New DiaP277 analogue shifts DCs to tolerogenic, and modulates NF-Kβ1 to suppress autoreactive T lymphocytes in the type 1 diabetic mice.
Alahdal Murad,Liangliang Jing,Shiping Lu,Yun Xing,Gao Huashan,Jialei Zhou,Hassan Waseem,Jin Liang,Rongyue Cao
Therapeutic efficacy of P277 against type 1 diabetes was extensively investigated and clinically evidenced. Clinical trials Phases I and II concluded promising results, while the data of P277 immunogenicity in Phase III trials represented weak responses that led to abolish medical use. But, a therapeutic performance of P277 cannot be forgotten. So, in order to exploit its therapeutic benefits and improve its immunogenicity, we developed a new analogue VP to optimize therapeutic efficacy and enhancing immunosuppressive modulations. However, new analogue was purified, and then used to immunize diabetic NOD mice to investigate antidiabetic effects through modulation of immunological status. So, DCs immune responses, relative TLRs, MyD88, and NF-Kβ1 mRNA expression on DCs and splenocytes under VP effect were tested. Circulating and intracellular cytokines were also evaluated at treated and non-treated mice. Splenic T lymphocytes proliferation (Th1 and Treg cells) were also determined. Results revealed that VP significantly down regulates DCs maturation through TLR2, TLR4, and MyD88 pathways. It also shifts DCs to a tolerogenic polarization through NF-Kβ1 pathway that mediates Th1 immunosuppression and enhances iTreg expanding in type1diabetes mice. Meanwhile, we noticed that VP significantly enhances iTreg CD25 + FoxP3+ proliferation. In conclusion, VP showed promising immune potential to modulate immune regulatory responses and shifts DCs to suppress autoreactive Th1 cells which ameliorated immunosuppressive potency in the type1 diabetic mice.
Specific gene expression in type 1 diabetic patients with and without cardiac autonomic neuropathy.
Gastol Joanna,Polus Anna,Biela Maria,Razny Urszula,Pawlinski Lukasz,Solnica Bogdan,Kiec-Wilk Beata
We hypothesized that some molecular pathways might interact to initiate the process of nervous tissue destruction, promoting cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in the course of diabetes type 1 (T1D). The study group consisted of 60 T1D patients (58.33% women/41.67% men), on standard therapy. The control group consisted of twenty healthy volunteers recruited in accordance with age, gender and body weight. The presence of CAN was documented by the Ewing test method (ProSciCard apparatus). A microarray data analysis was performed using Gene Spring version 13. The microarray results for selected genes were confirmed by real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), using specific TaqMan Gene Expression Assays. Plasma IL-6 content was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The p < 0.05 value was considered as statistically significant. The microarray analysis, confirmed by qRTPCR, showed significant up-regulation of autophagy, quantity of mitochondria, quality regulatory genes (mTOR, GABARAPL2) apoptosis, ER-stress and inflammation (NFKB1, IL1b, IL1R1, SOD1), in T1D when compared to the control group. A significantly higher IL-6 protein level was observed in T1D patients, in comparison to the control group. We concluded that the observed changes in gene expression and activation of intracellular pathways give a coherent picture of the important role of oxidative stress in inflammation and the activation of apoptosis in the pathomechanism of DM. The significance of the inflammatory process, confirmed by the increased level of the inflammation biomarker IL-6 in the pathomechanisms of CAN was shown even in patients with properly treated T1D.
Analysis of polymorphisms in 16 genes in type 1 diabetes that have been associated with other immune-mediated diseases.
Smyth Deborah J,Howson Joanna M M,Payne Felicity,Maier Lisa M,Bailey Rebecca,Holland Kieran,Lowe Christopher E,Cooper Jason D,Hulme John S,Vella Adrian,Dahlman Ingrid,Lam Alex C,Nutland Sarah,Walker Neil M,Twells Rebecca C J,Todd John A
BMC medical genetics
BACKGROUND:The identification of the HLA class II, insulin (INS), CTLA-4 and PTPN22 genes as determinants of type 1 diabetes (T1D) susceptibility indicates that fine tuning of the immune system is centrally involved in disease development. Some genes have been shown to affect several immune-mediated diseases. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that alleles of susceptibility genes previously associated with other immune-mediated diseases might perturb immune homeostasis, and hence also associate with predisposition to T1D. METHODS:We resequenced and genotyped tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from two genes, CRP and FCER1B, and genotyped 27 disease-associated polymorphisms from thirteen gene regions, namely FCRL3, CFH, SLC9A3R1, PADI4, RUNX1, SPINK5, IL1RN, IL1RA, CARD15, IBD5-locus (including SLC22A4), LAG3, ADAM33 and NFKB1. These genes have been associated previously with susceptibility to a range of immune-mediated diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Graves' disease (GD), psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis (PA), atopy, asthma, Crohn disease and multiple sclerosis (MS). Our T1D collections are divided into three sample subsets, consisting of set 1 families (up to 754 families), set 2 families (up to 743 families), and a case-control collection (ranging from 1,500 to 4,400 cases and 1,500 to 4,600 controls). Each SNP was genotyped in one or more of these subsets. Our study typically had approximately 80% statistical power for a minor allele frequency (MAF) >5% and odds ratios (OR) of 1.5 with the type 1 error rate, alpha = 0.05. RESULTS:We found no evidence of association with T1D at most of the loci studied 0.02 <P < 1.0. Only a SNP in ADAM33, rs2787094, was any evidence of association obtained, P = 0.0004 in set 1 families (relative risk (RR) = 0.78), but further support was not observed in the 4,326 cases and 4,610 controls, P = 0.57 (OR = 1.02). CONCLUSION:Polymorphisms in a variety of genes previously associated with immune-mediated disease susceptibility and/or having effects on gene function and the immune system, are unlikely to be affecting T1D susceptibility in a major way, even though some of the genes tested encode proteins of immune pathways that are believed to be central to the development of T1D. We cannot, however, rule out effect sizes smaller than OR 1.5.
Functional variants in SUMO4, TAB2, and NFkappaB and the risk of type 1 diabetes.
Kosoy R,Concannon P
Genes and immunity
Several functional genetic variants that can potentially modulate the activity of NFkappaB have been recently described. As reduced NFkappaB activity has been implicated in risk for autoimmune diabetes in the NOD mouse, these variants were tested for allelic association with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in a family based study. Alleles at markers in the TAB2/SUMO4 locus on chromosome 6q had been previously reported to be associated with T1D in two separate studies, but these studies disagreed on the identity of the risk allele. The current study failed to confirm either of these results. No significant evidence of association with T1D was obtained for three SNP markers in the TAB2/SUMO4 region. An additional functional variant in the promoter of the NFKB1 gene that has been shown to directly affect the expression of NFkappaB was also tested.
Characterization of a nuclear-factor-kappa B (NFkappaB) genetic marker in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) families.
Gylvin T,Bergholdt R,Nerup J,Pociot F
Genes and immunity
Cytokine-induced beta-cell death is an important factor in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The transcription factor NFkappaB plays an important role in cytokine-induced gene activation. Hence, NFKB1 is a possible candidate gene for T1DM disposition. A polymorphic (CA) dinucleotide repeat microsatellite has been identified near the NFKB1 gene. In a recent case-control study certain alleles of this NFKB1 microsatellite marker showed strong association to T1DM. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the association between the NFKB1 marker and T1DM could be confirmed in a Danish family collection. No T1DM association for any allele of the NFKB1 microsatellite marker could however be demonstrated in Danish T1DM families. In conclusion, we could not confirm the highly significant T1DM association of certain alleles of the NFKB1 marker previously reported.
