative examination for children with negative radionuclide scanning results or children with atypical clinical manifestations. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of high-frequency ultrasound in children with bleeding Meckel diverticulum. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We collected the data of children who were admitted to our hospital for the main symptom of bloody stool from February 2006 to December 2017. Ultrasonography was performed in all children. The final diagnosis was confirmed by pathological analysis or clinical follow-up observation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography according to the final diagnosis. RESULTS:A total of 784 eligible children were enrolled in the study. Presenting symptoms or findings included black and red stool in 528 (67.3%), bright red stool in 51 (6.5%) and obscure or occult bloody stool in 205 (26.1%). Anemia was diagnosed in 489 (62.4%). Ultrasonography diagnosed Meckel diverticulum with a sensitivity of 93.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 91.0-95.6%) and a specificity of 98.1% (95% CI 95.9-99.3%). CONCLUSION:High-frequency ultrasound diagnosis of Meckel diverticulum in children has high sensitivity and specificity.
The potential role of CT enterography and gastrointestinal ultrasound in the evaluation of anti-tubercular therapy response of intestinal tuberculosis: a retrospective study.
Ma Li,Zhu Qingli,Li Yue,Li Wenbo,Wang Xuan,Liu Wei,Li Jianchu,Jiang Yuxin
BACKGROUND:Accurate evaluation of anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) responses is crucial for both diagnosis and treatment of intestinal tuberculosis (ITB). Little is known about the role of cross-sectional imaging techniques in ITB follow-up assessment. We aimed to investigate the accuracy of cross-sectional imaging modalities, CT enterography (CTE) and gastrointestinal ultrasound (GIUS), in the evaluation of ATT responses in ITB patients. METHODS:Patients diagnosed with ITB and followed up by CTE and/or GIUS were retrospectively searched in the databases. Clinical, imaging, laboratory and endoscopic data were collected at baseline and the first follow-up visit. Responses were graded as good, partial and no response based on protocols described in the literature and by our institution. CTE evaluation was based on changes in the lesion area, mural thickness, enhancement patterns and lymph nodes, while GIUS evaluation was based on changes in bowel wall morphology and the Limberg score. Clinical evaluation was used as the gold-standard evaluation method, which was determined by a comprehensive impression of endoscopic changes along with symptomatic improvement and laboratory tests, with imaging results masked. RESULTS:Twenty patients with ITB were enrolled in our study. The first follow-up time was from 2 to 12 months (average 6 months). According to the gold standard evaluation, 11 patients were evaluated as having a good ATT response, while 9 had a partial response. A total of 18 patients were followed up by CTE, while 7 were followed up by GIUS, depending on medical and/or financial considerations. The accuracy of CTE and GIUS was 83% (15/18) and 85.7% (6/7), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of CTE were 88.9, 77.8, 80 and 87.5%, respectively. Moreover, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of GIUS were 100, 50, 83.3 and 100%, respectively. By combining the results of CTE and GIUS results, the overall accuracy was 90%, with sensitivity and specificity of 91.7 and 87.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION:To our knowledge, this is the first study exploring the accuracy of the cross-sectional imaging modalities CTE/GIUS in the evaluation of ATT responses. Our results indicated their promising application prospect in clinical practice as a non-invasive and cost-effective approach.
EFSUMB Position Paper: Recommendations for Gastrointestinal Ultrasound (GIUS) in Acute Appendicitis and Diverticulitis.
Dirks Klaus,Calabrese Emma,Dietrich Christoph F,Gilja Odd Helge,Hausken Trygve,Higginson Antony,Hollerweger Alois,Maconi Giovanni,Maaser Christian,Nuernberg Dieter,Nylund Kim,Pallotta Nadia,Ripolles Tomas,Romanini Laura,Saftoiu Adrian,Serra Carla,Wüstner Matthias,Sporea Ioan
Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
An interdisciplinary task force of European experts summarizes the value of gastrointestinal ultrasound (GIUS) in the management of acute appendicitis and diverticulitis. Based on an extensive literature review, clinical recommendations for these highly common diseases in visceral medicine are presented.In patients with acute appendicitis, preoperative sonography has been established as a routine procedure in most European countries for medical and legal reasons. Routine sonography in these patients may reduce the rate of unnecessary surgery by half. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of ultrasound reach values above 90 % and are equivalent to CT and MRI. However, the high operator dependence may be a problem, for example in point-of-care ultrasound in emergency departments. Structured training programs, quality controls and standardized ultrasound reporting should be increasingly implemented.In the case of suspected acute diverticulitis, "ultrasound first" should also be a basic element in the approach to all patients. Sonography can confirm the diagnosis and allows early risk stratification. As treatment strategies have become less aggressive and more tailored to the stage of diverticulitis, accurate staging has become increasingly important. GIUS and CT have proven to have similar sensitivity and specificity. Especially in cases of uncomplicated diverticulitis, GIUS will be the one and only imaging procedure. CT may work as a backup and has particular advantages for diverticulitis located in the distal sigmoid, inflammation deep in the small pelvis and insufficient ultrasound scanning conditions. This step-up approach (ultrasound first and CT only in case of a negative or inconclusive ultrasound result) has proven to yield the best accuracy.
EFSUMB Gastrointestinal Ultrasound (GIUS) Task Force Group: Celiac sprue and other rare gastrointestinal diseases ultrasound features.
Dietrich Christoph F,Hollerweger Alois,Dirks Klaus,Higginson Antony,Serra Carla,Calabrese Emma,Dong Yi,Hausken Trygve,Maconi Giovanni,Mihmanli Ismail,Nürnberg Dieter,Nylund Kim,Pallotta Nadia,Ripollés Tomás,Romanini Laura,Săftoiu Adrian,Sporea Ioan,Wüstner Matthias,Maaser Christian,Gilja Odd Helge
Transabdominal gastrointestinal ultrasound (GIUS) is unique in its capacity to examine the bowel non-invasively and in its physiological condition, including extra-intestinal features such as the splanchnic vessels, mesentery, omentum and lymph nodes- even at the bedside. Despite this, and its extensive documentation for its usefulness, it has only been fully implemented in a few European countries and expert centres. Therefore, the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) established a GIUS Task Force Group in 2014 consisting of international experts from 9 European countries with the objectives to standardize and promote the use of GIUS in a clinical setting. This is achieved by publishing clinical guidelines and recommendations on indications and use of GIUS and so far,4 guidelines have been published: first on "examination techniques and normal findings", second on "inflammatory bowel disease", third on "acute appendicitis and diverticulitis" and fourth on "transrectal and perineal ultrasound".This paper describes the ultrasound features of miscellaneous disorders such as celiac disease, cystic fibrosis, omental infarction, Meckel's diverticle, endometriosis, intestinal neoplasia, mucocele, amyloidosis, GVHD, foreign bodies, vasculitis, and pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis. Bowel ultrasound can be indicated in most of these conditions to investigate intestinal symptoms but in other cases the alterations of the bowel can be also an incidental finding that suggest other examinations which finally help to discover an unknown pathological condition.
Hunger Games: Interactive Ultrasound Imaging for Learning Gastrointestinal Physiology.
Kafer Ilana,Rennie William,Noor Ali,Pellerito John S
Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Ultrasound is playing an increasingly important role in medical student education. Although most uses of ultrasound have focused on learning purely anatomic relationships or augmentation of the physical examination, there is little documentation of the value of ultrasound as a learning tool regarding physiology alone or in association with anatomy. We devised an interactive learning session for first-year medical students using ultrasound to combine both anatomic and physiologic principles as an integration of gastrointestinal and vascular function. The incorporation of our activity, The Hunger Games, provides the foundation for a powerful integration tool for medical student education.
A New Era in Diagnostic Ultrasound, Superb Microvascular Imaging: Preliminary Results in Pediatric Hepato-Gastrointestinal Disorders.