HLA, NFKB1 and NFKBIA gene polymorphism profile in autoimmune diabetes mellitus patients.
Katarina K,Daniela P,Peter N,Marianna R,Pavlina C,Stepanka P,Jan L,Ludmila T,Michal A,Marie C
Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is one of the long-time studied autoimmune disorders. The triggering of the autoimmune process has been ascribed to various genes active in the regulation of the cytokine gene transcription including the Rel/NF-kappaB gene family. In our study the gene polymorphism of HLA class II, NFKB1 (nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1) and NFKBIA (inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B) was tested. Patients were divided into the subgroups in relation to the disease type: T1DM in children, T1DM in adults, and Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA). HLA-DRB1 (*)04 and HLA-DQB1 (*)0302 have been detected as risk factors for T1DM in adults and particularly in children (P<0.0001, OR=22.9 and 46.5 respectively). HLA-DRB1 (*)03 has been found as a single risk factor for LADA (P<0.0001, OR=4.9). We detected 15 alleles for the NFKB1 gene polymorphism (CA-repeats) in the Czech population. The alleles were ranging in size from 114-142 bp corresponding to 10-25 CA repeats. Frequency of the A7 allele of NFKB1 gene has been significantly increased in T1DM adults (P<0.01). There was no difference in A and a G allele frequency of NFKBIA gene between the control group and patients, but the association of the AA genotype of NFKBIA gene has been found for LADA (P<0.05). Summarizing our results we concluded that there is a high probability of association of gene polymorphism from Rel/NF-kappaB family with an autoimmune diabetes course. Due to the results obtained in the epidemiological study we have been looking also for the function significance of the genetic predisposition. No significant changes have been observed by real time PCR testing of HLA-DRB1 (*)04 gene and NFKB1 gene expression between T1DM diabetic group with different HLA, NFKB1, NFKBIA genetic background.
The role of NF-kappaB signaling in impaired liver tissue repair in thioacetamide-treated type 1 diabetic rats.
Devi Sachin S,Mehendale Harihara M
European journal of pharmacology
Previously we reported that an ordinarily nonlethal dose of thioacetamide (300 mg/kg) causes liver failure and 90% mortality in type 1 diabetic rats, primarily because of inhibited tissue repair. On the other hand, the diabetic rats receiving 30 mg thioacetamide/kg exhibited equal initial liver injury and delayed tissue repair compared to nondiabetic rats receiving 300 mg thioacetamide/kg, resulting in a delay in recovery from that liver injury and survival. These data indicate that impaired tissue repair in diabetes is a dose-dependent function of diabetes. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that disrupted nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-regulated cyclin D1 signaling may explain dose-dependent impaired tissue repair in the thioacetamide-treated diabetic rats. Administration of 300 mg thioacetamide/kg to nondiabetic rats led to sustained NF-kappaB-regulated cyclin D1 signaling, explaining prompt compensatory tissue repair and survival. For the first time, we report that NF-kappaB-DNA binding is dependent on the dose of thioacetamide in the liver tissue of the diabetic rats. Administration of 300 mg thioacetamide/kg to diabetic rats inhibited NF-kappaB-regulated cyclin D1 signaling, explaining inhibited tissue repair, liver failure and death, whereas remarkably higher NF-kappaB-DNA binding but transient down regulation of cyclin D1 expression explains delayed tissue repair in the diabetic rats receiving 30 mg thioacetamide/kg. These data suggest that dose-dependent NF-kappaB-regulated cyclin D1 signaling explains inhibited versus delayed tissue repair observed in the diabetic rats receiving 300 and 30 mg thioacetamide/kg, respectively.
Diabetes-associated sustained activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB.
Bierhaus A,Schiekofer S,Schwaninger M,Andrassy M,Humpert P M,Chen J,Hong M,Luther T,Henle T,Klöting I,Morcos M,Hofmann M,Tritschler H,Weigle B,Kasper M,Smith M,Perry G,Schmidt A M,Stern D M,Häring H U,Schleicher E,Nawroth P P
Activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) has been suggested to participate in chronic disorders, such as diabetes and its complications. In contrast to the short and transient activation of NF-kappaB in vitro, we observed a long-lasting sustained activation of NF-kappaB in the absence of decreased IkappaBalpha in mononuclear cells from patients with type 1 diabetes. This was associated with increased transcription of NF-kappaBp65. A comparable increase in NF-kappaBp65 antigen and mRNA was also observed in vascular endothelial cells of diabetic rats. As a mechanism, we propose that binding of ligands such as advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs), members of the S100 family, or amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) to the transmembrane receptor for AGE (RAGE) results in protein synthesis-dependent sustained activation of NF-kappaB both in vitro and in vivo. Infusion of AGE-albumin into mice bearing a beta-globin reporter transgene under control of NF-kappaB also resulted in prolonged expression of the reporter transgene. In vitro studies showed that RAGE-expressing cells induced sustained translocation of NF-kappaB (p50/p65) from the cytoplasm into the nucleus for >1 week. Sustained NF-kappaB activation by ligands of RAGE was mediated by initial degradation of IkappaB proteins followed by new synthesis of NF-kappaBp65 mRNA and protein in the presence of newly synthesized IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta. These data demonstrate that ligands of RAGE can induce sustained activation of NF-kappaB as a result of increased levels of de novo synthesized NF-kappaBp65 overriding endogenous negative feedback mechanisms and thus might contribute to the persistent NF-kappaB activation observed in hyperglycemia and possibly other chronic diseases.
High pancreatic n-3 fatty acids prevent STZ-induced diabetes in fat-1 mice: inflammatory pathway inhibition.
Bellenger Jérôme,Bellenger Sandrine,Bataille Amandine,Massey Karen A,Nicolaou Anna,Rialland Mickaël,Tessier Christian,Kang Jing X,Narce Michel
OBJECTIVE:Because of confounding factors, the effects of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on type 1 diabetes remain to be clarified. We therefore evaluated whether fat-1 transgenic mice, a well-controlled experimental model endogenously synthesizing n-3 PUFA, were protected against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. We then aimed to elucidate the in vivo response at the pancreatic level. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:β-Cell destruction was produced by multiple low-doses STZ (MLD-STZ). Blood glucose level, plasma insulin level, and plasma lipid analysis were then performed. Pancreatic mRNA expression of cytokines, the monocyte chemoattractant protein, and GLUT2 were evaluated as well as pancreas nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 and inhibitor of κB (IκB) protein expression. Insulin and cleaved caspase-3 immunostaining and lipidomic analysis were performed in the pancreas. RESULTS:STZ-induced fat-1 mice did not develop hyperglycemia compared with wild-type mice, and β-cell destruction was prevented as evidenced by lack of histological pancreatic damage or reduced insulin level. The prevention of β-cell destruction was associated with no proinflammatory cytokine induction (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase) in the pancreas, a decreased NF-κB, and increased IκB pancreatic protein expression. In the fat-1-treated mice, proinflammatory arachidonic-derived mediators as prostaglandin E₂ and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid were decreased and the anti-inflammatory lipoxin A₄ was detected. Moreover, the 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid, precursor of the anti-inflammatory resolvin E1, was highly increased. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, these findings indicate that fat-1 mice were protected against MLD-STZ-induced diabetes and pointed out for the first time in vivo the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA at the pancreatic level, on each step of the development of the pathology-inflammation, β-cell damage-through cytokine response and lipid mediator production.