Ohno Yasuharu,Fujimoto Tamotsu,Shibata Yukari
European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift fur Kinderchirurgie
Superb microvascular imaging is a new ultrasound image processing technique that uses advanced clutter suppression to extract flow signals from vessels and which helps us visualize very small vascular structures that were not previously visible without the use of a contrast agent. We herein analyzed the usefulness of superb microvascular imaging in the diagnosis of hepato-gastrointestinal disorders in pediatric patients. Fifty-six pediatric patients who underwent a total of 81 superb microvascular imaging examinations with an Aplio 300 ultrasound system (Toshiba Medical Systems, Tokyo, Japan) were enrolled in this study. The subjects underwent conventional ultrasound examinations, including Doppler imaging followed by superb microvascular imaging. The superb microvascular imaging findings and standard imaging were compared. All of the examinations were performed without sedation. The average age of the patients (male, = 38; female, = 18) was 4 years. The clinical diagnoses included hepatobiliary disorders ( = 29), acute appendicitis ( = 10), and other intestinal disorders ( = 17). The target organs for superb microvascular imaging were the liver, appendix, rectum, intestine, gallbladder, and lymph node. In most of the patients, superb microvascular imaging achieved the excellent visualization of microvascular structures, revealing abnormal vasculature in 21 out of 46 (45.7%) examinations of the liver, 9/9 (100%) examinations of the appendix, 0/11 (0%) examinations of the rectum, 9/11 (81.8%) examinations of the intestine, 0/1 (0%) examinations of the gallbladder, and 3/3 (100%) examinations of the lymph nodes. Superb microvascular imaging was superior to Doppler imaging for depicting the microvascular structures. Superb microvascular imaging is especially useful for depicting the microvascular flow and can aid in the diagnosis and treatment planning for pediatric patients with hepato-gastrointestinal disorders.
The pediatric gastrointestinal tract: ultrasound findings in acute diseases.
Esposito Francesco,Di Serafino Marco,Mercogliano Carmela,Ferrara Dolores,Vezzali Norberto,Di Nardo Giovanni,Martemucci Luigi,Vallone Gianfranco,Zeccolini Massimo
Journal of ultrasound
The study of the gastrointestinal tract by imaging, particularly using ultrasound, is a required instrument for diagnosis of acute and chronic gastrointestinal pathologies in pediatric age. Actually, ultrasound plays an increasing role in the evaluation of gastrointestinal tract in neonatal and pediatric patients because of their small body habitus and the presence of less fat tissue in the abdominal wall and peritoneal cavity. Ultrasound has certain advantages, thanks to the new wide-spectrum frequency probes able to assess a detailed study of the morphological aspects and functional characteristics of bowel loops, adding a new dimension to the imaging of this body system. In this paper, we review anatomy, ultrasound technique and sonographic findings of bowel pathology frequently encountered in neonatal and pediatric emergency setting.
Effect of point-of-care gastrointestinal ultrasound on decision-making and management in inflammatory bowel disease.
Friedman Antony B,Asthana Anil,Knowles Simon R,Robbins Aphra,Gibson Peter R
Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics
BACKGROUND:Gastrointestinal ultrasound is increasingly used for point of care assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. AIMS:To explore the utility of gastrointestinal ultrasound as a point-of-care assessment tool from the perspectives of the clinician and patient. METHODS:A prospective, observational cohort study was designed utilising routine outpatient consultations. Adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease were allocated to receive gastrointestinal ultrasound or not at the discretion of their treating clinician. Patients completed self-reported session experience questionnaires at study entry, immediately after their consultation, and 4 and 16 weeks later. Clinicians reported disease activity status, therapeutic decisions and clinical management. RESULTS:Of 259 participants, mean age 40 (SD: 13) years, 54% male, 73 (28%) underwent ultrasound. Time since diagnosis was 9.2 (8.5) years (ultrasound) and 11.3 (9.2) years (no ultrasound). Immediately after ultrasound, patients who self-reported active disease reported better understanding of all aspects of their disease and disease symptoms were more confident in their ability to make informed decisions about managing their disease and had improved knowledge domain scores compared with the non-ultrasound group (all P < 0.05). Ultrasound had no influence over the patients' ability to manage their own healthcare but tended to be associated with transient improvement in medication adherence. After the ultrasound, the clinician's assessment of patient's disease activity changed in 22% (16/73) and management was altered in 56% (41/73) with anti-inflammatory therapy escalated in 33. About 47% (23/49) patients with Crohn's disease had their medication changed in the ultrasound group, compared to only 22% (25/112) in the nonultrasound group (P = 0.002). For patients with ulcerative colitis, medications were altered in 68% (15/22) compared to 26% (24/70) in the nonultrasound group (P = 0.005) When stratified for disease activity, medication change was more likely in those having ultrasound (P = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS:Point-of-care gastrointestinal ultrasound has the potential to enhance the clinical management of inflammatory bowel disease by contributing to clinician decision-making and education of patients regarding their disease.
Future developments in the imaging of the gastrointestinal tract: the role of ultrasound.
Wong Adrian,Yusuf Gibran Timothy,Malbrain Manu L N G
Current opinion in critical care
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The purpose of this review is to summarize the utilization and most recent developments with regard to the use of ultrasound when imaging the abdomen and gastrointestinal tract. RECENT FINDINGS:Although the use of ultrasound to assess the anatomy of the various abdominal organs is well established within radiology and critical care, its use as part of functional and physiological assessment is still evolving. Recent developments have extended the use of ultrasound beyond standard B-mode/2D imaging techniques to incorporate more functional and haemodynamic assessment. These include the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), elastography, and colour Doppler techniques. SUMMARY:Whilst Doppler techniques are reasonably well established within critical care ultrasound (CCUS), especially in echocardiography, CEUS and elastography are less well known. CEUS utilizes a purely intravascular contrast agent whilst elastography measures the degree of deformation or stiffness in various organs. Whilst their use individually may be limited; they may play a role in a multiparametric assessment. Mirroring the overall trends in critical care ultrasound development, abdominal ultrasound assessment is best integrated in a holistic approach and adapted to the individual patient.
WFUMB Position Paper. Learning Gastrointestinal Ultrasound: Theory and Practice.
Atkinson Nathan S S,Bryant Robert V,Dong Yi,Maaser Christian,Kucharzik Torsten,Maconi Giovanni,Asthana Anil K,Blaivas Michael,Goudie Adrian,Gilja Odd Helge,Nolsøe Christian,Nürnberg Dieter,Dietrich Christoph F
Ultrasound in medicine & biology
Gastrointestinal ultrasound (GIUS) is an ultrasound application that has been practiced for more than 30 years. Recently, GIUS has enjoyed a resurgence of interest, and there is now strong evidence of its utility and accuracy as a diagnostic tool for multiple indications. The method of learning GIUS is not standardised and may incorporate mentorship, didactic teaching and e-learning. Simulation, using either low- or high-fidelity models, can also play a key role in practicing and honing novice GIUS skills. A course for training as well as establishing and evaluating competency in GIUS is proposed in the manuscript, based on established learning theory practice. We describe the broad utility of GIUS in clinical medicine, including a review of the literature and existing meta-analyses. Further, the manuscript calls for agreement on international standards regarding education, training and indications.
Systematic Review: Clinical Utility of Gastrointestinal Ultrasound in the Diagnosis, Assessment and Management of Patients With Ulcerative Colitis.
Smith Rebecca L,Taylor Kirstin M,Friedman Antony B,Gibson Robert N,Gibson Peter R
Journal of Crohn's & colitis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Gastrointestinal ultrasound is useful in the assessment of patients with Crohn's disease, but its application in ulcerative colitis [UC] is less well established. Here we systematically review the role of gastrointestinal ultrasound in patients with UC. METHODS:Searches of the PUBMED and EMBASE databases were performed with the following search strategy: [ultrasound OR sonography] AND [intestinal OR bowel] AND [ulcerative colitis OR inflammatory bowel disease]. The final search was performed in August 2019. RESULTS:Of 6769 studies identified in the search with a further two studies found from other sources, 50 studies met the inclusion criteria. Increased bowel wall thickness and detection of increased blood flow by colour Doppler were the most often applied criteria for defining disease activity and distribution. When compared with other reference investigations, gastrointestinal ultrasound accurately determined disease extent, severity and response to medical therapy. While further information can be obtained from haemodynamic measurements of the abdominal vessels and contrast-enhanced ultrasound, their clinical value was uncertain. Likewise, hydrocolonic sonography has few advantages over standard gastrointestinal ultrasound examination. Of several scoring systems proposed, there is disparity between the measures and a general lack of validation. There has been limited application of gastrointestinal ultrasound in acute severe ulcerative colitis with toxic megacolon, and, while performing well in children, normal limits differ from those in adults. CONCLUSION:Current evidence indicates that gastrointestinal ultrasound has utility in the non-invasive assessment of patients with UC. Continued advances in technology with better image resolution, validation of scoring systems and application at the point of care by gastroenterologists are likely to contribute to increased use of gastrointestinal ultrasound in routine clinical practice.
European Society of Paediatric Radiology Abdominal Imaging Task Force recommendations in paediatric uroradiology, part X: how to perform paediatric gastrointestinal ultrasonography, use gadolinium as a contrast agent in children, follow up paediatric testicular microlithiasis, and an update on paediatric contrast-enhanced ultrasound.