Discovering common pathogenetic processes between COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus by differential gene expression pattern analysis.
Rahman Md Rezanur,Islam Tania,Shahjaman Md,Islam Md Rafiqul,Lombardo Salvo Danilo,Bramanti Placido,Ciurleo Rosella,Bramanti Alessia,Tchorbanov Andrey,Fisicaro Francesco,Fagone Paolo,Nicoletti Ferdinando,Pennisi Manuela
Briefings in bioinformatics
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the newly discovered coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. Increased severity of COVID-19 has been observed in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to identify common transcriptional signatures, regulators and pathways between COVID-19 and DM. We have integrated human whole-genome transcriptomic datasets from COVID-19 and DM, followed by functional assessment with gene ontology (GO) and pathway analyses. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), among the upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 32 were found to be commonly modulated in COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes (T2D), while 10 DEGs were commonly downregulated. As regards type 1 diabetes (T1D), 21 DEGs were commonly upregulated, and 29 DEGs were commonly downregulated in COVID-19 and T1D. Moreover, 35 DEGs were commonly upregulated in SARS-CoV-2 infected pancreas organoids and T2D islets, while 14 were commonly downregulated. Several GO terms were found in common between COVID-19 and DM. Prediction of the putative transcription factors involved in the upregulation of genes in COVID-19 and DM identified RELA to be implicated in both PBMCs and pancreas. Here, for the first time, we have characterized the biological processes and pathways commonly dysregulated in COVID-19 and DM, which could be in the next future used for the design of personalized treatment of COVID-19 patients suffering from DM as comorbidity.
Decreased renal organic anion transporter 3 expression in type 1 diabetic rats.
Phatchawan Arjinajarn,Chutima Srimaroeng,Varanuj Chatsudthipong,Anusorn Lungkaphin
The American journal of the medical sciences
BACKGROUND:Organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) plays an essential role in the renal excretion of organic anions. Reduced renal Oat3 expression potentially contributes to an impaired anion clearance and causes abnormal kidney function. This study examined the effects of diabetes on the expression and function of rat renal Oat3. METHODS:Experimental diabetes was induced by the administration of streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were randomly assigned to the treatment group or no treatment group with insulin for 4 weeks. The expression of renal Oat3, protein kinase Cα (PKCα), phospho-PKCα and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 were determined by immunoblotting. Estrone sulfate (ES) uptake into renal cortical slices was used as an indicator of renal Oat3 function. RESULTS:The reduced expression of renal Oat3 was related to the decrease in [H]ES uptake in a renal cortical slice of the diabetic rat. Insulin treatment restored the impairment of renal Oat3 function and expression. These may be because of the hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress effectively activating the PKCα and NF-κB. Insulin treatment abolished these processes. CONCLUSIONS:These data are the first to show that the decreased function and expression of renal Oat3 in diabetes was associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species production coinciding with the activation of PKC and NF-κB signaling pathway. These events may affect the transporter protein translocation and/or expression.
STZ-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is associated with increased p65 content and downregulation of insulin pathway without NF-κB canonical cascade activation.
Kelleher Andrew R,Fairchild Timothy J,Keslacy Stefan
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is associated with an increased incidence in morbidity and mortality. Although the precise mechanism of diabetes-induced skeletal muscle atrophy remains to be established, several NF-κB-dependent pro-inflammatory genes have been identified as potential therapeutic targets. Moreover, activation of NF-κB has previously been shown to be required for cytokine-induced loss of skeletal muscle proteins. Therefore, we investigated activation of the NF-κB canonical pathway, concomitant to insulin signaling activation in skeletal muscle from diabetes-induced rats. Ten rats injected with streptozotocin (STZ) 4 weeks prior to tissue extraction were compared to 10 control rats. Using total, cytosolic and nuclear protein extracts from hindlimb muscles: soleus (SOL), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), gastrocnemius (GM) and liver tissue, we assessed key proteins important for the activation of both NF-κB and insulin pathways. Insulin blood concentration decreased to 3.9 ± 1.2 mU/ml following STZ-injection resulting in hyperglycemia (17.9 ± 0.7 mmol/l). SOL, EDL and GM mass decreased, and liver mass increased following STZ injection. NF-κB/p65 content in SOL, GM and liver increased in STZ-injected rats, without any change in IκB degradation or IKK phosphorylation. Muscle NF-κB/p65 remained bound to IκB and did not translocate or bind to DNA. Although the canonical NF-κB cascade was not activated, STZ induced a decrease in insulin pathway proteins including insulin receptor (IR) and substrate (IRS-1) content and phosphorylation compared to control animals. A downregulation of insulin pathway proteins and muscle atrophy occurred in response to STZ administration, and despite increased p65 content, STZ treatment did not activate the canonical NF-κB cascade. Therefore, it is unlikely that hyperglycemia initiates skeletal muscle atrophy via activation of the NF-κB canonical pathway.
Mechanisms underlying resistance of pancreatic islets from ALR/Lt mice to cytokine-induced destruction.
Mathews Clayton E,Suarez-Pinzon Wilma L,Baust Jeffrey J,Strynadka Ken,Leiter Edward H,Rabinovitch Alex
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
Nuclear and mitochondrial genomes combine in ALR/Lt mice to produce systemically elevated defenses against free radical damage, rendering these mice resistant to immune-mediated pancreatic islet destruction. We analyzed the mechanism whereby isolated islets from ALR mice resisted proinflammatory stress mediated by combined cytokines (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma) in vitro. Such damage entails both superoxide and NO radical generation, as well as peroxynitrite, resulting from their combination. In contrast to islets from other mouse strains, ALR islets expressed constitutively higher glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and higher ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione. Following incubation with combined cytokines, islets from control strains produced significantly higher levels of hydrogen peroxide and NO than islets from ALR mice. Nitrotyrosine was generated in NOD and C3H/HeJ islets but not by ALR islets. Western blot analysis showed that combined cytokines up-regulated the NF-kappaB inducible NO synthase in NOD-Rag and C3H/HeJ islets but not in ALR islets. This inability of cytokine-treated ALR islets to up-regulate inducible NO synthase and produce NO correlated both with reduced kinetics of IkappaB degradation and with markedly suppressed NF-kappaB p65 nuclear translocation. Hence, ALR/Lt islets resist cytokine-induced diabetogenic stress through enhanced dissipation and/or suppressed formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, impaired IkappaB degradation, and blunted NF-kappaB activation. Nitrotyrosylation of beta cell proteins may generate neoantigens; therefore, resistance of ALR islets to nitrotyrosine formation may, in part, explain why ALR mice are resistant to type 1 diabetes when reconstituted with a NOD immune system.
Resveratrol inhibits macrophage infiltration of pancreatic islets in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice via attenuation of the CXCL16/NF-κΒ p65 signaling pathway.
Darwish Mostafa A,Abo-Youssef Amira M,Messiha Basim A S,Abo-Saif Ali A,Abdel-Bakky Mohamed S
AIM:Despite CXC chemokine ligand 16 (CXCL16) contributes to the pathogenesis of many inflammatory disorders, the mechanism by which CXCL16 is involved in T1DM remains unclear. In this study, we examined the role of the CXCL16/NF-κΒ p65 signaling pathway in the progression of this disease and the possible protective effect of resveratrol (RES) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1DM. MAIN METHODS:Mice were classified into four groups of 10 animals each. The control group received citrate buffer. The RES group received 50 mg/kg i.p. RES for 12 days beginning on day 4 of citrate buffer. The STZ group received 55 mg/kg i.p. STZ once a day for 5 consecutive days. The fourth group injected with RES (50 mg/kg) for 12 days starting on day 4 of STZ injection. Biochemical, physical and oxidative stress parameters were measured in all groups. Moreover, expression of CXCL16 and CD45 was measured in pancreatic islets and spleen. Additionally, NF-κΒ p65 was investigated in isolated islets. KEY FINDINGS:Our results showed a significant elevation of CXCL16, NF-κΒ p65 and CD45 in islets of diabetic (DM) mice. Intriguingly, RES significantly restored distorted biochemical, physical and oxidative stress parameters after STZ treatment as well as inhibited the expression of CXCL16/NF-κΒ p65 in pancreatic islets. Moreover, RES normalized CXCL16 and CD45 expression in islets and spleen. SIGNIFICANCE:This study demonstrates first evidence that CXCL16/NF-κΒ p65 signaling pathway is associated with macrophage infiltration to pancreatic islet in T1DM and that RES successfully improved T1DM may be at least via inhibiting this pathway.
Glucose control with insulin results in reduction of NF-kappaB-binding activity in mononuclear blood cells of patients with recently manifested type 1 diabetes.
Schiekofer S,Galasso G,Andrassy M,Aprahamian T,Schneider J,Rocnik E
Diabetes, obesity & metabolism
AIM:Chronic elevated blood glucose levels are associated with the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Hyperglycaemia and AGEs have been shown to induce activation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). To validate the hypothesis that the maintenance of normal glucose levels results in the reduction of NF-kappaB-binding activity in vivo, the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-kappaB was used as marker of hyperglycaemia-induced mononuclear cell activation in patients who recently developed type 1 diabetes. METHODS:Twelve patients with recently manifested type 1 diabetes mellitus were examined in our study. After sampling blood for determination of baseline glucose values, the 12 patients were treated with insulin, and blood samples were taken 4 and 12 weeks later. Mononuclear cells were isolated and assayed in a tissue culture-independent electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA)-based detection system for NF-kappaB-binding activity. Western blot analysis was used to determine nuclear and cytoplasmic localization of NF-kappaB-p65 and cytoplasmic content of inhibitor of kappa B-alpha (IkappaB-alpha). In addition, we determined the concentration of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) from cytoplasmic extract as a marker of oxidative stress. RESULTS:Normalization of blood glucose levels resulted in a highly significant reduction of NF-kappaB activation in EMSA. Before and after glucose normalization, there were no differences in binding by the members of the NF-kappaB family to the NF-kappaB consensus sequence oligonucleotide. Similar data were obtained by Western blot analysis showing NF-kappaB-p65 localization in the nucleus, while p65 levels increased in the cytoplasm. IkappaB-alpha increased in the cytoplasm after glucose normalization. HO-1 antigen consistently decreased, as expected from the decrease in NF-kappaB activation. CONCLUSION:Thus, we conclude that normalization of blood glucose levels results in the reduction of NF-kappaB activation and gene products controlled by this transcription factor.
Abnormal NF-kappa B function characterizes human type 1 diabetes dendritic cells and monocytes.
Mollah Zia U A,Pai Saparna,Moore Craig,O'Sullivan Brendan J,Harrison Matthew J,Peng Judy,Phillips Karen,Prins Johannes B,Cardinal John,Thomas Ranjeny
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
Dendritic cell (DC) differentiation is abnormal in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, the nature of the relationship between this abnormality and disease pathogenesis is unknown. We studied the LPS response in monocytes and monocyte-derived DCs isolated from T1DM patients and from non-T1DM controls. In T1DM patients, late LPS-mediated nuclear DNA binding by RelA, p50, c-Rel, and RelB was impaired as compared with type 2 DM, rheumatoid arthritis, and healthy subjects, associated with impaired DC CD40 and MHC class I induction but normal cytokine production. In TIDM monocytes, RelA and RelB were constitutively activated, and the src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-1), a negative regulator of NF-kappaB, was overexpressed. Addition of sodium stibogluconate, a SHP-1 inhibitor, to DCs differentiating from monocyte precursors restored their capacity to respond to LPS in approximately 60% of patients. The monocyte and DC NF-kappaB response to LPS is thus a novel phenotypic and likely pathogenetic marker for human T1DM. SHP-1 is at least one NF-kappaB regulatory mechanism which might be induced as a result of abnormal inflammatory signaling responses in T1DM monocytes.
Type 1 diabetes increases the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules in the artery wall of candidate patients for kidney transplantation.
Triñanes Javier,Salido Eduardo,Fernández Julián,Rufino Margarita,González-Posada José Manuel,Torres Armando,Hernández Domingo
OBJECTIVE:Diabetes may accelerate atheromatosis in uremic patients. Our aim was to assess the influence of type 1 diabetes on the atheromatosis-related inflammation in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We analyzed the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules in the inferior epigastric artery walls of type 1 diabetic patients with CKD (n = 22) and compared it with nondiabetic uremic patients (n = 92) at the time of kidney transplantation. We evaluated the expression of interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemotractant protein (MCP)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and the activation of nuclear factor-κβ p65 (NFkB-p65). Common carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) was determined by conventional echography. RESULTS:IL-6, MCP-1, and VCAM-1 proteins were elevated in type 1 diabetic patients compared with nondiabetic subjects (P < 0.05). The nuclear localization of NFkB-p65 was higher in type 1 diabetic patients (P < 0.01) and correlated with the levels of MCP-1 in this group (r = 0.726, P < 0.001). Arterial fibrosis correlated with IL-6 and MCP-1 levels (r = 0.411, P < 0.001 and r = 0.378, P = 0.001). A significant correlation was observed between VCAM-1 levels and both the degree of arterial narrowing and c-IMT. CONCLUSIONS:Type 1 diabetes produces a proinflammatory state in the arteries of end-stage CKD patients, with increased levels of IL-6, MCP-1, and VCAM-1, as well as a greater degree of p65 activation, which are associated with more severe vascular lesions and higher c-IMT. Although causality is not demonstrated, these findings support the major role of inflammation in type 1 diabetic patients with CKD.
Novel Association Between Immune-Mediated Susceptibility Loci and Persistent Autoantibody Positivity in Type 1 Diabetes.
Brorsson Caroline A,Onengut Suna,Chen Wei-Min,Wenzlau Janet,Yu Liping,Baker Peter,Williams Alistair J K,Bingley Polly J,Hutton John C,Eisenbarth George S,Concannon Patrick,Rich Stephen S,Pociot Flemming,
Islet autoantibodies detected at disease onset in patients with type 1 diabetes are signs of an autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells. To further investigate the genetic determinants of autoantibody positivity, we performed dense immune-focused genotyping on the Immunochip array and tested for association with seven disease-specific autoantibodies in a large cross-sectional cohort of 6,160 type 1 diabetes-affected siblings. The genetic association with positivity for GAD autoantibodies (GADAs), IA2 antigen (IA-2A), zinc transporter 8, thyroid peroxidase, gastric parietal cells (PCAs), tissue transglutaminase, and 21-hydroxylase was tested using a linear mixed-model regression approach to simultaneously control for population structure and family relatedness. Four loci were associated with autoantibody positivity at genome-wide significance. Positivity for GADA was associated with 3q28/LPP, for IA-2A with 1q23/FCRL3 and 11q13/RELA, and for PCAs with 2q24/IFIH1. The 3q28 locus showed association after only 3 years duration and might therefore be a marker of persistent GADA positivity. The 1q23, 11q13, and 2q24 loci were associated with autoantibodies close to diabetes onset and constitute candidates for early screening. Major susceptibility loci for islet autoantibodies are separate from type 1 diabetes risk, which may have consequences for intervention strategies to reduce autoimmunity.