Riccabona Michael,Lobo M Luisa,Augdal Thomas A,Avni Fred,Blickman Johan,Bruno Costanza,Damasio M Beatrice,Darge Kassa,Mentzel Hans-Joachim,Napolitano Marcello,Ntoulia Aikaterini,Papadopoulou Frederica,Petit Philippe,Woźniak Magdalena M,Ording-Müller Lil-Sofie
At the European Society of Paediatric Radiology (ESPR) annual meeting 2017 in Davos, Switzerland, the ESPR Abdominal (gastrointestinal and genitourinary) Imaging Task Force set out to complete the suggestions for paediatric abdominal imaging and its procedural recommendations. Some final topics were addressed including how to perform paediatric gastrointestinal ultrasonography. Based on the recent approval of ultrasound (US) contrast agents for paediatric use, important aspects of paediatric contrast-enhanced US were revisited. Additionally, the recent developments concerning the use and possible brain deposition of gadolinium as a magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent were presented. The recommendations for paediatric use were reissued after considering all available evidence. Recent insights on the incidence of neoplastic lesions in children with testicular microlithiasis were discussed and led to a slightly altered recommendation.
[Capacities of transabdominal ultrasound study in the diagnosis of polyps of the stomach and colon].
Gorshkov A N,Gracheva N I
Vestnik rentgenologii i radiologii
The data obtained from studies of 84 patients with polyps of the stomach and colonic were used to consider the capacities of transabdominal and transrectal ultrasound studies and their diagnostic efficiency in the diagnosis of polyps of the stomach and colon. The ultrasound semiotics of polyps of the gastric and colon was described. A place of transabdominal ultrasound sonography (US) in the algorithm of radiation and endoscopic studies was established. This investigation led to the conclusion that transabdominal US, along with indirect diagnosis, permits solution of number of fundamental problems facing prior to polypectomy--these are primarily to define the nature of a detected polyp (epithelial and non-epithelial), based on an analysis of the laminar structure of the wall of an organ at the polyp base, a possible polyp malignancy and the degree of invasion into the depths of the gastric wall, as well as to detect a feeding vessel (in the CDC mode) and to predict the likelihood of possible complications. It is advisable to use transabdominal US in a complex of diagnostic techniques for polyps of the stomach and colon.
[Current status of ultrasound in gastroenterology--bowel and upper gastrointestinal tract--part 1].
Nuernberg D,Ignee A,Dietrich C F
Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie
Ultrasonography has become widely accepted as a diagnostic tool for gastrointestinal diseases. It not only assesses the lumen but more importantly also the wall and the surrounding structures of the stomach and bowel. Furthermore, functional processes (peristalsis, blood flow) can be visualised and provide important information for passage and perfusion. Modern high resolution (compressive) sonography represents an ideal complementary method besides endoscopy for the gastroenterologist. It is used in emergency diagnosis in cases of acute appendicitis and peridiverticulitis. Here sonography is the method of first choice achieving a high sensitivity. The same applies to ileus, which can be diagnosed significantly earlier by sonography than with conventional X-ray methods. Meanwhile sonography can contribute considerable information to clarify pathogenesis (e. g., invagination, intususception). The detection of a perforation depends strongly on the competence of the examiner. The main advantage is the detection of a covered perforation and the genesis (e. g., ulcer). Ultrasound is less commonly considered in celiac sprue but important complementary information can be obtained. Advanced tumours of the gastrointestinal tract can easily be visualised, although early stages can hardly be detected by means of sonography. An accurate T-staging of tumours is not possible with transabdominal sonography, not least because some parts of the bowel (colon and rectum) cannot always and completely be seen. Exclusion of tumour or early detection is not possible by ultrasound. In intestinal diseases additional information besides clinical and endoscopic aspects can be achieved by ultrasound. Sonography is important for differential diagnosis and follow-up and spares the patient from more incriminatory endoscopic operations. Ultrasound is equal to other imaging methods in detecting complications (fistulas, abscess, stenosis). Due to the complexity of the topic the following review will concentrate on giving an idea of the present status of sonography in chronic inflammatory bowel disease, some less frequent intestinal infections (bacterial, pseudomembranous, neutropenic colitis, intestinal tuberculosis), the ischaemic bowel diseases as well as diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract.
Role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis and follow-up of pediatric eosinophilic gastroenteritis: a case report and review of the literature.
Savino A,Salvatore R,Cafarotti A,Cecamore C,De Sanctis S,Angelucci D,Mohn A,Chiarelli F,Pelliccia P
Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is a rare disease characterized by the infiltration of one or more layers of the digestive tract by eosinophilic leukocytes. The diagnosis is confirmed by histological examination of a characteristic biopsy, but radiological features are useful for diagnostic suspicion. We report the case of an adolescent boy with recurrent epigastric pain, nausea and vomiting, in whom sonographic features and eosinophilia of the peripheral blood suggested the diagnosis of EG. Moreover, we reviewed the radiological features of EG with particular regard to the role of sonography in the diagnosis and follow-up of EG, especially in children. We emphasize the utility of sonography in pediatric patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms, since it may provide useful information in a quick, inexpensive and noninvasive way. Ultrasonographic detection of features such as bowel wall thickness, ascites and peritoneal nodules may be largely suggestive of EG and may prevent other invasive exams and abdominal surgery. Ultrasonography can also be easily used in the follow-up of these patients, and may obviate the frequent and potentially dangerous exposure to radiation.
Ultrasound presentation of abdominal non-Hodgkin lymphomas in pediatric patients.
Brodzisz Agnieszka,Woźniak Magdalena Maria,Dudkiewicz Ewa,Grabowski Dominik,Stefaniak Jolanta,Wieczorek Andrzej Paweł,Kowalczyk Jerzy
Journal of ultrasonography
INTRODUCTION:Burkitt's lymphoma accounts for approximately 25% of lymphomas diagnosed in children of developmental age. The tumor is localized mainly in the intestine (usually in the ileocecal region), mesenteric lymph nodes and extraperitoneal space. The clinical symptoms are non-specific and include: abdominal pain, vomiting, gastrointestinal bleeding, and acute abdomen suggesting appendicitis or intestinal intussusception. On ultrasound examination, Burkitt's lymphoma may manifest itself in various ways, depending on the origin of the lesion. AIM:The aim of this paper was to review the ultrasound manifestation of abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS:The analysis included 15 pediatric patients with Burkitt's non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the abdominal cavity. The mean age of the patients was 9.5. Abdominal and gastrointestinal ultrasound examinations were conducted using a Siemens scanner with a convex transducer of 3.5-5 MHz and linear array transducer of L4 - 7.5 MHz. RESULTS:Ultrasound examinations conducted in the group of 15 patients revealed pathological masses localized in the gastric wall in 3 patients (20%), in the ileocecal region in 10 patients (67%) and a disseminated process in 2 patients (13%). In 12 patients with a diagnosed Burkitt's non-Hodgkin lymphoma in an extragastric localization, differences in the morphology of the lesions were observed. CONCLUSIONS:The clinical and ultrasound picture of abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma in children is variable. A careful ultrasound assessment of all abdominal organs conducted with the use of convex and linear probes increases the chances of establishing an adequate diagnosis.
[Gastrointestinal ultrasound update 2011].
Dietrich C F
Ultrasound in addition to endoscopy and radiological methods has become widely accepted for diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic success of gastrointestinal diseases. In addition to the lumen and more importantly the wall (layering) and the surroundings of the gastrointestinal tract functional processes (peristalsis, bloodflow) can be analysed as well. The current role of gastrointestinal ultrasound was discussed during the Davos meeting 2011 of the «Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Ultraschall» (SGUM) and the literature is summarised in this article.
Prospective qualitative and quantitative non-invasive evaluation of intestinal acute GVHD by contrast-enhanced ultrasound sonography.