CD28 Individual Signaling Up-regulates Human IL-17A Expression by Promoting the Recruitment of RelA/NF-κB and STAT3 Transcription Factors on the Proximal Promoter.
Kunkl Martina,Mastrogiovanni Marta,Porciello Nicla,Caristi Silvana,Monteleone Emanuele,Arcieri Stefano,Tuosto Loretta
Frontiers in immunology
CD28 is an important co-stimulatory receptor for T lymphocytes that, in humans, delivers TCR-independent signal leading to the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We have recently reported that CD28 autonomous signaling induces the expression of IL-17A in peripheral CD4 T lymphocytes from healthy donors, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes patients. Due to the relevance of IL-17A in the pathophysiology of several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, we characterized the mechanisms and signaling mediators responsible for CD28-induced IL-17A expression. Here we show that CD28-mediated up-regulation of IL-17A gene expression depends on RelA/NF-κB and IL-6-associated STAT3 transcriptions factors. In particular, we found that CD28-activated RelA/NF-κB induces the expression of IL-6 that, in a positive feedback loop, mediates the activation and nuclear translocation of tyrosine phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3). pSTAT3 in turn cooperates with RelA/NF-κB by binding specific sequences within the proximal promoter of human IL-17A gene, thus inducing its expression. Finally, by using specific inhibitory drugs, we also identified class 1A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) as a critical upstream regulator of CD28-mediated RelA/NF-κB and STAT3 recruitments and trans-activation of IL-17A promoter. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism by which human CD28 may amplify IL-17A expression in human T lymphocytes and provide biological bases for immunotherapeutic approaches targeting CD28-associated class 1A PI3K to dampen IL-17A-mediated inflammatory response in autoimmune/inflammatory disorders.
Insulin regulation of multiple ribonucleic acid species in human skeletal muscle in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant subjects.
Thompson D B,de Gregorio M,Sommercorn J
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
In vivo short term (2 h) insulin-regulated gene expression was examined in skeletal muscle of persons with differing insulin sensitivities. Nine genes were analyzed by a S1 nuclease protection assay with multiple probes (multiple S1 nuclease protection assay) to allow the simultaneous examination of RNA abundances from the multiple genes. In insulin-sensitive individuals, 5 of these 9 genes were insulin responsive. RNA from the proto-oncogenes c-Ha-ras, c-myc, and c-src transiently increased 2- to 4-fold within 30 min of insulin infusion. In addition, the RNA abundance of myf-5, a muscle specific differentiation factor, increased 3-fold with a time course similar to that of c-Ha-ras, c-myc, and c-src. In contrast, type 1 protein phosphatase alpha (PPP1A) RNA levels decreased by 50% within 30 min. In insulin-resistant individuals, the RNA levels of c-Ha-ras and myf-5 did not increase, whereas c-src RNA did increase within 30 min of insulin infusion. RNA encoding c-myc transiently increased in both groups; however, this response was lower in insulin-resistant individuals than in insulin-sensitive individuals in a pattern similar to c-Ha-ras and myf-5. PPP1A RNA levels slightly increased in insulin-resistant individuals. In both insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant persons, RNA quantities of GLUT4, c-jun, c-fos, and the insulin receptor did not change over the period of insulin infusion. However, overall RNA levels of the insulin receptor and c-jun were lower in insulin-resistant individuals.
Gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from children with diabetes.
Kaizer Ellen C,Glaser Casey L,Chaussabel Damien,Banchereau Jacques,Pascual Virginia,White Perrin C
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
OBJECTIVE:We hypothesized that type 1 diabetes (T1D) is accompanied by changes in gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells due to dysregulation of adaptive and innate immunity, counterregulatory responses to immune dysregulation, insulin deficiency, and hyperglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Microarray analysis was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 43 patients with newly diagnosed T1D, 12 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D), and 24 healthy controls. One- and 4-month follow-up samples were obtained from 20 of the T1D patients. RESULTS:Microarray analysis identified 282 genes differing in expression between newly diagnosed T1D patients and controls at a false discovery rate of 0.05. Changes in expression of IL1B, early growth response gene 3, and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 resolved within 4 months of insulin therapy and were also observed in T2D, suggesting that they resulted from hyperglycemia. With use of a knowledge base, 81 of 282 genes could be placed within a network of interrelated genes with predicted functions including apoptosis and cell proliferation. IL1B and the MYC oncogene were the most highly connected genes in the network. IL1B was highly overexpressed in both T1D and T2D, whereas MYC was dysregulated only in T1D. CONCLUSION:T1D and T2D likely share a final common pathway for beta-cell dysfunction that includes secretion of IL-1beta and prostaglandins by immune effector cells, exacerbating existing beta-cell dysfunction, and causing further hyperglycemia. The results identify several targets for disease-modifying therapy of diabetes and potential biomarkers for monitoring treatment efficacy.
New data analysis and mining approaches identify unique proteome and transcriptome markers of susceptibility to autoimmune diabetes.
Gerling Ivan C,Singh Sudhir,Lenchik Nataliya I,Marshall Dana R,Wu Jian
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP
Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice spontaneously develop autoimmunity to the insulin producing beta cells leading to insulin-dependent diabetes. In this study we developed and used new data analysis and mining approaches on combined proteome and transcriptome (molecular phenotype) data to define pathways affected by abnormalities in peripheral leukocytes of young NOD female mice. Cells were collected before mice show signs of autoimmunity (age, 2-4 weeks). We extracted both protein and RNA from NOD and C57BL/6 control mice to conduct both proteome analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and transcriptome analysis on Affymetrix expression arrays. We developed a new approach to analyze the two-dimensional gel proteome data that included two-way analysis of variance, cluster analysis, and principal component analysis. Lists of differentially expressed proteins and transcripts were subjected to pathway analysis using a commercial service. From the list of 24 proteins differentially expressed between strains we identified two highly significant and interconnected networks centered around oncogenes (Myc and Mycn) and apoptosis-related genes (Bcl2 and Casp3). The 273 genes with significant strain differences in RNA expression levels created six interconnected networks with a significant over-representation of genes related to cancer, cell cycle, and cell death. They contained many of the same genes found in the proteome networks (including Myc and Mycn). The combination of the eight, highly significant networks created one large network of 272 genes of which 82 had differential expression between strains either at the protein or the RNA level. We conclude that new proteome data analysis strategies and combined information from proteome and transcriptome can enhance the insights gained from either type of data alone. The overall systems biology of prediabetic NOD mice points toward abnormalities in regulation of the opposing processes of cell renewal and cell death even before there are any clear signatures of immune system activation.
Reactive oxygen species are required for driving efficient and sustained aerobic glycolysis during CD4+ T cell activation.
Previte Dana M,O'Connor Erin C,Novak Elizabeth A,Martins Christina P,Mollen Kevin P,Piganelli Jon D
The immune system is necessary for protecting against various pathogens. However, under certain circumstances, self-reactive immune cells can drive autoimmunity, like that exhibited in type 1 diabetes (T1D). CD4+ T cells are major contributors to the immunopathology in T1D, and in order to drive optimal T cell activation, third signal reactive oxygen species (ROS) must be present. However, the role ROS play in mediating this process remains to be further understood. Recently, cellular metabolic programs have been shown to dictate the function and fate of immune cells, including CD4+ T cells. During activation, CD4+ T cells must transition metabolically from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis to support proliferation and effector function. As ROS are capable of modulating cellular metabolism in other models, we sought to understand if blocking ROS also regulates CD4+ T cell activation and effector function by modulating T cell metabolism. To do so, we utilized an ROS scavenging and potent antioxidant manganese metalloporphyrin (MnP). Our results demonstrate that redox modulation during activation regulates the mTOR/AMPK axis by maintaining AMPK activation, resulting in diminished mTOR activation and reduced transition to aerobic glycolysis in diabetogenic splenocytes. These results correlated with decreased Myc and Glut1 upregulation, reduced glucose uptake, and diminished lactate production. In an adoptive transfer model of T1D, animals treated with MnP demonstrated delayed diabetes progression, concurrent with reduced CD4+ T cell activation. Our results demonstrate that ROS are required for driving and sustaining T cell activation-induced metabolic reprogramming, and further support ROS as a target to minimize aberrant immune responses in autoimmunity.
A comprehensive analysis of cytokine-induced and nuclear factor-kappa B-dependent genes in primary rat pancreatic beta-cells.
Cardozo A K,Heimberg H,Heremans Y,Leeman R,Kutlu B,Kruhøffer M,Ørntoft T,Eizirik D L
The Journal of biological chemistry
Type 1 diabetes mellitus results from an autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta-cells. Cytokines, such as interleukin-1 beta and interferon-gamma, are putative mediators of immune-induced beta-cell death and, under in vitro conditions, cause beta-cell apoptosis. We have recently shown that interleukin-1 beta + interferon-gamma modifies the expression of >200 genes in beta-cells. Several of these genes are putative targets for the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B), and in subsequent experiments we showed that NF-kappa B activation is mostly pro-apoptotic in beta-cells. To identify cytokine-induced and NF-kappa B-regulated genes in primary rat beta-cells, we presently combined two experimental approaches: 1) blocking of NF-kappa B activation in cytokine-exposed beta-cells by a recombinant adenovirus (AdI kappa B((SA)2)) containing an inhibitor of NF-kappa B alpha (I kappa Bac) super-repressor (S32A/S36A) and 2) study of gene expression by microarray analysis. We identified 66 cytokine-modified and NF-kappa B-regulated genes in beta-cells. Cytokine-induced NF-kappa B activation decreased Pdx-1 and increased c-Myc expression. This, together with NF-kappa B-dependent inhibition of Glut-2, pro-hormone convertase-1, and Isl-1 expression, probably contributes to the loss of differentiated beta-cell functions. NF-kappa B also regulates several genes encoding for chemokines and cytokines in beta-cells. The present data suggest that NF-kappa B is a key "switch regulator" of transcription factors and gene networks controlling cytokine-induced beta-cell dysfunction and death.
Hyperglycemia and T Cell infiltration are associated with stromal and epithelial prostatic hyperplasia in the nonobese diabetic mouse.
Aaron-Brooks LaTayia M,Sasaki Takeshi,Vickman Renee E,Wei Lin,Franco Omar E,Ji Yuan,Crawford Susan E,Hayward Simon W
BACKGROUND:Prostatic inflammation and various proinflammatory systemic comorbidities, such as diabetes and obesity are associated with human benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). There is a paucity of in vivo models reflecting specific aspects of BPH pathogenesis. Our aim was to investigate the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse as a potential model for subsequent intervention studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We used the NOD mouse, a model of autoimmune inflammation leading to type 1 diabetes to examine the effects of systemic inflammation and diabetes on the prostate. We assessed changes in prostatic histology, infiltrating leukocytes, and gene expression associated with aging and diabetic status. RESULTS:Both stromal expansion and epithelial hyperplasia were observed in the prostates. Regardless of diabetic status, the degree of prostatic hyperplasia varied. Local inflammation was associated with a more severe prostatic phenotype in both diabetic and nondiabetic mice. Testicular atrophy was noted in diabetic mice, but prostate glands showed persistent focal cell proliferation. In addition, a prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN)-like phenotype was seen in several diabetic animals with an associated increase in c-Myc and MMP-2 expression. To examine changes in gene and cytokine expression we performed microarray and cytokine array analysis comparing the prostates of diabetic and nondiabetic animals. Microarray analysis revealed several differentially expressed genes including CCL3, CCL12, and TNFS10. Cytokine array analysis revealed increased expression of cytokines and proteases such as LDLR, IL28 A/B, and MMP-2 in diabetic mice. CONCLUSION:Overall, NOD mice provide a model to examine the effects of hyperglycemia and chronic inflammation on the prostate, demonstrating relevance to some of the mechanisms present underlying BPH and potentially the initiation of prostate cancer.
Tissue-Specific Stem Cells Obtained by Reprogramming of Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mouse-Derived Pancreatic Cells Confer Insulin Production in Response to Glucose.
Saitoh Issei,Sato Masahiro,Soda Miki,Inada Emi,Iwase Yoko,Murakami Tomoya,Ohshima Hayato,Hayasaki Haruaki,Noguchi Hirofumi
Type 1 diabetes occurs due to the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells in islets. Transplantation of islets is a promising option for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes that experience hypoglycemic unawareness despite maximal care, but the present shortage of donor islets hampers such transplantation. Transplantation of insulin-producing cells derived from the patients themselves would be one of the most promising approaches to cure type 1 diabetes. Previously, we demonstrated that insulin-producing cells could be produced by transfecting murine pancreatic cells with Yamanaka's reprogramming factors. Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice are naturally occurring mutant mice defective in insulin production due to autoimmune ablation of pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we showed that glucose-sensitive insulin-producing cells are successfully generated by transfecting primary pancreatic cells from NOD mice (aged 6 months old) with a plasmid harboring the cDNAs for Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. Transfection was repeated 4 times in a 2 day-interval. Sixty-five days after final transfection, cobblestone-like colonies appeared. They proliferated in vitro and expressed pluripotency-related genes as well as Pdx1, a transcription factor specific to tissue-specific stem cells for the β-cell lineage. Transplantation of these cells into nude mice failed to produce teratoma unlike induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Induction of these cells to the pancreatic β-cell lineage demonstrated their capability to produce insulin in response to glucose. These findings suggest that functional pancreatic β-cells can be produced from patients with type 1 diabetes. We call these resultant cells as "induced tissue-specific stem cells from the pancreas" (iTS-P) that could be valuable sources of safe and effective materials for cell-based therapy in type 1 diabetes.
Involvement of c-myc in the resistance of non-obese diabetic mice to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis.