Benedetti E,Bruno B,McDonald G B,Paolicchi A,Caracciolo F,Papineschi F,Pelosini M,Campani D,Galimberti S,Petrini M
Bone marrow transplantation
Intestinal acute GVHD (I-aGVHD) is a life-threatening complication after allografting. Non-invasive bed-side procedures to evaluate extension and treatment response are still lacking. We hypothesized that, during I-aGVHD, contrast-enhanced ultrasound sonography (CEUS) could detect microcirculation changes (MVC) of the bowel wall (BW) and help to monitor treatment response. We prospectively employed CEUS in 83 consecutive patients. Of these, 14 patients with biopsy-proven intestinal GVHD (I-GVHD) were defined as the study group, whereas 16 patients with biopsy-proven stomach GVHD (U-GVHD) without intestinal symptoms, 6 normal volunteers and 4 patients with neutropenic enterocolitis were defined as the control group. All patients were evaluated with both standard ultrasonography (US) and CEUS at the onset of intestinal symptoms, during clinical follow-up and at flare of symptoms. Standard US revealed BW thickening of multiple intestinal segments, useful to determine the extension of GVHD. CEUS showed MVC, which correlated with GVHD activity, treatment response, and predicted flare of intestinal symptoms. US and CEUS findings were superimposable at diagnosis and in remission. CEUS was, however, more sensitive and specific to identify subclinical activity in patients with clinical relevant improvement. These findings were not observed in the control groups. CEUS is a non-invasive, easily reproducible bed-side tool useful to monitor I-aGVHD.
[Current status of ultrasound in gastroenterology--bowel and upper gastrointestinal tract--part 2].
Nuernberg D,Ignee A,Dietrich C F
Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie
Ultrasound has gained acceptance in the diagnosis of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract beside the classical methods such as endoscopy and X-ray. In a previous publication we discussed the use of ultrasound in emergency diagnostics (e. g., acute appendicitis, diverticulitis/peridiverticulitis, ileus, invagination and perforation) (part 1). Because of the vast extent of this topic, in this overview we will focus on the current role of ultrasound in the detection and assessment of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, rare forms of colitis (e. g., bacterial, pseudomembranous and neutropenic colitis as well as intestinal tuberculosis), ischaemic bowel diseases as well as diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract. In chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, ultrasound can give important additional information such as extension, activity, complication (fistula, abscess, stenosis) and in differential diagnosis. It plays an important role in follow-up investigations and can possibly reduce the number of endoscopic examinations. There is still some debate going on about the significance of colour Doppler ultrasound in assessing the activity and differentiation of stenosis. Furthermore, ultrasound is used as a method to guide interventional therapies for abscesses (puncture and drainage). Colour Doppler ultrasound can diagnose ischaemic bowel diseases and also differentiate these from other aetiologies. Ultrasound plays a greater role in the follow-up and assessment of chronic intestinal ischaemia. In the diagnosis of stomach diseases under favourable conditions ultrasound can show changes of the stomach wall, tumours, ulcers and their complication (perforation, penetration) and disturbances of the motility. But an exclusion is not possible.
The relationship between enhanced intensity and microvessel density of gastric carcinoma using double contrast-enhanced ultrasonography.
Shiyan Li,Pintong Huang,Zongmin Wang,Fuguang Huang,Zhiqiang Zheng,Yan Yang,Cosgrove David
Ultrasound in medicine & biology
The purpose of this study was to assess the value of double contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCUS), in which intravenous microbubbles are used together with an oral contrast agent as a method to evaluate the microvascular density (MVD) of gastric cancer, and its relationship with the contrast-enhanced intensity (EI) in gastric carcinomas. Sixty-nine patients with gastric cancer were examined preoperatively using DCUS. The arrival time (AT), time-to-peak (TTP), peak (PI) and baseline (pre-injection) intensities (BI) of gastric carcinoma and normal gastric wall were measured. Contrast-enhanced intensity (PI minus BI) was calculated. A monoclonal antibody against CD34 was used to display vascular endothelial cells in the resected gastric carcinoma specimens and in normal gastric mucosal tissues, and MVD was calculated by counting CD34-positive vascular endothelial cells. The differences in AT, TTP, EI and MVD between gastric carcinoma specimens and normal gastric wall tissues were evaluated using Student's t-test. The relationships between EI and MVD in gastric cancer were analyzed by Spearman rank correlation analysis. Both EI and MVD were significantly higher in gastric carcinomas than in normal gastric wall (p<0.001). However, AT and TTP showed no significant differences between gastric carcinoma specimens and normal gastric wall tissues (p>0.05). There was a strong positive linear correlation between EI and MVD in gastric carcinoma (r=0.921, p<0.001). Double contrast-enhanced ultrasound is a useful method for evaluation of the MVD in gastric carcinomas in vivo. Contrast-enhanced intensity has a strong positive linear correlation with MVD and could form a new index for assessing angiogenesis and the biological behavior of gastric carcinomas.
EFSUMB Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (INVUS), Part IV - EUS-guided Interventions: General aspects and EUS-guided sampling (Long Version).
Jenssen C,Hocke M,Fusaroli P,Gilja O H,Buscarini E,Havre R F,Ignee A,Saftoiu A,Vilmann P,Burmester E,Nolsøe C P,Nürnberg D,D'Onofrio M,Lorentzen T,Piscaglia F,Sidhu P S,Dietrich C F
Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
The fourth part of the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound describes general aspects of endoscopic ultrasound-guided diagnostic and therapeutic interventions and assesses the evidence for endoscopic ultrasound-guided sampling. Endoscopic ultrasound combines the most advanced high-resolution ultrasound imaging of lesions within the wall and in the vicinity of the gastrointestinal tract and safe and effective fine needle based tissue acquisition from these lesions. The guideline addresses the indications, contraindications, techniques, adverse events, training and clinical impact of EUS-guided sampling. Advantages and drawbacks are weighed in comparison with image-guided percutaneous biopsy. Based on the most current evidence, clinical practice recommendations are given for crucial preconditions and steps of EUS-guided sampling as well as for safe performance. Additionally, the guideline deals with the principles and reliability of cytopathological reporting in endoscopic ultrasound-guided sampling (long version).
The role of i.v. and oral contrast enhanced ultrasonography in the characterization of gastric tumors. A preliminary study.
Badea Radu,Neciu Cristian,Iancu Cornel,Al Hajar Nadim,Pojoga Cristina,Botan Emil
OBJECTIVE:To identify the diagnosis benefits of harmonics optimized i.v. contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in the detection and characterization of several gastric neoplasms. MATERIAL AND METHOD:The study group included 10 patients with gastric neoplasms, either epithelial or stromal. The examination included grey scale ultrasonography combined with hydrosonography and harmonics ultrasonography with i.v. contrast media, centered on the tumor, using the surrounding normal gastric wall as witness. All cases were examined by endoscopy, followed by a pathology report and eight of the patients underwent surgery. CEUS followed the dynamics of the contrast media during the arterial (up to 30 seconds since administration) and venous (30 to 60 seconds since administration) phases. The characteristics of contrast uptake in the region of interest were also studied. RESULTS:In gastric tumors an non-homogeneous uptake was registered during the arterial phase followed by contrast wash-out during the venous phase. In stromal tumors (GIST) there was an accelerated and uniform uptake in the arterial phase, while the wash-out was delayed. CEUS was able to show the masses in all cases. The aspect of the lesions on the grey scale images - infiltration of polyp - consolidated the diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS:The analysis of the cases included in the study proved that CEUS represents a promising method in the characterization of infiltrative and proliferative gastric tumors. The information must be combined with those obtained from the 2D harmonics ultrasound exam. Extended studies, on a higher number of cases, are necessary in order to demonstrate the practical use of the method.
High-frequency ultrasonographic imaging of the gastrointestinal wall.
Ødegaard Svein,Nesje Lars B,Lærum Ole Didrik,Kimmey Michael B
Expert review of medical devices
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, with its layered structure, can be imaged by ultrasound using a transabdominal approach or intraluminal high-frequency probes. New ultrasound technology can be used to characterize tissue hardness, study motility in real-time, direct diagnostic and therapeutic intervention, evaluate GI wall perfusion and tissue viability, and perform 3D imaging. Ultrasound is a safe imaging modality, and development of smaller devices has improved its application as a flexible clinical tool, which also can be used bedside. Recently, microbubbles have been injected into the blood stream loaded with contrast agents, or other diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Such bubbles can be destroyed by ultrasound waves, thus releasing their content at a given area of interest. In this article, we present a review of the GI wall anatomy and discuss currently available ultrasound technology for diagnosis and treatment of GI wall disorders.
Ultrasound of the stomach--the EUROSON lecture 2006.