Martins T C,Aguas A P
Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice spontaneously develop insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) as a consequence of autoimmune aggression of beta cells of the endocrine pancreas by T cells. T lymphocytes of NOD mice are resistant to apoptosis induced by glucocorticoids, or by starving or DNA-damaging treatments, a feature that was interpreted as being linked to escape of autoreactive T cells from thymic negative selection. c-myc is one of the gene targets of glucocorticoids (GC), its expression being down-regulated by the activated GC-GC receptor complex. We investigated here whether expression of Myc protein, in response to dexamethasone stimulation, was the same in NOD mice and in non-autoimmune strains, namely NON, BALB/c and C57Bl.6. We found a consistent increase in the levels of Myc protein after GC-treatment of lymphocytes of NOD mice, a finding that was in contrast to the down-regulation of c-myc that we observed in lymphocytes from mice not prone to diabetes. We also report that, rather than a absolute resistance to GC-induced cell death, NOD mice display a delayed apoptotic response to GC. We propose that the resistance of NOD mice lymphocytes to GC-induced apoptosis is because of inhibition of the repressive action of GC-GR complexes at the level of c-myc transcription. This deficient action of GC-GR results in increased production of nuclear Myc protein, peculiar to NOD mice cells, following their treatment with GC.
Molecular phenotyping of immune cells from young NOD mice reveals abnormal metabolic pathways in the early induction phase of autoimmune diabetes.
Wu Jian,Kakoola Dorothy N,Lenchik Nataliya I,Desiderio Dominic M,Marshall Dana R,Gerling Ivan C
Islet leukocytic infiltration (insulitis) is first obvious at around 4 weeks of age in the NOD mouse--a model for human type 1 diabetes (T1D). The molecular events that lead to insulitis and initiate autoimmune diabetes are poorly understood. Since TID is caused by numerous genes, we hypothesized that multiple molecular pathways are altered and interact to initiate this disease. We evaluated the molecular phenotype (mRNA and protein expression) and molecular networks of ex vivo unfractionated spleen leukocytes from 2 and 4 week-old NOD mice in comparison to two control strains. Analysis of the global gene expression profiles and hierarchical clustering revealed that the majority (~90%) of the differentially expressed genes in NOD mice were repressed. Furthermore, analysis using a modern suite of multiple bioinformatics approaches identified abnormal molecular pathways that can be divided broadly into 2 categories: metabolic pathways, which were predominant at 2 weeks, and immune response pathways, which were predominant at 4 weeks. Network analysis by Ingenuity pathway analysis identified key genes/molecules that may play a role in regulating these pathways. These included five that were common to both ages (TNF, HNF4A, IL15, Progesterone, and YWHAZ), and others that were unique to 2 weeks (e.g. MYC/MYCN, TGFB1, and IL2) and to 4 weeks (e.g. IFNG, beta-estradiol, p53, NFKB, AKT, PRKCA, IL12, and HLA-C). Based on the literature, genes that may play a role in regulating metabolic pathways at 2 weeks include Myc and HNF4A, and at 4 weeks, beta-estradiol, p53, Akt, HNF4A and AR. Our data suggest that abnormalities in regulation of metabolic pathways in the immune cells of young NOD mice lead to abnormalities in the immune response pathways and as such may play a role in the initiation of autoimmune diabetes. Thus, targeting metabolism may provide novel approaches to preventing and/or treating autoimmune diabetes.
Mn porphyrin regulation of aerobic glycolysis: implications on the activation of diabetogenic immune cells.
Delmastro-Greenwood Meghan M,Votyakova Tatyana,Goetzman Eric,Marre Meghan L,Previte Dana M,Tovmasyan Artak,Batinic-Haberle Ines,Trucco Massimo M,Piganelli Jon D
Antioxidants & redox signaling
AIMS:The immune system is critical for protection against infections and cancer, but requires scrupulous regulation to limit self-reactivity and autoimmunity. Our group has utilized a manganese porphyrin catalytic antioxidant (MnTE-2-PyP(5+), MnP) as a potential immunoregulatory therapy for type 1 diabetes. MnP has previously been shown to modulate diabetogenic immune responses through decreases in proinflammatory cytokine production from antigen-presenting cells and T cells and to reduce diabetes onset in nonobese diabetic mice. However, it is unclear whether or not MnP treatment can act beyond the reported inflammatory mediators. Therefore, the hypothesis that MnP may be affecting the redox-dependent bioenergetics of diabetogenic splenocytes was investigated. RESULTS:MnP treatment enhanced glucose oxidation, reduced fatty acid oxidation, but only slightly decreased overall oxidative phosphorylation. These alterations occurred because of increased tricarboxylic acid cycle aconitase enzyme efficiency and were not due to changes in mitochondrial abundance. MnP treatment also displayed decreased aerobic glycolysis, which promotes activated immune cell proliferation, as demonstrated by reduced lactate production and glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) levels and inactivation of key signaling molecules, such as mammalian target of rapamycin, c-myc, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. INNOVATION:This work highlights the importance of redox signaling by demonstrating that modulation of reactive oxygen species can supplant complex downstream regulation, thus affecting metabolic programming toward aerobic glycolysis. CONCLUSION:MnP treatment promotes metabolic quiescence, impeding diabetogenic autoimmune responses by restricting the metabolic pathways for energy production and affecting anabolic processes necessary for cell proliferation.
Integration-Free Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells From Type 1 Diabetes Patient Skin Fibroblasts Show Increased Abundance of Pancreas-Specific microRNAs.
Liu Jun,Joglekar Mugdha V,Sumer Huseyin,Hardikar Anandwardhan A,Teede Halena,Verma Paul J
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a disease that is typically associated with multigenetic changes as well as environmental triggers. Disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are preferable cell sources to study T1D, as they are derived from patient cells and therefore capture the disease genotype in a stem cell line. The purpose of this study was to generate integration-free iPSCs from adult skin fibroblasts with T1D. iPSCs were generated by transfection of synthetic mRNAs encoding transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, c-MYC, and LIN28. Phase-contrast microscopy, immunocytochemistry, karyotyping, bisulfite genomic sequencing, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and teratoma formation assay were used to determine reprogramming efficiency, pluripotency, and differentiation potential. Following 18 consecutive days of synthetic mRNA transfections, the T1D patient skin fibroblasts underwent morphological changes, and the aggregated clumps exhibited a human embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like morphology with a high nucleus/cytoplasm ratio. Highly efficient generation of iPSCs was achieved using the mRNA reprogramming approach. The disease-specific iPSCs expressed pluripotency markers, maintained a normal karyotype, and formed teratomas containing tissues representative of the three germ layers when injected into immune-deficient mice. Of interest, the iPSCs showed upregulations of pancreas-specific microRNAs, compared with parental fibroblasts. These data indicate that T1D patient skin fibroblasts can be reprogrammed to pluripotency using a synthetic mRNA approach. These cells can serve as a useful tool for the identification of genes that are involved in autoimmune reactions as well as generating patient-matched β-cells for cell-based therapy.
Diabetes alters expression of p53 and c-myc in different stages of oral oncogenesis.
Vairaktaris Eleftherios,Kalokerinos Giorgos,Goutzanis Lambros,Spyridonidou Sofia,Vassiliou Stavros,Derka Spyridoula,Nkenke Emeka,Yapijakis Christos,Vylliotis Antonis,Lazaris Andreas,Patsouris Efstratios
BACKGROUND:The expression of tumour suppressor p53 and oncogene c-myc was investigated in an experimental model of chemically induced carcinogenesis in normal and diabetic (type I) Sprague-Dawley rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Tissue sections ranging from normal mucosa to moderately differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma were studied using monoclonal antibodies against mutant p53 and c-myc proteins. RESULTS:From hyperplasia to later stages of oral oncogenesis, mutant p53 expression was at higher levels in diabetic rats in comparison to normal animals, although the pattern of expression was similar. In contrast, c-myc expression was significantly higher in diabetic than in normal rats only in normal mucosa and hyperplasia. CONCLUSION:It seems that diabetes contributed to increased accumulation of mutations in the p53 gene, contributing to increased proliferation of tumour cells during oral oncogenesis. Additionally, diabetes appeared to enhance c-myc expression only in the initial stages of oral oncogenesis.