Gilja O H
Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
The stomach is a fascinating organ. It has the capacity to expand its volume substantially to receive and accommodate food after a meal, normally without any conscious notice of the expansion. The aim of this paper is to show how transabdominal ultrasonography can disclose the structural and functional abnormalities of the stomach. Ultrasound of the stomach was initially performed to detect and investigate organic diseases of the gastric wall. Subsequently, different methods were developed to study functional aspects of gastric pathology. Ultrasound can be used to evaluate antral contractility, gastric emptying, transpyloric flow, gastric configuration, intragastric distribution of meals, gastric accommodation and strain measurement of the gastric wall. Advanced methods for 3D ultrasound imaging and tissue Doppler (Strain Rate Imaging) have also been developed to study diseases of the stomach. The Ultrasound Meal Accommodation Test (U-MAT) can be applied to characterise patients with organic and non-organic dyspepsia. Ultrasonography still has a great potential as a clinical method, and some day our patients may receive both diagnosis and treatment in the same session.
B-Mode and Contrast Enhanced Ultrasonography Features of Gastric Inflammatory and Neoplastic Diseases in Dogs.
Simeoni Francesco,Del Signore Francesca,Aste Giovanni,Bargellini Paolo,Rubini Giuseppe,Terragni Rossella,Tamburro Roberto,Falerno Ilaria,de Pasquale Francesco,Russo Marco,Vignoli Massimo
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI
Canine gastric disorders are common in veterinary clinical practice and among these neoplasms require rapid identification and characterization. Standard ultrasound (US) is the imaging modality of choice for gastric wall assessment. The aim of this prospective study is to describe the specific B-mode and contrast enhanced US (CEUS) features of normal, inflammatory, and neoplastic gastric wall in dogs. B-mode US and CEUS of the stomach were performed in anesthetized dogs with or without gastric disorders. Gastric wall qualitative and quantitative parameters were evaluated on B-mode US and CEUS examination. A total of 41 dogs were included: 6 healthy (HEA) as the control group; 9 gastritis (INF); 8 adenocarcinoma (AC); 8 alimentary lymphoma (AL); 4 leiomyosarcoma (LEIS); 2 gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST); 2 leiomyoma; 1 undifferentiated sarcoma; 1 metastatic gastric hemangiosarcoma. Gastric tumors appear as a marked wall thickness with absent layers definition and possible regional lymphadenopathy (AC and AL) and steatitis (AC) while gastritis generally shows no/mild thickening and no other alterations on B-mode US. On CEUS, neoplasm shows a higher and faster wash in if compared to that of gastritis. B-mode and CEUS assessment may be useful in the evaluation of canine gastric disorders in the distinction between gastritis and gastric neoplasms, even if there are no specific features able to discriminate between the different tumor histotypes.
Pitfalls in ultrasound imaging of the stomach and the intestines.
Smereczyński Andrzej,Kołaczyk Katarzyna
Journal of ultrasonography
The gastrointestinal tract is an extraordinary human organ in terms of its morphology and function. Its complex structure and enormous length as well as frequent presence of gas discourage many doctors performing ultrasound examination from its exploration. Moreover, there are anatomical structures in multiple locations which can mimic certain abnormalities. It is difficult to present an exhaustive account of the problem of gastrointestinal tract ultrasound imaging errors in a single work; therefore, this study focuses mainly on false positive errors which usually result from a lack of knowledge of anatomical variants of the gastrointestinal tract structure. In the case of the stomach, rugae and muscle layer thickening towards the pylorus have been mentioned, which constitute variants of the structure of this organ examined when empty. Diagnostic pitfalls in the small intestine may include the dudenojejunal flexure (ligament of Treitz), the horizontal part of the duodenum and the ileocaecal valve. The status of the apparent lesions in all of the cases mentioned will be resolved following fluid intake by the patient. In the colon, the varied structure of semilunar folds should be taken note of. Their large thickness can warrant suspicion of wall invasion or a polyp. In addition, the study emphasises the importance of appropriate preparation of a patient for gastrointestinal tract examination since it determines the accuracy of the diagnosis. The authors also take note of common 'sins' of physicians such as hasty examination and failure to comply with the stomach and appendix examination protocol.
Gastrointestinal wall thickness measured with transabdominal ultrasonography and its relationship to demographic factors in healthy subjects.
Nylund K,Hausken T,Ødegaard S,Eide G E,Gilja O H
Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
PURPOSE:To describe the gastrointestinal (GI) wall thickness and the thickness of individual wall layers in healthy subjects using ultrasound and to determine whether demographic factors, the ultrasound transducer frequency, or a fasting state influences these measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS:After overnight fasting, the GI wall thickness and wall layers were measured in several regions with transabdominal, high-frequency ultrasound. 122 healthy subjects aged 23 - 79 were included. All measurements were performed with both 8 and 12-MHz transducers except for the rectum measurement (4 MHz). 23 patients were given a 300 Kcal test meal and re-examined after 30 minutes. RESULTS:Wall thickness measurements of the GI tract with transabdominal ultrasonography are dependent on transducer frequency (p < 0.001), weight (p < 0.001) and age (p < 0.018). The thickness of individual wall layers in the ileum and the sigmoid colon was found to be dependent on both age (p = 0.007) and weight (p < 0.001). The mean wall thickness from the jejunum to the sigmoid colon ranged from 0.9 to 1.2 mm with standard deviations (SD) of 0.3 mm or less. The mean (SD) was 2.9 (0.8) mm in the gastric antrum, 1.6 (0.3) mm in the duodenum, and 2.1 (0.5) mm in the rectum. The gastric antrum was thinner and the ileum and sigmoid colon were thicker after the test meal (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION:GI wall thickness depends on weight and age. Provided adequate measurement, an abnormal GI wall should be suspected if the thickness exceeds 2 mm except for in the gastric antrum, duodenum and rectum. Reference values for wall thickness can be used regardless of fasting state or probe frequency except for in the gastric antrum.
[Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound as a Diagnostic Tool in Diseases of the Digestive Tract].
Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound as a Diagnostic Tool in Diseases of the Digestive Tract Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is a good diagnostic tool in certain gastrointestinal diseases. Inflammation of the gastric and the bowel wall can often be distinguished from neoplastic alterations. Gastric and duodenal stenosis can be depicted with the use of oral contrast, and after stenting the patency can be documented. Abscesses are perfectly delineated, and after drainage the exact location of the tube and possible complications can be documented. In patients with Crohn's disease inflammatory activity and complications such as abscesses, fistulas and stenotic areas can be depicted. Distinction of fibrotic from inflammatory stenosis may help to look for surgical intervention in due time. Acute ischemic colitis has a typical perfusion pattern, and a control after a few days may show an increased vascularity.
Gastrocolic fistula in Crohn's disease detected by oral agent contrast-enhanced ultrasound: A case report of a novel ultrasound modality.
Wu Shuang,Zhuang Hua,Zhao Jie-Ying,Wang Yu-Fang
World journal of gastroenterology
BACKGROUND:Fistulas are common complications of Crohn's disease (CD). Gastrocolic fistulas (GFs) are rare, occult and potentially life-threatening complications. Few cases of GFs have been reported. Oral agent contrast-enhanced ultrasound (OA-CEUS) is a novel technique of ultrasound (US) for gut. Contrast agent made by Chinese yam is taken orally to dilate the lumen of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Thus, the impediment of gas inside gastrointestinal tract is removed and a good acoustic window is provided for gastroin-testinal tract scanning. This paper describes a case of GF secondary to CD detected by OA-CEUS when it was missed by endoscopy and computed tomography (CT). To our knowledge, this is the first report of GF secondary to CD detected by OA-CEUS up to date. CASE SUMMARY:A 29-year-old woman with a 6-year history of CD was admitted to our hospital for abdominal pain and diarrhea for 5 months without obvious predisposing causes. Initial gastroscopy failed to show any evidence of lesions. Colonoscopy revealed multiple erosions, mucosal nodularity, linear ulcers and a cobblestone appearance. A CT scan of her abdomen showed a complex multilocular structure adherent to the greater curvature of the stomach in her left lower abdomen, with fluid, gas and significant surrounding inflammation. CT also demonstrated an abdominal abscess, which was later treated with US-guided drainage. Colonoscopy, gastroscopy and CT missed the presence of a GF. OA-CEUS was performed. A contrast agent made from Chinese yam was taken orally to dilate the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. A good acoustic window was provided for gastrointestinal tract scanning and the impediment of gas inside the gastrointestinal tract was removed. With the aid of the "window", a canal with hypoechoic wall was identified connecting the greater curvature of stomach to the splenic colon flexure in free sections. We also observed the hyperechoic gas flowing dynamically inside the canal. Thus, a GF was suspected. US is the first imaging modality taking GF into account. At the same time, OA-CEUS identified the site of the fistula and its two orifices. Gastroscopy was performed again, revealing a small ulcer approximately 5 mm in diameter, which was considered as an orifice. On the basis of OA-CEUS and other examinations, the patient was diagnosed with a GF secondary to CD. Then, laparoscopic exploration, partial stomach resection, transverse colostomy and abdominal abscess drainage were performed. The patient recovered uneventfully. CONCLUSION:GFs are rare, occult and potentially life-threatening complications in CD. US is one of the first-line modalities to evaluate CD and its complications. OA-CEUS, a novel technique of US for gut, may be helpful in reducing the possibility of a missed diagnosis of GF.
Ultrasound imaging for assessing functions of the GI tract.
Steinsvik Elisabeth K,Hatlebakk Jan Gunnar,Hausken Trygve,Nylund Kim,Gilja Odd Helge
OBJECTIVE:In the following review we outline how ultrasound can be used to measure physiological processes in the gastrointestinal tract. APPROACH:We have investigated the potential of ultrasound in assessing gastrointestinal physiology including original research regarding both basic methodology and clinical applications. MAIN RESULTS:Our main findings show the use of ultrasound to study esophageal motility, measure volume and contractility of the stomach, assess motility, wall thickness, and perfusion of the small bowel, and evaluate wall vascularization and diameters of the large bowel. SIGNIFICANCE:Ultrasound is a widely accessible technology that can be used for both scientific and clinical purposes. Being radiation-free and user friendly, the examination can be frequently repeated enabling longitudinal studies. Furthermore, it does not influence normal GI physiology, thus being useful to estimate motility and subtle changes in physiology. Accordingly, ultrasound scanning and physiological measurements may make a big difference for the scientist and the doctor; and for the patients who receive an efficient work-up.
Automatic Detection of Gastric Wall Structure Based on Oral Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Its Application on Tumor Screening.
Sui An,Hu Zhaoyu,Xie Xuan,Deng Yinhui,Wang Yuanyuan,Yu Jinhua,Shen Li
Frontiers in oncology
Gastric cancer is the second most lethal type of malignant tumor in the world. Early diagnosis of gastric cancer can reduce the transformation to advanced cancer and improve the early treatment rate. As a cheap, real-time, non-invasive examination method, oral contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (OCUS) is a more acceptable way to diagnose gastric cancer than interventional diagnostic methods such as gastroscopy. In this paper, we proposed a new method for the diagnosis of gastric diseases by automatically analyzing the hierarchical structure of gastric wall in gastric ultrasound images, which is helpful to quantify the diagnosis information of gastric diseases and is a useful attempt for early screening of gastric cancer. We designed a gastric wall detection network based on U-net. On this basis, anisotropic diffusion technology was used to extract the layered structure of the gastric wall. A simple and useful gastric cancer screening model was obtained by calculating and counting the thickness of the five-layer structure of the gastric wall. The experimental results showed that our model can accurately identify the gastric wall, and it was found that the layered parameters of abnormal gastric wall is significantly different from that of normal gastric wall. For the screening of gastric disease, a statistical model based on gastric wall stratification can give a screening accuracy of 95% with AUC of 0.92.
Preliminary opinion on assessment categories of stomach ultrasound report and data system (Su-RADS).
Liu Zhining,Ren Weidong,Guo Jintao,Zhao Ying,Sun Siyu,Li Yuhong,Liu Zhijun
Gastric cancer : official journal of the International Gastric Cancer Association and the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association
OBJECTIVE:Transabdominal ultrasound after oral administration of an echoic cellulose-based gastric ultrasound contrast agent (TUS-OCCA) has recently been suggested as a valuable mass-screening tool for gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to propose a producible stomach ultrasound reporting and data system (Su-RADS) using TUS-OCCA for gastric cancer screening. PATIENTS:The study includes information of 2738 patients who underwent both gastroscopy and TUS-OCCA examinations recorded in software system. Gastroscopy examination with pathological diagnosis was considered as gold standard. Various gastric lesions were classified into category 1-5 based on gastric wall thicknesses of them (especially the mucosa layer). RESULTS:The total malignant ratios of patients enrolled in this study were 17.1% (469/2738). The malignant ratios for category 1-5 were, respectively, 1.1, 1.7, 12.2, 34.2 and 78.1%. Category 2 indicated mild thickening of gastric wall at low risk for malignancy (1.7%); category 3 indicated moderate thickening at moderate risk for malignancy (12.2%); category 4 indicated severe thickening at high risk for malignancy (34.2%); category 5 indicated extremely severe thickening at extremely high risk for malignancy (78.1%). If category 2 was identified as cut-off point distinguishing between benign and malignant, the sensitivity and specificity by Su-RADS are 95.1 and 78.6%, respectively. CONCLUSION:The Su-RADS system could inform the physicians about key findings, indicating the risk for malignancy and necessity of additional gastroscopy examination. Prospectively randomly controlled study design with larger clinical trial is needed for further investigations.
The Role of Conventional Ultrasonography in the Evaluation of Antrum Wall Thickness in Obese Patients.
Yazar Fatih Mehmet,Baykara Murat,Karaağaç Mustafa,Bülbüloğlu Ertan
BACKGROUND:The objective of this study is to evaluate the utility of conventional ultrasonography (USG) in the evaluation of the stomach antrum and distal corpus lesions. METHODS:A prospective evaluation was made of 69 patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy. Preoperative USG was applied to the patients and measurements were taken and recorded of the stomach antrum full layer wall thickness (USGFT) and of mucosal thickness (USGMT). Postoperatively, same parameters were again measured histopathologically and the pathological full thickness (PFT) and pathological mucosal thickness (PMT) values were compared. RESULTS:When evaluation was made in respect of USG and pathological measurements, the USGFT was 8.51 ± 3.07 (range 4.5-15.8) and USGMT was 5.80 ± 2.15 (range 2.36-10.5). The PFT was determined as 8.13 ± 2.24 (range 4-14) and PMT as 5.53 ± 1.86 (range 2-10.5). In the histopathological examination, gastritis was seen in 53 (76.8 %) patients and Helicobacter pylori (HP) positivity was determined in 32 (46.4 %) patients. When the patients were grouped as obese (BMI ≤ 49.9 kg/m) (group 1, n = 50) and super obese (BMI ≥ 50 kg/m) (group 2, n = 19), no difference was determined between the groups ultrasonographically or histopathologically (p > 0.05). The antrum wall thickness was seen to be significantly greater in the patients with gastritis and HP positivity compared to the patients who were negative. In ROC analysis, cutoff values were calculated for USGFT (5.86 mm) and USGMT (4.49 mm). In gastritis diagnosis, the USGFT cutoff value was found to have 796 % sensitivity and 68.7 % specificity. CONCLUSION:USG was seen to be an extremely effective method in visualising the antrum wall and gastritis diagnosis can be made comfortably from the wall thickness measurement.
A study of wall thickness of gastric antrum: comparison among normal, benign and malignant gastric conditions on MDCT scan.
Tongdee Ranista,Kongkaw Lalitsa,Tongdee Trongtum
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the normal antral wall thickness on MDCT and to determine the optimal cut-off value for differentiating normal and benign from malignant gastric wall thickening. MATERIAL AND METHOD:MDCT scans of 154 patients, 22 malignancies, 66 benign conditions, and 66 normal findings, whose underwent both gastroscopy and MDCT within 30 days were retrospectively reviewed. The degree of gastric distention, antral wall thickness, pattern of wall thickness, and enhancement, the presence or absence of perigastric fat stranding and perigastric lymphadenopathy were evaluated. ROC curve analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off value of antral wall thickness to differentiate normal and benign from malignant antral wall thickening. RESULTS:The antral wall thickness in malignancy, benign and normal groups were 16.64 +/- 7.28 mm, 5.265 +/- 2.21 mm, and 5.68 +/- 2.13 mm, respectively. There was statistically significant difference between the normal and malignant group (p < 0.001) as well as benign and malignant group (p < 0.001). Whereas, there was no significant difference between normal and benign group (p = 0.78). By using a 10 mm-cutoff value, the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value (PPV) for prediction of gastric malignancy were 81.8%, 97.7%, 97.0%, 85.7%, and 95.5%, respectively. Most gastric malignancies had diffused irregular gastric antral wall thickening (87.7%), heterogeneous enhancement with obliterated normal gastric wall layering (88.1%), perigastric fat stranding (72.7%), and perigastric lymphadenopathy (72.7%). CONCLUSION:Normal antral wall thickness ranges from 1 to 16 mm, depends on degree of antral luminal distention. The authors suggest 10 mm antral wall thickness as the optimal cut-off point for differentiating malignancy and non-malignancy conditions. Moreover the diffuse irregular wall thickening, heterogeneous wall enhancement, presence of perigastric fat stranding and perigastric lymphadenopathy often associate with malignancy. These findings are particularly helpful in interpreting MDCT of patients with inadequate antral luminal distention.