Centrality Analysis of Protein-Protein Interaction Networks and Molecular Docking Prioritize Potential Drug-Targets in Type 1 Diabetes.
Soofi Asma,Taghizadeh Mohammad,Tabatabaei Seyyed Mohammad,Rezaei Tavirani Mostafa,Shakib Heeva,Namaki Saeed,Safari Alighiarloo Nahid
Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research : IJPR
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) occurs as a consequence of an autoimmune attack against pancreatic β- cells. Due to a lack of a clear understanding of the T1D pathogenesis, the identification of effective therapies for T1D is the active area in the research. The study purpose was to prioritize potential drugs and targets in T1D via systems biology approach. Gene expression data of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and pancreatic β-cells in T1D were analyzed and differential expressed genes were integrated with protein-protein interactions (PPI) data. Multiple topological centrality parameters of extracted query-query PPI (QQPPI) networks were calculated and the interaction of more central proteins with drugs was investigated. Molecular docking was performed to further predict the interactions between drugs and the binding sites of targets. Central proteins were identified by the analysis of PBMC (MYC, ERBB2, PSMA1, ABL1 and HSP90AA1) and pancreatic β-cells (HSP90AB1, ESR1, RELA, RAC1, NFKB1, NFKB2, IKBKE, ARRB2 and SRC) QQPPI networks. Thirteen drugs which targeted eight central proteins were identified by further analysis of drug-target interactions. Some drugs which investigated for diabetes treatment in the experimental models of T1D were prioritized by literature verification, including melatonin, resveratrol, lapatinib, geldanamycin, eugenol and fostaminib. Finally, according on molecular docking analysis, lapatinib-ERBB2 and eugenol-ESR1 exhibited highest and lowest binding energy, respectively. This study presented promising results for the prioritization of potential drug-targets which might facilitate T1D targeted therapy and its drug discovery process more effectively.
RU486 (mifepristone) ameliorates cognitive dysfunction and reverses the down-regulation of astrocytic N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 in streptozotocin-induced type-1 diabetic rats.
Zuo Z-F,Wang W,Niu L,Kou Z-Z,Zhu C,Wang W,Zhao X-H,Luo D-S,Zhang T,Zhang F-X,Liu X-Z,Wu S-X,Li Y-Q
Diabetic cognitive dysfunction (DCD), usually accompanied with chronically elevated glucocorticoids and hippocampal astrocytic alterations, is one of the most serious complications in patients with type-1 diabetes. However, the role for chronically elevated glucocorticoids and hippocampal astrocytic activations in DCD remains to be elucidated, and it is not clear whether astrocytic N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2, involved in cell differentiation and development) participated in DCD. In the present study, three months after streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type-1 diabetes onset, rats showed cognitive impairments in Morris water maze test as well as elevated corticosterone level. Diabetic rats also presented down-regulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, a key indicator of astrocytic reactivity) and NDRG2 in hippocampus revealed by immunohistochemistry staining, real-time PCR and Western blot. Moreover, the diabetic cognitive impairments were ameliorated by 9-day glucocorticoids receptor (GR) blockade with RU486, and the down-regulation of hippocampal NDRG2 and GFAP in diabetic animals was also attenuated by 9-day GR blockade. These results suggest that glucocorticoids-GR system is crucial for DCD, and that astrocytic reactivity and NDRG2 are involved in these processes. Thus, inhibiting GR activation in the hippocampus may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating DCD.
CTSH regulates β-cell function and disease progression in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes patients.
Fløyel Tina,Brorsson Caroline,Nielsen Lotte B,Miani Michela,Bang-Berthelsen Claus Heiner,Friedrichsen Martin,Overgaard Anne Julie,Berchtold Lukas A,Wiberg Anna,Poulsen Pernille,Hansen Lars,Rosinger Silke,Boehm Bernhard O,Ram Ramesh,Nguyen Quang,Mehta Munish,Morahan Grant,Concannon Patrick,Bergholdt Regine,Nielsen Jens H,Reinheckel Thomas,von Herrath Matthias,Vaag Allan,Eizirik Decio Laks,Mortensen Henrik B,Størling Joachim,Pociot Flemming
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Over 40 susceptibility loci have been identified for type 1 diabetes (T1D). Little is known about how these variants modify disease risk and progression. Here, we combined in vitro and in vivo experiments with clinical studies to determine how genetic variation of the candidate gene cathepsin H (CTSH) affects disease mechanisms and progression in T1D. The T allele of rs3825932 was associated with lower CTSH expression in human lymphoblastoid cell lines and pancreatic tissue. Proinflammatory cytokines decreased the expression of CTSH in human islets and primary rat β-cells, and overexpression of CTSH protected insulin-secreting cells against cytokine-induced apoptosis. Mechanistic studies indicated that CTSH exerts its antiapoptotic effects through decreased JNK and p38 signaling and reduced expression of the proapoptotic factors Bim, DP5, and c-Myc. CTSH overexpression also up-regulated Ins2 expression and increased insulin secretion. Additionally, islets from Ctsh(-/-) mice contained less insulin than islets from WT mice. Importantly, the TT genotype was associated with higher daily insulin dose and faster disease progression in newly diagnosed T1D patients, indicating agreement between the experimental and clinical data. In line with these observations, healthy human subjects carrying the T allele have lower β-cell function, which was evaluated by glucose tolerance testing. The data provide strong evidence that CTSH is an important regulator of β-cell function during progression of T1D and reinforce the concept that candidate genes for T1D may affect disease progression by modulating survival and function of pancreatic β-cells, the target cells of the autoimmune assault.
Identification of common key genes and pathways between type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis using transcriptome and interactome analysis.
Safari-Alighiarloo Nahid,Taghizadeh Mohammad,Mohammad Tabatabaei Seyyed,Namaki Saeed,Rezaei-Tavirani Mostafa
PURPOSE:Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are classified as T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. Although convergent evidence proposed common genetic architecture for autoimmune diseases, it remains a challenge to identify them. This study aimed to determine common gene signature and pathways in T1D and MS via systems biology approach. METHODS:Gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and pancreatic-β cells in T1D as well as PBMCs and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in MS were analyzed in our previous published data, and differential expressed genes were integrated with protein-protein interactions data to construct Query-Query PPI (QQPPI) networks. In this study, QQPPI networks were further analyzed to investigate more central genes, functional modules and complexes shared in T1D and MS progression. Lastly, the interaction of common genes with drugs was also explored. RESULTS:Several cytokines such as IL-23A, IL-32, IL-34, and IL-37 tend to be differentially expressed in both diseases. In addition, PSMA1, MYC, SRPK1, YBX1, HNRNPM, NF-κB2, IKBKE, RAC1, FN1, ARRB2, ESR1, HSP90AB1, and PPP1CA were common high central genes in QQPPI networks corresponding to each disease. Proteasome, spliceosome, immune responses, apoptosis, cellular communication/signaling transduction mechanism, interaction with environment, and activity of intercellular mediators were shared biological processes in T1D and MS. Finally, azathioprine, melatonin, resveratrol, and geldanamycin identified as prioritized drugs for the treatment of patients with T1D and MS. CONCLUSIONS:This study represented novel key genes and pathways shared between T1D and MS, which may facilitate the identification of potential therapeutic targets in these diseases.