HER2-positive gastric cancer showing marked thickening of the gastric wall on ultrasonographic and computed tomographic scans. a chance phenomenon or a specific behaviour of this cancer type? Report of three cases.
DI Cicilia Roberto,Mordenti Patrizia,Anselmi Elisa,Paties Carlo,Carella Egidio,Cavanna Luigi
Worldwide, gastric cancer is the fourth most commonly diagnosed type of cancer and the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Recently, it was demonstrated that 15-20% of advanced gastro-oesophageal carcinomas overexpress human epidermal receptor 2 (HER2), one of a family of four identified human epidermal receptors. As in HER2-positive breast cancer, trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting HER2 receptor, with chemotherapy improves prognosis, time-to-progression and overall survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) imaging of gastric cancer has been previously reported, however, to our knowledge HER2-positive gastric adenocarcinoma appearance on US and CT scans has not been previously described and no CT and US images of this variant of adenocarcinoma have been found. We herein report three cases of patients with HER2-positive gastric cancer that showed a marked thickening of the gastric wall on US and CT examination.
Primary gastric Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor.
Ye Yu,Qiu Xiaoming,Mei Jixin,He Dongyun,Zou Ailing
The Journal of international medical research
A rare and highly malignant small round cell tumor, Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) usually occurs in the pelvis, long-axis bones, and femur. In contrast, extraosseous ES is more often found in the paraspinal region, limbs, and retroperitoneum, but is extremely rare in the stomach. We report a case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with fatigue, fever, and black stool. Preoperative computed tomography (CT) imaging showed a large ulcerative lesion of approximately 5.5 × 5.0 cm in the stomach and irregular thickening of the ulcer wall. Upper endoscopy revealed a large, irregular ulcer in the posterior wall of the stomach. Histopathological examination suggested that the mass with the largest diameter (7.5 cm) was ES. Immunohistochemistry indicated positivity for CD99. Enhanced CT of the whole body was performed but no definite masses were found in other organs, and the patient was diagnosed with primary gastric ES. The patient underwent radical distal gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy, but refused chemoradiotherapy.
Effect of subclinical Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric wall thickness: multislice CT evaluation.
Kul Sibel,Sert Burak,Sari Ahmet,Arslan Mehmet,Koşucu Polat,Ahmetoğlu Ali,Dinç Hasan
Diagnostic and interventional radiology (Ankara, Turkey)
PURPOSE:To evaluate the effect of subclinical Helicobacter pylori infection on the gastric wall thickness with multislice computed tomography (MSCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS:In 99 subjects without gastric disease, CT scans of the abdomen were obtained after water ingestion and intravenous contrast administration. CT images were evaluated for degree of luminal distention and the thickness of the walls of the gastric antrum and body. We also looked for other radiological signs of gastritis such as the presence of fold thickening, mucosal enhancement, submucosal hypodensity, focal gastric mass-like lesion, and focal wall thickening. All subjects were tested with rapid urease test or stool antigen test and grouped as H. pylori positive or negative according to the results. RESULTS:The average gastric body and antrum wall thicknesses did not show statistically significant difference between H. pylori positive and negative groups. The average antral wall thickness was greater than the gastric body wall thickness in 68.5% of cases, independent of H. pylori positivity; and antral wall thickness was more than 5 mm in more than 50% of cases. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of other signs of gastritis. CONCLUSION:Wall thickening of gastric antrum relative to gastric body is a common finding even in the use of MSCT, and antral thickness commonly exceeds 5 mm. Subclinical H. pylori infection has no effect on gastric wall thickness.
Stomach wall structure and vessels imaging by acoustic resolution photoacoustic microscopy.
Wang Cheng,Lu Yu-Fei,Cai Chun-Miao,Xiang Hua-Zhong,Zheng Gang
World journal of gastroenterology
AIM:To image stomach wall blood vessels and tissue, layer-by-layer. METHODS:We built up the acoustic resolution photoacoustic microscopy (AR-PAM) system for imaging layered tissues, such as the stomach wall. A tunable dye laser system was coupled to a fiber bundle. The fibers of the bundle were placed in nine directions with an incident angle of 45° around a high-frequency ultrasound transducer attached to the acoustic lens. This structure formed a dark field on the tissue surface under the acoustic lens and the nine light beams from the fibers to be combined near the focal point of the acoustic lens. The sample piece was cut from a part of the porcine stomach into a petri dish. In order to realize photoacoustic depth imaging of tumor, we designed a tumor model based on indocyanine green (ICG) dye. The ICG solution (concentration of 129 μM/mL) was mixed into molten gel, and then a gel mixture of ICG (concentration of 12.9 μM/mL) was injected into the stomach submucosa. The injection quantity was controlled by 0.1 mL to make a small tumor model. RESULTS:An acoustic resolution photoacoustic microscopy based on fiber illumination was established and an axial resolution of 25 μm and a lateral resolution of 50 μm in its focal zone range of 500 μm has been accomplished. We tuned the laser wavelength to 600 nm. The photoacoustic probe was driven to do B-scan imaging in tissue thickness of 200 μm. The photoacoustic micro-image of mucosa and submucosa of the tissue have been obtained and compared with a pathological photograph of the tissue stained by hematoxylin-eosin staining. We have observed more detailed internal structure of the tissue. We also utilized this photoacoustic microscopy to image blood vessels inside the submucosa. High contrast imaging of the submucosa tumor model was obtained using ICG dye. CONCLUSION:This AR-PAM is able to image layer-by-layer construction and some blood vessels under mucosa in the stomach wall without any contrast agents.
Noninvasive evaluation of gastric emptying and gastric wall thickness in SLE patients.
Shen Hao-Lin,Yang Shu-Ping,Wang Kang-Jian,Huang Bei-Lei,Huang Wen-Bao,Wu Jin-Zhi,Lyu Guo-Rong
Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology
OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study is to evaluate the gastric emptying in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with gastrointestinal involvement using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography. METHODS:The gastric emptying times at 25% (T1), 50% (T2), and 75% (T3) of SLE patients with gastrointestinal involvement (n = 40) and healthy controls (n = 80) were evaluated and compared. In addition, the correlations among the gastric wall thickness, SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), and upper gastrointestinal symptoms were calculated. RESULTS:The gastric wall thickness was correlated with the SLEDAI (r = 0.928, p < 0.001) and the upper gastrointestinal symptom index (r = 0.848, p < 0.001). The emptying times T1, T2, and T3 of the SLE patients were 17.08 ± 2.65 min (mean ± standard deviation), 39.85 ± 6.54 min, and 83.58 ± 7.12 min, respectively. For healthy controls, they were 19.65 ± 5.39 min, 41.08 ± 7.51 min, and 70.34 ± 8.03 min. The T1 of the SLE patients was shorter (p < 0.01), while the T3 was longer (p < 0.001). Moreover, T3 in the SLE group had the best correlation with the upper gastrointestinal symptom index (r = 0.553, p < 0.001). T1 in the SLE group was anti-correlated with early satiety (r = -0.366, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Combining the emptying times T1 and T3, as well as the gastric wall thickness, the SLEDAI and the upper gastrointestinal symptoms index can provide accurate clinical diagnosis of SLE with gastric involvement.
Correct Evaluation of Gastric Wall Thickness May Support a Change in Staplers' Size When Performing Sleeve Gastrectomy.
Susmallian Sergio,Goitein David,Barnea Royi,Raziel Asnat
The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ
BACKGROUND:Leakage from the staple line is the most serious complication encountered after sleeve gastrectomy, occurring in 2.4% of surgeries. The use of inappropriately sized staplers, because of variability in stomach wall thickness, is a major cause of leakage. OBJECTIVES:To measure stomach wall thickness across different stomach zones to identify variables correlating with thickness. METHODS:The study comprised 100 patients (52 females). Stomach wall thickness was measured immediately after surgery using a digital caliper at the antrum, body, and fundus. Results were correlated with body mass index (BMI), age, gender, and pre-surgical diagnosis of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and fatty liver. RESULTS:Stomach thickness was found to be 5.1 ± 0.6 mm at the antrum, 4.1 ± 0.6 mm at the body, and 2. 6 ± 0.5 mm at the fundus. No correlation was found between stomach wall thickness and BMI, gender, or co-morbidities. CONCLUSIONS:Stomach wall thickness increases gradually from the fundus toward the antrum. Application of the correct staple height during sleeve gastrectomy is important and may, theoretically, prevent leaks. Staplers should be chosen according to the thickness of the tissue.
Intra-mural distribution of the blood vessels in the stomach demonstrated by contrast medium injection: a cadaver study.
Eishi Haruka,Yamaguchi Kumiko,Hiramatsu Yoshihiro,Akita Keiichi
Surgical and radiologic anatomy : SRA
PURPOSE:With advances in diagnostic imaging techniques of gastric cancer screening with X-ray fluoroscopy, it has been suggested that mucosal projections induced by the vessels distributed in the submucosal layer of the stomach may be mistaken for abnormal mucosal folds. In this study, we aimed to describe the distribution of blood vessels in the submucosal layer of the stomach to improve the diagnostic accuracy of screening of gastric cancer. METHODS:Twenty-four stomachs from Japanese cadavers were used in this study. Uncolored or colored contrast agents were injected into arteries and/or veins for macroscopic analyses, X-ray imaging, and methyl salicylate clearing. In addition, histological analysis was performed to examine blood vessels distributed inside the stomach wall. RESULTS:Following contrast agent injection, thick blood vessels were distributed perpendicular to both curvature sides, and branches parallel to both curvature sides flowed from these thick blood vessels, and a vascular network was formed throughout the stomach wall. This vascular network had intra-mural anastomoses connecting both curvature sides. Moreover, in histological analyses, blood vessels depicted by injection were mainly distributed in the submucosal layer. CONCLUSION:This study strongly suggests that the mucosal projections induced by arteries and veins in the submucosal layer could be mistaken for abnormal mucosal folds. Therefore, a better understanding of the vascular distribution in the submucosal layer is important to improve diagnostic accuracy from imaging studies of the stomach. The information provided by this research may facilitate better accuracy in diagnosis and reduce the number of unnecessary invasive procedures.
The role of sonography in differentiating congenital intrinsic duodenal anomalies from midgut malrotation: emphasizing the new signs of duodenal and gastric wall thickening and hyperechogenicity.
Hameed Shema,Caro-Domínguez Pablo,Daneman Alan,Zani-Ruttenstock Elke,Zani Augusto,Navarro Oscar M
BACKGROUND:The clinical and plain radiographic differentiation of congenital intrinsic duodenal anomalies (atresia, web, stenosis) from intestinal malrotation is not always clear. Although sonography has been documented as an important diagnostic tool in the differentiation of these two entities, its role is still not widely appreciated and it is still not universally utilized in this clinical setting. OBJECTIVE:To assess the usefulness of sonographic features of the duodenal and gastric wall in the differentiation of congenital intrinsic duodenal anomalies from midgut malrotation in a large series of neonates and to compare them with other features on abdominal radiographs, ultrasound and upper gastrointestinal series. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Using the surgical database at our tertiary pediatric hospital, we identified neonates who had surgically proven congenital intrinsic duodenal anomalies or malrotation over a period of 15 years (2000-2015). We reviewed imaging findings in both groups of neonates (blinded to the final diagnosis) with attention to the echogenicity and thickness of the wall of the duodenum and stomach, the relationship between the superior mesenteric artery and vein, the position of the third portion of the duodenum and the presence of the whirlpool sign. Findings were compared between the groups using the unpaired t-test and Fisher exact test. RESULTS:We included 107 neonates in the study, 40 with a congenital intrinsic duodenal anomaly, 49 with malrotation (36 with volvulus) and 18 with a combination of both. Duodenal and gastric wall thickening and hyperechogenicity were significantly more common in the group with a congenital intrinsic duodenal anomaly compared to those with malrotation (P<0.0001). Conversely, an abnormal relationship between the superior mesenteric artery and vein, abnormal position of the third part of the duodenum, and the whirlpool sign were significantly more common in neonates with malrotation than in those with congenital intrinsic duodenal anomalies (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION:Duodenal or gastric wall thickening, and increased wall echogenicity are helpful sonographic features in the differentiation of congenital intrinsic duodenal anomalies from malrotation. Evaluation of the duodenal and gastric wall should thus be added to the features routinely assessed on ultrasound examinations in the clinical setting of suspected duodenal obstruction in the neonate.
Morphology of the Canine Omentum Part 1: Arterial Landmarks that Define the Omentum.
Doom M,de Rooster H,van Bergen T,Gielen I,Kromhout K,Simoens P,Cornillie P
Anatomia, histologia, embryologia
Although the omentum remains an enigmatic organ, research during the last decades has revealed its fascinating functions including fat storage, fluid drainage, immune activity, angiogenesis and adhesion. While clinicians both in human and veterinary medicine are continuously exploring new potential omental applications, detailed anatomical data on the canine omentum are currently lacking, and information is often retrieved from human medicine. In this study, the topographic anatomy of the canine greater and lesser omentum is explored in depth. Current nomenclature is challenged, and a more detailed terminology is proposed. Consistent arteries that are contained within folds of the superficial omental wall are documented, described and named, as they can provide the anatomical landmarks that are necessary for unambiguous scientific communication on the canine omentum. In an included dissection video, the conclusions and in situ findings described in this study are demonstrated.
Ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy of healthy captive caracals (Caracal caracal).
Makungu Modesta,du Plessis Wencke M,Barrows Michelle,Koeppel Katja N,Groenewald Hermanus B
Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Abdominal ultrasonography was performed in six adult captive caracals (Caracal caracal) to describe the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy. Consistently, the splenic parenchyma was hyperechoic to the liver and kidneys. The relative echogenicity of the right kidney's cortex was inconsistent to the liver. The gall bladder was prominent in five animals and surrounded by a clearly visualized thin, smooth, regular echogenic wall. The wall thickness of the duodenum measured significantly greater compared with that of the jejunum and colon. The duodenum had a significantly thicker mucosal layer compared with that of the stomach. Such knowledge of the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy of individual species is important for accurate diagnosis and interpretation of routine health examinations.
Oral and I.V. contrast enhanced ultrasonography of the digestive tract--a useful completion of the B-mode examination: a literature review and an exhaustive illustration through images.
Neciu Cristian,Badea Radu,Chiorean Liliana,Badea Alexandru Florin,Opincariu Iulian
Contrast enhanced ultrasonography, using i.v. and/or oral/rectal contrast agents, represents a technical development of the US method, which has proved its applicability in the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the normal and pathological circulatory bed, as well as of the digestive lumen. The use of microbubbles and harmonics opens a new horizon in the detection and characterization of the inflammatory and tumoral conditions of the digestive tract. The interpretation of the data requires corroboration with the grey scale aspect of the examined lesion/area, as well as with the clinical context of the case and the results of other diagnosis techniques. The purpose of this paper is to review the main applications of CEUS in digestive tract pathology by analyzing the significant literature and guidelines in the light of our personal experience and demonstrating it through suggestive images.
Eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract: how much is normal?
Silva Jorge,Canão Pedro,Espinheira Maria Céu,Trindade Eunice,Carneiro Fátima,Dias Jorge Amil
Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
The normal density of eosinophils in the digestive mucosa of children has been rarely addressed despite being important to provide baseline counts for the diagnosis of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID). Histopathological criteria for EGID remain undefined and there has been little consistency of results in different populations. We aimed to establish the eosinophil density of the normal digestive mucosa in a paediatric population submitted to endoscopic procedures with normal histological features. Biopsies from endoscopies of 33 patients were evaluated. Quantification of eosinophils was performed manually. Review of the pathology reports confirmed absence of abnormality in the biopsy specimens. Counts were expressed in eosinophils per high power field and per mm. Oesophagus (n = 33): eosinophils were uniformly absent in all biopsies. Stomach: counting was performed, separately, in the superficial and deep lamina propria of the fundus (n = 13), corpus (n = 13) and antrum (n = 16). Mean eosinophilic density was higher in the deep lamina propria. Small intestine: eosinophil counts revealed 18.1 ± 17.0, 14.4 ± 12.0, and 51.5 ± 35.3 in the lamina propria of the bulb (n = 13), D2 (n = 13), and ileum (n = 16), respectively. Large intestine: the highest peak count was observed in the caecum (125 mm; n = 16) with a mean of 51.8 ± 33.5. The eosinophil counts were lower in the ascending (n = 16; 40.9 ± 27.4), transverse (n = 14; 34.3 ± 21.9), descending (n = 15; 40.0 ± 26.6), and sigmoid (n = 17; 25.8 ± 17.8) colon and in the rectum (n = 17; 13.9 ± 10.1). These data provide a baseline count and distribution of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract of paediatric patients with normal mucosa, thus expanding the scarce published data.